Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: piper guineense

35 Preservative Potentials of Piper Guineense on Roma Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Fruit

Authors: Grace O. Babarinde, Adegoke O.Gabriel, Rahman Akinoso, Adekanye Bosede R.


Health risks associated with the use of synthetic chemicals to control post-harvest losses in fruit calls for use of natural biodegradable compounds. The potential of Piper guineense as postharvest preservative for Roma tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) was investigated. Freshly harvested red tomato (200 g) was dipped into five concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% w/v) of P. guineense aqueous extract, while untreated fruits served as control. The samples were stored under refrigeration and analysed at 5-day interval for physico-chemical properties. P. guineense essential oil (EO) was characterised using GC-MS and its tomato preservative potential was evaluated. Percentage weight loss (PWL) in extract-treated tomato ranged from 0.0-0.68% compared to control (0.3-19.97%) during storage. Values obtained for firmness ranged from 8.23-16.88 N and 8.4 N in extract-treated and control. pH reduced from 5.4 to 4.5 and 3.7 in extract-treated and untreated samples, respectively. Highest value of Total Soluble Solid (1.8 °Brix) and maximum retention of Ascorbic acid (13.0 mg/100 g) were observed in 4% P. guineense-treated samples. Predominant P. guineense EO components were zingiberene (9.9%), linalool (10.7%), β-caryophyllene (12.6%), 1, 5-Heptadiene, 6-methyl-2-(4-methyl-3-cyclohexene-l-yl) (16.4%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (23.7%). Tomatoes treated with EO had lower PWL (5.2%) and higher firmness (14.2 N) than controls (15.3% and 11.9 N) respectively. The result indicates that P. guineense can be incorporated in to post harvest technology of Roma tomato fruit.

Keywords: aqueous extract, essential oil, piper guineense, Roma tomato, storage condition

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34 Storage of Maize Grains Using Powder and Oils of Commonly Used Medicinal Plants (Aframomum melegueta, Garcinia kola and Piper guineense)

Authors: T. O. Adejumo, O. S. Akinyemi


Powders and oils of Aframomum melegueta, Garcinia kola and Piper guineense were tested as preservatives for the storage of maize grains for four weeks. The concentrations of the powders were 32.5gkg-1, 65.0gkg-1 and 97.5gkg-1 maize, while those of oils were 0.85mlkg-1, 0.50mlkg-1 and 0.75mlkg-1 maize respectively. Powders of the three botanicals at 97.5gkg-1 maize possessed insecticidal effect on Sitophilus zeamais and also inhibitory activities on Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger and Fusarium verticillioides, while little effect was observed for other concentrations. Oils of the three botanicals at 0.50mlkg-1 and 0.75mlkg-1 maize showed an insecticidal effect on S. zeamais and also inhibitory activities on A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, F. verticillioides, Penicillium and Rhizopus species. Oils showed more potential as a protectant against fungal and insect pest in storage maize grains than powders. Powders and oils of A. melegueta, G. kola and P. guineense could be successfully used as biopesticides.

Keywords: aframomum melegueta, garcinia kola, maize, powder, oils, piper guineense

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33 The Investigation of the Antimicrobial Activities of Piper betle L.

Authors: Disaya Jaroensattayatham


Nowadays, infectious diseases are prevalent and severe health problems as they render the increment of casualty, illness, and global economic recession. Along with the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, the potency of typically used antibiotics can be affected to a considerable degree. As a result, unorthodox antibiotics have become an urgent issue in the pharmaceutical field. Piper betle L., known as betle leaf, has been used for many purposes, such as a traditional home remedy, and has shown its ability in inhibiting bacteria as well as fungus. Thus, in this study, the investigation of antimicrobial activities of the Piper betle L. extracts was carried out using the Agar disk-diffusion method and Broth microdilution, aiming to evaluate and determine its efficacy to inhibit bacterial and fungal growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Candida albicans. In the agar disk-diffusion test, the extracts of Piper betle L. gave the maximum zone of inhibition of 15.1 mm (S. aureus), 7.7 mm (S. typhi), and 11.7 mm (C. albicans), while its MIC values were 1000 µg/ml in S. aureus and greater than 2000 µg/ml in S. typhi and C. albicans. According to the results, the Piper betle L. obtains an antimicrobial activity and shows a higher effect towards gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative bacteria. To determine the mechanism behind its ability, more research is needed to be performed in the future.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, Candida albicans, Piper betle L., Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus

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32 Changes in the Body Weight and Wound Contraction Rate Following Treatment with Piper betel Extract in Diabetic Wounds

Authors: Nurul Z. Sani, Amalina N. Ghazali, Azree Elmy, Lee C. Yuen, Zar C. Thent


Piper betel (P. betel) leaves is widely used in Asian countries for treating diabetes mellitus and its complication. In our previous study, we observed the positive effect of P.betel extract on diabetic wounds following 3 and 7 days of treatment. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of P.betel leaves extract in the diabetic rats was observed in terms of body weight and wound contraction rates following 5 days of the treatment. Total 64 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used and the experimental rats received a single dose of 60mg/kg of Streptozotocin (STZ) injection, intraperitoneally. Four full thickness (6mm) cutaneous wounds were created on dorsum of each rat. The rats were divideid into (n=8): Non-treated Control (NC), Non-treated Diabetic (ND), diabetic treated with commercial cream (SN) and diabetic treated with 50mg/kg of P.betel extract (PB). The rats were sacrificed on day 0 and 5 post wounding. Significant increased in wound closure rate, body weight was observed in PB group compared to ND. Histological deterioration was restored in the P. betel extract treated wounds. It is concluded that topical application with P.betel extract for 5 days of post wounding offers positive scientific value in diabetic rats.

Keywords: diabetes, piper betel, wound healing, body weight, morphology

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31 Prospects in Development of Ecofriendly Biopesticides in Management of Postharvest Fungal Deterioration of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

Authors: Anderson Chidi Amadioha, Promise Chidi Kenkwo, A. A. Markson


Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food and cash crop that provide cheap source of carbohydrate for food, feed and raw material for industries hence a commodity for feature economic development of developing countries. Despite the importance, its production potentials is undermined by disease agents that greatly reduce yield and render it unfit for human consumption and industrial use. Pathogenicity tests on fungal isolates from infected cassava revealed Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, and Trichodderma viride as rot-causing organisms. Water and ethanol extracts of Piper guineense, Ocimum graticimum, Cassia alata, and Tagetes erecta at 50% concentration significantly inhibited the radial growth of the pathogens in vitro and their development and spread in vivo. Low cassava rot incidence and severity was recorded when the extracts were applied before than after spray inoculating with spore suspension (1x105 spores/ml of distilled water) of the pathogenic organisms. The plant materials are readily available, and their extracts are biodegradable and cost effective. The fungitoxic potentials of extracts of these plant materials could be exploited as potent biopesticides in the management of postharvest fungal deterioration of cassava especially in developing countries where synthetic fungicides are not only scarce but also expensive for resource poor farmers who produce over 95% of the food consumed.

