Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 357

Search results for: Till Fehlauer

357 Dynamics of Follicle Vascular Perfusion, Dimensions, Antrum Growth, Circulating Angiogenic Mediators from Deviation to Ovulation

Authors: Elshymaa A. Abdelnaby, Amal M. Abo El-Maaty

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate dynamics of dominant and subordinate follicles change in dimensions, vascularity and angiogenic hormones after completing deviation till ovulation. Five cyclic mares were subjected to daily blood sampling and rectal Doppler ultrasonographic examination along two estrous cycles. Using electronic calipers, three diameters were recorded for each follicle to estimate area and volume. Leptin, Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1), nitric oxide (NO) and estradiol (E2) were measured. Area of color- and power- Doppler modes with area and circumference of the first (preovulatory) and subordinate follicles were measured in pixels. Follicles were classified into F1O (preovulatory), F2O (subordinate), F3O (third ovulatory) on the dominant ovary and F1C (first contra) and F2C (second contra) on the contralateral ovary. Days before ovulation significantly (P < 0.0001) affected diameter, circumference, area, volume, area/pixel and antrum area of the preovulatory follicle. With the increase of diameter, area, volume area/pixel, antrum area/pixel and circumference of F1O, those of all subordinates were decreasing. The blue blood flow area, power and power minus red blood flow area of F1O increased from day -6 till day of ovulation (day 0), but red blood flow area significantly decreased. F1O had the lowest percent of colored pixels and percent of the colored pixels without antrum. Estradiol and leptin increased from day -6 till day 0 but IGF-1 decreased till day -1 but NO achieved a peak on day -3 then decreased till day 0. In conclusion, antrum growth, blood flow and angiogenic hormones play a role in maturation and ovulation of the dominant follicle in mares.

Keywords: angiogenic hormones, blood flow, mare, preovulatory follicle

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356 Impacts of Tillage on Biodiversity of Microarthropod Communities in Two Different Crop Systems

Authors: Leila Ramezani, Mohammad Saeid Mossadegh

Abstract:

Different uses of land by humans alter the physico chemical characteristics of the soil and affect the soil microhabitat. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of tillage in three different human land uses on microarthropods biodiversity in Khuzestan province, southwest of Iran. Three microhabitats including a permanent grassland with old Date-Palms around and no till system, and two wheat fields, one with conservative agricultural practices and low till system and the other with conventional agricultural practices (deep tillage), were compared for the biodiversity of the two main groups of soil microarthropods (Oribatida and Collembola). Soil samples were collected from the top to a depth of 15 cm bimonthly during a period of two years. Significant differences in the biodiversity index of microarthropods were observed between the different tillage systems (F = 36.748, P =0.000). Indeed, analysis of species diversity showed that the diversity index at the conservative field with low till (2.58 ± 0.01) was higher (p < 0.05) than the conventional tilled field (2.45 ± 0.08) and the diversity of natural grassland was the highest (2.79 ± 0.19, p < 0.05). Indeed, the index of biodiversity and population abundance differed significantly in different seasons (p < 0.00).

Keywords: biodiversity, Collembola, microarthropods, Oribatida

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
355 On-Farm Mechanized Conservation Agriculture: Preliminary Agro-Economic Performance Difference between Disc Harrowing, Ripping and No-Till

Authors: Godfrey Omulo, Regina Birner, Karlheinz Koller, Thomas Daum

Abstract:

Conservation agriculture (CA) as a climate-resilient and sustainable practice have been carried out for over three decades in Zambia. However, its continued promotion and adoption has been predominantly on a small-scale basis. Despite the plethora of scholarship pointing to the positive benefits of CA in regard to enhanced yield, profitability, carbon sequestration and minimal environmental degradation, these have not stimulated commensurate agricultural extensification desired for Zambia. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential differences between mechanized conventional and conservation tillage practices on operation time, fuel consumption, labor costs, soil moisture retention, soil temperature and crop yield. An on-farm mechanized conservation agriculture (MCA) experiment arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications was used. The research was conducted on a 15 ha of sandy loam rainfed land: soybeans on 7ha with plot dimensions of 24 m by 210 m and maize on 8ha with plot dimensions of 24 m by 250 m. The three tillage treatments were: residue burning followed by disc harrowing, ripping tillage and no-till. The crops were rotated in two subsequent seasons. All operations were done using a 60hp 2-wheel tractor, a disc harrow, a two-tine ripper and a two-row planter. Soil measurements and the agro-economic factors were recorded for two farming seasons. The season results showed that the yield of maize and soybeans under no-till and ripping tillage practices were not significantly different from the conventional burning and discing. But, there was a significant difference in soil moisture content between no-till (25.31SFU±2.77) and disced (11.91SFU±0.59) plots at depths from 10-60 cm. Soil temperature in no-till plots (24.59°C±0.91) was significantly lower compared to the disced plots (26.20°C±1.75) at the depths 15 cm and 45 cm. For maize, there was a significant difference in operation time between disc-harrowed (3.68hr/ha±1.27) and no-till (1.85hr/ha±0.04) plots, and a significant difference in cost of labor between disc-harrowed (45.45$/ha±19.56) and no-till (21.76$/ha) plots. There was no significant difference in fuel consumption between ripping and disc-harrowing and direct seeding. For soybeans, there was a significant difference in operation time between no-tillage (1.96hr/ha±0.31) and ripping (3.34hr/ha±0.53) and disc harrowing (3.30hr/ha±0.16). Further, fuel consumption and labor on no-till plots were significantly different from both the ripped and disc-harrowed plots. The high seed emergence percentage on maize disc-harrowed plot (93.75%±5.87) was not significantly different from ripping and no-till plots. Again, the high seed emergence percentage for the soybean ripped plot (93.75%±13.03) had no significant difference with discing and ripping. The results show that it is economically sound and timesaving to practice MCA and get viable yields compared to conventional farming. This research fills the gap on the potential of MCA in the context of Zambia and its profitability in incentivizing policymakers to invest in appropriate and sustainable machinery and implements for extensive agricultural production.

