Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1111

Search results for: pile foundation

1111 Construction of Pile Foundation Using Slow and Old Equipments at Srinagar, India

Authors: Azmat Hussain

Abstract:

Great Taj Mahal is built on well foundation. Well foundation can be constructed on the dry bed or after making sand Island. Cassions are relatively easy to construct provide sinking operations are smooth without much hindrance. Well foundation have many constructional difficulties, viz prolonged sinking period, tilting etc. These problems become worse and take more time when working season is winter. Especially in Indian Areas like Jammu & Kashmir (Srinagar) where technology lacks. The only thing Engineers can do is to wait till working conditions become suitable. A case study is presented in the paper exploring the feasibility of pile foundation.

Keywords: well foundation, pile foundation, equipments used, pile construction

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
1110 Influence of P-Y Curves on Buckling Capacity of Pile Foundation

Authors: Praveen Huded, Suresh Dash

Abstract:

Pile foundations are one of the most preferred deep foundation system for high rise or heavily loaded structures. In many instances, the failure of the pile founded structures in liquefiable soils had been observed even in many recent earthquakes. Recent centrifuge and shake table experiments on two layered soil system have credibly shown that failure of pile foundation can occur because of buckling, as the pile behaves as an unsupported slender structural element once the surrounding soil liquefies. However the buckling capacity depends on largely on the depth of soil liquefied and its residual strength. Hence it is essential to check the pile against the possible buckling failure. Beam on non-linear Winkler Foundation is one of the efficient method to model the pile-soil behavior in liquefiable soil. The pile-soil interaction is modelled through p-y springs, different author have proposed different types of p-y curves for the liquefiable soil. In the present paper the influence two such p-y curves on the buckling capacity of pile foundation is studied considering initial geometric and non-linear behavior of pile foundation. The proposed method is validated against experimental results. Significant difference in the buckling capacity is observed for the two p-y curves used in the analysis. A parametric study is conducted to understand the influence of pile diameter, pile flexural rigidity, different initial geometric imperfections, and different soil relative densities on buckling capacity of pile foundation.

Keywords: Pile foundation , Liquefaction, Buckling load, non-linear py curve, Opensees

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1109 The Pile Group Efficiency for Different Embedment Lengths in Dry Sand

Authors: Mohamed M. Shahin

Abstract:

This study investigated the design of the pile foundation to support heavy structures-especially bridges for highways-in the Sahara, which contains many dunes of medium dense sand in different levels, where the foundation is supposed to be piles. The base resistance of smooth model pile groups in sand under static loading is investigated experimentally in a pile soil test apparatus. Improvement were made to the sand around the piles in order to increase the shaft resistance of the single pile and the pile groups, and also base resistance especially for the central pile in pile groups. The study outlines the behaviour of a single-pile, 4-, 5-, and 9- pile groups arranged in a doubly symmetric [square] layout with different embedment lengths and pile spacing in loose dry sand [normal] and dense dry sand [compacted] around the piles. This study evaluate the variation of the magnitude and the proportion of end bearing capacity of individual piles in different pile groups. Also to investigate the magnitude of the efficiency coefficient in the case of different pile groups.

Keywords: pile group, base resistance, efficiency coefficient, pile spacing, pile-soil interaction

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1108 Numerical Study on the Effect of Spudcan Penetration on the Jacket Platform

Authors: Xiangming Ge, Bing Pan, Wei He, Hao Chen, Yong Zhou, Jiayao Wu, Weijiang Chu

Abstract:

How the extraction and penetration of spudcan affect the performance of the adjacent pile foundation supporting the jacket platform was studied in the program FLAC3D depending on a wind farm project in Bohai sea. The simulations were conducted at the end of the spudcan penetration, which induced a pockmark in the seabed. The effects of the distance between the pile foundation and the pockmark were studied. The displacement at the mudline arose when the pockmark was closer. The bearing capacity of this jacket platform with deep pile foundations has been less influenced by the process of spudcan penetration, which can induce severe stresses on the pile foundation. The induced rotation was also satisfied with the rotation-controlling criteria.

