Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14246

Search results for: embedded system

14246 Restructuring of Embedded System Design Course: Making It Industry Compliant

Authors: Geetishree Mishra, S. Akhila


Embedded System Design, the most challenging course of electronics engineering has always been appreciated and well acclaimed by the students of electronics and its related branches of engineering. Embedded system, being a product of multiple application domains, necessitates skilled man power to be well designed and tested in every important aspect of both hardware and software. In the current industrial scenario, the requirements are even more rigorous and highly demanding and needs to be to be on par with the advanced technologies. Fresh engineers are expected to be thoroughly groomed by the academic system and the teaching community. Graduates with the ability to understand both complex technological processes and technical skills are increasingly sought after in today's embedded industry. So, the need of the day is to restructure the under-graduate course- both theory and lab practice along with the teaching methodologies to meet the industrial requirements. This paper focuses on the importance of such a need in the present education system.

Keywords: embedded system design, industry requirement, syllabus restructuring, project-based learning, teaching methodology

Procedia PDF Downloads 544
14245 Design and Implementation of Embedded FM Transmission Control SW for Low Power Battery System

Authors: Young-Su Ryu, Kyung-Won Park, Jae-Hoon Song, Ki-Won Kwon


In this paper, an embedded frequency modulation (FM) transmission control software (SW) for a low power battery system is designed and implemented. The simultaneous translation systems for various languages are needed as so many international conferences and festivals are held in world wide. Especially in portable transmitting and receiving systems, the ability of long operation life is used for a measure of value. This paper proposes an embedded FM transmission control SW for low power battery system and shows the results of the SW implemented on a portable FM transmission system.

Keywords: FM transmission, simultaneous translation system, portable transmitting and receiving systems, low power embedded control SW

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14244 A Study on Design for Parallel Test Based on Embedded System

Authors: Zheng Sun, Weiwei Cui, Xiaodong Ma, Hongxin Jin, Dongpao Hong, Jinsong Yang, Jingyi Sun


With the improvement of the performance and complexity of modern equipment, automatic test system (ATS) becomes widely used for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis. However, the conventional ATS mainly works in a serial mode, and lacks the ability of testing several equipments at the same time. That leads to low test efficiency and ATS redundancy. Especially for a large majority of equipment under test, the conventional ATS cannot meet the requirement of efficient testing. To reduce the support resource and increase test efficiency, we propose a method of design for the parallel test based on the embedded system in this paper. Firstly, we put forward the general framework of the parallel test system, and the system contains a central management system (CMS) and several distributed test subsystems (DTS). Then we give a detailed design of the system. For the hardware of the system, we use embedded architecture to design DTS. For the software of the system, we use test program set to improve the test adaption. By deploying the parallel test system, the time to test five devices is now equal to the time to test one device in the past. Compared with the conventional test system, the proposed test system reduces the size and improves testing efficiency. This is of great significance for equipment to be put into operation swiftly. Finally, we take an industrial control system as an example to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The result shows that the method is reasonable, and the efficiency is improved up to 500%.

Keywords: parallel test, embedded system, automatic test system, automatic test system (ATS), central management system, central management system (CMS), distributed test subsystems, distributed test subsystems (DTS)

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14243 A Wireless Feedback Control System as a Base of Bio-Inspired Structure System to Mitigate Vibration in Structures

Authors: Gwanghee Heo, Geonhyeok Bang, Chunggil Kim, Chinok Lee


This paper attempts to develop a wireless feedback control system as a primary step eventually toward a bio-inspired structure system where inanimate structure behaves like a life form autonomously. It is a standalone wireless control system which is supposed to measure externally caused structural responses, analyze structural state from acquired data, and take its own action on the basis of the analysis with an embedded logic. For an experimental examination of its effectiveness, we applied it on a model of two-span bridge and performed a wireless control test. Experimental tests have been conducted for comparison on both the wireless and the wired system under the conditions of Un-control, Passive-off, Passive-on, and Lyapunov control algorithm. By proving the congruence of the test result of the wireless feedback control system with the wired control system, its control performance was proven to be effective. Besides, it was found to be economical in energy consumption and also autonomous by means of a command algorithm embedded into it, which proves its basic capacity as a bio-inspired system.