Keywords: climate-smart agriculture, labor cost, mechanized conservation agriculture, soil moisture, Zambia

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354 Pathways and Mechanisms of Lymphocytes Emigration from Newborn Thymus

Authors: Olena Grygorieva

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Nowadays mechanisms of thymocytes emigration from the thymus to the periphery are investigated actively. We have proposed a hypothesis of thymocytes’ migration from the thymus through lymphatic vessels during periodical short-term local edema. By morphological, hystochemical methods we have examined quantity of lymphocytes, epitelioreticulocytes, mast cells, blood and lymphatic vessels in morpho-functional areas of rats’ thymuses during the first week after birth in 4 hours interval. In newborn and beginning from 8 hour after birth every 12 hours specific density of the thymus, absolute quantity of microcirculatory vessels, especially of lymphatic ones, lymphcyte-epithelial index, quantity of mast cells and their degranulative forms increase. Structure of extracellular matrix, intrathymical microenvironment and lymphocytes’ adhesive properties change. Absolute quantity of small lymphocytes in thymic cortex changes wavy. All these changes are straightly expressed from 0 till 2, from 12 till 16, from 108 till 120 hours of postnatal life. During this periods paravasal lymphatic vessels are stuffed with lymphocytes, i.e. discrete migration of lymphocytes from the thymus occurs. After rapid edema reduction, quantity of lymphatic vessels decrease, they become empty. Therefore, in the thymus of newborn periodical short-term local edema is observed, on its top discrete migration of lymphocytes from the thymus occurs.

Keywords: lymphocytes, lymphatic vessels, mast cells, thymus

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
353 Democracy and Security Challenge in Nigeria, 1999, Till Date

Authors: Abdulsalami M. Deji

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Prolonged military incursion in Nigeria politics which favored the oligarchy brought agitation for democratic rule it exacerbated ethnicity integration of minority for fear of domination. The advent of democracy ushered in new breath of life to Nigerians from the shackle of military oppression to democratic governance. Democratic rule became a mirage as a result of prevalent insecurity in Nigeria; effort to bring lasting peace to all sections of the country had not yielded positive result till date. In the process of struggling for democracy among ethnic groups in Nigeria, they had instituted various militia groups defending the interest of their identity due to unequal distribution of wealth by military junta. When democracy came on board, these various militia groups became demons hunting democratic institutions. Quest by the successful government to find lasting solution has proved abortive. The security of politics which guaranteed stability is not visible in Nigeria, what we have now is politics of security. The unrest in Nigeria today has cripple socio-political and economy of the nation; the growth of economy favored elites without meaningful impact on the common man. This paper focus on the effects of democracy on Nigerians and, how security under democratic rule has hindered dividends of democracy since 1999-till date and way forward. The source is strictly base on secondary source from textbook, newspapers, internet, and journals.

Keywords: democracy, interest, militia, security

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352 Monitoring of Humoral Immune Response of Monovalent and Combined PPR and FMD Serotype 'O' Virus Vaccines in Goats

Authors: Mudassar Hameed, Khushi Muhammad, Aamir Ghafoor, Masood Rabbani, Momena Habib, Jawad Nazir

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Comparative efficacy of three formulations (non-adjuvant, gel, and oil adjuvant) of monovalent and combined PPR and FMD virus vaccines was evaluated in goats. All kinds of monovalent PPRV vaccines elicited protective antibody titers at one-month post vaccination (PV) that remained so till six months PV. Monovalent non-adjuvant (NA) FMDV vaccine provoked non-protective antibody titers that declined to undetectable levels after three months. In case of combined vaccines, all of the formulations elicited protective antibody titers against PPRV in vaccinated animals which remained above that limit for six months. However, an exceptional immune response against FMDV was observed in combined NA vaccine group where antibody titers were extremely high and remained above protective level till 4 months PV in animals who received a single vaccine shot and till six months PV in booster group. Although, adjuvant or NA combined vaccines can induce protective antibody titers against both of the viruses within one month PV, but a booster vaccine shot is needed to retain protective antibody level for 6 months duration. Immune response elicited by combined vaccines is comparable or superior to the monovalent vaccines. Hence combined vaccine can be effectively used for the control and prevention of both of the diseases.

Keywords: antibody titer, protective, combined vaccine, non adjuvant

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351 Measuring the Effect of the Privatization of the Kuwait Stock Exchange on Its Performance

Authors: Mohamad H. Atyeh, Wael Alrashed, Steven Telford

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The main objective of this research is to measure if there have been any notable changes in the trading actives of the Kuwait stock Exchange (KSE) after the privatization process that took place on the 25th of April 2016. The data that are used to test if there is any change in the KSE market performance are the daily indices for the period from the 25th of April 2016 till the 24th of October 2016 (after privatization) and a similar six months period before the date of the privatization from the 24th of October 2015 till the 24th of April 2016. In addition, as a control, the study included a period that is a period parallel to the six months period after the privatization. The results indicate that privatization is associated with lower variability for the majority of variables, but that the observed switch in slope direction is not actually a product of privatization, but rather one of serial correlation.

