Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Narjes Dashti

19 Effects of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on the Yield and Nutritive Quality of Tomato Fruits

Authors: Narjes Dashti, Nida Ali, Magdy Montasser, Vineetha Cherian


The influence of two PGPR strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas rhizophilia, on fruit yields, pomological traits and chemical contents of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits were studied. The study was conducted separately on two different cultivar varieties of tomato, namely Supermarmande and UC82B. The results indicated that the presence of the PGPR almost doubled the average yield per plant. There was a significant improvement in the pomological qualities of the PGPR treated tomato fruits compared to the corresponding healthy treatments especially in traits such as the average fruit weight, height, and fruit volume. The chemical analysis of tomato fruits revealed that the presence of the PGPRs increased the total protein, lycopene, alkalinity and phenol content of the tomato fruits compared to the healthy controls. They had no influence on the reduced sugar, total soluble solids or the titerable acid content of fruits. However their presence reduced the amount of ascorbic acid in tomato fruits compared to the healthy controls.

Keywords: PGPR, tomato, fruit quality

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18 Selecting the Best RBF Neural Network Using PSO Algorithm for ECG Signal Prediction

Authors: Najmeh Mohsenifar, Narjes Mohsenifar, Abbas Kargar


In this paper, has been presented a stable method for predicting the ECG signals through the RBF neural networks, by the PSO algorithm. In spite of quasi-periodic ECG signal from a healthy person, there are distortions in electro cardiographic data for a patient. Therefore, there is no precise mathematical model for prediction. Here, we have exploited neural networks that are capable of complicated nonlinear mapping. Although the architecture and spread of RBF networks are usually selected through trial and error, the PSO algorithm has been used for choosing the best neural network. In this way, 2 second of a recorded ECG signal is employed to predict duration of 20 second in advance. Our simulations show that PSO algorithm can find the RBF neural network with minimum MSE and the accuracy of the predicted ECG signal is 97 %.

Keywords: electrocardiogram, RBF artificial neural network, PSO algorithm, predict, accuracy

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17 Towards a Goal-Question-Metric Based Approach to Assess Social Sustainability of Software Systems

Authors: Rahma Amri, Narjès Bellamine Ben Saoud


Sustainable development or sustainability is one of the most urgent issues in actual debate in almost domains. Particularly the significant way the software pervades our live should make it in the center of sustainability concerns. The social aspects of sustainability haven’t been well studied in the context of software systems and still immature research field that needs more interest among researchers’ community. This paper presents a Goal-Question-Metric based approach to assess social sustainability of software systems. The approach is based on a generic social sustainability model taken from Social sciences.

Keywords: software assessment approach, social sustainability, goal-question-metric paradigm, software project metrics

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16 A New Method Presentation for Locating Fault in Power Distribution Feeders Considering DG

Authors: Rahman Dashti, Ehsan Gord


In this paper, an improved impedance based fault location method is proposed. In this method, online fault locating is performed using voltage and current information at the beginning of the feeder. Determining precise fault location in a short time increases reliability and efficiency of the system. The proposed method utilizes information about main component of voltage and current at the beginning of the feeder and distributed generation unit (DGU) in order to precisely locate different faults in acceptable time. To evaluate precision and accuracy of the proposed method, a 13-node is simulated and tested using MATLAB.

Keywords: distribution network, fault section determination, distributed generation units, distribution protection equipment

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15 Socio-Cultural Adaptation Approach to Enhance Intercultural Collaboration and Learning

Authors: Fadoua Ouamani, Narjès Bellamine Ben Saoud, Henda Hajjami Ben Ghézala


In the last few years and over the last decades, there was a growing interest in the development of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) environments. However, the existing systems ignore the variety of learners and their socio-cultural differences, especially in the case of distant and networked learning. In fact, within such collaborative learning environments, learners from different socio-cultural backgrounds may interact together. These learners evolve within various cultures and social contexts and acquire different socio-cultural values and behaviors. Thus, they should be assisted while communicating and collaborating especially in an intercultural group. Besides, the communication and collaboration tools provided to each learner must depend on and be adapted to her/his socio-cultural profile. The main goal of this paper is to present the proposed socio-cultural adaptation approach based on and guided by ontologies to adapt CSCL environments to the socio-cultural profiles of its users (learners or others).

