Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Saxifraga paniculata

19 Colocalization Analysis to Understand Yttrium Uptake in Saxifraga paniculata Using Complementary Imaging Technics

Authors: Till Fehlauer, Blanche Collin, Bernard Angeletti, Andrea Somogyi, Claire Lallemand, Perrine Chaurand, Cédric Dentant, Clement Levard, Jerome Rose

Abstract:

Over the last decades, yttrium (Y) has gained importance in high-tech applications. It is an essential part of alloys and compounds used for lasers, displays, or cell phones, for example. Due to its chemical similarities with the lanthanides, Y is often considered a rare earth element (REE). Despite their increased usage, the environmental behavior of REEs remains poorly understood. Especially regarding their interactions with plants, many uncertainties exist. On the one hand, Y is known to have a negative effect on root development and germination, but on the other hand, it appears to promote plant growth at low concentrations. In order to understand these phenomena, a precise knowledge is necessary about how Y is absorbed by the plant and how it is handled once inside the organism. Contradictory studies exist, stating that due to a similar ionic radius, Y and the other REEs might be absorbed through Ca²⁺-channels, while others suspect that Y has a shared pathway with Al³⁺. In this study, laser ablation coupled ICP-MS, and synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (µXRF, beamline Nanoscopium, SOLEIL, France) have been used in order to localize Y within the plant tissue and identify associated elements. The plant used in this study is Saxifraga paniculata, a rugged alpine plant that has shown an affinity for Y in previous studies (in prep.). Furthermore, Saxifraga paniculata performs guttation, which means that it possesses phloem sap secreting openings on the leaf surface that serve to regulate root pressure. These so-called hydathodes could provide special insights in elemental transport in plants. The plants have been grown on Y doped soil (500mg/kg DW) for four months. The results showed that Y was mainly concentrated in the roots of Saxifraga paniculata (260 ± 85mg/kg), and only a small amount was translocated to the leaves (10 ± 7.8mg/kg). µXRF analysis indicated that within the root transects, the majority of Y remained in the epidermis and hardly penetrated the stele. Laser ablation coupled ICP-MS confirmed this finding and showed a positive correlation in the roots between Y, Fe, Al, and to a lesser extent Ca. In the stem transect, Y was mainly detected in a hotspot of approximately 40µm in diameter situated in the endodermis area. Within the stem and especially in the hotspot, Y was highly colocalized with Al and Fe. Similar-sized Y hotspots have been detected in/on the leaves. All of them were strongly colocalized with Al and Fe, except for those situated within the hydathodes, which showed no colocalization with any of the measured elements. Accordingly, a relation between Y and Ca during root uptake remains possible, whereas a correlation to Fe and Al appears to be dominant in the aerial parts, suggesting common storage compartments, the formation of complexes, or a shared pathway during translocation.

Keywords: laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), Phytoaccumulation, Rare earth elements, Saxifraga paniculata, Synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence, Yttrium

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18 The Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata and Chromolaena odorata Plant Extract against Malaria Parasite

Authors: Funmilola O. Omoya, Abdul O. Momoh

Abstract:

Malaria constitutes one of the major health problems in Nigeria. One of the reasons attributed for the upsurge was the development of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum and the emergence of multi-resistant strains of the parasite to anti-malaria drugs. A continued search for other effective, safe and cheap plant-based anti-malaria agents thus becomes imperative in the face of these difficulties. The objective of this study is therefore to evaluate the in vivo anti-malarial efficacy of ethanolic extracts of Chromolaena odorata and Androgaphis paniculata leaves. The two plants were evaluated for their anti-malaria efficacy in vivo in a 4-day curative test assay against Plasmodium berghei strain in mice. The group treated with 500mg/ml dose of ethanolic extract of A. paniculata plant showed parasite suppression with increase in Packed Cell Volume (PCV) value except day 3 which showed a slight decrease in PCV value. During the 4-day curative test, an increase in the PCV values, weight measurement and zero count of Plasmodium berghei parasite values was recorded after day 3 of drug administration. These results obtained in group treated with A. paniculata extract showed anti-malarial efficacy with higher mortality rate in parasitaemia count when compared with Chromolaena odorata group. These results justify the use of ethanolic extracts of A. paniculata plant as medicinal herb used in folklore medicine in the treatment of malaria.

