Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 331

Search results for: earthquakes

331 Seismic Hazard Analysis for a Multi Layer Fault System: Antalya (SW Turkey) Example

Authors: Nihat Dipova, Bulent Cangir

Abstract:

This article presents the results of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Antalya (SW Turkey). South west of Turkey is characterized by large earthquakes resulting from the continental collision between the African, Arabian and Eurasian plates and crustal faults. Earthquakes around the study area are grouped into two; crustal earthquakes (D=0-50 km) and subduction zone earthquakes (50-140 km). Maximum observed magnitude of subduction earthquakes is Mw=6.0. Maximum magnitude of crustal earthquakes is Mw=6.6. Sources for crustal earthquakes are faults which are related with Isparta Angle and Cyprus Arc tectonic structures. A new earthquake catalogue for Antalya, with unified moment magnitude scale has been prepared and seismicity of the area around Antalya city has been evaluated by defining ‘a’ and ‘b’ parameters of the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relationship. The Standard Cornell-McGuire method has been used for hazard computation utilizing CRISIS2007 software. Attenuation relationships proposed by Chiou and Youngs (2008) has been used for 0-50 km earthquakes and Youngs et. al (1997) for deep subduction earthquakes. Finally, Seismic hazard map for peak horizontal acceleration on a uniform site condition of firm rock (average shear wave velocity of about 1130 m/s) at a hazard level of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years has been prepared.

Keywords: Antalya, peak ground acceleration, seismic hazard assessment, subduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
330 Seismic Activity in the Lake Kivu Basin: Implication for Seismic Risk Management

Authors: Didier Birimwiragi Namogo

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The Kivu Lake Basin is located in the Western Branch of the East African Rift. In this basin is located a multitude of active faults, on which earthquakes occur regularly. The most recent earthquakes date from 2008, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2019. The cities of Bukabu and Goma in DR Congo and Giseyi in Rwanda are the most impacted by this intense seismic activity in the region. The magnitude of the strongest earthquakes in the region is 6.1. The 2008 earthquake was particularly destructive, killing several people in DR Congo and Rwanda. This work aims to complete the distribution of seismicity in the region, deduce areas of weakness and establish a hazard map that can assist in seismic risk management. Using the local seismic network of the Goma Volcano Observatory, the earthquakes were relocated, and their focus mechanism was studied. The results show that most of these earthquakes occur on active faults described by Villeneuve in 1938. The alignment of the earthquakes shows a pace that follows directly the directions of the faults described by this author. The study of the focus mechanism of these earthquakes, also shows that these are in particular normal faults whose stresses show an extensive activity. Such study can be used for the establishment of seismic risk management tools.

Keywords: earthquakes, hazard map, faults, focus mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
329 Co-Seismic Gravity Gradient Changes of the 2006–2007 Great Earthquakes in the Central Kuril Islands from GRACE Observations

Authors: Armin Rahimi

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In this study, we reveal co-seismic signals of two combined earthquakes, the 2006 Mw8.3 thrust and 2007 Mw8.1 normal fault earthquakes of the central Kuril Islands from GRACE observations. We compute monthly full gravitational gradient tensor in the local north-east-down frame for Kuril Islands earthquakes without spatial averaging and de-striping filters. Some of the gravitational gradient components (e.g. ΔVxx, ΔVxz) enhance high frequency components of the earth gravity field and reveal more details in spatial and temporal domain. Therefore that preseismic activity can be better illustrated. We show that the positive-negative-positive co-seismic ΔVxx due to the Kuril Islands earthquakes ranges from − 0.13 to + 0.11 milli Eötvös, and ΔVxz shows a positive-negative-positive pattern ranges from − 0.16 to + 0.13 milli Eötvös, agree well with seismic model predictions.

Keywords: GRACE observation, gravitational gradient changes, Kuril island earthquakes, PSGRN/PSCMP

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
328 Assessment of the Socio-Economic Impacts of Natural Hazards along the Mediterranean Coastal Zone of Egypt

Authors: Islam Abou El-Magd, Elham Ali, Ali Amasha

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Earthquakes strike without warning and cause widespread damage to social and economic infrastructures and creating life losses. These can neither be predicted nor prevented in terms of their magnitude, place, and time of occurrence. It is a global phenomenon that creates nearly 18% of life losses and nearly 35% of economic damage. The coastal zone of Egypt is considered low to medium risk, however, there is a record of high magnitude earthquakes that created Tsunami in the past. The northern coastal zone of Egypt is under the force of tension shear zones of African and European plates that have considerable earthquakes with variable degrees. This research studied the earthquakes in the last 65 years in the Mediterranean Basin in relation to the geotectonic shear zones. 85% of these earthquakes are in the marine that might create Tsunami. Aegean and Anatolia shear zones are the highest contributors of the earthquakes with nearly 37% and 36% respectively. However the least one is the Arabia zone with 1%, and Africa is about 26%. The research proposed three scenarios for the socioeconomic hazards, earthquakes with Tsunami that will destroy one fifth of the economic infrastructures with unpredictable life losses. The estimated cost of recovery of such losses is nearly 400B USD. The second scenario is earthquake without Tsunami that will impact the major urban and infrastructures. The last scenario is tidal gauges events that threaten the low-lying areas particularly the eastern side which has major land subsidence.