Keywords: privatization, Kuwait stock exchange (KSE), market capitalization (MCAP), capital markets authority (CMA), Boursa Kuwait securities company (BKSC)

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350 Colocalization Analysis to Understand Yttrium Uptake in Saxifraga paniculata Using Complementary Imaging Technics

Authors: Till Fehlauer, Blanche Collin, Bernard Angeletti, Andrea Somogyi, Claire Lallemand, Perrine Chaurand, Cédric Dentant, Clement Levard, Jerome Rose

Abstract:

Over the last decades, yttrium (Y) has gained importance in high-tech applications. It is an essential part of alloys and compounds used for lasers, displays, or cell phones, for example. Due to its chemical similarities with the lanthanides, Y is often considered a rare earth element (REE). Despite their increased usage, the environmental behavior of REEs remains poorly understood. Especially regarding their interactions with plants, many uncertainties exist. On the one hand, Y is known to have a negative effect on root development and germination, but on the other hand, it appears to promote plant growth at low concentrations. In order to understand these phenomena, a precise knowledge is necessary about how Y is absorbed by the plant and how it is handled once inside the organism. Contradictory studies exist, stating that due to a similar ionic radius, Y and the other REEs might be absorbed through Ca²⁺-channels, while others suspect that Y has a shared pathway with Al³⁺. In this study, laser ablation coupled ICP-MS, and synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (µXRF, beamline Nanoscopium, SOLEIL, France) have been used in order to localize Y within the plant tissue and identify associated elements. The plant used in this study is Saxifraga paniculata, a rugged alpine plant that has shown an affinity for Y in previous studies (in prep.). Furthermore, Saxifraga paniculata performs guttation, which means that it possesses phloem sap secreting openings on the leaf surface that serve to regulate root pressure. These so-called hydathodes could provide special insights in elemental transport in plants. The plants have been grown on Y doped soil (500mg/kg DW) for four months. The results showed that Y was mainly concentrated in the roots of Saxifraga paniculata (260 ± 85mg/kg), and only a small amount was translocated to the leaves (10 ± 7.8mg/kg). µXRF analysis indicated that within the root transects, the majority of Y remained in the epidermis and hardly penetrated the stele. Laser ablation coupled ICP-MS confirmed this finding and showed a positive correlation in the roots between Y, Fe, Al, and to a lesser extent Ca. In the stem transect, Y was mainly detected in a hotspot of approximately 40µm in diameter situated in the endodermis area. Within the stem and especially in the hotspot, Y was highly colocalized with Al and Fe. Similar-sized Y hotspots have been detected in/on the leaves. All of them were strongly colocalized with Al and Fe, except for those situated within the hydathodes, which showed no colocalization with any of the measured elements. Accordingly, a relation between Y and Ca during root uptake remains possible, whereas a correlation to Fe and Al appears to be dominant in the aerial parts, suggesting common storage compartments, the formation of complexes, or a shared pathway during translocation.

Keywords: laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), Phytoaccumulation, Rare earth elements, Saxifraga paniculata, Synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence, Yttrium

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349 Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composites-Molecular Dynamics Approach

Authors: Sumit Sharma, Rakesh Chandra, Pramod Kumar, Navin Kumar

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Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has been used to study the effect of carbon nanofiber (CNF) volume fraction (Vf) and aspect ratio (l/d) on mechanical properties of CNF reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. Materials Studio 5.5 has been used as a tool for finding the modulus and damping in composites. CNF composition in PP was varied by volume from 0 to 16%. Aspect ratio of CNF was varied from l/d=5 to l/d=100. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, till date there is no study, either experimental or analytical, which predict damping for CNF-PP composites at the nanoscale. Hence, this will be a valuable addition in the area of nanocomposites. Results show that with only 2% addition by volume of CNF in PP, E11 increases 748%. Increase in E22 is very less in comparison to the increase in E11. With increase in CNF aspect ratio (l/d) till l/d=60, the longitudinal loss factor (η11) decreases rapidly. Results of this study have been compared with those available in literature.

Keywords: carbon nanofiber, elasticity, mechanical properties, molecular dynamics

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348 Iraqi Short Term Electrical Load Forecasting Based on Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Firas M. Tuaimah, Huda M. Abdul Abbas

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Accurate Short Term Load Forecasting (STLF) is essential for a variety of decision making processes. However, forecasting accuracy can drop due to the presence of uncertainty in the operation of energy systems or unexpected behavior of exogenous variables. Interval Type 2 Fuzzy Logic System (IT2 FLS), with additional degrees of freedom, gives an excellent tool for handling uncertainties and it improved the prediction accuracy. The training data used in this study covers the period from January 1, 2012 to February 1, 2012 for winter season and the period from July 1, 2012 to August 1, 2012 for summer season. The actual load forecasting period starts from January 22, till 28, 2012 for winter model and from July 22 till 28, 2012 for summer model. The real data for Iraqi power system which belongs to the Ministry of Electricity.

Keywords: short term load forecasting, prediction interval, type 2 fuzzy logic systems, electric, computer systems engineering

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347 Environmental Impact Assessment of Ambient Particle Industrial Complex Upon Vegetation Near Settling at El-Fatyah,Libya

Authors: Ashraf M. S. Soliman, Mohsen Elhasadi

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The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of ambient particles emitted from an industrial complex located at El-Fatyah on growth, phytomass partitioning and accumulation, pigment content and nutrient uptake of two economically important crop species; barley (Hordeum vulgare L.Family: Poaceae) and broad bean (Vicia faba L. Family: Fabaceae) growing in the region. It was obvious from the present investigation that chlorophyll and carotenoid content showed significant responses to the industrial dust. Generally, the total pigment content of the two investigated crops in the two locations continually increased till the plant age reached 70 days after sowing then begins to decrease till the end of the growing season..The total uptake of N, P and K in the two studied species decreased in response to industrial dust in the study area compared to control location. In conclusion, barley and broad bean are very sensitive to air pollutants, and may consider as bioindicators for atmospheric pollution. Pollutants caused damage of their leaves, impair plant growth, hindered nutrient uptake and consequently limit primary productivity.