Keywords: offshore foundation, pile-soil interaction, spudcan penetration, FLAC3D

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
1107 Comparison of High Speed Railway Bride Foundation Design

Authors: Hussein Yousif Aziz

Abstract:

This paper discussed the design and analysis of bridge foundation subjected to load of train with three codes, namely AASHTO code, British Standard BS Code 8004 (1986), and Chinese code (TB10002.5-2005).The study focused on the design and analysis of bridge’s foundation manually with the three codes and found which code is better for design and controls the problem of high settlement due to the applied loads. The results showed the Chinese codes are costly that the number of reinforcement bars in the pile cap and piles is more than those with AASHTO code and BS code with the same dimensions. Settlement of the bridge was calculated depending on the data collected from the project site. The vertical ultimate bearing capacity of single pile for three codes is also discussed. Other analyses by using the two-dimensional Plaxis program and other programs like SAP2000 14, PROKON many parameters are calculated. The maximum values of the vertical displacement are close to the calculated ones. The results indicate that the AASHTO code is economics and safer in the bearing capacity of single pile. The purpose of this project is to study out the pier on the basis of the design of the pile foundation. There is a 32m simply supported beam of box section on top of the structure. The pier of bridge is round-type. The main component of the design is to calculate pile foundation and the settlement. According to the related data, we choose 1.0m in diameter bored pile of 48m. The pile is laid out in the rectangular pile cap. The dimension of the cap is 12m 9 m. Because of the interaction factors of pile groups, the load-bearing capacity of simple pile must be checked, the punching resistance of pile cap, the shearing strength of pile cap, and the part in bending of pile cap, all of them are very important to the structure stability. Also, checking soft sub-bearing capacity is necessary under the pile foundation. This project provides a deeper analysis and comparison about pile foundation design schemes. Firstly, here are brief instructions of the construction situation about the Bridge. With the actual construction geological features and the upper load on the Bridge, this paper analyzes the bearing capacity and settlement of single pile. In the paper the Equivalent Pier Method is used to calculate and analyze settlements of the piles.

Keywords: pile foundation, settlement, bearing capacity, civil engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
1106 Behavior of A Vertical Pile Under the Effect of an Inclined Load in Loose Sand

Authors: Fathi Mohamed Abdrabbo, Khaled Esayed Gaaver, Musab Musa Eldooma

Abstract:

This paper presents an attempt made to investigate the behavior of a single vertical steel hollow pile embedded in sand subjected to compressive inclined load at various inclination angles α through FEM package MIDAS GTS/NX 2019. The effect of the inclination angle and slenderness ratio on the performance of the pile was investigated. Inclined load caring capacity and pile stiffness, as well as lateral deformation profiles along with the pile, were presented. The global, vertical, and horizontal load displacements of pile head, as well as the deformation profiles along the pile and the pile stiffness, are significantly affected by α. It was observed that the P-Y curves of the pile-soil system are independent of α. Also, the slenderness ratios are markedly affecting the behavior of the pile. In addition, there was a noticeable effect of the horizontal load component of the applied load on the vertical behavior of the pile, whereas there was no influence of the presence of vertical load on the horizontal behavior of the pile.

Keywords: deep foundation, piles, inclined load, pile deformations

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
1105 Analysis of Behaviors of Single and Group Helical Piles in Sands from Experiment Results

Authors: Jongho Park, Junwon Lee, Byeonghyun Choi, Kicheol Lee, Dongwook Kim

Abstract:

The typically-used oil sand plant foundations are driven pile or drilled shaft. With more strict environmental regulations world widely, it became more important to completely remove the foundation during the stage of plant demolition. However, it is difficult to remove driven piles or drilled shafts that are installed at a deeper and stronger depth to gain more bearing pile capacity. The helical pile can be easily removed after its use and recycled; therefore it is suitable for oil sand plant foundation. This study analyzes the behavior of helical piles in sands. Axial pile load tests were carried out the varying spacing of helix plates (helices), rotation speed and weight of axial loading during pile installation. From the experiments, optimal helix plate spacing, rotation speed, axial loading during installation were determined. In addition, the behavior of helical pile groups was examined varying pile spacing. Finally, the behavior of single helical piles and that of group helical piles were compared.

