Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: tuta absoluta

9 Biological Control of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lep: Gelechiidae) with Enthomopathogenic Fungi

Authors: Dahliz Abderrahmène, Lakhdari Wassim, Bouchikh Yamina, Hammi Hamida, Soud Adila, M’lik Randa, Benglia Sara

Abstract:

Devastating insects constitute one of strains for cultivate tomato. Among this vandal insects, the tomato leafminer (T. absoluta), which has been introduced in Algeria constitute a challenge for both agricultures and scientists. Firstly, this insect is introduced without their natural enemies which may reduce their damage. Secondly, this species has developed insecticide resistance to many active matters. To contribute to establish a control strategy for T. absoluta we have mad an inventory for their enthomopathogenic fungi. Two fungi were identified among others taken from adults and pupae. These fungi are Aspergillus flavus and Metarhizium sp. A study was conducted in laboratory to recognize the efficiency of these antagonists. These species had unregistered a mortality mounts of 42% and 56% respectively.

Keywords: Tuta absoluta, enthomopathogenic fungi, Aspergillus flavus, Metarhizium sp, control strategy

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8 Inventory Larval Ectoparasites of Tomato Leafminer in National High School of Agriculture, Algeria

Authors: Khadidja Mahdi, Salaheddine Doumandji

Abstract:

Among the natural enemies that reduce populations of the tomato leaf miner studied in experimental plots of National High school of agriculture (ENSA, Algeria, 36° 40’ à 36° 43’ N.; 3° 08’ à 3° 12’ E.), larval ectoparasites. Three larval ectoparasites are reported in this study namely Necrinmus Sp. and two species of indeterminate Chalcidae (Chalcidae Sp. 1 and 2). These species have significantly reduced the effectives of Tuta absoluta. The results for the parasitism of eggs, larval instars and pupae of Tuta absoluta on the open field tomato in the experimental plots of ENSA show high levels of parasite eggs with 25%. With 94.7%, the first larval instar (L1) is the most parasites. The second instar (L2) undergoes the action of parasitoids least 60%. Instars L3 and L4 and pupae remain unharmed.

Keywords: tuta absoluta, larval ectoparasites, tomato, ensa, Algeria

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7 Integrated Plant Protection Activities against (Tuta absoluta Meyrik) Moth in Tomato Plantings in Azerbaijan

Authors: Nazakat Ismailzada, Carol Jones

Abstract:

Tomato drilling moth Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is the main pest of tomato plants in many countries. The larvae of tomato leaves, the stems inside, in the end buds, they opened the gallery in green and ripe fruit. In this way the harmful products can be fed with all parts of the tomato plant can cause damage to 80-100%. Pest harms all above ground parts of the tomato plant. After the seedlings are planted in areas and during blossoming holder traps with tomato moth’s rubber capsule inside should be placed in the area by using five-tomato moth’s feremon per ha. Then there should be carried out observations in the fields in every three days regularly. During the researches, it was showed that in field condition Carogen 20 SC besides high-level biological efficiency also has low ecological load for environment, and should be used against tomato moth in farms. Therefore it was showed that in field condition Carogen 20 SC besides high-level biological efficiency also has low ecological load for environment, and should be used against tomato moth in farms with insecticide expenditure norm 320 qr\ha. In farms should be used plant rotation, plant fields should be plowed on the 25-30 sm depth, before sowing seeds should be proceeded by insecticides. As element of integrated plant protection activities, should be used pheromones trap. In tomato plant fields as an insecticide should be used AGROSAN 240 SC and Carogen 20 SP.

Keywords: lepidoptera, Tuta absoluta, chemical control, integrated pest management

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6 Effect of Different Temperatures and Cold Storage on Pupaes Apanteles gelechiidivoris Marsh (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Parasitoid of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

Authors: Jessica Morales Perdomo, Daniel Rodriguez Caicedo, Fernando Cantor Rincon

Abstract:

Tuta absoluta known as the tomato leaf miner, is one of the main pests in tomato crops in South America and the main pest in many European countries. Apanteles gelechiidivoris is a parasitoid of third instar Tuta absoluta larvae. Our studies have demonstrated that this parasitoid can cause up to 80% mortality of T. absoluta larvae in the field. We investigated cold storage of A. gelechiidivoris pupae as a method of mass production of this parasitoid. This storage method does not interfere with biological characteristics of the parasitoid. In this study, we evaluated the effect of different temperatures (4, 8 and 12°C) and different time duration (7, 14, 21 or 28 days) of cold storage on biological parameters of A. gelechiidivoris pupae and adults. The biological parameters of the parasitoid evaluated were: adult emergence time, lifespan, parasitism percentage and sex ratio. We found that the adult emergence time was delayed when the parasitoid pupae were stored at 4°C and 8°C. The shortest adult emergence was recorded when pupae were stored for seven days. The lowest adult emergence was found for pupae stored at 4°C and decreased significantly as the days of storage increased. We found high percentages of adult emergence when pupae were stored at 8°C and 12°C for seven days. Adult lifespan decreased with increasing days of cold storage. Adults emerging from pupae stored at 8°C during seven and 14 days showed the longest lifespan (nine days). The lowest parasitism rate was recorded at 4°C at every time point. The highest percentage of parasitism (80%) was found at 8°C during seven days of storage. The treatments had no effect on adults the sex ratio. The results suggest that A. gelechiidivoris pupae can be stored for up to 14 days at 8°C without affecting the efficacy of the parasitoid in the field.