Keywords: Effect of Industrial Complex on barley and broad bean

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346 Professional Competences of E-Learning Lecturers: Case of Russian National Platforms of Open Education

Authors: Polina Pekker

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This work analyzes the role of lecturers in e-learning in Russia. It is based on qualitative research of lecturers who conduct courses on Russian national platforms of open education. The platform is based on edx software (provider of massive open online courses). The interviews with e-learning lecturers were conducted: from December 2015 till January 2016 and from April 2016 till May 2016. The results of interviews (face-to-face, telephone, skype) show, firstly, the difference between the role of lecturers in e-learning and in traditional education and, secondly, that the competition between lecturers is high in Russia. The results of interviews in Russia show that e-learning lecturer should have several special professional competences: the ability to keep attention of audiences without real contact, the ability to work on camera and competences related with e-learning course support (test, forum, communication on forum and etc.) It is concluded that lecturers need special course on acting and speech skills and on conducting and organizing of e-learning course in Russia. It is planned to conduct French study. When results from French research will be totally ready, they will be compared to Russian. As well French platform, France Universite Numerique, was launched earlier, in January 2014, so Russian lecturers should get best practice from the French colleagues.

Keywords: e-courses lecturer, e-learning, professional competences of lecturers, national Russian and French platforms of open education

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345 Effect of Feed Supplement Optipartum C+ 200 (Alfa- Amylase and Beta-Glucanase) in In-Line Rumination Parameters

Authors: Ramūnas Antanaitis, Lina Anskienė, Robertas Stoškus

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This study was conducted during 2021.05.01 – 2021.08.31 at the Lithuanian University of health sciences and one Lithuanian dairy farm with 500 dairy cows (55.911381565736, 21.881321760608195). Average calving – 50 cows per month. Cows (n=20) in the treatment group (TG) were fed with feed supplement Optipartum C+ 200 (Enzymes: Alfa- Amylase 57 Units; Beta-Glucanase 107 Units) from 21 days before calving till 30 days after calving with feeding rate 200g/cow/day. Cows in the control group (CG) were fed a feed ration without feed supplement. Measurements started from 6 days before calving and continued till 21 days after calving. The following indicators were registered: with the RumiWatch System: Rumination time; Eating time; Drinking time; Rumination chews; Eating chews; Drinking gulps; Bolus; Chews per minute; Chews per bolus. With SmaXtec system - the temperature, pH of the contents of cows' reticulorumens and cows' activity. According to our results, we found that feeding of cows, from 21 days before calving to 30 days after calving, with a feed supplement with alfa- amylase and beta-glucanase (Optipartum C+ 200) (with dose 200g/cow/day) can produce an increase in: 9% rumination time and eating time, 19% drinking time, 11% rumination chews, 16% eating chews,13% number of boluses per rumination, 5% chews per minute and 16% chews per bolus. We found 1.28 % lower reiticulorumen pH and 0.64% lower reticulorumen temperature in cows fed with the supplement compared with control group cows. Also, cows feeding with enzymes were 8.80% more active.

Keywords: Alfa-Amylase, Beta-Glucanase, cows, in-line, sensors

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344 Temperature and Substrate Orientation Effects on the Thermal Stability of Graphene Sheet Attached on the Si Surface

Authors: Wen-Jay Lee, Kuo-Ning Chiang

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The graphene binding with silicon substrate has apparently Schottky barriers property, which can be used in the application of solar cell and light source. Because graphene has only one atom layer, the atomistic structure of graphene binding with the silicon surface plays an important role to affect the properties of graphene. In this work, temperature effect on the morphology of graphene sheet attached on different crystal planes of silicon substrates are investigated by Molecular dynamics (MD) (LAMMPS, developed by Sandia National Laboratories). The results show that the covered graphene sheet would cause the structural deformation of the surface Si atoms of stubtrate. To achieve a stable state in the binding process, the surface Si atoms would adjust their position and fit the honeycomb structure of graphene after the graphene attaches to the Si surface. The height contour of graphene on different plane of silicon surfaces presents different pattern, leading the local residual stress at the interface. Due to the high density of dangling bond on the Si (111)7x7 surface, the surface of Si(111)7x7 is not matching with the graphene so well in contrast with Si(100)2x1and Si(111)2x1. Si(111)7x7 is found that only partial silicon adatoms are rearranged on surface after the attachment when the temperature is lower than 200K, As the temperature gradually increases, the deformation of surface structure becomes significant, as well as the residue stress. With increasing temperature till the 815K, the graphene sheet begins to destroy and mixes with the silicon atoms. For the Si(100)2x1 and Si(111)2x1, the silicon surface structure keep its structural arrangement with a higher temperature. With increasing temperature, the residual stress gradually decrease till a critical temperatures. When the temperature is higher than the critical temperature, the residual stress gradually increases and the structural deformation is found on the surface of the Si substrates.

Keywords: molecular dynamics, graphene, silicon, Schottky barriers, interface

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343 Numerical Simulation of Axially Loaded to Failure Large Diameter Bored Pile

Authors: M. Ezzat, Y. Zaghloul, T. Sorour, A. Hefny, M. Eid

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Ultimate capacity of large diameter bored piles is usually determined from pile loading tests as recommended by several international codes and foundation design standards. However, loading of this type of piles till achieving apparent failure is practically seldom. In this paper, numerical analyses are carried out to simulate load test of a large diameter bored pile performed at the location of Alzey highway bridge project (Germany). Test results of pile load settlement relationship till failure as well as results of the base and shaft resistances are available. Apparent failure was indicated in this test by the significant increase of the induced settlement during the last load increment applied on the pile head. Measurements of this pile load test are used to assess the quality of the numerical models investigated. Three different material soil models are implemented in the analyses: Mohr coulomb (MC), Soft soil (SS), and Modified Mohr coulomb (MMC). Very good agreement is obtained between the field measured settlement and the calculated settlement using the MMC model. Results of analysis showed also that the MMC constitutive model is superior to MC, and SS models in predicting the ultimate base and shaft resistances of the large diameter bored pile. After calibrating the numerical model, behavior of large diameter bored piles under axial loads is discussed and the formation of the plastic zone around the pile is explored. Results obtained showed that the plastic zone below the base of the pile at failure extended laterally to about four times the pile diameter and vertically to about three times the pile diameter.