Keywords: anti-malaria, curative, plant-based anti-malaria agents, biology

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17 Cardioprotective Effect of the Leaf Extract of Andrographis Paniculata in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Emmanuel Ikechuckwu Onwubuya, Afees Adebayo Oladejo

Abstract:

Background: The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of chronic diseases especially myocardial infarction, is gaining wide acceptance globally. Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) is a medicinal plant commonly known as the king of bitters in Nigeria and has been acclaimed for several therapeutic activities. Materials and methods: This study investigated the cardio-protective effect of the leaf extract of A. paniculata in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Fresh green leaves of A paniculata were harvested from the Faculty of Agriculture farmland, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Identification and authentication of the plant were carried out at the Department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University and a voucher specimen was deposited at the herbarium. The plant material was then shredded, air-dried under shade and pulverized. The fine powders obtained were weighed and extraction was done via a solvent combination of water and ethanol (3:7) for 72 hr via maceration. The filtrate gotten was evaporated to dryness to obtain the ethanol extract, which was used for further bioassay study. The bioactive constituents of the plant extract were quantitatively analyzed by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The animals were administered the extract of A. paniculata orally for seven days at a divided dose of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weights. On the eighth day, myocardial infarction was induced through subcutaneous administration of isoproterenol at a dose of 150 mg/kg/day diluted in 2 ml of saline on two consecutive days. Subsequently, the blood pressures were monitored and blood was collected for bioassay studies. Results: The results of the study showed that the leaf extract of A. paniculata was rich in Dodecanoic acid (8.261%), 4-Dibenzofuranamine (6.03%), Cyclotrisiloxane (4.679 %). The findings also showed a significant decrease (p>0.05) in the Mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, creatinine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities of the treatment group compared with the untreated control group while the antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione) activities were significantly increased in the treatment group, compared with the untreated control group. Conclusion: The findings of this work have shown that the leaf of A. paniculata was rich in bioactive compounds, which could be synthesized to produce plant-based products to fight cardiovascular diseases, especially myocardial infarction.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, medicinal plant, andrographis paniculata, isoproterenol

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16 The Understanding of Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Diabetic Rats Treated with Andrographis paniculata and Erythrina indica Methanol Extract

Authors: Chakrapani Pullagummi, Arun Jyothi Bheemagani, B. Chandra Sekhar Singh, Prem Kumar, A. Roja Rani

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus describes a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion and its action. The objective of present study was alloxan induced diabetes in S.D (Sprague Dawley) rats, treated with leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata and bark extract of Erythrina indica. Plant extract treated rats were analyzed biochemically and molecularly. on normal and diabetic rats. The changes in MDA (lipid peroxidation) and glucose (by GOD method) levels in blood of both normal and diabetic rat were analyzed. Diabetes induced rats were treated with methanolic extracts of Andrographis paniculata leaf and Erythrina indica bark which are of medicinal importance. Later after inducing diabetes the rats were treated with medicinal plant extracts, Andrographis paniculata leaf and Erythrina indica bark which are well known for their anti diabetic and antioxidative property in order to control the glucose and MDA levels. The blood plasma of diabetic and normal rats was analyzed for the levels of MDA (lipid peroxidation) and glucose levels. Results of this study suggested that the Andrographis paniculata leaf and Erythrina indica can be used as a potential natural antidiabetic agent for treating and postponing the appearance of complications that arise due to Diabetes. Molecular study deals with the analysis of binding mechanism of 2 selected natural compounds from Andrographis and Erythrina extracts against the novel target for type T2D namely PPAR-γ compared with Rosiglitazone (standard compound). The results revealed that most of the selected herbal lead compounds were effective targets against the receptors. These compounds showed favorable interactions with the amino acid residues thereby substantiating their proven efficacy as anti-diabetic compounds.