Keywords: natural hazards, earthquakes, tusnami, Nile delta, Egypt

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
327 The Scenario of Disaster Management in Nepal: A Case Study of Nepal Earthquakes, 2015

Authors: Sandesh Yadav

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Earthquake constitutes one of the most terrible natural hazards which often turn into a disaster or causing extensive devastation and loss of human lives and their properties. In the year 2015, Nepal experienced the most devastating earthquakes on 25th April, 2015 and 12th May, 2015 respectively. Several villages, towns, human constructions and their properties, lives were completely damaged. The hazardous effect of Nepal earthquakes depends not only on their magnitude of Richter Scale on intensity alone, but also on so many factors, such as geology of earth crust (lithology, elasticity, soil condition, permissible stress, rock structures etc.). The unscientifically and non-seismically designed buildings resulted in huge loss of life and property. Further, the loss due to earthquake can be grouped into three broad categories namely agriculture sector (loss of livestock, poultry and food stocks), industrial sector (mainly brick production industry) and infrastructural sector (transportation infrastructure). The present research study begins with the tracing of Geological history of earthquakes in Nepal along with identification of causes of Nepal earthquakes, 2015. Secondly, research study identifies the extent of tremors of earthquakes of 2015 in Nepal and surrounding areas along with their sphere of impact. Thirdly, the research study tries to assess the agricultural loss, industrial loss and infrastructural loss due to earthquakes in Nepal. Lastly, the research study ends with the various recommendations and suggestions in order to minimize the loss due to earthquakes in the future.

Keywords: earthquake, richter scale, sphere of impact, tremors

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
326 Earthquakes and Buildings: Lesson Learnt from Past Earthquakes in Turkey

Authors: Yavuz Yardım

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The most important criteria for structural engineering is the structure’s ability to carry intended loads safely. The key element of this ability is mathematical modeling of really loadings situation into a simple loads input to use in structure analysis and design. Amongst many different types of loads, the most challenging load is earthquake load. It is possible magnitude is unclear and timing is unknown. Therefore the concept of intended loads and safety have been built on experience of previous earthquake impact on the structures. Understanding and developing these concepts is achieved by investigating performance of the structures after real earthquakes. Damage after an earthquake provide results of thousands of full-scale structure test under a real seismic load. Thus, Earthquakes reveille all the weakness, mistakes and deficiencies of analysis, design rules and practice. This study deals with lesson learnt from earthquake recoded last two decades in Turkey. Results of investigation after several earthquakes exposes many deficiencies in structural detailing, inappropriate design, wrong architecture layout, and mainly mistake in construction practice.

Keywords: earthquake, seismic assessment, RC buildings, building performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
325 Earthquakes' Magnitude and Density Controls by Mechanical Stratigraphy in the Zagros, Iran

Authors: Asaad Pireh

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The Zagros fold and thrust belt is one of the most active seismic zones of Iran where hosts many people and considerable oil and gas resources. The Zagros fold and thrust belt, based on its stratigraphy has been divided into three provinces. Mechanical stratigraphy of these provinces is different together. Statistical analyses all of earthquakes which has happened in the Zagros fold and thrust belt from 1964 up to December 2014, shows that strong earthquakes have occurred within the southeastern part of these subdivisions which has a smaller ratio of incompetent to competent thickness and in the northwestern part of these subdivisions which has a greater ratio of incompetent to competent thickness has occurred the weakest earthquakes. The southeastern part of the Zagros has a higher seismic risk and northwestern part of these fold belt have a lower seismic risk.

Keywords: earthquake, mechanical stratigraphy, seismic risk, Zagros

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
324 The Effect of Sumatra Fault Earthquakes on West Malaysia

Authors: Noushin Naraghi Araghi, M. Nawawi, Syed Mustafizur Rahman

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This paper presents the effect of Sumatra fault earthquakes on west Malaysia by calculating the peak horizontal ground acceleration (PGA). PGA is calculated by a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA). A uniform catalog of earthquakes for the interest region has been provided. We used empirical relations to convert all magnitudes to Moment Magnitude. After eliminating foreshocks and aftershocks in order to achieve more reliable results, the completeness of the catalog and uncertainty of magnitudes have been estimated and seismicity parameters were calculated. Our seismic source model considers the Sumatran strike slip fault that is known historically to generate large earthquakes. The calculations were done using the logic tree method and four attenuation relationships and slip rates for different part of this fault. Seismic hazard assessment carried out for 48 grid points. Eventually, two seismic hazard maps based PGA for 5% and 10% probability of exceedance in 50 year are presented.