Keywords: cassava, biopesticides, in vitro, in vivo, pathogens, plant extracts

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30 Lead and Cadmium Residue Determination in Spices Available in Tripoli City Markets (Libya)

Authors: Mohamed Ziyaina, Ahlam Rajab, Khadija Alkhweldi, Wafia Algami, Omer Al. Toumi, Barbara Rasco1


In recent years, there has been a growing interest in monitoring heavy metal contamination in food products. Spices can improve the taste of food and can also be a source of many bioactive compounds but can unfortunately, also be contaminated with dangerous materials, potentially heavy metals. This study was conducted to investigate lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination in selected spices commonly consumed in Libya including Capsicum frutescens (chili pepper) Piper nigrum, (black pepper), Curcuma longa (turmeric), and mixed spices (HRARAT) which consist of a combination of: Alpinia officinarum, Zingiber officinale and Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Spices were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy after digestion with nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide. The highest level of lead (Pb) was found in Curcuma longa and Capsicum frutescens in wholesale markets (1.05 ± 0.01 mg/kg, 0.96 ± 0.06 mg/kg). Cadmium (Cd) levels exceeded FAO/WHO permissible limit. Curcuma longa and Piper nigrum sold in retail markets had a high concentration of Cd (0.36 ± 0.09, 0.35 ± 0.07 mg/kg, respectively) followed by (0.32 ± 0.04 mg/kg) for Capsicum frutescens. Mixed spices purchased from wholesale markets also had high levels of Cd (0.31 ± 0.08 mg/kg). Curcuma longa and Capsicum frutescens may pose a food safety risk due to high levels of lead and cadmium. Cadmium levels exceeded FAO/WHO recommendations (0.2 ppm) for Piper nigrum, Curcuma longa, and mixed spices (HRARAT).

Keywords: heavy metals, lead, cadmium determination, spice

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29 Non Chemical-Based Natural Products in the Treatment and Control of Disease in Fish

Authors: Albert P. Ekanem, Austin I. Obiekezie, Elizabeth X. Ntia


Introduction: Some African plants and bile from animals have shown efficacies in the treatment and control of diseases in farmed fish. The background of the study is based on the fact the African rain forest is blessed with the abundance of medicinal plants that should be investigated for their use in the treatment of diseases. The significance of the study is informed by the fact that chemical-based substances accumulate in the tissues of food fish, thereby reducing the food values of such products and moreover, the continuous use of chemotherapeutics in the aquatic environments tends to degrade the affected environment. Methodology: Plants and animal products were extracted, purified and applied under in vitro and in vivo conditions to the affected organisms. Effective plants and bills were analyzed for biologically active substances responsible for the activities by both qualitative and HPLC methods. Results: Extracts of Carica papaya and Mucuna pruriens were effective in the treatment of Ichthyophthiriasis in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) with high host tolerance. Similarly, ectoparasitic monogeneans were effectively dislodged from the gills and skin of goldfish by the application of extracts of Piper guineense at therapeutic concentrations. Artemesia annua with known antimalarial activities in human was also effective against fish monogenean parasites of Clarias gariepinus in a concentration-related manner without detriments to the host. Effective antibacterial activities against Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases of the African catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis) were demonstrated in some plants such as Phylanthus amarus, Allium sativum, A. annua, and Citrus lemon. Bile from some animals (fish, goat, chicken, cow, and pig) showed great antibacterial activities against some gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens of fish. Conclusions: African plants and some animal bile have shown potential promise in the treatment of diseases in fish and other aquatic animals. The use of chemical-based substances for control of diseases in the aquatic environments should be restricted.

Keywords: control, diseases, fish, treatment

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28 Non Chemical-Based Natural Products in the Treatment and Control of Fish Diseases

Authors: Albert P. Ekanem, Austin I. Obiekezie, Elizabeth X. Ntia


Introduction: Some African plants and bile from animals have shown efficacies in the treatment and control of diseases in farmed fish. The background of the study is based on the fact the African rain forest is blessed with abundance of medicinal plants that should be investigated for their use in the treatment of diseases. The significance of the study is informed by the fact that chemical-based substances accumulates in the tissues of food fish, thereby reducing the food values of such products and moreover, the continuous use of chemotherapeutants in the aquatic environments tends to degrades the affected environment. Methodology: Plants and animal products were extracted, purified and applied under in vitro and in vivo conditions to the affected organisms. Effective plants and biles were analyzed for active biological substances responsible for the activities by both qualitative and HPLC methods. Results: Extracts of Carica papaya and Mucuna pruriens were effective in the treatment of Ichthyophthiriasis in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) with high host tolerance. Similarly, ectoparasitic monogeneans were effectively dislodged from the gills and skin of goldfish by the application of extracts of Piper guineense at therapeutic concentrations. Artemesia annua with known antimalarial activities in human was also effective against fish monogenean parasites of Clarias gariepinus in a concentration related manner without detriments to the host. Effective antibacterial activities against Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases of the African catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis) were demonstrated in some plants such as Phylanthus amarus, Allium sativum, A. annua, and Citrus lemon. Bile from some animals (fish, goat, chicken, cow, and pig) showed great antibacterial activities against some gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens of fish. Conclusions: African plants and some animal bile have shown potential promise in the treatment of diseases in fish and other aquatic animals. The use of chemical-based substances for control of diseases in the aquatic environments should be restricted.

Keywords: control, diseases, fish, natural products, treatment

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27 Anti-Infective Potential of Selected Philippine Medicinal Plant Extracts against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