Keywords: oil sand plant, pile load test, helical pile, group helical pile, behavior

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1104 Influence of Pile Radius on Inertial Response of Pile Group in Fundamental Frequency of Homogeneous Soil Medium

Authors: Faghihnia Torshizi Mostafa, Saitoh Masato

Abstract:

An efficient method is developed for the response of a group of vertical, cylindrical fixed-head, finite length piles embedded in a homogeneous elastic stratum, subjected to harmonic force atop the pile group cap. Pile to pile interaction is represented through simplified beam-on-dynamic-Winkler-foundation (BDWF) with realistic frequency-dependent springs and dashpots. Pile group effect is considered through interaction factors. New closed-form expressions for interaction factors and curvature ratios atop the pile are extended by considering different boundary conditions at the tip of the piles (fixed, hinged). In order to investigate the fundamental characteristics of inertial bending strains in pile groups, inertial bending strains at the head of each pile are expressed in terms of slenderness ratio. The results of parametric study give valuable insight in understanding the behavior of fixed head pile groups in fundamental natural frequency of soil stratum.

Keywords: Winkler-foundation, fundamental frequency of soil stratum, normalized inertial bending strain, harmonic excitation

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1103 Plastic Deformation Behavior of a Pre-Bored Pile Filler Material Due to Lateral Cyclic Loading in Sandy Soil

Authors: A. Y. Purnama, N. Yasufuku

Abstract:

The bridge structure is a building that has to be maintained, especially for the elastomeric bearing. The girder of the bridge needs to be lifted upward to maintain this elastomeric bearing, that needs high cost. Nowadays, integral abutment bridges are becoming popular. The integral abutment bridge is less costly because the elastomeric bearings are eliminated, which reduces the construction cost and maintenance costs. However, when this elastomeric bearing removed, the girder movement due to environmental thermal forces directly support by pile foundation, and it needs to be considered in the design. In case of pile foundation in a stiff soil, in the top area of the pile cannot move freely due to the fixed condition by soil stiffness. Pre-bored pile system can be used to increase the flexibility of pile foundation using a pre-bored hole that filled with elastic materials, but the behavior of soil-pile interaction and soil response due to this system is still rarely explained. In this paper, an experimental study using small-scale laboratory model test conducted in a half size model. Single flexible pile model embedded in sandy soil with the pre-bored ring, which filled with the filler material. The testing box made from an acrylic glass panel as observation area of the pile shaft to monitor the displacement of the pile during the lateral loading. The failure behavior of the soil inside the pre-bored ring and around the pile shaft was investigated to determine the point of pile rotation and the movement of this point due to the pre-bored ring system along the pile shaft. Digital images were used to capture the deformations of the soil and pile foundation during the loading from the acrylic glass on the side of the testing box. The results were presented in the form of lateral load resistance charts against the pile shaft displacement. The failure pattern result also established due to the cyclic lateral loading. The movement of the rotational point was measured due to the pre-bored system filled with appropriate filler material. Based on the findings, design considerations for pre-bored pile system due to cyclic lateral loading can be introduced.

Keywords: failure behavior, pre-bored pile system, cyclic lateral loading, sandy soil

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1102 A Comparison between Russian and Western Approach for Deep Foundation Design

Authors: Saeed Delara, Kendra MacKay

Abstract:

Varying methodologies are considered for pile design for both Russian and Western approaches. Although both approaches rely on toe and side frictional resistances, different calculation methods are proposed to estimate pile capacity. The Western approach relies on compactness (internal friction angle) of soil for cohesionless soils and undrained shear strength for cohesive soils. The Russian approach relies on grain size for cohesionless soils and liquidity index for cohesive soils. Though most recommended methods in the Western approaches are relatively simple methods to predict pile settlement, the Russian approach provides a detailed method to estimate single pile and pile group settlement. Details to calculate pile axial capacity and settlement using the Russian and Western approaches are discussed and compared against field test results.