Keywords: structural vibration control, wireless system, MR damper, feedback control, embedded system

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14242 Recognition of Cursive Arabic Handwritten Text Using Embedded Training Based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs)

Authors: Rabi Mouhcine, Amrouch Mustapha, Mahani Zouhir, Mammass Driss


In this paper, we present a system for offline recognition cursive Arabic handwritten text based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). The system is analytical without explicit segmentation used embedded training to perform and enhance the character models. Extraction features preceded by baseline estimation are statistical and geometric to integrate both the peculiarities of the text and the pixel distribution characteristics in the word image. These features are modelled using hidden Markov models and trained by embedded training. The experiments on images of the benchmark IFN/ENIT database show that the proposed system improves recognition.

Keywords: recognition, handwriting, Arabic text, HMMs, embedded training

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14241 An Intelligent Nondestructive Testing System of Ultrasonic Infrared Thermal Imaging Based on Embedded Linux

Authors: Hao Mi, Ming Yang, Tian-yue Yang


Ultrasonic infrared nondestructive testing is a kind of testing method with high speed, accuracy and localization. However, there are still some problems, such as the detection requires manual real-time field judgment, the methods of result storage and viewing are still primitive. An intelligent non-destructive detection system based on embedded linux is put forward in this paper. The hardware part of the detection system is based on the ARM (Advanced Reduced Instruction Set Computer Machine) core and an embedded linux system is built to realize image processing and defect detection of thermal images. The CLAHE algorithm and the Butterworth filter are used to process the thermal image, and then the boa server and CGI (Common Gateway Interface) technology are used to transmit the test results to the display terminal through the network for real-time monitoring and remote monitoring. The system also liberates labor and eliminates the obstacle of manual judgment. According to the experiment result, the system provides a convenient and quick solution for industrial non-destructive testing.

Keywords: remote monitoring, non-destructive testing, embedded Linux system, image processing

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14240 Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Vibration Control of an ERF Embedded Smart Structure

Authors: Chih-Jer Lin, Chun-Ying Lee, Ying Liu, Chiang-Ho Cheng


The main objective of this article is to present the semi-active vibration control using an electro-rheological fluid embedded sandwich structure for a cantilever beam. ER fluid is a smart material, which cause the suspended particles polarize and connect each other to form chain. The stiffness and damping coefficients of the ER fluid can be changed in 10 micro seconds; therefore, ERF is suitable to become the material embedded in the tunable vibration absorber to become a smart absorber. For the ERF smart material embedded structure, the fuzzy control law depends on the experimental expert database and the proposed self-tuning strategy. The electric field is controlled by a CRIO embedded system to implement the real application. This study investigates the different performances using the Type-1 fuzzy and interval Type-2 fuzzy controllers. The Interval type-2 fuzzy control is used to improve the modeling uncertainties for this ERF embedded shock absorber. The self-tuning vibration controllers using Type-1 and Interval Type-2 fuzzy law are implemented to the shock absorber system. Based on the resulting performance, Internal Type-2 fuzzy is better than the traditional Type-1 fuzzy control for this vibration control system.

Keywords: electro-rheological fluid, semi-active vibration control, shock absorber, type 2 fuzzy control

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14239 The Design of Intelligent Classroom Management System with Raspberry PI

Authors: Sathapath Kilaso


Attendance checking in the classroom for student is object to record the student’s attendance in order to support the learning activities in the classroom. Despite the teaching trend in the 21st century is the student-center learning and the lecturer duty is to mentor and give an advice, the classroom learning is still important in order to let the student interact with the classmate and the lecturer or for a specific subject which the in-class learning is needed. The development of the system prototype by applied the microcontroller technology and embedded system with the “internet of thing” trend and the web socket technique will allow the lecturer to be alerted immediately whenever the data is updated.