Authors: Demetrio L. Valle Jr., Juliana Janet M. Puzon, Windell L. Rivera


From the various medicinal plants available in the Philippines, crude ethanol extracts of twelve (12) Philippine medicinal plants, namely: Senna alata L. Roxb. (akapulko), Psidium guajava L. (bayabas), Piper betle L. (ikmo), Vitex negundo L. (lagundi), Mitrephora lanotan (Blanco) Merr. (Lanotan), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (luya), Curcuma longa L. (Luyang dilaw), Tinospora rumphii Boerl (Makabuhay), Moringga oleifera Lam. (malunggay), Phyllanthus niruri L. (sampa-sampalukan), Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (takip kuhol), and Carmona retusa (Vahl) Masam (tsaang gubat) were studied. In vitro methods of evaluation against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR), bacteria were performed on the plant extracts. Although five of the plants showed varying antagonistic activities against the test organisms, only Piper betle L. exhibited significant activities against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive multidrug-resistant bacteria, exhibiting wide zones of growth inhibition in the disk diffusion assay, and with the lowest concentrations of the extract required to inhibit the growth of the bacteria, as supported by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays. Further antibacterial studies of the Piper betle L. leaf, obtained by three extraction methods (ethanol, methanol, supercritical CO2), revealed similar inhibitory activities against a multitude of Gram-positive and Gram-negative MDR bacteria. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) assay of the leaf extract revealed a maximum of eight compounds with Rf values of 0.92, 0.86, 0.76, 0.53, 0.40, 0.25, 0.13, and 0.013, best visualized when inspected under UV-366 nm. TLC- agar overlay bioautography of the isolated compounds showed the compounds with Rf values of 0.86 and 0.13 having inhibitory activities against Gram-positive MDR bacteria (MRSA and VRE). The compound with an Rf value of 0.86 also possesses inhibitory activity against Gram-negative MDR bacteria (CRE Klebsiella pneumoniae and MBL Acinetobacter baumannii). Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was able to identify six volatile compounds, four of which are new compounds that have not been mentioned in the medical literature. The chemical compounds isolated include 4-(2-propenyl)phenol and eugenol; and the new four compounds were ethyl diazoacetate, tris(trifluoromethyl)phosphine, heptafluorobutyrate, and 3-fluoro-2-propynenitrite. Phytochemical screening and investigation of its antioxidant, cytotoxic, possible hemolytic activities, and mechanisms of antibacterial activity were also done. The results showed that the local variant of Piper betle leaf extract possesses significant antioxidant, anti-cancer and antimicrobial properties, attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds, particularly of flavonoids (condensed tannin, leucoanthocyanin, gamma benzopyrone), anthraquinones, steroids/triterpenes and 2-deoxysugars. Piper betle L. is also traditionally known to enhance wound healing, which could be primarily due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. In vivo studies on mice using 2.5% and 5% of the ethanol leaf extract cream formulations in the excised wound models significantly increased the process of wound healing in the mice subjects, the results and values of which are at par with the current antibacterial cream (Mupirocin). From the results of the series of studies, we have definitely proven the value of Piper betle L. as a source of bioactive compounds that could be developed into therapeutic agents against MDR bacteria.

Keywords: Philippine herbal medicine, multidrug-resistant bacteria, Piper betle, TLC-bioautography

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26 Q Eqchi Mayan Piper and Cissampelos Species Alter Reporter Genes and Endogenous Genes Expression in Mc-7 Cells

Authors: Sheila M. Wicks, Gail Mahady, Udesh Patel, Joanna Michel, Armando Caceres


Introduction: The genus piperaceae contains approximately 1000 species of herbs scrubs small trees and hanging vines distributed in both hemispheres. During our ethno medical work in Guatemala of the 27 plant families documented for us e by the Qeqchi Maya for reproductive disorders the most prominent were the Piperaceae (15%) and Menispermiaceae. Our Previous work showed that extracts from form Piper and Cissampelos species bound to both and progesterone and the estrogen receptors. In this work active extracts from Piper aeruginosibaccum Trelease, P auritum, P tuerckheimii and Cissampels tropaeolifolia were tested in functionalized cell based assays including a SEAP reporter gene and by qPCR of ER-responsive gene expression in MCF-7cells. In the reporter gene assay P aeruginosibaccum was estrogenic and enhanced E2 EFFECTS IN MCF-7 CELLS. P. tuerckheimi was not estrogenic alone but significantly enhanced the effects of E2 on SEAP reporter gene expression. Both altered mRNA expression of E2 responsive genes in MCF-7. Methods: this is collaborative project between University of Illinois at Chicago and University of San Carlos Guatemala City. 144 spices of plants were collected in Guatemala of which 57 used to treat a variety of women's reproductive health. The Genus Piperaraceae contains approximately 1000 species of herbs scrubs and small trees. Active extracts of the plants were tested in functionalized in cell-based bioassays including SEAP reporter genes. Results demonstrated altered mRNA expression of E2 responsive genes in MC-7 cells plants were collected in Guatemala of which 57 used. Conclusion of the 5 plants tested all were shown to contain components of binding to estrogenic receptor to a greater or lesser degree. These effects support the use of QEqchi Maya women in Guatemala for reproductive.

Keywords: reporter genes, MC7, guatemala piperaceae, reproductive health

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25 Regulation of Apoptosis in Human Lung Cancer NCI-H226 Cells through Caspase – Dependent Mechanism by Benjakul Extract

Authors: Pintusorn Hansakul, Ruchilak Rattarom, Arunporn Itharat


Background: Benjakul, a Thai traditional herbal formulation, comprises of five plants: Piper chaba, Piper sarmentosum, Piper interruptum, Plumbago indica, and Zingiber officinale. It has been widely used to treat cancer patients in the context of folk medicine in Thailand. This study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effect of the ethanol extract of Benjakul against three non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines (NCI-H226, A549, COR-L23), small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line NCI-H1688 and normal lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5. The study further examined the molecular mechanisms underlying its cytotoxicity via induction of apoptosis in NCI-H226 cells. Methods: The cytotoxic effect of Benjakul was determined by SRB assay. The effect of Benjakul on cell cycle distribution was assessed by flow cytometric analysis. The apoptotic effects of Benjakul were determined by sub-G1 quantitation and Annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometric analyses as well as by changes in caspase-3 activity. Results: Benjakul exerted potent cytotoxicity on NCI-H226 and A549 cells but lower cytotoxicity on COR-L23 and NCI-H1688 cells without any cytotoxic effect on normal cells. Molecular studies showed that Benjakul extract induced G2/M phase arrest in human NCI-H226 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The highest concentration of Benjakul (150 μg/ml) led to the highest increase in the G2/M population at 12 h, followed by the highest increase in the sub-G1 population (apoptotic cells) at 60 h. Benjakul extract also induced early apoptosis (AnnexinV +/PI−) in NCI-H226 cells in a dose- and time- dependent manner. Moreover, treatment with 150 μg/ml Benjakul extract for 36 h markedly increased caspase-3 activity by 3.5-fold, and pretreatment with the general caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk completely abolished such activity. Conclusions: This study reveals for the first time the regulation of apoptosis in human lung cancer NCI-H226 cells through caspase-dependent mechanism by Benjakul extract.

Keywords: apoptosis, Benjakul, caspase activation, cytotoxicity

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24 Effects of Five Local Spices on the Mortality and Development of Larvae of Dermestes Maculatusdegeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) Reared on Dried Smoked Fish

Authors: A. Jatau, Q. Majeed, H. M. Bandiya


The efficacy of five local spices, namely; Hot pepper (Capsicum annum L.), Black pepper (Piper guinese Schum and Thonn), Sweet basil (Occimum canum Sim), African nut-meg (Monodora myristica Dunal), and Ginger (Zingiber officianale Ross) with conventional insecticide against the D. maculatus was studied under ambient laboratory conditions. The plants were pulverized into powders and applied at the rate of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0g per 25g of disinfected dried fish. The same amount of fish (25g) was treated with 5ml of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 percent solution of conventional insecticide (dichlorvos) and air dried for 2hrs. Ten newly hatched 1st instar larvae (24hrs old) were introduced into each powdered smoked fish in separate beakers. Untreated control was also set up. Observation on the mortality and development were recorded daily until the larvae pupated. Each of the treated smoked fish showed significant (p<0.05) effect on the larval mortality and development when compared with the control. The Piper guinense was as efficacious as dichlorvos in killing all the larvae (100%) at all concentrations before pupation. Ocimum Canunm gave the second best results (50.00, 63.33 and 100%), while the other three spices resulted in less than 50% mortalities at all rate of application. The spice powders were also observed to have extended the larval developmental period. Thus, the spices tested can be recommended for the control of D. maculatus.