Keywords: Sumatra fault, west Malaysia, PGA, seismic parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
323 Seismic Performance of Nuclear Power Plant Structures Subjected to Korean Earthquakes

Authors: D. D. Nguyen, H. S. Park, S. W. Yang, B. Thusa, Y. M. Kim, T. H. Lee

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Currently, the design response spectrum (i.e., Nuclear Regulatory Commission - NRC 1.60 spectrum) with the peak ground acceleration (PGA) 0.3g (for Safe Shutdown Earthquake level) is specified for designing the new nuclear power plant (NPP) structures in Korea. However, the recent earthquakes in the region such as the 2016 Gyeongju and the 2017 Pohang earthquake showed that the possible PGA of ground motions can be larger than 0.3g. Therefore, there is a need to analyze the seismic performance of the existing NPP structures under these earthquakes. An NPP model, APR-1400, which is designed and built in Korea was selected for a case study. The NPP structure is numerically modeled in terms of lumped-mass stick elements using OpenSees framework. The floor acceleration and displacement of components are measured to quantify the responses of components. The numerical results show that the floor spectral accelerations are significantly amplified in the components subjected to Korean earthquakes. A comparison between floor response spectra of Korean earthquakes and the NRC design motion highlights that the seismic design level of NPP components under an earthquake should be thoroughly reconsidered. Additionally, a seismic safety assessment of the equipment and relays attached to main structures is also required.

Keywords: nuclear power plant, floor response spectra, Korean earthquake, NRC spectrum

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
322 Early Detection of Major Earthquakes Using Broadband Accelerometers

Authors: Umberto Cerasani, Luca Cerasani

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Methods for earthquakes forecasting have been intensively investigated in the last decades, but there is still no universal solution agreed by seismologists. Rock failure is most often preceded by a tiny elastic movement in the failure area and by the appearance of micro-cracks. These micro-cracks could be detected at the soil surface and represent useful earth-quakes precursors. The aim of this study was to verify whether tiny raw acceleration signals (in the 10⁻¹ to 10⁻⁴ cm/s² range) prior to the arrival of main primary-waves could be exploitable and related to earthquakes magnitude. Mathematical tools such as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), moving average and wavelets have been applied on raw acceleration data available on the ITACA web site, and the study focused on one of the most unpredictable earth-quakes, i.e., the August 24th, 2016 at 01H36 one that occurred in the central Italy area. It appeared that these tiny acceleration signals preceding main P-waves have different patterns both on frequency and time domains for high magnitude earthquakes compared to lower ones.

Keywords: earthquake, accelerometer, earthquake forecasting, seism

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
321 Earthquake Classification in Molluca Collision Zone Using Conventional Statistical Methods

Authors: H. J. Wattimanela, U. S. Passaribu, A. N. T. Puspito, S. W. Indratno

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Molluca Collision Zone is located at the junction of the Eurasian plate, Australian, Pacific, and the Philippines. Between the Sangihe arc, west of the collision zone, and to the east of Halmahera arc is active collision and convex toward the Molluca Sea. This research will analyze the behavior of earthquake occurrence in Molluca Collision Zone related to the distributions of an earthquake in each partition regions, determining the type of distribution of a occurrence earthquake of partition regions, and the mean occurrence of earthquakes each partition regions, and the correlation between the partitions region. We calculate number of earthquakes using partition method and its behavioral using conventional statistical methods. The data used is the data type of shallow earthquakes with magnitudes ≥ 4 SR for the period 1964-2013 in the Molluca Collision Zone. From the results, we can classify partitioned regions based on the correlation into two classes: strong and very strong. This classification can be used for early warning system in disaster management.

Keywords: molluca collision zone, partition regions, conventional statistical methods, earthquakes, classifications, disaster management

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
320 Identifying the Strength of Cyclones and Earthquakes Requiring Military Disaster Response

Authors: Chad A. Long

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The United States military is now commonly responding to complex humanitarian emergencies and natural disasters around the world. From catastrophic earthquakes in Haiti to typhoons devastating the Philippines, U.S. military assistance is requested when the event exceeds the local government's ability to assist the population. This study assesses the characteristics of catastrophes that surpass a nation’s individual ability to respond and recover from the event. The paper begins with a historical summary of military aid and then analyzes over 40 years of the United States military humanitarian response. Over 300 military operations were reviewed and coded based on the nature of the disaster. This in-depth study reviewed the U.S. military’s deployment events for cyclones and earthquakes to determine the strength of the natural disaster requiring external assistance. The climatological data for cyclone landfall and magnitude data for earthquake epicenters were identified, grouped into regions and analyzed for time-based trends. The results showed that foreign countries will likely request the U.S. military for cyclones with speeds greater or equal to 125 miles an hour and earthquakes at the magnitude of 7.4 or higher. These results of this study will assist the geographic combatant commands in determining future military response requirements.