Keywords: CSCL, socio-cultural profile, adaptation, ontology

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14 A Timed and Colored Petri Nets for Modeling and Verify Cloud System Elasticity

Authors: Walid Louhichi, Mouhebeddine Berrima, Narjes Ben Rajed


Elasticity is the essential property of cloud computing. As the name suggests, it constitutes the ability of a cloud system to adjust resource provisioning in relation to fluctuating workload. There are two types of elasticity operations, vertical and horizontal. In this work, we are interested in horizontal scaling, which is ensured by two mechanisms; scaling in and scaling out. Following the sizing of the system, we can adopt scaling in in the event of over-supply and scaling out in the event of under-supply. In this paper, we propose a formal model, based on colored and temporized Petri nets, for the modeling of the duplication and the removal of a virtual machine from a server. This model is based on formal Petri Nets modeling language. The proposed models are edited, verified, and simulated with two examples implemented in CPNtools, which is a modeling tool for colored and timed Petri nets.

Keywords: cloud computing, elasticity, elasticity controller, petri nets, scaling in, scaling out

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13 Presentation of HVA Faults in SONELGAZ Underground Network and Methods of Faults Diagnostic and Faults Location

Authors: I. Touaїbia, E. Azzag, O. Narjes


Power supply networks are growing continuously and their reliability is getting more important than ever. The complexity of the whole network comprises numerous components that can fail and interrupt the power supply for the end user. Underground distribution systems are normally exposed to permanent faults, due to specific construction characteristics. In these systems, visual inspection cannot be performed. In order to enhance service restoration, accurate fault location techniques must be applied. This paper describes the different faults that affect the underground distribution system of SONELGAZ (National Society of Electricity and Gas of Algeria), and cable fault location procedure with impulse reflection method (TDR), based in the analyses of the cable response of the electromagnetic impulse, allows cable fault prelocation. The results are obtained from real test in the underground distribution feeder from electrical network of energy distribution company of Souk-Ahras, in order to know the influence of cable characteristics in the types and frequency of faults.

Keywords: distribution networks, fault location, TDR, underground cable

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12 Cloud Computing in Data Mining: A Technical Survey

Authors: Ghaemi Reza, Abdollahi Hamid, Dashti Elham


Cloud computing poses a diversity of challenges in data mining operation arising out of the dynamic structure of data distribution as against the use of typical database scenarios in conventional architecture. Due to immense number of users seeking data on daily basis, there is a serious security concerns to cloud providers as well as data providers who put their data on the cloud computing environment. Big data analytics use compute intensive data mining algorithms (Hidden markov, MapReduce parallel programming, Mahot Project, Hadoop distributed file system, K-Means and KMediod, Apriori) that require efficient high performance processors to produce timely results. Data mining algorithms to solve or optimize the model parameters. The challenges that operation has to encounter is the successful transactions to be established with the existing virtual machine environment and the databases to be kept under the control. Several factors have led to the distributed data mining from normal or centralized mining. The approach is as a SaaS which uses multi-agent systems for implementing the different tasks of system. There are still some problems of data mining based on cloud computing, including design and selection of data mining algorithms.