Keywords: arduino, embedded system, classroom, raspberry PI

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14238 Towards a Framework for Embedded Weight Comparison Algorithm with Business Intelligence in the Plantation Domain

Authors: M. Pushparani, A. Sagaya


Embedded systems have emerged as important elements in various domains with extensive applications in automotive, commercial, consumer, healthcare and transportation markets, as there is emphasis on intelligent devices. On the other hand, Business Intelligence (BI) has also been extensively used in a range of applications, especially in the agriculture domain which is the area of this research. The aim of this research is to create a framework for Embedded Weight Comparison Algorithm with Business Intelligence (EWCA-BI). The weight comparison algorithm will be embedded within the plantation management system and the weighbridge system. This algorithm will be used to estimate the weight at the site and will be compared with the actual weight at the plantation. The algorithm will be used to build the necessary alerts when there is a discrepancy in the weight, thus enabling better decision making. In the current practice, data are collected from various locations in various forms. It is a challenge to consolidate data to obtain timely and accurate information for effective decision making. Adding to this, the unstable network connection leads to difficulty in getting timely accurate information. To overcome the challenges embedding is done on a portable device that will have the embedded weight comparison algorithm to also assist in data capture and synchronize data at various locations overcoming the network short comings at collection points. The EWCA-BI will provide real-time information at any given point of time, thus enabling non-latent BI reports that will provide crucial information to enable efficient operational decision making. This research has a high potential in bringing embedded system into the agriculture industry. EWCA-BI will provide BI reports with accurate information with uncompromised data using an embedded system and provide alerts, therefore, enabling effective operation management decision-making at the site.

Keywords: embedded business intelligence, weight comparison algorithm, oil palm plantation, embedded systems

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14237 Embedded Digital Image System

Authors: Dawei Li, Cheng Liu, Yiteng Liu


This paper introduces an embedded digital image system for Chinese space environment vertical exploration sounding rocket. In order to record the flight status of the sounding rocket as well as the payloads, an onboard embedded image processing system based on ADV212, a JPEG2000 compression chip, is designed in this paper. Since the sounding rocket is not designed to be recovered, all image data should be transmitted to the ground station before the re-entry while the downlink band used for the image transmission is only about 600 kbps. Under the same condition of compression ratio compared with other algorithm, JPEG2000 standard algorithm can achieve better image quality. So JPEG2000 image compression is applied under this condition with a limited downlink data band. This embedded image system supports lossless to 200:1 real time compression, with two cameras to monitor nose ejection and motor separation, and two cameras to monitor boom deployment. The encoder, ADV7182, receives PAL signal from the camera, then output the ITU-R BT.656 signal to ADV212. ADV7182 switches between four input video channels as the program sequence. Two SRAMs are used for Ping-pong operation and one 512 Mb SDRAM for buffering high frame-rate images. The whole image system has the characteristics of low power dissipation, low cost, small size and high reliability, which is rather suitable for this sounding rocket application.

Keywords: ADV212, image system, JPEG2000, sounding rocket

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14236 Low-Cost Embedded Biometric System Based on Fingervein Modality

Authors: Randa Boukhris, Alima Damak, Dorra Sellami


Fingervein biometric authentication is one of the most popular and accurate technologies. However, low cost embedded solution is still an open problem. In this paper, a real-time implementation of fingervein recognition process embedded in Raspberry-Pi has been proposed. The use of Raspberry-Pi reduces overall system cost and size while allowing an easy user interface. Implementation of a target technology has guided to opt some specific parallel and simple processing algorithms. In the proposed system, we use four structural directional kernel elements for filtering finger vein images. Then, a Top-Hat and Bottom-Hat kernel filters are used to enhance the visibility and the appearance of venous images. For feature extraction step, a simple Local Directional Code (LDC) descriptor is applied. The proposed system presents an Error Equal Rate (EER) and Identification Rate (IR), respectively, equal to 0.02 and 98%. Furthermore, experimental results show that real-time operations have good performance.

Keywords: biometric, Bottom-Hat, Fingervein, LDC, Rasberry-Pi, ROI, Top-Hat

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14235 Development of AUTOSAR Software Components of MDPS System

Authors: Jae-Woo Kim, Kyung-Joong Lee, Hyun-Sik Ahn


This paper describes the development of a Motor-Driven Power Steering (MDPS) system using Automotive Open System Architecture (AUTOSAR) methodology. The MDPS system is a new power steering technology for vehicles and it can enhance driver’s convenience and fuel efficiency. AUTOSAR defines common standards for the implementation of embedded automotive software. Some aspects of safety and timing requirements are analyzed. Through the AUTOSAR methodology, the embedded software becomes more flexible, reusable and maintainable than ever. Hence, we first design software components (SW-C) for MDPS control based on AUTOSAR and implement SW-Cs for MDPS control using authoring tool following AUTOSAR standards.