Keywords: military, natural disasters, earthquakes, cyclone

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
319 Fractal Behaviour of Earthquake Sequences in Himalaya

Authors: Kamal, Adil Ahmad

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Earthquakes are among the most versatile natural and dynamic processes, and hence a fractal model is considered to be the best representative of the same. We present a novel method to process and analyse information hidden in earthquake sequences using Fractal Dimensions and Iterative Function Systems (IFS). Spatial and temporal variations in the fractal dimensions of seismicity observed around the Indian peninsula in last 30 years are studied. This was used as a possible precursor before large earthquakes in the region. IFS images for observed seismicity in the Himalayan belt were also obtained. We scan the whole data set and coarse grain of a selected window to reduce it to four bins. A critical analysis of four-cornered chaos-game clearly shows that the spatial variation in earthquake occurrences in Himalayan range is not random. Two subzones of Himalaya have a tendency to follow each other in time.

Keywords: earthquakes, fractals, Himalaya, iterated function systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
318 Seismicity and Source Parameter of Some Events in Abu Dabbab Area, Red Sea Coast

Authors: Hamed Mohamed Haggag

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Prior to 12 November 1955, no earthquakes have been reported from the Abu Dabbab area in the International Seismological Center catalogue (ISC). The largest earthquake in Abu Dabbab area occurred on November 12, 1955 with magnitude Mb 6.0. The closest station from the epicenter was at Helwan (about 700 km to the north), so the depth of this event is not constrained and no foreshocks or aftershocks were recorded. Two other earthquakes of magnitude Mb 4.5 and 5.2 took place in the same area on March 02, 1982 and July 02, 1984, respectively. Since the installation of Aswan Seismic Network stations in 1982, (250-300 km to the south-west of Abu Dabbab area) then the Egyptian Natoinal Seismic Network stations, it was possible to record some activity from Abu Dabbab area. The recorded earthquakes at Abu Dabbab area as recorded from 1982 to 2014 shows that the earthquake epicenters are distributed in the same direction of the main trends of the faults in the area, which is parallel to the Red Sea coast. The spectral analysis was made for some earthquakes. The source parameters, seismic moment (Mo), source dimension (r), stress drop (Δδ), and apparent stress (δ) are determined for these events. The spectral analysis technique was completed using MAG software program.

Keywords: Abu Dabbab, seismicity, seismic moment, source parameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
317 Android-Based Edugame Application for Earthquakes Disaster Mitigation Education

Authors: Endina P. Purwandari, Yolanda Hervianti, Feri Noperman, Endang W. Winarni

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The earthquakes disaster is an event that can threaten at any moment and cause damage and loss of life. Game earthquake disaster mitigation is a useful educational game to enhance children insight, knowledge, and understanding in the response to the impact of the earthquake. This study aims to build an educational games application on the Android platform as a learning media for earthquake mitigation education and to determine the effect of the application toward children understanding of the earthquake disaster mitigation. The methods were research and development. The development was to develop edugame application for earthquakes mitigation education. The research involved elementary students as a research sample to test the developed application. The research results were valid android-based edugame application, and its the effect of application toward children understanding. The application contains an earthquake simulation video, an earthquake mitigation video, and a game consisting three stages, namely before the earthquake, when the earthquake occur, and after the earthquake. The results of the feasibility test application showed that this application was included in the category of 'Excellent' which the average percentage of the operation of applications by 76%, view application by 67% and contents of application by 74%. The test results of students' responses were 80% that showed that a positive their responses toward the application. The student understanding test results show that the average score of children understanding pretest was 71,33, and post-test was 97,00. T-test result showed that t value by 8,02 more than table t by 2,001. This indicated that the earthquakes disaster mitigation edugame application based on Android platform affects the children understanding about disaster earthquake mitigation.

Keywords: android, edugame, mitigation, earthquakes

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
316 Seismic Active Zones and Mechanism of Earthquakes in Northern Egypt

Authors: Awad Hassoup, Sayed Abdallah, Mohamed Dahy

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Northern Egypt is known to be seismically active from the past several thousand years, based on the historical records and documents of eyewitnesses on one- hand and instrumental records on the other hand. Instrumental, historical and pre- historical seismicity data indicate that large destructive earthquakes have occurred quite frequently in the investigated area. The interaction of the African, Arabian, Eurasian plates and Sinai sub-plate is the main factor behind the seismicity of northern part of Egypt. All earthquakes occur at shallow depth and are concentrated at four seismic zones, these zones including the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, around the entrance of the Gulf of Suez and the fourth one is located at the south- west of great Cairo (Dahshour area). The seismicity map of the previous zones shows that the activity is coincide with the major tectonic trends of the Suez rift, Aqaba rift with their connection with the great rift system of the Red Sea and Gulf of Suez- Cairo- Alexandria trend. On the other hand, the focal mechanisms of some earthquakes occurred inside the studied area and having small to moderate size show a variety of patterns. The most predominant type is normal faulting.