Keywords: cloud computing, data mining, computing models, cloud services

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11 Synthesizing CuFe2O4 Spinel Powders by a Combustion-Like Process for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnects Coating

Authors: Seyedeh Narjes Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein Enayati, Fathallah Karimzadeh, Nigel Mark Sammes


The synthesis of CuFe2O4 spinel powders by an optimized combustion-like process followed by calcinations is described herein. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dilatometry and 4-probe DC methods. Different glycine to nitrate (G/N) ratios of 1 (fuel-deficient), 1.48 (stoichiometric) and 2 (fuel-rich) were employed. Calcining the as-prepared powders at 800 and 1000°C for 5 hours showed that the 2 ratio results in the formation of desired copper spinel single phase at both calcinations temperatures. For G/N=1, formation of CuFe2O4 takes place in three steps. First, iron and copper nitrates decomposes to iron oxide and pure copper. Then, copper transforms to copper oxide and finally, copper and iron oxides react to each other to form copper ferrite spinel phase. The electrical conductivity and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sintered pelletized samples were obtained 2 (800°C) and 11×10-6 °C-1 (25-800°C), respectively.

Keywords: SOFC interconnect coatings, Copper ferrite, Spinels, electrical conductivity, Glycine–nitrate process

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10 Comparison of Growth and Biomass of Red Alga Cultured on Rope and Net

Authors: Esmaeil Kouhgardi, Saeedeh Dashti, Hakimeh Fekrandish


This research has been conducted to study the method of culture and comparing growth and biomass of Gracilariacorticata cultured on rope and net for 50 days through two treatments (first treatment: culture of alga on net and the second treatment: culture of alga on rope and each treatment was repeated by four cases). During culture period, the water of aquariums was replaced once every two days for 40-50%. Also, 0.3-0.5 grams of Urea fertilizer was added to the culture environment for fertilization. Moreover, some of the environmental factors such as pH, salinity and temperature of the environment were measured on a daily basis. During the culture period, extent of longitudinal growth of the species of both treatments was equal. The said length was reached from 8-10 cm to 10.5-13 cm accordingly. The resulted weight in repetitions of the first treatment was higher than that of the second treatment in such a way as in the first treatment, its weight reached from 10 grams to 21.119 grams and in the second treatment, its weight reached from 10 grams to 17.663 grams. On a whole, it may be stated that that kind of alga being studied has a considerable growth with respect to its volume. The results have revealed that the percentage of daily growth and wet weight at the end of the first treatment was higher than that of the second treatment and it was registered as 0.934, 6.072 and 811.432 in the first treatment and 0.797, 4.990 and 758.071 in the second treatment respectively. This difference is significant (P < 0.05). Growth and biomass of G. corticata through culture on net was more emphasizing on numerous branches due to wider bed. Moreover, higher level of the species in this method was exposed to sunlight and this increased biosynthesis and eventually increases of growth and biomass.

Keywords: red alga, growth, biomass, culture, net, rope

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9 Utilising Reuse and Recycling Strategies for Costume Design in Kuwait Theatre

Authors: Ali Dashti


Recycling materials within the realms of theatrical costume design and production is important. When a Kuwaiti play finishes its run, costumes are thrown away and new ones are designed when necessary. This practice indicates a lack of awareness of recycling strategies. This is a serious matter; tons of textile materials are being wasted rather than recycled. The current process of producing costumes for Kuwait theatre productions involves the conception and sketching of costumes, the purchase of new fabrics, and the employment of tailors for production. Since tailoring is outsourced, there is a shortage of designers who can make costumes autonomously. The current process does not incorporate any methods for recycling costumes. This combined with high levels of textile waste, results in significant ecological issues that demand immediate attention. However, data collected for this research paper, from a series of semi-structured interviews, have indicated that a lack of recycling facilities and increased textile waste do not present an area of concern within the Kuwaiti theatrical costume industry. This paper will review the findings of this research project and investigate the production processes used by costume designers in Kuwait. It will indicate how their behaviors, coupled with their lack of knowledge with using recycling strategies to create costumes, had increased textile waste and negatively affected Kuwait theatre costume design industry.