Keywords: andrographis paniculata, erythrina indica, alloxan, lipid peroxidation, blood glucose level, PPAR-γ

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15 Hepatoprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Terminalia paniculata against Anti-Tubercular Drugs (ATT) Induced Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Albino Rats

Authors: Mohana Babu Amberkar, Meena Kumari K, Ravi, Arjun, Christopher Rockson

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Terminalia paniculata (Tp) against ATT induced hepatic damage in rats.Three hepatotoxic ATT drugs Isoniazid + Rifampicin + Pyrazinamide, silymarin as standard hepatoprotective drug and 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as a control were used. Tp extract and silymarin were administered orally with ATT drugs for 90 days. Two doses 250 and 500 mg/kg of Tp extract, ATT drugs and silymarin were administered as suspensions with 0.5% CMC. ATT treated rats showed a significant increase in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and lipid peroxides in the serum vs. control. Treatment of silymarin and Tp (250mg/kg) extract showed hepatoprotective activity against the hepatic damage by ATT. This was evident from significant reduction in serum liver enzymes levels, and also there was a significant increase in serum proteins, albumin and total liver tissue thiols as compared to the ATT treated groups. Tp was found to possess hepatoprotective property.

Keywords: antitubercular drugs, hepatoprotective, liver enzymes, Terminalia paniculata

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14 Standardization of Propagation Techniques for Celastrus paniculata: An Endangered Medicinal Plant of Western Ghats

Authors: Raviraja Shetty G., K. G. Poojitha

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted at College of Horticulture, Mudigere to study the effect of different growth regulators on seed germination and vegetative propagation by cuttings of Celastrus paniculata an endangered medicinal plant. The extracted seeds are subjected to 11 different pre-soaking treatments which include control, GA3 at 300, 350, 400ppm, KNO3 at 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, H2SO4 at 0.5%, 1.0% and HCl 0.5%,1.0% for 100 seeds per treatment. Among the different germination inducing treatments, seeds treated with gibberellins responded well with high seed germination and vigorous seedling growth. The seeds treated with GA3 400 ppm recorded maximum germination and growth parameters like rate of germination, shoot length, root length, plant vigour, fresh and dry weight of which was followed GA3 350 ppm. The commencement of germination and 50 per cent germination was also earlier in the same treatment. The cuttings of C. paniculata took more time for root initiation up to four months and sprouting percent was moderate as compared to other easy to root species. Among different treatments, IBA 2000 ppm was found to be the best, which recorded the maximum shoot and also root parameters. The results of present investigation will be helpful for conservation of this endangered medicinal plant through propagation

Keywords: conservation, germination, growth, germination, propagation

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13 Application of Liquid Chromatographic Method for the in vitro Determination of Gastric and Intestinal Stability of Pure Andrographolide in the Extract of Andrographis paniculata

Authors: Vijay R. Patil, Sathiyanarayanan Lohidasan, K. R. Mahadik

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Gastrointestinal stability of andrographolide was evaluated in vitro in simulated gastric (SGF) and intestinal (SIF) fluids using a validated HPLC-PDA method. The method was validated using a 5μm ThermoHypersil GOLD C18column (250 mm × 4.0 mm) and mobile phase consisting of water: acetonitrile; 70: 30 (v/v) delivered isocratically at a flow rate of 1 mL/min with UV detection at 228 nm. Andrographolide in pure form and extract Andrographis paniculata was incubated at 37°C in an incubator shaker in USP simulated gastric and intestinal fluids with and without enzymes. Systematic protocol as per FDA Guidance System was followed for stability study and samples were assayed at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min intervals for gastric and at 0, 15, 30, 60 min, 1, 2 and 3 h for intestinal stability study. Also, the stability study was performed up to 24 h to see the degradation pattern in SGF and SIF (with enzyme and without enzyme). The developed method was found to be accurate, precise and robust. Andrographolide was found to be stable in SGF (pH ∼ 1.2) for 1h and SIF (pH 6.8) up to 3 h. The relative difference (RD) of amount of drug added and found at all time points was found to be < 3%. The present study suggests that drug loss in the gastrointestinal tract takes place may be by membrane permeation rather than a degradation process.