Keywords: biological control, cold storage, massive rearing, quality control

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5 Effects of Gamma Radiation on Tomato Leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

Authors: Akın Kuyulu, Hanife Genç

Abstract:

In present study, it was aimed to evaluate the gamma radiation impacts on tomato leaf miner at different biological stages. The laboratory colony of tomato leaf miner was used to set up the experiments. Different biological stages of the insects (eggs, 4th instars and pupae) were irradiated using Cobalt-60 at doses of 0 (control), 100 Gray (Gy), 200 Gy, 300 Gy and 400 Gy in Cos-44HH-N source, at dose rate of 480 Gy/h. After irradiation, the eggs were incubated until hatching; the mature larvae were reared to complete their developments. Adult emergences from irradiated pupae were also evaluated. The results showed that there were no egg hatching at all tested irradiation doses. Although, the pupal percentages of irradiated mature larvae were 54%, 15% and 8% at doses of 100 Gy, 200 Gy and 300 Gy respectively, there were no adult emergences from irradiated mature larvae. On the other hand, the adult emergences were observed from irradiated pupae, decreased as radiation doses increased along with malformed adult appearance. Male and female individuals were out crossed with laboratory reared adults. Fecundity was correlated with radiation doses.

Keywords: irradiation, tomato, tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta

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4 Evaluation of the Pathogenicity Test of Some Entomopathogenic Fungus Isolates against Tomato Leaf Miner Tuta Absoluta (Meyrick) Larvae [Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae])

Authors: Tadesse Kebede, Orkun Baris Kovanci

Abstract:

Tomatoes leaf minor (Tutaabasoluta) is one of the most economically important insect pest in tomatoes production. The use of biological control such as entomopathogen fungi isolates would be a long-term and cost-effective solution to control insects pest. Therefore, identifying the most virulent and pathogenic entomopathogen fungi is one of the basic requirements for effective management options to combat Tomatoes leaf minor (Tutaabasoluta). Furthermore, the pathogenicity and virulence difference among entomopathogenfungus strains is not widely well investıgated. The current study was therefore initiated to test the pathogenicity of some entomopathogenic fungus isolates against Tutaabsoluta. The experiment was conducted at Bursa Uludag University, Agiculutre faculty, horticulture department glasshouse in 2020/2021. Tutabasoluta adult were collected, and masslarvae were reared in a growth chamber. Then, ten third instar larvae were inoculated with four entomopathogen fungi isolates (Beuaveriabassania Ak-10, Beuaveriabassania Ak-14, Metarhziumanisoplai Ak-11, and Metarhziumanisoplai Ak-12) with different inoculum suspension (0, 1x10⁶, 1x10⁷,,4 × 10⁸, 4× 10⁹ and 1×10¹⁰ conidia /ml) in a factorial experiment arranged in randomized complete block design with three replication. Mortality data assessment was done on the 3rd, 5thand 7th days after treatment and analyzed. The analysis of variance for mortality rate revealed significant variations (p<0.05) among entomoptahogen fungi isolates and conidia concentrations. The results revealed thatMetarhziumanisoplai Ak-12was found to show the lowest mortality percentage80.77%, highest LC50 2.3x108, and the longest incubation period, LT50, 4.9 and LT90, 9.9daysand considered to be less pathogenic fungi. On the other hand, Beuaveriabassania Ak-10 isolate showed the highest mortality percentage, 91%, and the lowest LT50, 4, and LT90, 7.6 values at 1×10¹⁰ conidia /ml, followed by Beuaveriabassania Ak-14 and being considered as the most aggressive bio-agent. Metarhziumanisoplai Ak-11 was determined as moderately virulent, having a mortality rate 27-81%. Results also revealed that among conidia concentrations, 1x10⁹ and 1x10¹⁰ suspensions is the most effective, while 1x10⁶ conidia/ml concentration is the least effective. Hence, results indicated that EPF tested were effective against T. absoluta larvae. As the current work revealed the potential variation among entomopathogen fungi isolates and concentration against third instar larvae.