Keywords: costume, recycle, reuse, theatre

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8 Effect of Marginal Quality Groundwater on Yield of Cotton Crop and Soil Salinity Status

Authors: A. L. Qureshi, A. A. Mahessar, R. K. Dashti, S. M. Yasin


In this paper, effect of marginal quality groundwater on yield of cotton crop and soil salinity was studied. In this connection, three irrigation treatments each with four replications were applied. These treatments were use of canal water, use of marginal quality groundwater from tube well, and conjunctive use by mixing with the ratio of 1:1 of canal water and marginal quality tubewell water. Water was applied to the crop cultivated in Kharif season 2011; its quantity has been measured using cut-throat flume. Total 11 watering each of 50 mm depth have been applied from 20th April to 20th July, 2011. Further, irrigations were stopped from last week of July, 2011 due to monsoon rainfall. Maximum crop yield (seed cotton) was observed under T1 which was 1,516.8 kg/ha followed by T3 (mixed canal and tube well water) having 1009 kg/ha and 709 kg/ha for T2 i.e. marginal quality groundwater. This concludes that crop yield in T2 and T3 with in comparison to T1was reduced by about 53 and 30% respectively. It has been observed that yield of cotton crop is below potential limit for three treatments due to unexpected rainfall at the time of full flowering season; thus the yield was adversely affected. However, salt deposition in soil profiles was not observed that is due to leaching effect of heavy rainfall occurred during monsoon season.

Keywords: conjunctive use, cotton crop, groundwater, soil salinity status, water use efficiency

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7 Postmodernism and Metanarrative: Deconstruction of Narrative in a Song of Ice and Fire Fantasy TV Series

Authors: Narjes Azimi


It has been a while that narrative and storytelling turned to be the inevitable part of media. The narrative has so many aspects and among those entire aspects, the fantasy genre is consciously challenging one as fantasy readers are used to reading narratives like good versus evil plot. This paper will analyze the ASOIF TV series as a Meta narrative cultural production that deconstructs the elements of a traditional narrative. This study will shade on a grand narrative perspective from poststructuralism point of view. The theoretical framework is structuralism and post structuralism. Lyotard and Barthes are two main poststructuralists and focus of the study. Lyotard grand narrative elements will analyze in this research study. Fantasy genre generated a number of outstanding authors that explore innovative perspectives. Among all these leading authors George R.R Martin is one of the best. George R. R. Martin’s Fantasy a Song of Ice and Fire picturized the brutal world that seven kingdoms struggling for the power. Since 2011 this production has been followed and watched by millions of audiences all around the world. The methodology is the textual analysis of selected scenes. Martin’s distinctive fantasy style which makes it different from other fantasies, yet this shift does not negate how the previous fantasy writers represent the mentioned concepts of war, and etc., but Martin’ fantasy and left the mature audiences full of uncertainty.

Keywords: narrative theory, metanarrative, deconstruction, post-structuralism, Lyotard, Barthes

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6 Kinematic Analysis of Heel Height Effect on Knee Direction Correction in a Patient with Genu Recurvatum: A Case Study

Authors: Parya Salimitari, Farhad Tabatabai Ghomsheh, Siyamak Khorramymehr, Hossein Taghadosi, Mohammad Hossein Dashti


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heel height on the knee joint direction in Genu recurvatum patients compared to normal state. The test was performed on a patient with Genu recurvatum and a healthy person with similar and match biomechanical conditions. Subjects were tested under six different positions of shoes with heels 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm after marking during the gate. The results of the spatial temporal geometry obtained from Vicon Motion System (six-camera T10 model, Oxford Metrics Ltd., Oxford, UK), and were used to compute and analyze the kinematic results. In this study, we tried to determine the effect of shoe heel intervention on knee joint direction correction. The results indicate that the 1 cm heel has been optimized and significantly improved in knee joint flexion and flexion-extension angle so that the difference in knee flexion-extension angle between the patient and the healthy person at some stages of walking has reached zero (good posture). The 3 cm heel compared with the 0 cm heel has reduced the knee recurvatum index (KRI) by up to 21.74% in the patient (from 219.233 mm to 47.6714 mm). According to the findings of this study, it can be concluded that heel increase is effective in correcting knee joints in Genu recurvatum and the optimum heel height is 1 cm.