Keywords: AUTOSAR, MDPS, simulink, software component

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14234 Discussing Embedded versus Central Machine Learning in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Anne-Lena Kampen, Øivind Kure


Machine learning (ML) can be implemented in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) as a central solution or distributed solution where the ML is embedded in the nodes. Embedding improves privacy and may reduce prediction delay. In addition, the number of transmissions is reduced. However, quality factors such as prediction accuracy, fault detection efficiency and coordinated control of the overall system suffer. Here, we discuss and highlight the trade-offs that should be considered when choosing between embedding and centralized ML, especially for multihop networks. In addition, we present estimations that demonstrate the energy trade-offs between embedded and centralized ML. Although the total network energy consumption is lower with central prediction, it makes the network more prone for partitioning due to the high forwarding load on the one-hop nodes. Moreover, the continuous improvements in the number of operations per joule for embedded devices will move the energy balance toward embedded prediction.

Keywords: central machine learning, embedded machine learning, energy consumption, local machine learning, wireless sensor networks, WSN

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14233 Model-Based Automotive Partitioning and Mapping for Embedded Multicore Systems

Authors: Robert Höttger, Lukas Krawczyk, Burkhard Igel


This paper introduces novel approaches to partitioning and mapping in terms of model-based embedded multicore system engineering and further discusses benefits, industrial relevance and features in common with existing approaches. In order to assess and evaluate results, both approaches have been applied to a real industrial application as well as to various prototypical demonstrative applications, that have been developed and implemented for different purposes. Evaluations show, that such applications improve significantly according to performance, energy efficiency, meeting timing constraints and covering maintaining issues by using the AMALTHEA platform and the implemented approaches. Further- more, the model-based design provides an open, expandable, platform independent and scalable exchange format between OEMs, suppliers and developers on different levels. Our proposed mechanisms provide meaningful multicore system utilization since load balancing by means of partitioning and mapping is effectively performed with regard to the modeled systems including hardware, software, operating system, scheduling, constraints, configuration and more data.

Keywords: partitioning, mapping, distributed systems, scheduling, embedded multicore systems, model-based, system analysis

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14232 Prototype Development of ARM-7 Based Embedded Controller for Packaging Machine

Authors: Jeelka Ray


Survey of the papers revealed that there is no practical design available for packaging machine based on Embedded system, so the need arose for the development of the prototype model. In this paper, author has worked on the development of an ARM7 based Embedded Controller for controlling the sequence of packaging machine. The unit is made user friendly with TFT and Touch Screen implementing human machine interface (HMI). The different system components are briefly discussed, followed by a description of the overall design. The major functions which involve bag forming, sealing temperature control, fault detection, alarm, animated view on the home screen when the machine is working as per different parameters set makes the machine performance more successful. LPC2478 ARM 7 Embedded Microcontroller controls the coordination of individual control function modules. In back gone days, these machines were manufactured with mechanical fittings. Later on, the electronic system replaced them. With the help of ongoing technologies, these mechanical systems were controlled electronically using Microprocessors. These became the backbone of the system which became a cause for the updating technologies in which the control was handed over to the Microcontrollers with Servo drives for accurate positioning of the material. This helped to maintain the quality of the products. Including all, RS 485 MODBUS Communication technology is used for synchronizing AC Drive & Servo Drive. These all concepts are operated either manually or through a Graphical User Interface. Automatic tuning of heaters, sealers and their temperature is controlled using Proportional, Integral and Derivation loops. In the upcoming latest technological world, the practical implementation of the above mentioned concepts is really important to be in the user friendly environment. Real time model is implemented and tested on the actual machine and received fruitful results.