Keywords: andrographolide, Andrographis paniculata, in vitro, stability, gastric, Intestinal HPLC-PDA

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12 Somatic Hybridization of between Citrus and Murraya paniculata Cells Applied by Electro-Fusion

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin

Abstract:

Protoplasts isolated from embryogenic callus of Citrus sinensis were electrically used with mesophyll protoplasts isolated from seedless Citrus relatives. Hybrid of somatic embryos plantlets was obtained after 7 months of culture. Somatic hybrid plants were regenerated into normal seedlings and successfully transferred to soil after strictly acclimatization in the glass pot. The somatic hybrid plants were obtained by screening on the basis of chromosomes count. The number of chromosome of root tip counting revealed plantlets tetraploids (2n = 4x = 36) and the other were diploids (2n = 2x = 18) morphologically resembling the mesophyll parent. This somatic hybrid will be utilized as a possible pollen parent for improving the Citrus sinensis. A complete protoplast-to-plant system of somatic hybrid was developed for Citrus sinensis and Citrus relatives which could facilitate the transfer of nuclear and cytoplasmic genes from this species into cultivated Citrus through protoplast fusion.

Keywords: chromosome, Murraya paniculata, protoplast fusion, somatic hybrid, tetrapoliod

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11 Protoplast Cultures of Murraya paniculata L. Jack and Their Regeneration into Plant Precocious Flowering

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin

Abstract:

Protoplasts isolated from embryogenic callus of Murraya paniculata (L. Jack.) were cultured in MT (Murashige and Tucker, 1969) basal medium containing 5% sucrose supplemented with kinetin, malt extract (ME) and 0.6 M sorbitol. About 85% of the surviving protoplasts formed a cell wall within 6 d of culture and the first cell division was observed 7 days after isolation. The highest plating effi¬ciency was obtained on MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose supplemented with 0.01 mg 1-1 kinetin 600 mg 1-1 ME, MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose and supplemented with 0.01 mg 1-1 Indole-acetic-acid (IAA) was found to be a medium suitable for the development somatic embryos into heart-shaped somatic embryos. The highest percentage of shoot formation was obtained using 0.1 mg 1-1 Indole-acitic-acid (IAA) 0..1 mg 1-1 gibberellic acid (GA3). In this investigation 40 plants were survived and grew normally in the soil. After two months maitained in the soil plants formed flower and flower developed into fruits on the soil treated with BA.

Keywords: gibberellic-acid, indole-acetic-acid, protoplast, precocious-flowering, somatic-embryo

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10 Somatic Embryogenesis Derived from Protoplast of Murraya Paniculata L. Jack and Their Regeneration into Plant Flowering in vitro

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin

Abstract:

The in vitro flowering of orange jessamine plantlets derived from protoplast was affected by the manipulation of plant growth regulators, sugar and light conditions. MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose and supplemented with 0.001 mg 1-1 indole-acetic-acid was found to be a suitable medium for development of globular somatic embryos derived from protoplasts to form heart-shaped somatic embryos with cotyledon-like structures. The highest percentage (85 %) of flowering was achieved with plantlet on half-strength MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose and 0.001 mg1-1 indole-acetic-acid in light. Exposure to darkness for more than 3 weeks followed by re-exposure to light reduced flowering. Flowering required a 10-day exposure to indole-acetic-acid. Photoperiod with 18 h and 79.4 µmol m-2 s-1 light intensity promoted in vitro flowering in high frequencies. The sucrose treatment affected the flower bud size distribution. Flower buds originating from plantlet derived from protoplasts developed into normal flowers.