Keywords: Northern Egypt, seismic active zone, seismicity, focal mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
315 Precursors Signatures of Few Major Earthquakes in Italy Using Very Low Frequency Signal of 45.9kHz

Authors: Keshav Prasad Kandel, Balaram Khadka, Karan Bhatta, Basu Dev Ghimire

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Earthquakes still exist as a threating disaster. Being able to predict earthquakes will certainly help prevent substantial loss of life and property. Perhaps, Very Low Frequency/Low Frequency (VLF/LF) signal band (3-30 kHz), which is effectively reflected from D-layer of ionosphere, can be established as a tool to predict earthquake. On May 20 and May 29, 2012, earthquakes of magnitude 6.1 and 5.8 respectively struck Emilia-Romagna of Italy. A year back, on August 24, 2016, an earthquake of magnitude 6.2 struck Central Italy (42.7060 N and 13.2230 E) at 1:36 UT. We present the results obtained from the US Navy VLF Transmitter’s NSY signal of 45.9 kHz transmitted from Niscemi, in the province of Sicily, Italy and received at the Kiel Longwave Monitor, Germany for 2012 and 2016. We analyzed the terminator times, their individual differences and nighttime fluctuation counts. We also analyzed trends, dispersion and nighttime fluctuation which gave us a possible precursors to these earthquakes. Since perturbations in VLF amplitude could also be due to various other factors like lightning, geomagnetic activities (storms, auroras etc.) and solar activities (flares, UV flux, etc.), we filtered the possible perturbations due to these agents to guarantee that the perturbations seen in VLF/LF amplitudes were as a precursor to Earthquakes. As our TRGCP path is North-south, the sunrise and sunset time in transmitter and receiver places matches making pathway for VLF/LF smoother and therefore hoping to obtain more natural data. To our surprise, we found many clear anomalies (as precursors) in terminator times 5 days to 16 days before the earthquakes. Moreover, using night time fluctuation method, we found clear anomalies 5 days to 13 days prior to main earthquakes. This exactly correlates with the findings of previous authors that ionospheric perturbations are seen few days to one month before the seismic activity. In addition to this, we were amazed to observe unexpected decrease of dispersion on certain anomalies where it was supposed to increase, thereby not supporting our finding to some extent. To resolve this problem, we devised a new parameter called dispersion nighttime (dispersion). On analyzing, this parameter decreases significantly on days of nighttime anomalies thereby supporting our precursors to much extent.

Keywords: D-layer, TRGCP (Transmitter Receiver Great Circle Path), terminator times, VLF/LF

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
314 Earth Tremors in Nigeria: A Precursor to Major Disaster?

Authors: Oluseyi Adunola Bamisaiye

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The frequency of occurrence of earth tremor in Nigeria has increased tremendously in recent years. Slow earthquakes/ tremor have preceded some large earthquakes in some other regions of the world and the Nigerian case may not be an exception. Timely and careful investigation of these tremors may reveal their relation to large earthquakes and provides important clues to constrain the slip rates on tectonic faults. Thus making it imperative to keep under watch and also study carefully the tectonically active terrains within the country, in order to adequately forecast, prescribe mitigation measures and in order to avoid a major disaster. This report provides new evidence of a slow slip transient in a strongly locked seismogenic zone of the Okemesi fold belt. The aim of this research is to investigate the different methods of earth tremor monitoring using fault slip analysis and mapping of Okemesi hills, which has been the most recent epicenter to most of the recent tremors.

Keywords: earth tremor, fault slip, intraplate activities, plate tectonics

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
313 Application of Soft Systems Methodology in Solving Disaster Emergency Logistics Problems

Authors: Alhasan Hakami, Arun Kumar, Sung J. Shim, Yousef Abu Nahleh

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In recent years, many high intensity earthquakes have occurred around the world, such as the 2011 earthquake in Tohoku, Japan. These large-scale disasters caused huge casualties and losses. In addition, inefficient disaster response operations also caused the second wave of casualties and losses, and expanded the damage. Effective disaster management can be used to respond to the chaotic situation, and reduce the damage. However, some inefficient disaster response operations are still used. Therefore, this case study chose the 921 earthquakes for analysing disaster emergency logistics problems and proposed the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) to solve disaster emergency logistics problems. Moreover, it analyses the effect of human factors on system operation, and suggests a solution to improve the system.

Keywords: soft systems methodology, emergency logistics, earthquakes, Japan, system operation

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
312 Classification Earthquake Distribution in the Banda Sea Collision Zone with Point Process Approach

Authors: H. J. Wattimanela, U. S. Passaribu, N. T. Puspito, S. W. Indratno

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Banda Sea collision zone (BSCZ) of is the result of the interaction and convergence of Indo-Australian plate, Eurasian plate and Pacific plate. This location in the eastern part of Indonesia. This zone has a very high seismic activity. In this research, we will be calculated rate (λ) and Mean Square Eror (MSE). By this result, we will identification of Poisson distribution of earthquakes in the BSCZ with the point process approach. Chi-square test approach and test Anscombe made in the process of identifying a Poisson distribution in the partition area. The data used are earthquakes with Magnitude ≥ 6 SR and its period 1964-2013 and sourced from BMKG Jakarta. This research is expected to contribute to the Moluccas Province and surrounding local governments in performing spatial plan document related to disaster management.

