Search results for: phytostabilization
7 Anatomical Adaptations and Mineral Elements Allocation Associated with the Zn Phytostabilization Capability of Acanthus ilicifolius L.
Authors: Shackira Am, Jos T. Puthur
Abstract:The phytostabilization potential of a halophyte Acanthus ilicifolius L. has been evaluated with special attention to the nutritional as well as anatomical adaptations developed by the plant. Distribution of essential elements influenced by the excess Zn²⁺ ions in the root tissue was studied by FEG-SEM EDX microanalysis. Significant variations were observed in the uptake and allocation of mineral elements like Mg, P, K, S, Na, Si and Al in the root of A. ilicifolius. The increase in S is in correlation with the increased synthesis of glutathione which might be involved in the biosynthesis of phytochelatins. This in turn might be aiding the plant to tolerate the adverse environmental conditions by stabilizing the excess Zn in the root tissue itself. Moreover it is revealed that most of the Zn were accumulated towards the central region near the vascular tissue. Treatment with ZnSO₄ in A. ilicifolius caused significant increase in the number of glandular trichomes on the adaxial leaf surface as compared to the leaves of control plants. In addition to this, A. ilicifolius when treated with ZnSO₄, exhibited a deeply stained layer of cells immediate to the endodermis, forming more or less a ring like structure around the xylem vessels. Phloem cells in these plants were crushed/reduced in numbers. There were no such deeply stained cells forming a ring around the xylem vessels in the control plants. These adaptive responses make the plant a suitable candidate for the phytostabilization of Zn. In addition the nutritional adjustment of the plant equips them for a better survival under increased concentration of Zn²⁺.
Keywords: Acanthus ilicifolius, mineral elements, phytostabilization, zincProcedia PDF Downloads 102
6 Phytoremediation Potential of Tomato for Cd and Cr Removal from Polluted Soils
Authors: Jahanshah Saleh, Hossein Ghasemi, Ali Shahriari, Faezeh Alizadeh, Yaaghoob Hosseini
Abstract:Cadmium and chromium are toxic to most organisms and different mechanisms have been developed for overcoming with the toxic effects of these heavy metals. We studied the uptake and distribution of cadmium and chromium in different organs of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) plants in nine heavy metal polluted soils in western Hormozgan province, Iran. The accumulation of chromium was in increasing pattern of fruit peel
Keywords: cadmium, chromium, phytoextraction, phytostabilization, tomatoProcedia PDF Downloads 280
5 Phytoremediation: An Ecological Solution to Heavy-Metal-Polluted Soil
Authors: Nasreen Jeelani, Huining Shi , Di An, Lu Xia, Shuqing An
Abstract:Heavy metals contamination in aquatic ecosystem is a major environmental problem since its accumulation along the food chain pose public health risk. The concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in soil and plants species collected from different streams of Suoxu River, China was investigated. This aim was to define the level of pollutants in Suoxu River, find which plant species exhibits the greatest accumulation and to evaluate whether these species could be useful for phytoremediation. While total soil Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations varied, respectively, from 0.09 to 0.23 , 58.6 to 98, 9.72 to 80.5, 15.3 to 41, 15.2 to 27.3 and 35 to 156 (mg-kg-1), those in plants ranged from 0.035 to 0.49, 2.91 to 75.6, 4.79 to 32.4, 1.27 to 16.1, 0.62 to10.2, 18.9 to 84.6 (mg-kg-1), respectively. Based on BCFs and TFs values, most of the studied species have potential for phytostabilization. The plants with most effective in the accumulation of metals in shoots are Phragmatis australis (TF=2.29) and Iris tectorum (TF =2.07) for Pb. While Chenopodium album, (BCF =3.55), Ranunculus sceleratus, (BCF= 3.0), Polygonum hydropiper (BCF =2.46) for Cd and Iris tectorum (BCF=2.0) for Cu was suitable for phytostabilization. Among the plant species screened for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, most of the species were efficient to take up more than one heavy metal in roots. Our study showed that the native plant species growing on contaminated sites may have the potential uses for phytoremediation.
Keywords: heavy metals, huaihe river catchments, sediment, plantsProcedia PDF Downloads 290
4 Effect of Several Soil Amendments on Water Quality in Mine Soils: Leaching Columns
Authors: Carmela Monterroso, Marc Romero-Estonllo, Carlos Pascual, Beatriz Rodríguez-Garrido
Abstract:The mobilization of heavy metals from polluted soils causes their transfer to natural waters, with consequences for ecosystems and human health. Phytostabilization techniques are applied to reduce this mobility, through the establishment of a vegetal cover and the application of soil amendments. In this work, the capacity of different organic amendments to improve water quality and reduce the mobility of metals in mine-tailings was evaluated. A field pilot test was carried out with leaching columns installed on an old Cu mine ore (NW of Spain) which forms part of the PhytoSUDOE network of phytomanaged contaminated field sites (PhytoSUDOE/ Phy2SUDOE Projects (SOE1/P5/E0189 and SOE4/P5/E1021)). Ten columns (1 meter high by 25 cm in diameter) were packed with untreated mine tailings (control) or those treated with organic amendments. Applied amendments were based on different combinations of municipal wastes, bark chippings, biomass fly ash, and nanoparticles like aluminum oxides or ferrihydrite-type iron oxides. During the packing of the columns, rhizon-samplers were installed at different heights (10, 20, and 50 cm) from the top, and pore water samples were obtained by suction. Additionally, in each column, a bottom leachate sample was collected through a valve installed at the bottom of the column. After packing, the columns were sown with grasses. Water samples were analyzed for: pH and redox potential, using combined electrodes; salinity by conductivity meter: bicarbonate by titration, sulfate, nitrate, and chloride, by ion chromatography (Dionex 2000); phosphate by colorimetry with ammonium molybdate/ascorbic acid; Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb by flame atomic absorption/emission spectrometry (Perkin Elmer). Porewater and leachate from the control columns (packed with unamended mine tailings) were extremely acidic and had a high concentration of Al, Fe, and Cu. In these columns, no plant development was observed. The application of organic amendments improved soil conditions, which allowed the establishment of a dense cover of grasses in the rest of the columns. The combined effect of soil amendment and plant growth had a positive impact on water quality and reduced mobility of aluminum and heavy metals.