Keywords: indole-acetc-acid, light-intensity, Murraya-paniculata, photoperiod, plantlet, Zeatin

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9 Comparative Antihyperglycemic Activity of Serpentina (Andrographis paniculata) and Papait (Mollugo oppositifolia linn) Aqueous Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

Authors: Karina Marie G. Nicolas, Kimberly M. Visaya, Emmanuel R. Cauinian

Abstract:

A comparative study on the antihyperglycemic activity of aqueous extracts of Serpentina (Andrographis paniculata) and Papait (Mollugo oppositifolia linn) administered at 400mg/kg body weight per orem twice daily for 14 days was investigated using 24 alloxan-induced diabetic male, 6-8 weeks old ICR mice and Metformin as standard control. The blood glucose levels of all the animals in the treatment groups were not reduced to < 200mg/dl so as to consider them as non-diabetic but Papait showed a consistent blood glucose lowering effect from day 0 to 14 causing 36.07% reduction as compared to Serpentina which was observed to cause a fluctuating effect on blood glucose levels and a reduction of only 22.53% while the Metformin treated animals exhibited the highest reduction at 45.29%. The blood glucose levels at day 14 of animals treated with Papait (322.93 mg/dl) had comparable blood glucose levels (p<0.05) with the Metformin treated groups (284.50 mg/dl). Also, all the animals in the three treatment groups were still hypercholesterolemic with an observed consistent weight loss and a decrease in feed intake except for Serpentina which recorded a slight increase. Results of the study showed a superior antihyperglycemic activity of Papait compared with Serpentina.

Keywords: antihyperglycemic, diabetes, hypercholesterolemic, papait, serpentina

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8 Empirical Measures to Enhance Germination Potential and Control Browning of Tissue Cultures of Andrographis paniculata

Authors: Nidhi Jindal, Ashok Chaudhury, Manisha Mangal

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Andrographis paniculata, (Burm f.) Wallich ex. Nees (Family Acanthaceae) popularly known as King of Bitters, is an important medicinal herb. It has an astonishingly wide range of medicinal properties such as anti-inflammatory,antidiarrhoeal, antiviral, antimalarial, hepatoprotective, cardiovascular, anticancer, and immunostimulatory activities. It is widely cultivated in southern Asia. Though propagation of this herb generally occurs through seeds, it has many germination problems which intrigued scientists to work out on the alternative techniques for its mass production. The potential of tissue culture techniques as an alternative tool for AP multiplication was found to be promising. However, the high mortality rate of explants caused by phenolic browning of explants is one of the difficulties reported. Low multiplication rates were reported in the proliferation phase, as well as cultures decline characterized by leaf fall and loss of overall vigor. In view of above problems, a study was undertaken to overcome seed dormancy to improve germination potential and to investigate further on the possible means for successful proliferation of cultures via preventive approaches to overcome failures caused by phenolic browning. Experiments were conducted to improve germination potential and among all the chemical and mechanical trials, scarification of seeds with sand paper proved to be the best method to enhance the germination potential (82.44%) within 7 days. Similarly, several pretreatments and media combinations were tried to overcome browning of explants leading to the conclusion that addition of 0.1% citric acid and 0.2% of ascorbic acid in the media followed by rapid sub culturing of explants controlled browning and decline of explants by 67.45%.

Keywords: plant tissue culture, empirical measure, germination, tissue culture

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7 A Moving Target: Causative Factors for Geographic Variation in a Handed Flower

Authors: Celeste De Kock, Bruce Anderson, Corneile Minnaar

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Geographic variation in the floral morphology of a flower species has often been assumed to result from co-variation in the availability of regionally-specific functional pollinator types, giving rise to plant ecotypes that are adapted to the morphology of the main pollinator types in that area. Wachendorfia paniculata is a geographically variable enantiostylous (handed) flower with preliminary observations suggesting that differences in pollinator community composition might be driving differences in the degree of herkogamy (spatial separation of the stigma and anthers on the same flower) across its geographic range. This study aimed to determine if pollinator-related variables such as visitation rate and pollinator type could explain differences in floral morphology seen in different populations. To assess pollinator community compositions, pollinator visitation rates, and the degree of herkogamy and flower size, flowers from 13 populations were observed and measured across the Western Cape, South Africa. Multiple regression analyses indicated that pollinator-related variables had no significant effect on the degree of herkogamy between sites. However, the degree of herkogamy was strongly negatively associated with the time of measurement. It remains possible that pollinators have had an effect on the development of herkogamy throughout the evolutionary timeline of different W. paniculata populations, but not necessarily to the fine-scale degree, as was predicted for this study. Annual fluctuations in pollinator community composition, paired with recent disturbances such as urbanization and the overabundance of artificially introduced honeybee hives, might also result in the signal of pollinator adaptation getting lost. Surprisingly, differences in herkogamy between populations could largely be explained by the time of day at which flowers were measured, suggesting a significant narrowing of the distance between reproductive parts throughout the day. We propose that this floral movement could possibly be an adaptation to ensure pollination if pollinator visitation to a flower was not sufficient earlier in the day, and will be explored in subsequent studies.