Keywords: molluca banda sea collision zone, earthquakes, mean square error, poisson distribution, chi-square test, anscombe test

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
311 Calculation of Instrumental Results of the Tohoku Earthquake, Japan (Mw 9.0) on March 11, 2011 and Other Destructive Earthquakes during Seismic Hazard Assessment

Authors: J. K. Karapetyan

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In this paper seismological-statistical analysis of actual instrumental data on the main tremor of the Great Japan earthquake 11.03.2011 is implemented for finding out the dependence between maximal values of peak ground accelerations (PGA) and epicentric distances. A number of peculiarities of manifestation of accelerations' maximum values at the interval of long epicentric distances are revealed which do not correspond with current scales of seismic intensity.

Keywords: earthquakes, instrumental records, seismic hazard, Japan

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
310 A Study on Holosen-Pleistosen Sedimentology of Morphotectonic Structure and Seismicity of Gökova Bay

Authors: Ebru Aktepe Erkoç, Atilla Uluğ

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In this research which has been prepared to show the relationship between Gökova Bay’s morphotectonic structure and seismicity, it is clear that there are many active faults in the region. The existence of a thick sedimentary accumulation since Late Quaternary times is obvious as a result of the geophysical workings in the region and the interpretation of seismic data which has been planning to be taken from the Bay. In the regions which have been tectonically active according to the interpretation of the taken data, the existence of the successive earthquakes in the last few years is remarkable. By analyzing large earthquakes affecting the areas remaining inside the sediments in West Anatolian Collapse System, this paper aims to reveal the fault systems constituting earthquakes with the information obtained from this study and to determine seismicity of the present residential areas right next to them. It is also aimed to anticipate the measures to be taken against possible earthquake hazards, to identify these areas posing a risk in terms of residential and urban planning and to determine at least partly the characteristics of the basin.

Keywords: Gökova Bay, sedimentation, seismic, West Anatolian

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
309 Space Weather and Earthquakes: A Case Study of Solar Flare X9.3 Class on September 6, 2017

Authors: Viktor Novikov, Yuri Ruzhin

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The studies completed to-date on a relation of the Earth's seismicity and solar processes provide the fuzzy and contradictory results. For verification of an idea that solar flares can trigger earthquakes, we have analyzed a case of a powerful surge of solar flash activity early in September 2017 during approaching the minimum of 24th solar cycle was accompanied by significant disturbances of space weather. On September 6, 2017, a group of sunspots AR2673 generated a large solar flare of X9.3 class, the strongest flare over the past twelve years. Its explosion produced a coronal mass ejection partially directed towards the Earth. We carried out a statistical analysis of the catalogs of earthquakes USGS and EMSC for determination of the effect of solar flares on global seismic activity. New evidence of earthquake triggering due to the Sun-Earth interaction has been demonstrated by simple comparison of behavior of Earth's seismicity before and after the strong solar flare. The global number of earthquakes with magnitude of 2.5 to 5.5 within 11 days after the solar flare has increased by 30 to 100%. A possibility of electric/electromagnetic triggering of earthquake due to space weather disturbances is supported by results of field and laboratory studies, where the earthquakes (both natural and laboratory) were initiated by injection of electrical current into the Earth crust. For the specific case of artificial electric earthquake triggering the current density at a depth of earthquake, sources are comparable with estimations of a density of telluric currents induced by variation of space weather conditions due to solar flares. Acknowledgment: The work was supported by RFBR grant No. 18-05-00255.

Keywords: solar flare, earthquake activity, earthquake triggering, solar-terrestrial relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
308 Seismic Behavior and Loss Assessment of High–Rise Buildings with Light Gauge Steel–Concrete Hybrid Structure

Authors: Bing Lu, Shuang Li, Hongyuan Zhou

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The steel–concrete hybrid structure has been extensively employed in high–rise buildings and super high–rise buildings. The light gauge steel–concrete hybrid structure, including light gauge steel structure and concrete hybrid structure, is a new–type steel–concrete hybrid structure, which possesses some advantages of light gauge steel structure and concrete hybrid structure. The seismic behavior and loss assessment of three high–rise buildings with three different concrete hybrid structures were investigated through finite element software, respectively. The three concrete hybrid structures are reinforced concrete column–steel beam (RC‒S) hybrid structure, concrete–filled steel tube column–steel beam (CFST‒S) hybrid structure, and tubed concrete column–steel beam (TC‒S) hybrid structure. The nonlinear time-history analysis of three high–rise buildings under 80 earthquakes was carried out. After simulation, it indicated that the seismic performances of three high–rise buildings were superior. Under extremely rare earthquakes, the maximum inter–storey drifts of three high–rise buildings are significantly lower than 1/50. The inter–storey drift and floor acceleration of high–rise building with CFST‒S hybrid structure were bigger than those of high–rise buildings with RC‒S hybrid structure, and smaller than those of high–rise building with TC‒S hybrid structure. Then, based on the time–history analysis results, the post-earthquake repair cost ratio and repair time of three high–rise buildings were predicted through an economic performance analysis method proposed in FEMA‒P58 report. Under frequent earthquakes, basic earthquakes and rare earthquakes, the repair cost ratio and repair time of three high-rise buildings were less than 5% and 15 days, respectively. Under extremely rare earthquakes, the repair cost ratio and repair time of high-rise buildings with TC‒S hybrid structure were the most among three high rise buildings. Due to the advantages of CFST-S hybrid structure, it could be extensively employed in high-rise buildings subjected to earthquake excitations.