Keywords: joint alignment of knee, gait analysis, genu recurvatum, heel lift, kinematics, motion-analysis

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5 Prediction of B-Cell Epitope for 24 Mite Allergens: An in Silico Approach towards Epitope-Based Immune Therapeutics

Authors: Narjes Ebrahimi, Soheila Alyasin, Navid Nezafat, Hossein Esmailzadeh, Younes Ghasemi, Seyed Hesamodin Nabavizadeh


Immunotherapy with allergy vaccines is of great importance in allergen-specific immunotherapy. In recent years, B-cell epitope-based vaccines have attracted considerable attention and the prediction of epitopes is crucial to design these types of allergy vaccines. B-cell epitopes might be linear or conformational. The prerequisite for the identification of conformational epitopes is the information about allergens' tertiary structures. Bioinformatics approaches have paved the way towards the design of epitope-based allergy vaccines through the prediction of tertiary structures and epitopes. Mite allergens are one of the major allergy contributors. Several mite allergens can elicit allergic reactions; however, their structures and epitopes are not well established. So, B-cell epitopes of various groups of mite allergens (24 allergens in 6 allergen groups) were predicted in the present work. Tertiary structures of 17 allergens with unknown structure were predicted and refined with RaptorX and GalaxyRefine servers, respectively. The predicted structures were further evaluated by Rampage, ProSA-web, ERRAT and Verify 3D servers. Linear and conformational B-cell epitopes were identified with Ellipro, Bcepred, and DiscoTope 2 servers. To improve the accuracy level, consensus epitopes were selected. Fifty-four conformational and 133 linear consensus epitopes were predicted. Furthermore, overlapping epitopes in each allergen group were defined, following the sequence alignment of the allergens in each group. The predicted epitopes were also compared with the experimentally identified epitopes. The presented results provide valuable information for further studies about allergy vaccine design.

Keywords: B-cell epitope, Immunotherapy, In silico prediction, Mite allergens, Tertiary structure

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4 In vitro Study of Laser Diode Radiation Effect on the Photo-Damage of MCF-7 and MCF-10A Cell Clusters

Authors: A. Dashti, M. Eskandari, L. Farahmand, P. Parvin, A. Jafargholi


Breast Cancer is one of the most considerable diseases in the United States and other countries and is the second leading cause of death in women. Common breast cancer treatments would lead to adverse side effects such as loss of hair, nausea, and weakness. These complications arise because these cancer treatments damage some healthy cells while eliminating the cancer cells. In an effort to address these complications, laser radiation was utilized and tested as a targeted cancer treatment for breast cancer. In this regard, tissue engineering approaches are being employed by using an electrospun scaffold in order to facilitate the growth of breast cancer cells. Polycaprolacton (PCL) was used as a material for scaffold fabricating because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and supporting cell growth. The specific breast cancer cells have the ability to create a three-dimensional cell cluster due to the spontaneous accumulation of cells in the porosity of the scaffold under some specific conditions. Therefore, we are looking for a higher density of porosity and larger pore size. Fibers showed uniform diameter distribution and final scaffold had optimum characteristics with approximately 40% porosity. The images were taken by SEM and the density and the size of the porosity were determined with the Image. After scaffold preparation, it has cross-linked by glutaraldehyde. Then, it has been washed with glycine and phosphate buffer saline (PBS), in order to neutralize the residual glutaraldehyde. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromidefor (MTT) results have represented approximately 91.13% viability of the scaffolds for cancer cells. In order to create a cluster, Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7, breast cancer cell line) and Michigan Cancer Foundation-10A (MCF-10A, human mammary epithelial cell line) cells were cultured on the scaffold in 24 well plate for five days. Then, we have exposed the cluster to the laser diode 808 nm radiation to investigate the effect of laser on the tumor with different power and time. Under the same conditions, cancer cells lost their viability more than the healthy ones. In conclusion, laser therapy is a viable method to destroy the target cells and has a minimum effect on the healthy tissues and cells and it can improve the other method of cancer treatments limitations.