Keywords: enantiostyly, floral movement, geographic variation, ecotypes

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6 Treatment of Mycotic Dermatitis in Domestic Animals with Poly Herbal Drug

Authors: U. Umadevi, T. Umakanthan

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Globally, mycotic dermatitis is very common but there is no single proven specific allopathic treatment regimen. In this study, domestic animals with skin diseases of different age and breed from geographically varied regions of Tamil Nadu state, India were employed. Most of them have had previous treatment with native and allopathic medicines without success. Clinically, the skin lesions were found to be mild to severe. The trial animals were treated with poly herbal formulation (ointment) prepared using the indigenous medicinal plants – viz Andrographis paniculata, Lawsonia inermis and Madhuca longifolia. Allopathic antifungal drugs and ointments, povidone iodine and curabless (Terbinafine HCl, Ofloxacin, Ornidazole, Clobetasol propionate) were used in control. Comparatively, trial animals were found to have lesser course of treatment time and higher recovery rate than control. In Ethnoveterinary, this combination was tried for the first time. This herbal formulation is economical and an alternative for skin diseases.

Keywords: allopathic drugs, dermatitis, domestic animals, poly herbal formulation

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5 Morphological and Molecular Identification of Endophytic Colletotrichum Species from Medicinal Plants and Their Antimicrobial Potential

Authors: Gauravi Agarkar, Mahendra Rai

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Endophytic fungi from medicinal plants are important source of numerous pharmacologically important compounds. In the present investigation, the endophytic fungi were isolated from three medicinal plants; Andrographis paniculata, Rauwolfia serpentina and Tridax procumbens. Endophytic Colletotrichum sp. were identified on the basis of cultural and morphological characteristics as well as internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of the ethyl acetate and methanol extract of endophytic Colletotrichum sp. was evaluated against seven different human pathogenic bacteria and six Candida sp. The extracts were effective and showed significant activity against all the test pathogens. In case of yeast Candida, the combined effect of extracts and standard antibiotic was enhanced greatly showing synergistic activity. Further, the extracts were assayed for Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal/Fungicidal Concentration (MBC/MFC) where, MIC values were in the range of 100-250 μg/ml. These results suggest that the endophytic Colletotrichum sp. isolated from the medicinal plants are capable of producing promising antimicrobial metabolites.

Keywords: antimicrobial, colletotrichum, endophytic fungi, medicinal plants

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4 Beneficial Effect of Micropropagation Coupled with Mycorrhization on Enhancement of Growth Performance of Medicinal Plants

Authors: D. H. Tejavathi

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Medicinal plants are globally valuable sources of herbal products. Wild populations of many medicinal plants are facing threat of extinction because of their narrow distribution, endemicity, and degradation of specific habitats. Micropropagation is an established in vitro technique by which large number of clones can be obtained from a small bit of explants in a short span of time within a limited space. Mycorrhization can minimize the transient transplantation shock, experienced by the micropropagated plants when they are transferred from lab to land. AM fungal association improves the physiological status of the host plants through better uptake of water and nutrients, particularly phosphorus. Consequently, the growth performance and biosynthesis of active principles are significantly enhanced in AM fungal treated plants. Bacopa monnieri, Andrographis paniculata, Agave vera-curz, Drymaria cordata and Majorana hortensis, important medicinal plants used in various indigenous systems of medicines, are selected for the present study. They form the main constituents of many herbal formulations. Standard in vitro techniques were followed to obtain the micropropagated plants. Shoot tips and nodal segments were used as explants. Explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog, and Phillips and Collins media supplemented with various combinations of growth regulators. Multiple shoots were obtained on a media containing both auxins and cytokinins at various concentrations and combinations. Multiple shoots were then transferred to rooting media containing auxins for root induction. Thus, obtained in vitro regenerated plants were subjected to brief acclimatization before transferring them to land. One-month-old in vitro plants were treated with AM fungi, and the symbiotic effect on the overall growth parameters was analyzed. It was found that micropropagation coupled with mycorrhization has significant effect on the enhancement of biomass and biosynthesis of active principles in these selected medicinal plants. In vitro techniques coupled with mycorrhization have opened a possibility of obtaining better clones in respect of enhancement of biomass and biosynthesis of active principles. Beneficial effects of AM fungal association with medicinal plants are discussed.