Keywords: seismic behavior, loss assessment, light gauge steel–concrete hybrid structure, high–rise building, time–history analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
307 Investigation of the Possible Correlation of Earthquakes with a Red Tide Occurrence in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea

Authors: Hadis Hosseinzadehnaseri

Abstract:

The red tide is a kind of algae blooming, caused different problems at different sizes for the human life and the environment, so it has become one of the serious global concerns in the field of Oceanography in few recent decades. This phenomenon has affected on Iran's water, especially the Persian Gulf's since last few years. Collecting data associated with this phenomenon and comparison in different parts of the world is significant as a practical way to study this phenomenon and controlling it. Effective factors to occur this phenomenon lead to the increase of the required nutrients of the algae or provide a good environment for blooming. In this study, we examined the probability of relation between the earthquake and the harmful algae blooming in the Persian Gulf's water through comparing the earthquake data and the recorded Red tides. On the one hand, earthquakes can cause changes in seawater temperature that is effective in creating a suitable environment and the other hand, it increases the possibility of water nutrients, and its transportation in the seabed, so it can play a principal role in the development of red tide occurrence. Comparing the distribution spatial-temporal maps of the earthquakes and deadly red tides in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, confirms the hypothesis, why there is a meaningful relation between these two distributions. Comparing the number of earthquakes around the world as well as the number of the red tides in many parts of the world indicates the correlation between these two issues. This subject due to numerous earthquakes, especially in recent years and in the southern part of the country should be considered as a warning to the possibility of re-occurrence of a critical state of red tide in a large scale, why in the year 2008, the number of recorded earthquakes have been more than near years. In this year, the distribution value of the red tide phenomenon in the Persian Gulf got measured about 140,000 square kilometers and entire Oman Sea, with 10 months Survival in the area, which is considered as a record among the occurred algae blooming in the world. In this paper, we could obtain a logical and reasonable relation between the earthquake frequency and this phenomenon occurrence, through compilation of statistics relating to the earthquakes in the southern Iran, from 2000 to the end of the first half of 2013 and also collecting statistics on the occurrence of red tide in the region as well as examination of similar data in different parts of the world. As shown in Figure 1, according to a survey conducted on the earthquake data, the most earthquakes in the southern Iran ranks first in the fourth Gregorian calendar month In April, coincided with Ordibehesht and Khordad in Persian calendar and then in the tenth Gregorian calendar month In October, coincided in Aban and Azar in Persian calendar.

Keywords: red tide, earth quake, persian gulf, harmful algae bloom

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306 Designing Roudbar Residential Complex Inspired by Anti-Seismic Technologies

Authors: Sara Hadad Dabaghi

Abstract:

Iran is among the first five earthquake prone regions of the world. During the past 90 years, more than 85 catastrophic earthquakes have happened in Iran, leaving approximately 120000 casualties. Therefore, it is necessary to apply modern anti-seismic technologies to the construction of building such earthquake prone zones. This is especially the case with the northern regions of this country where the existence Khazar and Alborz Faults necessitate the observation of building construction security. Thus, the goal of this research is to solve this problem and to design earthquake resistant buildings. The present study is descriptive-analytical carried out on a mixed method platform. The study focuses on designing Roudbar Residential Complex adopting an anti-seismic approach. It is a cross-sectional applied research since its findings could be used to solve the security problems of Roudbar building with respect to earthquakes of the regions. The causality relationship in this research could be formulated as follows: the novel anti-seismic technologies increase security and reduce damages caused by earthquakes.

Keywords: design, residential complex, inspiration, anti-seismic technology, Roudbar

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305 Intelligent Earthquake Prediction System Based On Neural Network

Authors: Emad Amar, Tawfik Khattab, Fatma Zada

Abstract:

Predicting earthquakes is an important issue in the study of geography. Accurate prediction of earthquakes can help people to take effective measures to minimize the loss of personal and economic damage, such as large casualties, destruction of buildings and broken of traffic, occurred within a few seconds. United States Geological Survey (USGS) science organization provides reliable scientific information of Earthquake Existed throughout history & Preliminary database from the National Center Earthquake Information (NEIC) show some useful factors to predict an earthquake in a seismic area like Aleutian Arc in the U.S. state of Alaska. The main advantage of this prediction method that it does not require any assumption, it makes prediction according to the future evolution of object's time series. The article compares between simulation data result from trained BP and RBF neural network versus actual output result from the system calculations. Therefore, this article focuses on analysis of data relating to real earthquakes. Evaluation results show better accuracy and higher speed by using radial basis functions (RBF) neural network.