Keywords: tuta absoluta, tomato, metarhizium anisopliae, beauveria bassiana, biological control

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3 Spatio-Temporal Pest Risk Analysis with ‘BioClass’

Authors: Vladimir A. Todiras

Abstract:

Spatio-temporal models provide new possibilities for real-time action in pest risk analysis. It should be noted that estimation of the possibility and probability of introduction of a pest and of its economic consequences involves many uncertainties. We present a new mapping technique that assesses pest invasion risk using online BioClass software. BioClass is a GIS tool designed to solve multiple-criteria classification and optimization problems based on fuzzy logic and level set methods. This research describes a method for predicting the potential establishment and spread of a plant pest into new areas using a case study: corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.), tomato leaf miner (Tuta absoluta) and plum fruit moth (Grapholita funebrana). Our study demonstrated that in BioClass we can combine fuzzy logic and geographic information systems with knowledge of pest biology and environmental data to derive new information for decision making. Pests are sensitive to a warming climate, as temperature greatly affects their survival and reproductive rate and capacity. Changes have been observed in the distribution, frequency and severity of outbreaks of Helicoverpa armigera on tomato. BioClass has demonstrated to be a powerful tool for applying dynamic models and map the potential future distribution of a species, enable resource to make decisions about dangerous and invasive species management and control.

Keywords: classification, model, pest, risk

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2 A Computational Approach for the Prediction of Relevant Olfactory Receptors in Insects

Authors: Zaide Montes Ortiz, Jorge Alberto Molina, Alejandro Reyes

Abstract:

Insects are extremely successful organisms. A sophisticated olfactory system is in part responsible for their survival and reproduction. The detection of volatile organic compounds can positively or negatively affect many behaviors in insects. Compounds such as carbon dioxide (CO2), ammonium, indol, and lactic acid are essential for many species of mosquitoes like Anopheles gambiae in order to locate vertebrate hosts. For instance, in A. gambiae, the olfactory receptor AgOR2 is strongly activated by indol, which accounts for almost 30% of human sweat. On the other hand, in some insects of agricultural importance, the detection and identification of pheromone receptors (PRs) in lepidopteran species has become a promising field for integrated pest management. For example, with the disruption of the pheromone receptor, BmOR1, mediated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), the sensitivity to bombykol was completely removed affecting the pheromone-source searching behavior in male moths. Then, the detection and identification of olfactory receptors in the genomes of insects is fundamental to improve our understanding of the ecological interactions, and to provide alternatives in the integrated pests and vectors management. Hence, the objective of this study is to propose a bioinformatic workflow to enhance the detection and identification of potential olfactory receptors in genomes of relevant insects. Applying Hidden Markov models (Hmms) and different computational tools, potential candidates for pheromone receptors in Tuta absoluta were obtained, as well as potential carbon dioxide receptors in Rhodnius prolixus, the main vector of Chagas disease. This study showed the validity of a bioinformatic workflow with a potential to improve the identification of certain olfactory receptors in different orders of insects.

Keywords: bioinformatic workflow, insects, olfactory receptors, protein prediction

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1 Fashion Utopias: The Role of Fashion Exhibitions and Fashion Archives to Defining (and Stimulating) Possible Future Fashion Landscapes

Authors: Vittorio Linfante

Abstract:

Utopìa is a term that, since its first appearance in 1516, in Tommaso Moro’s work, has taken on different meanings and forms in various fields: social studies, politics, art, creativity, and design. The utopias, although of short duration and in their apparent impossibility, have been able to give a shape to the future, laying the foundations for our present and the future of the next generations. The Twentieth century was the historical period crossed by many changes, and it saw the most significant number of utopias not only social, political, and scientific but also artistic, architectural, in design, communication, and, last but not least, in fashion. Over the years, fashion has been able to interpret various utopistic impulses giving form to the most futuristic visions. From the Manifesto del Vestito by Giacomo Balla, through the functional experiments that led to the Tuta by Thayath and the Varst by Aleksandr Rodčenko and Varvara Stepanova, through the Space Age visions of Rudi Gernreich, Paco Rabanne and Pierre Cardin, and the Archizoom’s political actions and their fashion project Vestirsi è facile. Experiments that have continued to the present days through the (sometimes) excessive visions of Hussein Chalayan, Alexander McQueen, and Gareth Pugh or those that are more anchored to the market (but no fewer innovative and visionaries) by Prada, Chanel, and Raf Simmons. If, as Bauman states, it is true that we have entered in a phase of Retrotopia characterized by the inability to think about new forms of the future; it is necessary, more than ever, to redefine the role of history, of its narration and its mise en scène, within the contemporary creative process. A process that increasingly requires an in-depth knowledge of the past for the definition of a renewed discourse about design processes. A discourse in which words like archive, exhibition, curating, revival, vintage, and costume take on new meanings. The paper aims to investigate–through case studies, research, and professional projects–the renewed role of curating and preserving fashion artefacts. A renewed role that–in an era of Retrotopia–museums, exhibitions, and archives can (and must) assume, to contribute to the definition of new design paradigms, capable of overcoming the traditional categories of revival or costume in favour of a more contemporary “mash-up” approach. Mash-up in which past and present, craftsmanship and new technologies, revival and experimentation merge seamlessly. In this perspective, dresses (as well as fashion accessories) should be considered not only as finished products but as artefacts capable of talking about the past and of producing unpublished new stories at the same time. Archives, exhibitions (academic and not), and museums thus become powerful sources of inspiration for fashion: places and projects capable of generating innovation, becoming active protagonists of the contemporary fashion design processes.

Keywords: heritage, history, costume and fashion interface, performance, language, design research

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