Keywords: development, dermestes maculatus, insecticide, local spices, mortality

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23 Cancer Patients' Quality of Life and Fatigue: A Correlational Study

Authors: Abdul-Monim Batiha


Aim: The aim of this study were to correlate Jordanian cancer patients’ quality of life and fatigue with selected variables (age, sex, religion, marital status, level of education, type of cancer, number of people living in the same household, type of radiotherapy, dose of radiotherapy, and hemoglobin level). Background: Radiotherapy and chemotherapy remain devastating agents that altered patients’ normal lives. Methods: A correlational design was used in this study to 80 cancer patients and required radiotherapy treatment using a convenience sampling procedure. Results: No significant differences were found in the relationship between quality of life scores and selected variables. A significant negative relationship was found between quality of life scores and the side effects of radiotherapy treatment. Significant positive relationships were found between fatigue scores measured by Piper Fatigue Scale and cancer complications, and radiotherapy side effects. Conclusion: Cancer patients’ quality of life and fatigue are affected by radiotherapy’s side effects and cancer complications. Implications for Nursing: Nurses should try to prevent and manage the negative side effects of radiotherapy and complications of cancer. Such an initiative would serve to design specific nursing interventions that have the potential to help patients enjoy their lives and perform their activities.

Keywords: cancer patients, piper fatigue scale, fatigue, quality of life, radiotherapy

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22 Medicinal Plant Resources and Conservation of Nallamalais, Forest Range, Eastern Ghats, India

Authors: S. K. M. Basha


Nallamalas one of the centres of Plant Diversity (CPD) (WWF&IUCN,1995) is located in the central eastern Ghats between latitudes 15.20’-16.30’N and Longitude 78.30-80.10E in Andhra Pradesh, extended to an area of 7640 Sq.Km. No Comprehensive work available for RET Plants in the study area, therefore the objective of the present paper is to document the RET Medicinal Plants of Nallamalias and their uses by the local people of the area. In India, one of the major resources to know about the number of plant species and their medicinal values is the groups who are habituated in near and deep forests. The most common groups in south Indian forests are Yanadis and Yerukulas. These two groups of people are residing in the forest, which is located very far from the modern society, towns and cities. They are following traditional methods obtained from their forefathers in all respects, including medication. They are the only source to know many medicinal plants in the areas where they reside and are also important to record the medicinal properties of various plant species which are not reported. The new reports may help in drug industry in order to develop pharmaceutical herbal medicine for human health. In the present study, nearly 150 rare species have been found to be used for various ailments. Out of these 23 species are critically endangered, over 25 are vulnerable and around 22 comes under the category of near threatened. Some important species like Christella dentate, Careya arborea are used for curing cough and cold. Piper attnuatum, piper nigrum are used for curing skin disease. Ipomoea mauritiana is used against male impotency.Glycosmis cochinensis, Entada perseatha are used as contraceptives. The roots of Andrographis nallamalayana and Acrocephalus indicus are used for leucorrhoea. While the stem barks of Gyrocarpus americanus is given orally for spider bite. Piper hymenophyllum leaves mixed with turmeric and gingerly oil is used externally for mouth ulcers in cattle. Piper nigrum fruits are used for skin diseases. Vernonia anthelmentica seeds are used for indigestion. It was widely distributed in this hills. Due to over exploitation this species was in declined condition. Sterculia urens which is a sorce of gum for tribal, due to over exploitation this species declaimed in these hills. Hence, there is an urgent need to conserve the medicinal plants and prevent their exploitation and extinction with the help of tribals. There is a need to adopt sustainable utilization, cultivation and micro propagation techniques. Medicinal plants are as potent and effective today as they were thousands of years ago. They are natures wonderful gift to mankind and are involved in India as a very rich ancient heritage of traditional systems medicine i.e., ayurveda, siddha and unani. Unfortunately, these traditions have been largely eroded because of lack of support and recognition as well as rapid destruction of natural habitats which has led to shrinkage of medicinal plants therefore the conservation of medicinal plants and the revitalization of local health traditions has been taken up on priority basis.

Keywords: RET plants CPD, IUCN, nallamalas, yanadis, yerukulas

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21 Insecticidal Activity of Piper aduncum Fruit and Tephrosia vogelii Leaf Mixed Formulations against Cabbage Pest Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

Authors: Eka Candra Lina, Indah Widhianingrum, Mita Eka Putri, Nur Afni Evalia, Muhammad Makky


The emulsifiable concentrate (EC) and wettable powder (WP) of Piper aduncum and Tephrosia vogelii mixed formulations were tested for their activities in the laboratory and their effectiveness in the field against cabbage pest Plutella xyostella. Cabbage leaves soaked in six different mixed formulation concentrations were tested to 2ⁿᵈ instar larvae of P. xylostella with six replications. The observation was conducted everyday until larvae reached 4ᵗʰ instar stage. Correlation between concentration and larvae mortality was analyzed using probit (POLO-PC). The survived larvae was observed by looking at the growth and development, as well as the antifeedant effects. Field efficacy test was based on LC₉₅ value from laboratory test result. The experiment used a randomized block design with 5 treatments and 3 replications to test the populations of P. xylostella larvae and insecticide effectivity. The results showed that the EC and WP mixed formulations showed insecticidal activity against P. xylostella larvae, with LC₉₅ value of 0.35% and 0.37%, respectively. The highest antifeedant effect on EC mixed formulation was 85.01% and WP mixed formulation was 86.23%. Both mixed formulations also slowed the development of larvae when compared with control. Field effication result showed that applications of EC mixed formulation were able to restrain the population of P. xylostella, with effectivity value of 71.06%. Insecticide effectivity value of EC mixed formulation was higher than WP mixed formulation and Bacillus thuringiensis formulation.