Keywords: cultivation, medicinal plants, micropropagation, mycorrhization

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3 Climate Impact on Spider Mite (Tetranychus Sp. Koch) Infesting Som Plant Leaves (Machilus Bombycina King) and Their Sustainable Management

Authors: Sunil Kumar Ghosh

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Som plant (Machilus bombycina King) is an important plant in agroforestry system. It is cultivated in north -east part of India. It is cultivated in agricultural land by the marginal farmers for multi-storeyed cultivation with intercropping. Localized cottage industries are involved with this plant like sericulture industry (muga silk worm cultivation). Clothes are produced from this sericulture industry. Leaves of som plants are major food of muga silk worm ( Antherea assama ). Nutritional value of leaves plays an important role in the larval growth and silk productivity. The plant also has timber value. The plant is susceptible to mite pest (Tetranychus sp.) causes heavy damage to tender leaves. Lower population was recorded during 7th to 38th standard week, during 3rd week of February to 4th week of September and higher population was during 46th to 51st standard week, during 3rd week of November to 3rd week of December and peak population (6.06/3 leaves) was recorded on 46th standard week that is on 3rd week of November. Correlation studies revealed that mite population had a significant negative correlation with temperature and non-significant positive correlation with relative humidity. This indicates that activity of mites population increase with the rise of relative humidity and decrease with the rise of temperature. Tobacco leaf extracts was found most effective against mite providing 40.51% suppression, closely followed by extracts of Spilanthes (39.06% suppression). Extracts of Garlic and extracts of Polygonum plant gave moderate results, recording about 38.10% and 37.78% mite suppression respectively. The polygonum (Polygonum hydropiper) plant (floral parts), pongamia (Pongamia pinnata) leaves, garlic (Allium sativum), spilanthes (Spilanthes paniculata) (floral parts) were extracted in methanol. Synthetic insecticides contaminate plant leaves with the toxic chemicals. Plant extracts are of biological origin having low or no hazardous effect on health and environment and so can be incorporated in organic cultivation.

Keywords: Abiotic factors, incidence, botanical extracts, organic cultivation, silk industry

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2 Climate Change Impact on Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) Population Infesting Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus) in Sub-Himalayan India and Their Sustainable Management Using Biopesticides

Authors: Sunil Kumar Ghosh

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Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus L.) is an annual vegetable crop grown in the sub-Himalayan region of north east India throughout the year except rainy season in normal field cultivation. The crop is susceptible to various insect pests of which whitefly (Bemesia tabaci Genn.) causes heavy damage. Thus, a study on its occurrence and sustainable management is needed for successful cultivation. The pest was active throughout the growing period. During 38th standard week to 41st standard week that is during 3rd week of September to 2nd week of October minimum population was observed. The maximum population level was maintained during 11th standard week to 18th standard week that is during 2nd week of March to 3rd week of March with peak population (0.47/leaf) was recorded. Weekly population counts on white fly showed non-significant negative correlation (p=0.05) with temperature and weekly total rainfall where as significant negative correlation with relative humidity. Eight treatments were taken to study the management of the white fly pest such as botanical insecticide azadirachtin botanical extracts, Spilanthes paniculata flower, Polygonum hydropiper L. flower, tobacco leaf and garlic and mixed formulation like neem and floral extract of Spilanthes were evaluated and compared with the ability of acetamiprid. The insectide acetamiprid was found most lethal against whitefly providing 76.59% suppression, closely followed by extracts of neem + Spilanthes providing 62.39% suppression. Spectophotometric scanning of crude methanolic extract of Polygonum flower showed strong absorbance wave length between 645-675 nm. Considering the level of peaks of wave length the flower extract contain some important chemicals like Spirilloxanthin, Quercentin diglycoside, Quercentin 3-O-rutinoside, Procyanidin B1 and Isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside. These chemicals are responsible for pest control. Spectophotometric scanning of crude methanolic extract of Spilanthes flower showed strong absorbance wave length between 645-675 nm. Considering the level of peaks of wave length the flower extract contain some important chemicals of which polysulphide compounds are important and responsible of pest control. Neem and Spilanthes individually did not produce good results but when used as a mixture they recorded better results. Highest yield (30.15 t/ha) were recorded from acetamiprid treated plots followed by neem + Spilanthes (27.55 t/ha). Azadirachtin and Plant extracts are biopesticides having less or no hazardous effects on human health and environment. Thus they can be incorporated in IPM programmes and organic farming in vegetable cultivation.