Keywords: BP neural network, prediction, RBF neural network, earthquake

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304 Moho Undulations beneath South of Egypt, Using the Seismic Waves Generated by Tele Earthquakes

Authors: Ahmed Hosny, Haroon Elshaikh, Gaber Hassib, Yassin Ali

Abstract:

The Moho discontinuity undulations beneath the southern part of Egypt have been defined using the seismic waves generated by tele earthquakes. These earthquakes have been recorded by the Aswan seismic network, which consists of 10 seismic stations established around the lake of Nasser. An additional seismic station was located towards the east of the Lake of Nasser by about ~ 150 km. Receiver functions and H-k stacking methods were used for obtaining the depths of Moho discontinuity and the Vp/Vs ratios beneath each seismic station. Our results revealed that, the depths of Moho discontinuity beneath the stations located around the Lake of Nasser range from 36 to 39 km, with an average value of 37.5 km. These results are consistent with the previous works done on the same area. The obtained Vp/Vs ratios for the crust of this area were ranged from 1.73 to 1.86, with an average value of 1.79. While beneath the station located towards the east, the Moho discontinuity was detected at a shallowest depth of 27 km and the Vp/Vs ratio was 1.82. The difference in the Moho depths beneath the stations located around the Lake of Nasser and the station located to the east revealed the boundary position between the Saharan Metacraton to the west and the Nubian-Arabian Shield to the east. This structural boundary delineates the position of the old collision of the Oceanic crust of the Nubian-Arabian Shield to the east with the Continental crust of the Saharan Metacraton to the west.

Keywords: Moho undulations, south of Egypt, seismic waves, earthquakes

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303 Analytical Study of the Structural Response to Near-Field Earthquakes

Authors: Isidro Perez, Maryam Nazari

Abstract:

Numerous earthquakes, which have taken place across the world, led to catastrophic damage and collapse of structures (e.g., 1971 San Fernando; 1995 Kobe-Japan; and 2010 Chile earthquakes). Engineers are constantly studying methods to moderate the effect this phenomenon has on structures to further reduce damage, costs, and ultimately to provide life safety to occupants. However, there are regions where structures, cities, or water reservoirs are built near fault lines. When an earthquake occurs near the fault lines, they can be categorized as near-field earthquakes. In contrary, a far-field earthquake occurs when the region is further away from the seismic source. A near-field earthquake generally has a higher initial peak resulting in a larger seismic response, when compared to a far-field earthquake ground motion. These larger responses may result in serious consequences in terms of structural damage which can result in a high risk for the public’s safety. Unfortunately, the response of structures subjected to near-field records are not properly reflected in the current building design specifications. For example, in ASCE 7-10, the design response spectrum is mostly based on the far-field design-level earthquakes. This may result in the catastrophic damage of structures that are not properly designed for near-field earthquakes. This research investigates the knowledge that the effect of near-field earthquakes has on the response of structures. To fully examine this topic, a structure was designed following the current seismic building design specifications, e.g. ASCE 7-10 and ACI 318-14, being analytically modeled, utilizing the SAP2000 software. Next, utilizing the FEMA P695 report, several near-field and far-field earthquakes were selected, and the near-field earthquake records were scaled to represent the design-level ground motions. Upon doing this, the prototype structural model, created using SAP2000, was subjected to the scaled ground motions. A Linear Time History Analysis and Pushover analysis were conducted on SAP2000 for evaluation of the structural seismic responses. On average, the structure experienced an 8% and 1% increase in story drift and absolute acceleration, respectively, when subjected to the near-field earthquake ground motions. The pushover analysis was ran to find and aid in properly defining the hinge formation in the structure when conducting the nonlinear time history analysis. A near-field ground motion is characterized by a high-energy pulse, making it unique to other earthquake ground motions. Therefore, pulse extraction methods were used in this research to estimate the maximum response of structures subjected to near-field motions. The results will be utilized in the generation of a design spectrum for the estimation of design forces for buildings subjected to NF ground motions.

Keywords: near-field, pulse, pushover, time-history

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302 Limit State Evaluation of Bridge According to Peak Ground Acceleration

Authors: Minho Kwon, Jeonghee Lim, Yeongseok Jeong, Jongyoon Moon, Donghoon Shin, Kiyoung Kim

Abstract:

In the past, the criteria and procedures for the design of concrete structures were mainly based on the stresses allowed for structural components. However, although the frequency of earthquakes has increased and the risk has increased recently, it has been difficult to determine the safety factor for earthquakes in the safety assessment of structures based on allowable stresses. Recently, limit state design method has been introduced for reinforced concrete structures, and limit state-based approach has been recognized as a more effective technique for seismic design. Therefore, in this study, the limit state of the bridge, which is a structure requiring higher stability against earthquakes, was evaluated. The finite element program LS-DYNA and twenty ground motion were used for time history analysis. The fracture caused by tensile and compression of the pier were set to the limit state. In the concrete tensile fracture, the limit state arrival rate was 100% at peak ground acceleration 0.4g. In the concrete compression fracture, the limit state arrival rate was 100% at peak ground acceleration 0.2g.

Keywords: allowable stress, limit state, safety factor, peak ground acceleration

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