Keywords: breast cancer, electrospun scaffold, polycaprolacton, laser diode, cancer treatment

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3 A Comparison of Antibiotic Resistant Enterobacteriaceae: Diabetic versus Non-Diabetic Infections

Authors: Zainab Dashti, Leila Vali


Background: The Middle East, in particular Kuwait, contains one of the highest rates of patients with Diabetes in the world. Generally, infections resistant to antibiotics among the diabetic population has been shown to be on the rise. This is the first study in Kuwait to compare the antibiotic resistance profiles and genotypic differences between the resistant isolates of Enterobacteriaceae obtained from diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Material/Methods: In total, 65 isolates were collected from diabetic patients consisting of 34 E. coli, 15 K. pneumoniae and 16 other Enterobacteriaceae species (including Salmonella spp. Serratia spp and Proteus spp.). In our control group, a total of 49 isolates consisting of 37 E. coli, 7 K. pneumoniae and 5 other species (including Salmonella spp. Serratia spp and Proteus spp.) were included. Isolates were identified at the species level and antibiotic resistance profiles, including Colistin, were determined using initially the Vitek system followed by double dilution MIC and E-test assays. Multi drug resistance (MDR) was defined as isolates resistant to a minimum of three antibiotics from three different classes. PCR was performed to detect ESBL genes (blaCTX-M, blaTEM & blaSHV), flouroquinolone resistance genes (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS & aac(6’)-lb-cr) and carbapenem resistance genes (blaOXA, blaVIM, blaGIM, blaKPC, blaIMP, & blaNDM) in both groups. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to compare clonal relatedness of both E. coli and K.pneumonaie isolates. Results: Colistin resistance was determined in three isolates with MICs of 32-128 mg/L. A significant difference in resistance to ampicillin (Diabetes 93.8% vs control 72.5%, P value <0.002), augmentin (80% vs 52.5%, p value < 0.003), cefuroxime (69.2% vs 45%, p value < 0.0014), ceftazadime (73.8% vs 42.5%, p value <0.001) and ciprofloxacin (67.6% vs 40%, p value < 0.005) were determined. Also, a significant difference in MDR rates between the two groups (Diabetes 76.9%, control 57.5%, p value <0.036 were found. All antibiotic resistance genes showed a higher prevalence among the diabetic group, except for blaCTX-M, which was higher among the control group. PFGE showed a high rate of diversity between each group of isolates. Conclusions: Our results suggested an alarming rate of antibiotic resistance, in particular Colistin resistance (1.8%) among K. pneumoniea isolated from diabetic patients in Kuwait. MDR among Enterobacteriaceae infections also seems to be a worrying issue among the diabetics of Kuwait. More efforts are required to limit the issue of antibiotic resistance in Kuwait, especially among patients with diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, diabetes, enterobacreriacae, multi antibiotic resistance

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2 Study the Effect of Liquefaction on Buried Pipelines during Earthquakes