Keywords: botanical insecticide, efficacy, emulsifiable concentrate (EC), Plutella xylostella, wettable powder (WP)

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20 Effects of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback to Improve Autonomic Nerve Function, Inflammatory Response and Symptom Distress in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Randomized Control Trial

Authors: Chia-Pei Chen, Yu-Ju Chen, Yu-Juei Hsu


The prevalence and incidence of end-stage renal disease in Taiwan ranks the highest in the world. According to the statistical survey of the Ministry of Health and Welfare in 2019, kidney disease is the ninth leading cause of death in Taiwan. It leads to autonomic dysfunction, inflammatory response and symptom distress, and further increases the damage to the structure and function of the kidneys, leading to increased demand for renal replacement therapy and risks of cardiovascular disease, which also has medical costs for the society. If we can intervene in a feasible manual to effectively regulate the autonomic nerve function of CKD patients, reduce the inflammatory response and symptom distress. To prolong the progression of the disease, it will be the main goal of caring for CKD patients. This study aims to test the effect of heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVBF) on improving autonomic nerve function (Heart Rate Variability, HRV), inflammatory response (Interleukin-6 [IL-6], C reaction protein [CRP] ), symptom distress (Piper fatigue scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI], and Beck Depression Inventory-II [BDI-II] ) in patients with chronic kidney disease. This study was experimental research, with a convenience sampling. Participants were recruited from the nephrology clinic at a medical center in northern Taiwan. With signed informed consent, participants were randomly assigned to the HRVBF or control group by using the Excel BINOMDIST function. The HRVBF group received four weekly hospital-based HRVBF training, and 8 weeks of home-based self-practice was done with StressEraser. The control group received usual care. We followed all participants for 3 months, in which we repeatedly measured their autonomic nerve function (HRV), inflammatory response (IL-6, CRP), and symptom distress (Piper fatigue scale, PSQI, and BDI-II) on their first day of study participation (baselines), 1 month, and 3 months after the intervention to test the effects of HRVBF. The results were analyzed by SPSS version 23.0 statistical software. The data of demographics, HRV, IL-6, CRP, Piper fatigue scale, PSQI, and BDI-II were analyzed by descriptive statistics. To test for differences between and within groups in all outcome variables, it was used by paired sample t-test, independent sample t-test, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Thirty-four patients with chronic kidney disease were enrolled, but three of them were lost to follow-up. The remaining 31 patients completed the study, including 15 in the HRVBF group and 16 in the control group. The characteristics of the two groups were not significantly different. The four-week hospital-based HRVBF training combined with eight-week home-based self-practice can effectively enhance the parasympathetic nerve performance for patients with chronic kidney disease, which may against the disease-related parasympathetic nerve inhibition. In the inflammatory response, IL-6 and CRP in the HRVBF group could not achieve significant improvement when compared with the control group. Self-reported fatigue and depression significantly decreased in the HRVBF group, but they still failed to achieve a significant difference between the two groups. HRVBF has no significant effect on improving the sleep quality for CKD patients.

Keywords: heart rate variability biofeedback, autonomic nerve function, inflammatory response, symptom distress, chronic kidney disease

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19 Evaluation of Water Quality for the Kurtbogazi Dam Outlet and the Streams Feeding the Dam (Ankara, Turkey)

Authors: Gulsen Tozsin, Fatma Bakir, Cemil Acar, Ercument Koc


Kurtbogazi Dam has gained special meaning for Ankara, Turkey for the last decade due to the rapid depletion of nearby resources of drinking water. In this study, the results of the analyses of Kurtbogazi Dam outlet water and the rivers flowing into the Kurtbogazi Dam were discussed for the period of last five years between 2008 and 2012. The quality of these surface water resources were evaluated in terms of pH, temperature, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), nitrate, phosphate and chlorine. They were classified according to the Council Directive (75/440/EEC). Moreover, the properties of these surface waters were assessed to determine the quality of water for drinking and irrigation purposes using Piper, US Salinity Laboratory and Wilcox diagrams. The results revealed that the quality of all the investigated water sources are generally at satisfactory level as surface water except for Pazar Stream in terms of ortho-phosphate and BOD5 concentration for 2008.

Keywords: Kurtbogazi dam, water quality assessment, Ankara water, water supply

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18 Groundwater Quality Assessment Using Water Quality Index and Geographical Information System Techniques: A Case Study of Busan City, South Korea

Authors: S. Venkatramanan, S. Y. Chung, S. Selvam, E. E. Hussam, G. Gnanachandrasamy


The quality of groundwater was evaluated by major ions concentration around Busan city, South Korea. The groundwater samples were collected from 40 wells. The order of abundance of major cations concentration in groundwater is Na > Ca > Mg > K, in case of anions are Cl > HCO₃ > SO₄ > NO₃ > F. Based on Piper’s diagram Ca (HCO₃)₂, CaCl₂, and NaCl are the leading groundwater types. While Gibbs diagram suggested that most of groundwater samples belong to rock-weathering zone. Hydrogeochemical condition of groundwater in this city is influenced by evaporation, ion exchange and dissolution of minerals. Water Quality Index (WQI) revealed that 86 % of the samples belong to excellent, 2 % good, 4 % poor to very poor and 8 % unsuitable categories. The results of sodium absorption ratio (SAR), Permeability Index (PI), Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) and Magnesium Hazard (MH) exhibit that most of the groundwater samples are suitable for domestic and irrigation purposes.

Keywords: WQI (Water Quality Index), saturation index, groundwater types, ion exchange

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17 Evaluation of Nutritional Potential of Five Unexplored Wild Edible Food Plants from Eastern Himalayan Biodiversity Hotspot Region (India)

Authors: Pallabi Kalita, Hui Tag, Loxmi Jamoh, H. N. Sarma, A. K. Das


Wild edible food plants contain a number of organic phytochemical that have been linked to the promotion of good health. These plants used by the local people of Arunachal Pradesh (Northeast India) are found to have high nutritional potential to maintain general balance diet. A study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional potential of five commonly found, unexplored wild food plants namely, Piper pedicellatum C. DC (leaves), Gonostegia hirta (Blume ex Hassk.) Miq. (leaves), Mussaenda roxburghii Hook. f. (leaves), Solanum spirale Roxb. (leaves and fruits) and Cyathea spinulosa Wall. ex Hook. (pith portion and tender rachis) from East Siang District of Arunachal Pradesh Northeast (India) for ascertaining their suitability for utilization as supplementary food. Results of study revealed that P. pedicellatum, C. spinulosa, and S. spirale (leaves) are the most promising species which have high nutritional content out of the five wild food plants investigated which is required for the normal growth and development of human.

Keywords: wild edible plants, gross energy, Gonostegia hirta, Cyathea spinulosa

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16 Physicochemical and Bacteriological Assessment of Water Resources in Ughelli and Its Environs, Delta State Nigeria

Authors: M. O. Eyankware, D. O. Ufomata


Groundwater samples were collected from Otovwodo-Ughelli and Environ with the aim of assessing groundwater quality of the area. Twenty (20) water samples from Boreholes (BH) (six) and Hand Dug Wells (HDW) (fourteen) were randomly sampled and were analysed for different physiochemical and bacteriological parameters. The following 16 parameters have been considered viz: pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, total hardness, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, phosphate, sulphate, chloride, nitrate, calcium, sodium, chloride, magnesium, and total suspended solids. On comparing the results against drinking quality standards laid by World Health Organization and Nigeria industrial standard, it was found that the water quality parameters were not above the (WHO, 2011 and NIS, 2007) permissible limit. Microbial analysis reveals the presence of coliform and E.coli in two hand-dug well (HDW7 and 13) and one borehole well (BH20). These contaminations are perhaps traceable to have originated from human activities (septic tanks, latrines, dumpsites) and have affected the quality of groundwater in Otovwodo-Ughelli. From the piper trilinear diagram, the dominant ionic species is alkali bicarbonate water type, with bicarbonate as the predominant ion (Na+ + K+)-HCO3.