Keywords: biopesticides, organic farming, seasonal fluctuation, vegetable IPM

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1 Chemopreventive Efficacy of Andrographolide in Rat Colon Carcinogenesis Model Using Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF) as Endpoint Marker

Authors: Maryam Hajrezaie, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Nazia Abdul Majid, Hapipa Mohd Ali, Pouya Hassandarvish, Maryam Zahedi Fard

Abstract:

Background: Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in the world and is the third leading cause of death among cancers in both males and females. The incidence of colon cancer is ranked fourth among all cancers but varies in different parts of the world. Cancer chemoprevention is defined as the use of natural or synthetic compounds capable of inducing biological mechanisms necessary to preserve genomic fidelity. Andrographolide is the major labdane diterpenoidal constituent of the plant Andrographis paniculata (family Acanthaceae), used extensively in the traditional medicine. Extracts of the plant and their constituents are reported to exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activities of therapeutic importance. Laboratory animal model studies have provided evidence that Andrographolide play a role in inhibiting the risk of certain cancers. Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the chemopreventive efficacy of the Andrographolide in the AOM induced rat model. Methods: To evaluate inhibitory properties of andrographolide on colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF), five groups of 7-week-old male rats were used. Group 1 (control group) were fed with 10% Tween 20 once a day, Group 2 (cancer control) rats were intra-peritoneally injected with 15 mg/kg Azoxymethan, Gropu 3 (drug control) rats were injected with 15 mg/kg azoxymethan and 5-Flourouracil, Group 4 and 5 (experimental groups) were fed with 10 and 20 mg/kg andrographolide each once a day. After 1 week, the treatment group rats received subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane, 15 mg/kg body weight, once weekly for 2 weeks. Control rats were continued on Tween 20 feeding once a day and experimental groups 10 and 20 mg/kg andrographolide feeding once a day for 8 weeks. All rats were sacrificed 8 weeks after the azoxymethane treatment. Colons were evaluated grossly and histopathologically for ACF. Results: Administration of 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg andrographolide were found to be effectively chemoprotective, as evidenced microscopily and biochemically. Andrographolide suppressed total colonic ACF formation up to 40% to 60%, respectively, when compared with control group. Pre-treatment with andrographolide, significantly reduced the impact of AOM toxicity on plasma protein and urea levels as well as on plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities. Grossly, colorectal specimens revealed that andrographolide treatments decreased the mean score of number of crypts in AOM-treated rats. Importantly, rats fed andrographolide showed 75% inhibition of foci containing four or more aberrant crypts. The results also showed a significant increase in glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide (NO), and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) activities and a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Histologically all treatment groups showed a significant decrease of dysplasia as compared to control group. Immunohistochemical staining showed up-regulation of Hsp70 and down-regulation of Bax proteins. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated that Andrographolide reduce the number of ACF. According to these data, Andrographolide might be a promising chemoprotective activity, in a model of AOM-induced in ACF.

Keywords: chemopreventive, andrographolide, colon cancer, aberrant crypt foci (ACF)

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