Keywords: packaging machine, embedded system, ARM 7, micro controller, HMI, TFT, touch screen, PID

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14231 Experiences of Timing Analysis of Parallel Embedded Software

Authors: Muhammad Waqar Aziz, Syed Abdul Baqi Shah


The execution time analysis is fundamental to the successful design and execution of real-time embedded software. In such analysis, the Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) of a program is a key measure, on the basis of which system tasks are scheduled. The WCET analysis of embedded software is also needed for system understanding and to guarantee its behavior. WCET analysis can be performed statically (without executing the program) or dynamically (through measurement). Traditionally, research on the WCET analysis assumes sequential code running on single-core platforms. However, as computation is steadily moving towards using a combination of parallel programs and multi-core hardware, new challenges in WCET analysis need to be addressed. In this article, we report our experiences of performing the WCET analysis of Parallel Embedded Software (PES) running on multi-core platform. The primary purpose was to investigate how WCET estimates of PES can be computed statically, and how they can be derived dynamically. Our experiences, as reported in this article, include the challenges we faced, possible suggestions to these challenges and the workarounds that were developed. This article also provides observations on the benefits and drawbacks of deriving the WCET estimates using the said methods and provides useful recommendations for further research in this area.

Keywords: embedded software, worst-case execution-time analysis, static flow analysis, measurement-based analysis, parallel computing

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14230 Simulator Dynamic Positioning System with Azimuthal Thruster

Authors: Robson C. Santos, Christian N. Barreto, Gerson G. Cunha, Severino J. C. Neto


This paper aims to project the construction of a prototype azimuthal thruster, mounted with materials of low cost and easy access, testing in a controlled environment to measure their performance, characteristics and feasibility of future projects. The construction of the simulation of dynamic positioning software, responsible for simulating a vessel and reposition it when necessary . Tests for partial and full validation of the model were conducted, operates independently of the control system and executes the commands and commands of the helix of rotation azimuth. The system provides an interface to the user and simulates the conditions unfavorable positioning of a vessel, accurately calculates the azimuth angle, the direction of rotation of the helix and the time that this should be turned on so that the vessel back to position original. There is a serial communication that connects the Simulation Dynamic Positioning System with Embedded System causing the user-generated data to simulate the DP system arrives in the form of control signals to the motors of the propellant. This article addresses issues in the marine industry employees.

Keywords: azimuthal thruster, dynamic positioning, embedded system, simulator dynamic positioning

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14229 Supporting Embedded Medical Software Development with MDevSPICE® and Agile Practices

Authors: Surafel Demissie, Frank Keenan, Fergal McCaffery


Emerging medical devices are highly relying on embedded software that runs on the specific platform in real time. The development of embedded software is different from ordinary software development due to the hardware-software dependency. MDevSPICE® has been developed to provide guidance to support such development. To increase the flexibility of this framework agile practices have been introduced. This paper outlines the challenges for embedded medical device software development and the structure of MDevSPICE® and suggests a suitable combination of agile practices that will help to add flexibility and address corresponding challenges of embedded medical device software development.

Keywords: agile practices, challenges, embedded software, MDevSPICE®, medical device

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14228 Implementation of Conceptual Real-Time Embedded Functional Design via Drive-By-Wire ECU Development

Authors: Ananchai Ukaew, Choopong Chauypen


Design concepts of real-time embedded system can be realized initially by introducing novel design approaches. In this literature, model based design approach and in-the-loop testing were employed early in the conceptual and preliminary phase to formulate design requirements and perform quick real-time verification. The design and analysis methodology includes simulation analysis, model based testing, and in-the-loop testing. The design of conceptual drive-by-wire, or DBW, algorithm for electronic control unit, or ECU, was presented to demonstrate the conceptual design process, analysis, and functionality evaluation. The concepts of DBW ECU function can be implemented in the vehicle system to improve electric vehicle, or EV, conversion drivability. However, within a new development process, conceptual ECU functions and parameters are needed to be evaluated. As a result, the testing system was employed to support conceptual DBW ECU functions evaluation. For the current setup, the system components were consisted of actual DBW ECU hardware, electric vehicle models, and control area network or CAN protocol. The vehicle models and CAN bus interface were both implemented as real-time applications where ECU and CAN protocol functionality were verified according to the design requirements. The proposed system could potentially benefit in performing rapid real-time analysis of design parameters for conceptual system or software algorithm development.