Keywords: groundwater, surface water, Ughelli, Nigeria industrial standard, who standard

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15 Hydro-Geochemistry and Groundwater Quality Assessment of Rajshahi City in Bangladesh

Authors: M. G. Mostafa, S. M. Helal Uddin, A. B. M. H. Haque, M. R. Hasan


The study was carried out to understand the hydro-geochemistry and ground water quality in Rajshahi City of Bangladesh. 240 groundwater (shallow and deep tubewell) samples were collected during the year 2009-2010 covering pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons and analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters including major ions. The results reveal that the groundwater was slightly acidic to neutral in nature, total hardness observed in all samples fall under hard to very hard category. The concentration of calcium, iron, manganese, arsenic and lead ions were found far above the permissible limit in most of the shallow tubewells water samples. The analysis results show that the mean concentrations of cations and anions were observed in the order: Ca > Mg > Na > K > Fe > Mn > Pb > Zn > Cu > As (total) > Cd and HCO3-> Cl-> SO42-> NO3-, respectively. The concentrations of TH, TDS, HCO3-, NO3-, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, and As (total) were found to be higher during post-monsoon compare to pre-monsoon, whilst K, Mg, Cd, and Cl were found higher during pre-monsoon and monsoon. Ca-HCO3 was identified as the major hydro chemical facie using piper trilinear diagram. Higher concentration of toxic metals including Fe, Mn, As and Pb were found indicating various health hazards. The results also illustrate that the rock water interaction was the major geochemical process controlling the chemistry of groundwater in the study area.

Keywords: physio-chemical parameters, groundwater, geochemistry, Rajshahi city

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14 4-Allylpyrocatechol Loaded Polymeric Micelles for Solubility Enhancing and Effects on Streptococcus mutans Biofilms

Authors: Siriporn Okonogi, Pimpak Phumat, Sakornrat Khongkhunthian


Piper betle has been extensively reported for various pharmacological effects including antimicrobial activity. 4-Allylpyrocatechol (AC) is a principle active compound found in P. betle. However, AC has a problem of solubility in water. The aims of the present study were to prepare AC loaded polymeric micelles for enhancing its water solubility and to evaluate its anti-biofilm activity against oral phathogenic bacteria. AC was loaded in polymeric micelles (PM) of Pluronic F127 by using thin film hydration method to obtain AC loaded PM (PMAC). The results revealed that AC in the form of PMAC possessed high water solubility. PMAC particles were characterized using a transmission electron microscope and photon correlation spectroscopy. Determination of entrapment efficiency (EE) and loading capacity (LC) of PMAC was done by using high-performance liquid chromatography. The highest EE (86.33 ± 14.27 %) and LC (19.25 ± 3.18 %) of PMAC were found when the weight ratio of polymer to AC was 4 to 1. At this ratio, the particles showed spherical in shape with the size of 38.83 ± 1.36 nm and polydispersity index of 0.28 ± 0.10. Zeta potential of the particles is negative with the value of 16.43 ± 0.55 mV. Crystal violet assay and confocal microscopy were applied to evaluate the effects of PMAC on Streptococcus mutans biofilms using chlorhexidine (CHX) as a positive control. PMAC contained 1.5 mg/mL AC could potentially inhibit (102.01 ± 9.18%) and significantly eradicate (85.05 ± 2.03 %) these biofilms (p < 0.05). Comparison with CHX, PMAC showed slightly similar biofilm inhibition but significantly stronger biofilm eradication (p < 0.05) than CHX. It is concluded that PMAC can enhance water solubility and anti-biofilm activity of AC.

Keywords: pluronic, polymeric micelles, solubility, 4-allylpyrocathecol, Streptococcus mutans, anti-biofilm

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13 Development of 4-Allylpyrocatechol Loaded Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System for Enhancing Water Solubility and Antibacterial Activity against Oral Pathogenic Bacteria

Authors: Pimpak Phumat, Sakornrat Khongkhunthian, Thomas Rades, Anette Müllertz, Siriporn Okonogi


Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) containing 4-allylpyrocatechol (AP) extracted from Piper betle were developed to enhance water solubility of AP by using modeling and design (MODDE) program. The amount of AP in each SNEDDS formulation was determined by using high-performance liquid chromatography. The formulation consisted of 20% Miglyol®812N, 40 % Kolliphor®RH40, 30 % Maisine®35-1 and 10 % ethanol was found to be the best SNEDDS that provided the highest loading capacity of AP. (141.48±15.64 mg/g SNEDDS). The system also showed miscibility with water. The particle shape and size of the AP-SNEDDS after dispersing in water was investigated by using a transmission electron microscope and photon correlation spectrophotometer, respectively. The results showed that they were a spherical shape, having a particle size of 34.27 ± 1.14 nm with a narrow size distribution of 0.17 ± 0.04. The particles showed negative zeta potential with a value of -21.66 ± 2.09 mV. Antibacterial activity of AP-SNEDDS containing 1.5 mg/mL of AP was investigated against Streptococcus intermedius. The effect of this system on S. intermedius cells was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results from SEM revealed that the bacterial cells were obviously destroyed. Killing kinetic study of AP-SNEDDS was carried out. It was found that the killing rate of AP-SNEDDS against S. intermedius was dose-dependent and the bacterial reduction was 79.86 ± 0.45 % within 30 min. In comparison with chlorhexidine (CHX), AP-SNEDDS showed similar antibacterial effects against S. intermedius. It is concluded that SNEDDS is a potential system for enhancing water solubility of AP. The antibacterial study reveals that AP-SNEDDS can be a promising system to treat bacterial infection caused by S. intermedius.

Keywords: SNEDDS, 4-allylpyrocathecol, solubility, antibacterial activity, Streptococcus intermedius

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12 Diversity and Ecological Analysis of Vascular Epiphytes in Gera Wild Coffee Forest, Jimma Zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