Keywords: ultimate capacity, large diameter bored piles, plastic zone, failure, pile load test

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342 A Bayesian Approach for Health Workforce Planning in Portugal

Authors: Diana F. Lopes, Jorge Simoes, José Martins, Eduardo Castro

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Health professionals are the keystone of any health system, by delivering health services to the population. Given the time and cost involved in training new health professionals, the planning process of the health workforce is particularly important as it ensures a proper balance between the supply and demand of these professionals and it plays a central role on the Health 2020 policy. In the past 40 years, the planning of the health workforce in Portugal has been conducted in a reactive way lacking a prospective vision based on an integrated, comprehensive and valid analysis. This situation may compromise not only the productivity and the overall socio-economic development but the quality of the healthcare services delivered to patients. This is even more critical given the expected shortage of the health workforce in the future. Furthermore, Portugal is facing an aging context of some professional classes (physicians and nurses). In 2015, 54% of physicians in Portugal were over 50 years old, and 30% of all members were over 60 years old. This phenomenon associated to an increasing emigration of young health professionals and a change in the citizens’ illness profiles and expectations must be considered when planning resources in healthcare. The perspective of sudden retirement of large groups of professionals in a short time is also a major problem to address. Another challenge to embrace is the health workforce imbalances, in which Portugal has one of the lowest nurse to physician ratio, 1.5, below the European Region and the OECD averages (2.2 and 2.8, respectively). Within the scope of the HEALTH 2040 project – which aims to estimate the ‘Future needs of human health resources in Portugal till 2040’ – the present study intends to get a comprehensive dynamic approach of the problem, by (i) estimating the needs of physicians and nurses in Portugal, by specialties and by quinquenium till 2040; (ii) identifying the training needs of physicians and nurses, in medium and long term, till 2040, and (iii) estimating the number of students that must be admitted into medicine and nursing training systems, each year, considering the different categories of specialties. The development of such approach is significantly more critical in the context of limited budget resources and changing health care needs. In this context, this study presents the drivers of the healthcare needs’ evolution (such as the demographic and technological evolution, the future expectations of the users of the health systems) and it proposes a Bayesian methodology, combining the best available data with experts opinion, to model such evolution. Preliminary results considering different plausible scenarios are presented. The proposed methodology will be integrated in a user-friendly decision support system so it can be used by politicians, with the potential to measure the impact of health policies, both at the regional and the national level.

Keywords: bayesian estimation, health economics, health workforce planning, human health resources planning

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341 A Technique to Plan Application of Buttress Plate in the Medial Tibial Plateau Using the Preoperative CT Scan

Authors: P. Panwalkar, K. Veravalli , R. Gwynn, M. Tofighi, R. Clement, A. Mofidi

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When operating on tibial plateau fracture especially medial tibial plateau, it has regularly been said, “where do I put my thumb to reduce the fracture”. This refers to the ideal placement of the buttress device to hold the fracture till union. The aim of this study was to see if one can identify this sweet spot using a CT scan. Methods: Forty-fivetibial plateau fractures with medial plateau involvement were identified and included in the study. The preoperative CT scans were analysed, and the medial plateau involvement pattern was classified based on modified radiological classification by Yukata et-al of stress fracture of medial tibial plateau fracture. The involvement of part of plateau was compared with the position of buttress plate position, which was classified as medial posteromedial or both. Presence and position of the buttress was compared with ability to achieve and hold the reduction of the fracture till union. Results: Thirteen fractures were type-1 fracture, 18 fractures were type-2 fracture, and 11 fractures were type-3 fracture. Sixteen fractures were buttressed correctly according to the potential deformity, and twenty-six fractures were not buttressed, and three fractures were partly buttressed correctly. No fracture was over butressed! When the fracture was buttressed correctly, the rate of the malunion was 0%. When fracture was partly buttressed, 33% were anatomically united, and 66% were united in the plane of buttress. When buttress was not used, 14 were malunited, one malunited in one of the two planes of deformity, and twelve anatomically healed (of which 9 were non displaced!). Buttressing resulted in statistically significant lower mal-union rate (2=7.8 p=0.0052) Conclusion: The classification based on the involvement of medial condyle can identify the placement of buttress plate in the tibial plateau. The correct placement of the buttress plate results in predictablysatisfactory union. There may be a correlation between the injury shape of the tibial plateau and the fracture type.