Keywords: drive-by-wire ECU, in-the-loop testing, model-based design, real-time embedded system

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14227 Multishape Task Scheduling Algorithms for Real Time Micro-Controller Based Application

Authors: Ankur Jain, W. Wilfred Godfrey


Embedded systems are usually microcontroller-based systems that represent a class of reliable and dependable dedicated computer systems designed for specific purposes. Micro-controllers are used in most electronic devices in an endless variety of ways. Some micro-controller-based embedded systems are required to respond to external events in the shortest possible time and such systems are known as real-time embedded systems. So in multitasking system there is a need of task Scheduling,there are various scheduling algorithms like Fixed priority Scheduling(FPS),Earliest deadline first(EDF), Rate Monotonic(RM), Deadline Monotonic(DM),etc have been researched. In this Report various conventional algorithms have been reviewed and analyzed, these algorithms consists of single shape task, A new Multishape scheduling algorithms has been proposed and implemented and analyzed.

Keywords: dm, edf, embedded systems, fixed priority, microcontroller, rtos, rm, scheduling algorithms

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14226 Evaluating Closed-List Proportional Representation System and Its Compatibility in Contemporary Indonesian Election

Authors: Ridho Al-Hamdi, Sakir, Tanto Lailam


During the democratic period of 1999-present, Indonesia has consistently applied a List Proportional Representation (List PR) system in the parliamentary election. Between 1999 and 2004, it adopted a closed-list proportional representation (CLPR) system. In the meantime, it employed open-list proportional representation (OLPR) system from 2009 to 2019. Recently, some parties intended to propose the application of CLPR while others are still consistent in adopting OLPR. An unfinished debate is taking place. Thus, this article aims to evaluate the application of CLPR in Indonesia and, in turn, analyze its compatibility in contemporary parliamentary election system. From a methodological standpoint, it is qualitative research by applying a case study approach. Data-gathering relies on field data, mainly focus group discussion (FGD) and in-depth interviews with political parties, electoral management bodies (EMBs), NGO activists, and scholars spread in six provinces and nine regencies/cities across the country. Using SWOT analysis and the compatibility of CLPR and embedded democracy framework, the finding demonstrates that CLPR is no longer relevant for contemporary Indonesian elections. This paper recommends OLPR by considering that CLPR has numerous weaknesses and threats that can jeopardize embedded democracy. More importantly, CLPR can remove inclusive suffrage significantly.

Keywords: closed-list proportional representation, embedded democracy, Indonesia, parliamentary election

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14225 Human Computer Interaction Using Computer Vision and Speech Processing

Authors: Shreyansh Jain Jeetmal, Shobith P. Chadaga, Shreyas H. Srinivas


Internet of Things (IoT) is seen as the next major step in the ongoing revolution in the Information Age. It is predicted that in the near future billions of embedded devices will be communicating with each other to perform a plethora of tasks with or without human intervention. One of the major ongoing hotbed of research activity in IoT is Human Computer Interaction (HCI). HCI is used to facilitate communication between an intelligent system and a user. An intelligent system typically comprises of a system consisting of various sensors, actuators and embedded controllers which communicate with each other to monitor data collected from the environment. Communication by the user to the system is typically done using voice. One of the major ongoing applications of HCI is in home automation as a personal assistant. The prime objective of our project is to implement a use case of HCI for home automation. Our system is designed to detect and recognize the users and personalize the appliances in the house according to their individual preferences. Our HCI system is also capable of speaking with the user when certain commands are spoken such as searching on the web for information and controlling appliances. Our system can also monitor the environment in the house such as air quality and gas leakages for added safety.

Keywords: human computer interaction, internet of things, computer vision, sensor networks, speech to text, text to speech, android

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14224 Modeling Acceptability of a Personalized and Contextualized Radio Embedded in Vehicles