Authors: Bedilu Tafesse


The diversity and ecological analysis of vascular epiphytes was studied in Gera Forest in southwestern Ethiopia at altitudes between 1600 and 2400 m.a.s.l. A total area of 4.5 ha was surveyed in coffee and non-coffee forest vegetation. Fifty sampling plots, each 30 m x 30 m (900 m2), were used for the purpose of data collection. A total of 59 species of vascular epiphytes were recorded, of which 34 (59%) were holo epiphytes, two (4%) were hemi epiphytes and 22 (37%) species were accidental vascular epiphytes. To study the altitudinal distribution of vascular epiphytes, altitudes were classified into higher >2000, middle 1800-2000 and lower 1600-1800 m.a.s.l. According to Shannon-Wiener Index (H/= 3.411) of alpha diversity the epiphyte community in the study area is medium. There was a statistically significant difference between host bark type and epiphyte richness as determined by one-way ANOVA p = 0.001 < 0.05. The post-hoc test shows that there is significant difference of vascular epiphytes richness between smooth bark with rough, flack and corky bark (P =0.001< 0.05), as well as rough and cork bark (p =0.43 <0.05). However, between rough and flack bark (p = 0.753 > 0.05) and between flack and corky bark (p = 0.854 > 0.05) no significant difference of epiphyte abundance was observed. Rough bark had 38%, corky 26%, flack 25%, and only 11% vascular epiphytes abundance occurred on smooth bark. The regression correlation test, (R2 = 0.773, p = 0.0001 < 0.05), showed that the number of species of vascular epiphytes and host DBH size are positively correlated. The regression correlation test (R2 = 0.28, p = 0.0001 < 0.05), showed that the number of species and host tree height positively correlated. The host tree preference of vascular epiphytes was recorded for only Vittaria volkensii species hosted on Syzygium guineense trees. The result of similarity analysis indicated that Gera Forest showed the highest vascular epiphytic similarity (0.35) with Yayu Forest and shared the least vascular epiphytic similarity (0.295) with Harenna Forest. It was concluded that horizontal stems and branches, large and rough, flack and corky bark type trees are more suitable for vascular epiphytes seedling attachments and growth. Conservation and protection of these phorophytes are important for the survival of vascular epiphytes and increase their ecological importance.

Keywords: accidental epiphytes, hemiepiphyte, holoepiphyte, phorophyte

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11 The Assessment Groundwater Geochemistry of Some Wells in Rafsanjan Plain, Southeast of Iran

Authors: Milad Mirzaei Aminiyan, Abdolreza Akhgar, Farzad Mirzaei Aminiyan


Water quality is the critical factor that influence on human health and quantity and quality of grain production in semi-humid and semi-arid area. Pistachio is a main crop that accounts for a considerable portion of Iranian agricultural exports. Give that pistachio tree is a tolerant type of tree to saline and alkaline soil and water conditions, but groundwater and irrigation water quality play important roles in main production this crop. For this purpose, 94 well water samples were taken from 25 wells and samples were analyzed. The results showed give that region’s geological, climatic characteristics, statistical analysis, and based on dominant cations and anions in well water samples (piper diagram); four main types of water were found: Na-Cl, K-Cl, Na-SO4, and K-SO4. It seems that most wells in terms of water quality (salinity and alkalinity) and based on Wilcox diagram have critical status. The analysis suggested that more than eighty-seven percentage of the well water samples have high values of EC that these values are higher than into critical limit EC value for irrigation water, which may be due to the sandy soils in this area. Most groundwater were relatively unsuitable for irrigation but it could be used by application of correct management such as removing and reducing the ion concentrations of Cl‾, SO42‾, Na+ and total hardness in groundwater and also the concentrated deep groundwater was required treatment to reduce the salinity and sodium hazard. Given that irrigation water quality in this area was relatively unsuitable for most agriculture production but pistachio tree was adapted to this area conditions. The integrated management of groundwater for irrigation is the way to solve water quality issues not only in Rafsanjan area, but also in other arid and semi-arid areas.

Keywords: groundwater quality, irrigation water quality, salinity, alkalinity, Rafsanjan plain, pistachio

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10 Isolation and Identification of Fungi from Different Types of Medicinal Plants Cultivated in Ecuador

Authors: Ana Paola Echavarria, Mariuxi Medina, Haydelba D'Armas, Carmita Jaramillo, Diana San Martin


The use of medicinal plants is one of the oldest and most extended medical therapies that goes back to prehistoric times, and nowadays, they are also used in the preparation of phytopharmaceuticals with options to cure diseases. The test for the determination of fungi was carried out in the Pharmacy Pilot Plant (treatment of the leaves of the plant species) and the Microbiology Laboratory (determination of fungi of the plant species, using growth medium called Sabouraud agar plus the vegetal sample), of the Academic Unit of Chemical Sciences and Health, of the Universidad Tecnica de Machala. Subsequently, colony counting was performed, both macroscopic, which is determined in the growth medium of the seeding, and microscopic, to identify the germinative forms using blue lactophenol. The procedure was repeated in duplicate to replicate the results data. The determination of the total fungal content of the following plant species was evaluated: Cymbopogon citratus (lemon verbena), Melissa officinalis (lemon balm), Taraxacum officinale (dandelion), Artemisia absinthium (absinthe), Piper carpunya (guaviduca), Moringa oleifera (moringa), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Momordica charantia (achochilla), Borago officinalis (borage), Aloysia citriodora (cedron), Ambrosia artemisifolia (altamisa) and Ageratum conyzoides (mastrante). The results obtained showed that all the samples of the twelve plant species studied developed filamentous fungi, with great variability of them, within the permissible limits and contemplated by the Ecuadorian Institute of Normalization (INEN), being suitable as raw material for its use in the preparation of nutraceuticals and medicinal products or phytodrugs; with the exception of A. conyzoides (mastranto) which is the only species that exceeds the regulation in the average of dilutions.

Keywords: colonies, fungi, medicinal plants, microbiological quality, Sabouraud agar

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9 Hydrochemistry and Stable Isotopes (ẟ18O and ẟ2H) Tools Applied to the Study of Karst Aquifers in Wonderfonteinspruit Valley: North West, South Africa

Authors: Naziha Mokadem, Rainier Dennis, Ingrid Dennis


In South Africa, Karst aquifers are receiving greater attention since they provide large supplies of water which is used for domestic and agricultural purposes as well as for industry. Accordingly, a better insight into the origin of water mineralization and the geochemical processes controlling the recharge of the aquifer is crucial. Analyses of geochemical and environmental isotopes could lead to relevant information regarding karstification and infiltration processes, groundwater chemistry and isotopy. A study was conducted in a typical karst landscape of Wonderfonteinspruit catchment, also known as Wonderfonteinspruit Valley in North-western -South Africa. Furthermore, fifty-two samples were collected from (35 boreholes, 5 surface waters, 4 Dams, 4 springs, 1 canal, 2 pipelines, 1 cave) within the study area for hydrochemistry and 2H and 18O analysis. The determination of the anions (Cl-, SO42-, NO2, NO3-) were performed using Metrohm ion chromatography, model: 761 compact IC, with a precision of ± 0.001 mg/l. While, the cations (Na+, Mg2+, K+, Ca2+) were determined using Metrohm ion chromatography, Model: ICP-MS 7500 series. The alkalinity (Alk) was determined by pH meter with volumetric titration using HCL to pH 4.5; 4.2; and 8.2. In addition, 18O and 2H relative to the Vienna-Standard Mean Ocean Water (RVSMOW), were determined by picarro L2130-I Isotopic H2O (Cavity Ringdown laser spectrometer, Picarro Ltd). The hydrochemical analysis of Wonderfonteinspruit groundwater showed a dominance of the cations Ca-Mg and the anion HCO3. Piper diagram shows that the groundwater sample of study area is characterized by four hydrochemical facies: Two main groups: (1) Ca–Mg–Cl–SO4; (2) Ca–Mg–HCO3 and two minor groups: (3) Ca–Mg–Cl; (4) Na–K–HCO3. The majority of boreholes of Malmani (Transvaal Supergroup) aquifer are plotted in Ca–Mg–HCO3.Oxygen-18 (18O‰SMOW) and deuterium (D‰SMOW) isotopic data indicate that the aquifer’s recharge is influenced by two phenomena; precipitation rates for most of the samples and river flow (Wonderfonteinspruit, Middelvieinspruit, Renfonteinspruit) for some samples.