Authors: Mohsen Hababalahi, Morteza Bastami


Buried pipeline damage correlations are critical part of loss estimation procedures applied to lifelines for future earthquakes. The vulnerability of buried pipelines against earthquake and liquefaction has been observed during some of previous earthquakes and there are a lot of comprehensive reports about this event. One of the main reasons for impairment of buried pipelines during earthquake is liquefaction. Necessary conditions for this phenomenon are loose sandy soil, saturation of soil layer and earthquake intensity. Because of this fact that pipelines structure are very different from other structures (being long and having light mass) by paying attention to the results of previous earthquakes and compare them with other structures, it is obvious that the danger of liquefaction for buried pipelines is not high risked, unless effective parameters like earthquake intensity and non-dense soil and other factors be high. Recent liquefaction researches for buried pipeline include experimental and theoretical ones as well as damage investigations during actual earthquakes. The damage investigations have revealed that a damage ratio of pipelines (Number/km ) has much larger values in liquefied grounds compared with one in shaking grounds without liquefaction according to damage statistics during past severe earthquakes, and that damages of joints and pipelines connected with manholes were remarkable. The purpose of this research is numerical study of buried pipelines under the effect of liquefaction by case study of the 2013 Dashti (Iran) earthquake. Water supply and electrical distribution systems of this township interrupted during earthquake and water transmission pipelines were damaged severely due to occurrence of liquefaction. The model consists of a polyethylene pipeline with 100 meters length and 0.8 meter diameter which is covered by light sandy soil and the depth of burial is 2.5 meters from surface. Since finite element method is used relatively successfully in order to solve geotechnical problems, we used this method for numerical analysis. For evaluating this case, some information like geotechnical information, classification of earthquakes levels, determining the effective parameters in probability of liquefaction, three dimensional numerical finite element modeling of interaction between soil and pipelines are necessary. The results of this study on buried pipelines indicate that the effect of liquefaction is function of pipe diameter, type of soil, and peak ground acceleration. There is a clear increase in percentage of damage with increasing the liquefaction severity. The results indicate that although in this form of the analysis, the damage is always associated to a certain pipe material, but the nominally defined “failures” include by failures of particular components (joints, connections, fire hydrant details, crossovers, laterals) rather than material failures. At the end, there are some retrofit suggestions in order to decrease the risk of liquefaction on buried pipelines.

Keywords: liquefaction, buried pipelines, lifelines, earthquake, finite element method

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1 Tall Building Transit-Oriented Development (TB-TOD) and Energy Efficiency in Suburbia: Case Studies, Sydney, Toronto, and Washington D.C.

Authors: Narjes Abbasabadi


As the world continues to urbanize and suburbanize, where suburbanization associated with mass sprawl has been the dominant form of this expansion, sustainable development challenges will be more concerned. Sprawling, characterized by low density and automobile dependency, presents significant environmental issues regarding energy consumption and Co2 emissions. This paper examines the vertical expansion of suburbs integrated into mass transit nodes as a planning strategy for boosting density, intensification of land use, conversion of single family homes to multifamily dwellings or mixed use buildings and development of viable alternative transportation choices. It analyzes the spatial patterns of tall building transit-oriented development (TB-TOD) of suburban regions in Sydney (Australia), Toronto (Canada), and Washington D.C. (United States). The main objectives of this research seek to understand the effect of the new morphology of suburban tall, the physical dimensions of individual buildings and their arrangement at a larger scale with energy efficiency. This study aims to answer these questions: 1) why and how can the potential phenomenon of vertical expansion or high-rise development be integrated into suburb settings? 2) How can this phenomenon contribute to an overall denser development of suburbs? 3) Which spatial pattern or typologies/ sub-typologies of the TB-TOD model do have the greatest energy efficiency? It addresses these questions by focusing on 1) energy, heat energy demand (excluding cooling and lighting) related to design issues at two levels: macro, urban scale and micro, individual buildings—physical dimension, height, morphology, spatial pattern of tall buildings and their relationship with each other and transport infrastructure; 2) Examining TB-TOD to provide more evidence of how the model works regarding ridership. The findings of the research show that the TB-TOD model can be identified as the most appropriate spatial patterns of tall buildings in suburban settings. And among the TB-TOD typologies/ sub-typologies, compact tall building blocks can be the most energy efficient one. This model is associated with much lower energy demands in buildings at the neighborhood level as well as lower transport needs in an urban scale while detached suburban high rise or low rise suburban housing will have the lowest energy efficiency. The research methodology is based on quantitative study through applying the available literature and static data as well as mapping and visual documentations of urban regions such as Google Earth, Microsoft Bing Bird View and Streetview. It will examine each suburb within each city through the satellite imagery and explore the typologies/ sub-typologies which are morphologically distinct. The study quantifies heat energy efficiency of different spatial patterns through simulation via GIS software.

Keywords: energy efficiency, spatial pattern, suburb, tall building transit-oriented development (TB-TOD)

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