Authors: Ludivine Gueho, Sylvain Fleury, Eric Jamet


Driver distraction is known to be a major contributing factor of car accidents. Since many years, constructors have been designing embedded technologies to face this problem and reduce distraction. Being able to predict user acceptance would further be helpful in the development process to build appropriate systems. The present research aims at modelling the acceptability of a specific system, an innovative personalized and contextualized embedded radio, through an online survey of 202 people in France that assessed the psychological variables determining intentions to use the system. The questionnaire instantiated the dimensions of the extended version of the UTAUT acceptability model. Because of the specific features of the system assessed, we added 4 dimensions: perceived security, anxiety, trust and privacy concerns. Results showed that hedonic motivation, i.e., the fun or pleasure derived from using a technology, and performance expectancy, i.e., the degree to which individuals believe that the characteristics of the system meet their needs, are the most important dimensions in determining behavioral intentions about the innovative radio. To a lesser extent, social influence, i.e., the degree to which individuals think they can use the system while respecting their social group’s norms and while giving a positive image of themselves, had an effect on behavioral intentions. Moreover, trust, that is, the positive belief about the perceived reliability of, dependability of, and confidence in a person, object or process, had a significant effect, mediated by performance expectancy. In an applicative way, the present research reveals that, to be accepted, in-car embedded new technology has to address individual needs, for instance by facilitating the driving activity or by providing useful information. If it shows hedonic qualities by being entertaining, pretty or comfortable, this may improve the intentions to use it. Therefore, it is clearly important to include reflection about user experience in the design process. Finally, the users have to be reassured on the system’s reliability. For example, improving the transparency of the system by providing information about the system functioning, could improve trust. These results bring some highlights on determinant of acceptance of an in-vehicle technology and are useful for constructors to design acceptable systems.

Keywords: acceptability, innovative embedded radio, structural equation, user-centric evaluation, UTAUT

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14223 Image Processing and Calculation of NGRDI Embedded System in Raspberry

Authors: Efren Lopez Jimenez, Maria Isabel Cajero, J. Irving-Vasqueza


The use and processing of digital images have opened up new opportunities for the resolution of problems of various kinds, such as the calculation of different vegetation indexes, among other things, differentiating healthy vegetation from humid vegetation. However, obtaining images from which these indexes are calculated is still the exclusive subject of active research. In the present work, we propose to obtain these images using a low cost embedded system (Raspberry Pi) and its processing, using a set of libraries of open code called OpenCV, in order to obtain the Normalized Red-Green Difference Index (NGRDI).

Keywords: Raspberry Pi, vegetation index, Normalized Red-Green Difference Index (NGRDI), OpenCV

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14222 Development of 3D Laser Scanner for Robot Navigation

Authors: Ali Emre Öztürk, Ergun Ercelebi


Autonomous robotic systems needs an equipment like a human eye for their movement. Robotic camera systems, distance sensors and 3D laser scanners have been used in the literature. In this study a 3D laser scanner has been produced for those autonomous robotic systems. In general 3D laser scanners are using 2 dimension laser range finders that are moving on one-axis (1D) to generate the model. In this study, the model has been obtained by a one-dimensional laser range finder that is moving in two –axis (2D) and because of this the laser scanner has been produced cheaper. Furthermore for the laser scanner a motor driver, an embedded system control board has been used and at the same time a user interface card has been used to make the communication between those cards and computer. Due to this laser scanner, the density of the objects, the distance between the objects and the necessary path ways for the robot can be calculated. The data collected by the laser scanner system is converted in to cartesian coordinates to be modeled in AutoCAD program. This study shows also the synchronization between the computer user interface, AutoCAD and the embedded systems. As a result it makes the solution cheaper for such systems. The scanning results are enough for an autonomous robot but the scan cycle time should be developed. This study makes also contribution for further studies between the hardware and software needs since it has a powerful performance and a low cost.

Keywords: 3D laser scanner, embedded system, 1D laser range finder, 3D model

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14221 Conceptual Design of a Wi-Fi and GPS Based Robotic Library Using an Intelligent System

Authors: M. S. Sreejith, Steffy Joy, Abhishesh Pal, Beom-Sahng Ryuh, V. R. Sanal Kumar


In this paper an attempt has been made for the design of a robotic library using an intelligent system. The robot works on the ARM microprocessor, motor driver circuit with 5 degrees of freedom with Wi-Fi and GPS based communication protocol. The authenticity of the library books is controlled by RFID. The proposed robotic library system is facilitated with embedded system and ARM. In this library issuance system the previous potential readers’ authentic review reports have been taken into consideration for recommending suitable books to the deserving new users and the issuance of books or periodicals is based on the users’ decision. We have conjectured that the Wi-Fi based robotic library management system would allow fast transaction of books issuance and it also produces quality readers.