Keywords: knee, tibial plateau, trauma, CT scan, surgery

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340 Impact of Soot on NH3-SCR, NH3 Oxidation and NH3 TPD over Cu/SSZ-13 Zeolite

Authors: Lidija Trandafilovic, Kirsten Leistner, Marie Stenfeldt, Louise Olsson

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Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction (NH3 SCR), is one of the most efficient post combustion abatement technologies for removing NOx from diesel engines. In order to remove soot, diesel particulate filters (DPF) are used. Recently, SCR coated filters have been introduced, which captures soot and simultaneously is active for ammonia SCR. There are large advantages with using SCR coated filters, such as decreased volume and also better light off characteristics, since both the SCR function as well as filter function is close to the engine. The objective of this work was to examine the effect of soot, produced using an engine bench, on Cu/SSZ-13 catalysts. The impact of soot on Cu/SSZ-13 in standard SCR, NH3 oxidation, NH3 temperature programmed desorption (TPD), as well as soot oxidation (with and without water) was examined using flow reactor measurements. In all experiments, prior to the soot loading, the fresh activity of Cu/SSZ-13 was recorded with stepwise increasing the temperature from 100°C till 600°C. Thereafter, the sample was loaded with soot and the experiment was repeated in the temperature range from 100°C till 700°C. The amount of CO and CO2 produced in each experiment is used to calculate the soot oxidized at each steady state temperature. The soot oxidized during the heating to next temperature step is included, e.g. the CO+CO2 produced when increasing the temperature to 600°C is added to the 600°C step. The influence of the two factors seem to be of the most importance to soot oxidation: ammonia and water. The influence of water on soot oxidation shift the maximum of CO2 and CO production towards lower temperatures, thus water increases the soot oxidation. Moreover, when adding ammonia to the system it is clear that the soot oxidation is lowered in the presence of ammonia, resulting in larger integrated COx at 500°C for O2+H2O, while opposite results at 600 °C was received where more was oxidised for O2+H2O+NH3 case. To conclude the presence of ammonia reduces the soot oxidation, which is in line with the ammonia TPD results where we found ammonia storage on the soot. Interestingly, during ammonia SCR conditions the activity for soot oxidation is regained at 500°C. At this high temperature the SCR zone is very short, thus the majority of the catalyst is not exposed to ammonia and therefore the inhibition effect of ammonia is not observed.

Keywords: NH3-SCR, Cu/SSZ-13, soot, zeolite

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339 Comparison of Water Curing and Carbonation Curing on Mortar Mix Incorporating Cement Kiln Dust

Authors: Devender Sharma, Shweta Goyal

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Sustainable development is a key to protect the environment for a secure future. Accelerated carbonation curing is a comparatively new technique for curing of concrete which involves sequestration of carbon dioxide gas into the precast concrete, resulting in improvement of the properties of concrete. This paper presents the results of a study to evaluate the effect of carbonation curing on cement mortars incorporating cement kiln dust (CKD) as partial replacement of cement. The mortar specimens were prepared by replacing cement with CKD in varying percentages of 0-50% by the weight of cement. The specimens were subjected to 12 hour carbonation curing, followed by sealed packing till testing age. The results were compared with the normal curing procedure, in which the specimens were water cured till the testing age. Compressive strength and microstructure of the mix were studied. It was noted that on increasing the percentage of CKD up to 10% by the weight of the cement, no considerable change was observed in the compressive strength. But as the percentage of CKD was further increased, there was a decrease in compressive strength, with strength decreasing up to 40% when 50% of the cement was replaced with CKD. The decrease in strength is due to the lesser lime content in CKD as compared to cement. High ettringite formation was observed in mixes with high percentages of CKD, thus indicating a decrease in the compressive strength. With carbonation curing, an early age strength gain was observed in mortars, even with higher percentages of CKD. The early strength of the carbonation cured mixes was found to be greater than water cured mixes irrespective of the percentage of CKD. 7 days and 28 days compressive strength of the mix was comparable for both the carbonation cured and water cured specimen. The increase in compressive strength can be attributed to the conversion of unstable Ca(OH)2 into stable CaCO3, which causes densification of the mix. CaCO3 precipitation and greater CSH gel formation was clearly observed in the SEM images of carbonation cured specimen, indicating higher compressive strength. Thus, carbonation curing can be used as an efficient method to enhance the properties of concrete.

Keywords: carbonation, cement kiln dust, compressive strength, microstructure

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338 Construction of Pile Foundation Using Slow and Old Equipments at Srinagar, India

Authors: Azmat Hussain

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Great Taj Mahal is built on well foundation. Well foundation can be constructed on the dry bed or after making sand Island. Cassions are relatively easy to construct provide sinking operations are smooth without much hindrance. Well foundation have many constructional difficulties, viz prolonged sinking period, tilting etc. These problems become worse and take more time when working season is winter. Especially in Indian Areas like Jammu & Kashmir (Srinagar) where technology lacks. The only thing Engineers can do is to wait till working conditions become suitable. A case study is presented in the paper exploring the feasibility of pile foundation.

Keywords: well foundation, pile foundation, equipments used, pile construction

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337 Crystallization of the US Supreme Court’s Role as an Arbiter of Constitutionality of Laws

Authors: Fethia Braik

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This paper summarizes the history of the US Supreme Court. It did not enjoy today’s status. It did neither control legislation nor the executive power. It was until 1803, during Marshall’s term, that it gained the pride of ruling over the constitutionality of acts be they federal or local, congressional or presidential. The Chief Justice, whether intended or not, vested such power in the supreme judicial institution via the case of Marbury v. Madison. Such power, nevertheless, had not been exercised for many years, till the Dred Scott case.

Keywords: Judiciary Acts 1789, 1801, chief justice, associate justice, justice of peace, review of constitutionality of acts, Jay court, Ellsworth court, Marshall court

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336 Seismic Design Approach for Areas with Low Seismicity

Authors: Mogens Saberi

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The following article focuses on a new seismic design approach for Denmark. Denmark is located in a low seismic zone and up till now a general and very simplified approach has been used to accommodate the effect of seismic loading. The current used method is presented and it is found that the approach is on the unsafe side for many building types in Denmark. The damages during time due to earth quake is presented and a seismic map for Denmark is developed and presented. Furthermore, a new design approach is suggested and compared to the existing one. The new approach is relatively simple but captures the effect of seismic loading more realistic than the existing one. The new approach is believed to the incorporated in the Danish Deign Code for building structures.