Keywords: leaching, organic amendments, phytostabilization, polluted soilsProcedia PDF Downloads 48
3 Growing Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.) on Contaminated Soils with Heavy Metals in Bulgaria
Authors: Violina Angelova, Huu Q. Lee
Abstract:A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.) for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The experiment was performed on agricultural fields contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The experimental plots were situated at different distances (0.5, 3.5, and 15 km) from the source of pollution. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd in vetiver (roots and leaves) were determined. Correlations between the content of the heavy metal mobile forms extracted with DTPA and their content in the roots and leaves of the Vetiver have been established. The Vetiver is tolerant to heavy metals and can be grown on soils contaminated with heavy metals. Plants are characterized by low ability to absorb and accumulate Pb, Cd, and Zn and have no signs of toxicity (chlorosis and necrosis) at 36.8 mg/kg Cd, 1158.8 mg/kg Pb and 1526.2 mg/kg Zn in the soil. Vetiver plants can be classified as Pb, Cd and Zn excluder, therefore, this plant has the suitable potential for the phytostabilization of heavy metal contaminated soils. Acknowledgements: The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the Bulgarian National Science Fund (Project DFNI 04/9).
Keywords: contaminated soils, heavy metals, phytoremediation, vetiverProcedia PDF Downloads 162
2 Effect of Vesicular Arbuscular mycorrhiza on Phytoremedial Potential and Physiological Changes in Solanum melongena Plants Grown under Heavy Metal Stress
Authors: Ritu Chaturvedi, Mayank Varun, M. S. Paul
Abstract:Heavy metal contamination of soil is a growing area of concern since the soil is the matrix that supports flora and impacts humans directly. Phytoremediation of contaminated sites is gaining popularity due to its cost effectiveness and solar driven nature. Some hyperaccumulators have been identified for their potential. Metal-accumulating plants have various mechanisms to cope up with stress and one of them is increasing antioxidative capacity. The aim of this research is to assess the effect of Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) application on the phytoremedial potential of Solanum melongena (Eggplant) and level of photosynthetic pigments along with antioxidative enzymes. Results showed that VAM application increased shoot length, root proliferation pattern of plants. The level of photosynthetic pigments, proline, SOD, CAT, APX altered significantly in response to heavy metal treatment. In conclusion, VAM increased the uptake of heavy metals which lead to the activation of the defense system in plants for scavenging free radicals.
Keywords: heavy metal, phytoextraction, phytostabilization, reactive oxygen speciesProcedia PDF Downloads 211
1 Glasshouse Experiment to Improve Phytomanagement Solutions for Cu-Polluted Mine Soils
Authors: Marc Romero-Estonllo, Judith Ramos-Castro, Yaiza San Miguel, Beatriz Rodríguez-Garrido, Carmela Monterroso
Abstract:Mining activity is among the main sources of trace and heavy metal(loid) pollution worldwide, which is a hazard to human and environmental health. That is why several projects have been emerging for the remediation of such polluted places. Phytomanagement strategies draw good performances besides big side benefits. In this work, a glasshouse assay with trace element polluted soils from an old Cu mine ore (NW of Spain) which forms part of the PhytoSUDOE network of phytomanaged contaminated field sites (PhytoSUDOE Project (SOE1/P5/E0189)) was set. The objective was to evaluate improvements induced by the following phytoremediation-related treatments. Three increasingly complex amendments alone or together with plant growth (Populus nigra L. alone and together with Tripholium repens L.) were tested. And three different rhizosphere bioinocula were applied (Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGP), mycorrhiza (MYC), or mixed (PGP+MYC)). After 110 days of growth, plants were collected, biomass was weighed, and tree length was measured. Physical-chemical analyses were carried out to determine pH, effective Cation Exchange Capacity, carbon and nitrogen contents, bioavailable phosphorous (Olsen bicarbonate method), pseudo total element content (microwave acid digested fraction), EDTA extractable metals (complexed fraction), and NH4NO3 extractable metals (easily bioavailable fraction). On plant material, nitrogen content and acid digestion elements were determined. Amendment usage, plant growth, and bioinoculation were demonstrated to improve soil fertility and/or plant health within the time span of this study. Particularly, pH levels increased from 3 (highly acidic) to 5 (acidic) in the worst-case scenario, even reaching 7 (neutrality) in the best plots. Organic matter and pH increments were related to polluting metals’ bioavailability decrements. Plants grew better both with the most complex amendment and the middle one, with few differences due to bioinoculation. Using the less complex amendment (just compost) beneficial effects of bioinoculants were more observable, although plants didn’t thrive very well. On unamended soils, plants neither sprouted nor bloomed. The scheme assayed in this study is suitable for phytomanagement of these kinds of soils affected by mining activity. These findings should be tested now on a larger scale.
Keywords: aided phytoremediation, mine pollution, phytostabilization, soil pollution, trace elementsProcedia PDF Downloads 16