Keywords: South Africa, Wonderfonteinspruit Valley, isotopic, hydrochemical, carbonate aquifers

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8 Investigation of Effective Parameters on Water Quality of Iranian Rivers Using Hydrochemical and Statistical Methods

Authors: Maryam Sayadi, Rana Sedighpour, Hossein Rezaie


In this study, in order to evaluate water quality of Gamasiab and Gharehsoo rivers located in Kermanshah province, the information of a 5-year statistical period during the years 2014-2018 was used. To evaluate the hydrochemistry of water, first the type and hydrogeochemical facies of river water were determined using Stiff and Piper diagrams. Then, based on Gibbs diagram and combination diagrams, the factors controlling the chemical parameters of the two rivers were identified. Saturation indices were used to predict the possibility of dissolution and deposition of some minerals. Then, in order to classify water in different sections, fourteen water quality indicators for different uses along with WHO standard were used. Finally, factor analysis was used to determine the processes affecting the hydrochemistry of the two rivers. The results of this study showed that in both rivers, the predominant type and facies are bicarbonate of calcite. Also, the main factor in changing the chemical quality of water in both Gamasiab and Gharehsoo rivers is the water-rock reaction. According to the results of factor analysis in both rivers, two factors have the greatest impact on water quality in the region. Among the parameters of Gamasiab river in the first factor, HCO3-, Na+ and Cl-, respectively, had the highest factor loads, and in the second factor, SO42- and Mg2+ were selected as the main parameters. The parameters Ca2+, Cl- and Na have the highest factor loads in the first factor and in the second factor Mg2+ and SO42- have the highest factor loads in Gharehsoo river. The dissolution of carbonate formations due to their abundance and expansion in the two basins has a more significant effect on changing water chemistry. It has saturated the water of rivers with aragonite, calcite and dolomite. Due to the low contribution of the second factor in changing the chemical parameters, the water of both rivers is saturated with respect to evaporative minerals such as gypsum, halite and anhydrite in all stations. Based on Schoeller diagrams, Wilcox and other quality indicators in these two sections, the amount of main physicochemical parameters are in the desired range for drinking and agriculture. The results of Langelier, Ryznar, Larson-Skold and Puckorius indices showed that water is corrosive in industry.

Keywords: factor analysis, hydrochemical, saturation index, surface water quality

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7 Evaluation of Surface Water and Groundwater Quality in Parts of Umunneochi Southeast, Nigeria

Authors: Joshua Chima Chizoba, Wisdom Izuchukwu Uzoma, Elizabeth Ifeyiwa Okoyeh


Water cannot be optimally used and sustained unless the quality is periodically assessed. The study area Umunneochi and environs are located in south eastern part of Nigeria. It stretches geographically from latitudes 50501N to 60000N and longitudes 70201E to 70301. The major geologic formations in the area include the Asu River group, Nkporo Shale, and Ajali Sandstone. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hydrochemical characteristics of surface and ground water sources in parts of Umunneochi and environs in order to establish portability of the water sources for drinking, domestic and irrigation purposes. A total of 15 samples were collected randomly from streams, springs and wells. The samples were analyzed for physicochemical parameters and heavy metals using handheld digital kits, photometer, titration method and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) following acceptable standards. The obtained analytical data were interpreted, and results were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) standard. The concentration of pH, SO42-and Cl- range from 5.81 mg/l – 6.07 mg/l, 41.93 mg/l – 142.95 mg/l and 20.00 mg/l – 111 mg/l respectively, while Pb and Zn revealed a relative low mean concentration of 0.14 mg/l and 0.40 mg/l, which are all within (WHO) permissible limits except pH. About 27% of the samples are moderately hard. This is attributed to the mining activities in the areas. The abundance of cations and anions in the area are in the order of K+>Na+>Mg2+>Ca2+ and SO4->Cl->HCO3->NO3-, respectively. Chloride, bicarbonate, and nitrate are all within the permissible limits. 13.33% of the total samples contain Sulphate above the standard permissible limits. The values of calculated Water Quality Index (WQI) are less than 50 indicating excellent water. The predominant water-type in the study area is Na-Cl water type and mixed Ca-Mg-Cl water type based on the sample plots on the Piper diagram. The Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR) calculations showed excellent water for consumption and also good water for irrigation purpose with low sodium and alkalinity ratio respectively. Government water projects are recommended in the area for sustainable domestic and agricultural water supply to ease the stress of water supply problems.

Keywords: groundwater, hydrochemical, physichochemical, water-type, sodium adsorption ratio

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6 Hydrogeochemical Assessment, Evaluation and Characterization of Groundwater Quality in Ore, South-Western, Nigeria

Authors: Olumuyiwa Olusola Falowo


One of the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals is to have sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. In line with this objective, an assessment of groundwater quality was carried out in Odigbo Local Government Area of Ondo State in November – February, 2019 to assess the drinking, domestic and irrigation uses of the water. Samples from 30 randomly selected ground water sources; 16 shallow wells and 14 from boreholes and analyzed using American Public Health Association method for the examination of water and wastewater. Water quality index calculation, and diagrams such as Piper diagram, Gibbs diagram and Wilcox diagram have been used to assess the groundwater in conjunction with irrigation indices such as % sodium, sodium absorption ratio, permeability index, magnesium ratio, Kelly ratio, and electrical conductivity. In addition statistical Principal component analysis were used to determine the homogeneity and source(s) influencing the chemistry of the groundwater. The results show that all the parameters are within the permissible limit of World Health Organization. The physico-chemical analysis of groundwater samples indicates that the dominant major cations are in decreasing order of Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and the dominant anions are HCO-3, Cl-, SO-24, NO-3. The values of water quality index varies suggest a Good water (WQI of 50-75) accounts for 70% of the study area. The dominant groundwater facies revealed in this study are the non-carbonate alkali (primary salinity) exceeds 50% (zone 7); and transition zone with no one cation-anion pair exceeds 50% (zone 9), while evaporation; rock–water interaction, and precipitation; and silicate weathering process are the dominant processes in the hydrogeochemical evolution of the groundwater. The study indicates that waters were found within the permissible limits of irrigation indices adopted, and plot on excellent category on Wilcox plot. In conclusion, the water in the study area are good/suitable for drinking, domestic and irrigation purposes with low equivalent salinity concentrate and moderate electrical conductivity.

Keywords: equivalent salinity concentration, groundwater quality, hydrochemical facies, principal component analysis, water-rock interaction

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