Keywords: GPS bsed based Robotic library, library management system, robotic library, Wi-Fi library

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14220 Effect of Thermal Radiation on Flow, Heat, and Mass Transfer of a Nanofluid over a Stretching Horizontal Cylinder Embedded in a Porous Medium with Suction/Injection

Authors: Elsayed M. A. Elbashbeshy, T. G. Emam, M. S. El-Azab, K. M. Abdelgaber


The effect of thermal radiation on flow, heat and mass transfer of an incompressible viscous nanofluid over a stretching horizontal cylinder embedded in a porous medium with suction/injection is discussed numerically. The governing boundary layer equations are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations. Mathematica has been used to solve such system after obtaining the missed initial conditions. Comparison of obtained numerical results is made with previously published results in some special cases, and found to be in a good agreement.

Keywords: laminar flow, boundary layer, stretching horizontal cylinder, thermal radiation, suction/injection, nanofluid

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14219 Double Layer Security Authentication Model for Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast

Authors: Buse T. Aydin, Enver Ozdemir


An automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) system has serious security problems. In this study, a double layer authentication scheme between the aircraft and ground station, aircraft to aircraft, ground station to ATC tower is designed to prevent any unauthorized aircrafts from introducing themselves as friends. This method can be used as a solution to the problem of authentication. The method is a combination of classical cryptographic methods and new generation physical layers. The first layer has employed the embedded key of the aircraft. The embedded key is assumed to installed during the construction of the utility. The other layer is a physical attribute (flight path, distance, etc.) between the aircraft and the ATC tower. We create a mathematical model so that two layers’ information is employed and an aircraft is authenticated as a friend or unknown according to the accuracy of the results of the model. The results of the aircraft are compared with the results of the ATC tower and if the values found by the aircraft and ATC tower match within a certain error margin, we mark the aircraft as friend. As a result, the ADS-B messages coming from this authenticated friendly aircraft will be processed. In this method, even if the embedded key is captured by the unknown aircraft, without the information of the second layer, the unknown aircraft can easily be determined. Overall, in this work, we present a reliable system by adding physical layer in the authentication process.

Keywords: ADS-B, authentication, communication with physical layer security, cryptography, identification friend or foe

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14218 Design and Implementation of the Embedded Control System for the Electrical Motor Based Cargo Vehicle

Authors: Syed M. Rizvi, Yiqing Meng, Simon Iwnicki


With an increased demand in the land cargo industry, it is predicted that the freight trade will rise to a record $1.1 trillion in revenue and volume in the following years to come. This increase is mainly driven by the e-commerce model ever so popular in the consumer market. Many innovative ideas have stemmed from this demand and change in lifestyle likes of which include e-bike cargo and drones. Rural and urban areas are facing air quality challenges to keep pollution levels in city centre to a minimum. For this purpose, this paper presents the design and implementation of a non-linear PID control system, employing a micro-controller and low cost sensing technique, for controlling an electrical motor based cargo vehicle with various loads, to follow a leading vehicle (bike). Within using this system, the cargo vehicle will have no load influence on the bike rider on different gradient conditions, such as hill climbing. The system is being integrated with a microcontroller to continuously measure several parameters such as relative displacement between bike and the cargo vehicle and gradient of the road, and process these measurements to create a portable controller capable of controlling the performance of electrical vehicle without the need of a PC. As a result, in the case of carrying 180kg of parcel weight, the cargo vehicle can maintain a reasonable spacing over a short length of sensor travel between the bike and itself.

Keywords: cargo, e-bike, microcontroller, embedded system, nonlinear pid, self-adaptive, inertial measurement unit (IMU)

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14217 Defects Estimation of Embedded Systems Components by a Bond Graph Approach

Authors: I. Gahlouz, A. Chellil


The paper concerns the estimation of system components faults by using an unknown inputs observer. To reach this goal, we used the Bond Graph approach to physical modelling. We showed that this graphical tool is allowing the representation of system components faults as unknown inputs within the state representation of the considered physical system. The study of the causal and structural features of the system (controllability, observability, finite structure, and infinite structure) based on the Bond Graph approach was hence fulfilled in order to design an unknown inputs observer which is used for the system component fault estimation.

Keywords: estimation, bond graph, controllability, observability

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