Keywords: low seismicity, new design approach, earthquakes, Denmark

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335 Thai Prosody Problems with First-Year Students

Authors: Jiraporn Adchariyaprasit

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Thai language is difficult in all four language skills, especially reading. The first year students may have different abilities in reading, so a teacher is required to find out a student’s reading level so that the teacher can help and support them till they can develop and resolve each problem themselves. This research is aimed to study the prosody problem among Thai students and will be focused on first year Thai students in the second semester. A total of 58 students were involved in this study. Four obstacles were found: 1) Interpretation from what they read and write; 2) Incorrectness Pronunciation of Prosody; 3) Incorrectness in Rhythm of the Poem; Incorrectness of the Thai Poem Pronunciation.

Keywords: pronunciation, prosody, interpretation, Thai language

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334 Community Based Psychosocial Intervention Reduces Maternal Depression and Infant Development in Bangladesh

Authors: S. Yesmin, N. F.Rahman, R. Akther, T. Begum, T. Tahmid, T. Chowdury, S. Afrin, J. D. Hamadani

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Abstract: Maternal depression is one of the risk factors of developmental delay in young children in low-income countries. Maternal depressions during pregnancy are rarely reported in Bangladesh. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy of a community based psychosocial intervention on women with mild to moderate depressive illness during the perinatal period and on their children from birth to 12 months on mothers’ mental status and their infants’ growth and development. Methodology: The study followed a prospective longitudinal approach with a randomized controlled design. Total 250 pregnant women aged between 15 and 40 years were enrolled in their third trimester of pregnancy of which 125 women were in the intervention group and 125 in the control group. Women in the intervention group received the “Thinking Healthy (CBT based) program” at their home setting, from their last month of pregnancy till 10 months after delivery. Their children received psychosocial stimulation from birth till 12 months. The following instruments were applied to get the outcome information- Bangla version of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (BEPDS), Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI), Maternal Attachment Inventory (MAI), Bayley Scale of Infant Development-Third version (Bayley–III) and Family Care Indicator (FCI). In addition, sever morbidity; breastfeeding, immunization, socio-economic and demographic information were collected. Data were collected at three time points viz. baseline, midline (6 months after delivery) and endline (12 months after delivery). Results: There was no significant difference between any of the socioeconomic and demographic variables at baseline. A very preliminary analysis of the data shows an intervention effect on Socioemotional behaviour of children at endline (p<0.001), motor development at midline (p=0.016) and at endline (p=0.065), language development at midline (p=0.004) and at endline (p=0.023), cognitive development at midline (p=0.008) and at endline (p=0.002), and quality of psychosocial stimulation at midline (p=0.023) and at endline (p=0.010). EPDS at baseline was not different between the groups (p=0.419), but there was a significant improvement at midline (p=0.027) and at endline (p=0.024) between the groups following the intervention. Conclusion: Psychosocial intervention is found effective in reducing women’s low and moderate depressive illness to cope with mental health problem and improving development of young children in Bangladesh.

Keywords: mental health, maternal depression, infant development, CBT, EPDS

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333 The Usage of Mudbrick in Historical Structures of Van City

Authors: Mustafa Gulen, Eylem Guzel, Soner Guler

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The studies concentrated on the historical background of Van city show the fact that Van city has had a significant position as a settlement since ancient times and that it has hosted many civilizations during history. With the dominance of Ottoman Empire in 16th century, the region had been re-constructed by building new walls at the southern side of Van Castle. These construction activities had mostly been fulfilled by the usage of mudbrick which had been a fundamental material for thousands of years. As a result of natural disasters, battles and the move at the threshold of 20th century to the new settlement which is 9 kilometers away from the Ancient City Van is an open-air museum with the ruins of churches, mosques and baths. In this study, the usage of mudbrick from past till today in historical structures of Van city is evaluated in detail.

Keywords: historical structures, history, mudbrick, Van city

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332 Quality Assurance in Software Design Patterns

Authors: Rabbia Tariq, Hannan Sajjad, Mehreen Sirshar

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Design patterns are widely used to make the process of development easier as they greatly help the developers to develop the software. Different design patterns have been introduced till now but the behavior of same design pattern may differ in different domains that can lead to the wrong selection of the design pattern. The paper aims to discover the design patterns that suits best with respect to their domain thereby helping the developers to choose an effective design pattern. It presents the comprehensive analysis of design patterns based on different methodologies that include simulation, case study and comparison of various algorithms. Due to the difference of the domain the methodology used in one domain may be inapplicable to the other domain. The paper draws a conclusion based on strength and limitation of each design pattern in their respective domain.

Keywords: design patterns, evaluation, quality assurance, software domains

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331 Neuroplasticity: A Fresh Begining for Life

Authors: Leila Maleki, Ezatollah Ahmadi

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Neuroplasticity or the flexibility of the neural system is the ability of the brain to adapt to the lack or deterioration of sense and the capability of the neural system to modify itself through changing shape and function. Not only have studies revealed that neuroplasticity does not end in childhood, but also they have proven that it continues till the end of life and is not limited to the neural system and covers the cognitive system as well. In the field of cognition, neuroplasticity is defined as the ability to change old thoughts according to new conditions and the individuals' differences in using various styles of cognitive regulation inducing several social, emotional and cognitive outcomes. On the other hand, complexities of daily life necessitates cognitive neuroplasticity in order to adapt to different circumstances. The present paper attempts to discuss and define major theories and principles of neuroplasticity and elaborate on nature or nurture.

Keywords: neuroplasticity, cognitive plasticity, plasticity theories, plasticity mechanisms

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330 Neuroplasticity: A Fresh Beginning for Life

Authors: Leila Maleki, Ezatollah Ahmadi

Abstract:

Neuroplasticity or the flexibility of the neural system is the ability of the brain to adapt to the lack or deterioration of sense and the capability of the neural system to modify itself through changing shape and function. Not only have studies revealed that neuroplasticity does not end in childhood, but also they have proven that it continues till the end of life and is not limited to the neural system and covers the cognitive system as well. In the field of cognition, neuroplasticity is defined as the ability to change old thoughts according to new conditions and the individuals' differences in using various styles of cognitive regulation inducing several social, emotional and cognitive outcomes. On the other hand, complexities of daily life necessitates cognitive neuroplasticity in order to adapt to different circumstances. The. present paper attempts to discuss and define major theories and principles of neuroplasticity and elaborate on nature or nurture.

Keywords: neuroplasticity, cognitive plasticity, plasticity theories, plasticity mechanisms

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329 Land Transfer for New Township and Its Impact from Dwellers' Point of View: A Case Study of New Town Kolkata

Authors: Subhra Chattopadhyay

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New Towns are usually built up at city-periphery with an eye to accommodate overspill population and functions of the city. ‘New towns are self-sufficient planned towns having a full range of urban economic and social activities, so it can provide employments for all of its inhabitants as well as a balanced self-content social community could be maintained’. In 3rd world countries New towns often emerge from scratch i.e on the area having no urban background and therefore, it needs a massive land conversion from rural to urban. This paper aims to study the implication of such land title transfer into rural sustainability with a case study at Jatragachi, New Town Kolkata. Broad objectives of this study are to understand 1. new changes in this area like i)changes in land use, ii) demographic changes, iii) occupational changes of the local people and 2.their view about new town planning. Major observations are stated below. The studied area was completely rural till recent years and is now at the heart of New Town Kolkata. Though this area is now under the jurisdiction of New Town Kolkata Development Authority (NKDA), it is still administrated by rural self-government.It creates administrative confusion and misuse of public capital. It is observed in this study that cultivation was the mainstay of livelihood for the majority of residents till recent past. There was a dramatic rise in irrigated area in the decade of 90’s pointing out agricultural prosperity.The area achieved the highest productivity of rice in the District. Percentage of marginal workers dropped significantly.In addition to it, ascending women’s literacy rate as found in this rural Mouza obviously indicates a constant social progress .Through land conversion, this flourishing agricultural land has been transformed into urban area with highly sophisticated uses. Such development may satisfy educated urban elite but the dwellers of the area suffer a lot. They bear the cost of new town planning through loss of their assured food and income as well as their place identity. The number of marginal workers increases abruptly. The growth of female literacy drops down. The area loses its functional linkages with its surroundings and fails to prove its actual growth potentiality. The physical linkages( like past roads and irrigation infrastructure) which had developed through time to support the economy become defunct. The ecological services which were provided by the agricultural field are denied. The historicity of this original site is demolished. Losses of the inhabitants of the area who have been evicted are also immense and cannot be materially compensated. Therefore, the ethos of such new town planning in stake of rural sustainability is under question. Need for an integrated approach for rural and urban development planning is felt in this study.

Keywords: new town, sustainable development, growth potentiality, land transfer

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328 Detection of Some Drugs of Abuse from Fingerprints Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Ragaa T. Darwish, Maha A. Demellawy, Haidy M. Megahed, Doreen N. Younan, Wael S. Kholeif

Abstract:

The testing of drug abuse is authentic in order to affirm the misuse of drugs. Several analytical approaches have been developed for the detection of drugs of abuse in pharmaceutical and common biological samples, but few methodologies have been created to identify them from fingerprints. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) plays a major role in this field. The current study aimed at assessing the possibility of detection of some drugs of abuse (tramadol, clonazepam, and phenobarbital) from fingerprints using LC-MS in drug abusers. The aim was extended in order to assess the possibility of detection of the above-mentioned drugs in fingerprints of drug handlers till three days of handling the drugs. The study was conducted on randomly selected adult individuals who were either drug abusers seeking treatment at centers of drug dependence in Alexandria, Egypt or normal volunteers who were asked to handle the different studied drugs (drug handlers). An informed consent was obtained from all individuals. Participants were classified into 3 groups; control group that consisted of 50 normal individuals (neither abusing nor handling drugs), drug abuser group that consisted of 30 individuals who abused tramadol, clonazepam or phenobarbital (10 individuals for each drug) and drug handler group that consisted of 50 individuals who were touching either the powder of drugs of abuse: tramadol, clonazepam or phenobarbital (10 individuals for each drug) or the powder of the control substances which were of similar appearance (white powder) and that might be used in the adulteration of drugs of abuse: acetyl salicylic acid and acetaminophen (10 individuals for each drug). Samples were taken from the handler individuals for three consecutive days for the same individual. The diagnosis of drug abusers was based on the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders (DSM-V) and urine screening tests using immunoassay technique. Preliminary drug screening tests of urine samples were also done for drug handlers and the control groups to indicate the presence or absence of the studied drugs of abuse. Fingerprints of all participants were then taken on a filter paper previously soaked with methanol to be analyzed by LC-MS using SCIEX Triple Quad or QTRAP 5500 System. The concentration of drugs in each sample was calculated using the regression equations between concentration in ng/ml and peak area of each reference standard. All fingerprint samples from drug abusers showed positive results with LC-MS for the tested drugs, while all samples from the control individuals showed negative results. A significant difference was noted between the concentration of the drugs and the duration of abuse. Tramadol, clonazepam, and phenobarbital were also successfully detected from fingerprints of drug handlers till 3 days of handling the drugs. The mean concentration of the chosen drugs of abuse among the handlers group decreased when the days of samples intake increased.

Keywords: drugs of abuse, fingerprints, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, tramadol

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