Keywords: pile capacity, pile settlement, Russian approach, western approach

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1101 Effect of Twin Cavities on the Axially Loaded Pile in Clay

Authors: Ali A. Al-Jazaairry, Tahsin T. Sabbagh

Abstract:

Presence of cavities in soil predictably induces ground deformation and changes in soil stress, which might influence adjacent existing pile foundations, though the effect of twin cavities on a nearby pile needs to be understood. This research is an attempt to identify the behaviour of piles subjected to axial load and embedded in cavitied clayey soil. A series of finite element modelling were conducted to investigate the performance of piled foundation located in such soils. The validity of the numerical simulation was evaluated by comparing it with available field test and alternative analytical model. The study involved many parameters such as twin cavities size, depth, spacing between cavities, and eccentricity of cavities from the pile axis on the pile performance subjected to axial load. The study involved many cases; in each case, a critical value has been found in which cavities’ presence has shown minimum impact on the behaviour of pile. Load-displacement relationships of the affecting parameters on the pile behaviour were presented to provide helpful information for designing piled foundation situated near twin underground cavities. It was concluded that the presence of the cavities within the soil mass reduces the ultimate capacity of pile. This reduction differs according to the size and location of the cavity.

Keywords: axial load, clay, finite element, pile, twin cavities, ultimate capacity

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1100 Numerical Investigation on the Effects of Deep Excavation on Adjacent Pile Groups Subjected to Inclined Loading

Authors: Ashkan Shafee, Ahmad Fahimifar

Abstract:

There is a growing demand for construction of high-rise buildings and infrastructures in large cities, which sometimes require deep excavations in the vicinity of pile foundations. In this study, a two-dimensional finite element analysis is used to gain insight into the response of pile groups adjacent to deep excavations in sand. The numerical code was verified by available experimental works, and a parametric study was performed on different working load combinations, excavation depth and supporting system. The results show that the simple two-dimensional plane strain model can accurately simulate the excavation induced changes on adjacent pile groups. It was found that further excavation than pile toe level and also inclined loading on adjacent pile group can severely affect the serviceability of the foundation.

Keywords: deep excavation, inclined loading, lateral deformation, pile group

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1099 Analysis of Reinforced Granular Pile in Soft Soil

Authors: G. Nitesh

Abstract:

Stone column or granular pile is a proven technique to mitigate settlement in soft soil. Granular pile increases both rate of consolidation and stiffness of the ground. In this paper, a method to analyze further reduction in settlement of granular column reinforced with lime pile is presented treating the system as a unit cell and considering one-dimensional compression approach. The core of the granular pile is stiffened with a steel rod or lime column. Influence of a wide range of parameters such as area ratio of granular pile-soft soil, area ratio of lime pile-granular pile, modular ratio of granular pile and modular ratio of lime pile with respect to granular pile on settlement reduction factor, etc. are obtained and presented.

Keywords: lime pile, granular pile, soft soil, settlement

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1098 Behaviour of Laterally Loaded Pile Groups in Cohesionless Soil

Authors: V. K. Arora, Suraj Prakash

Abstract:

Pile foundations are provided to transfer the vertical and horizontal loads of superstructures like high rise buildings, bridges, offshore structures etc. to the deep strata in the soil. These vertical and horizontal loads are due to the loads coming from the superstructure and wind, water thrust, earthquake, and earth pressure, respectively. In a pile foundation, piles are used in groups. Vertical piles in a group of piles are more efficient to take vertical loads as compared to horizontal loads and when the horizontal load per pile exceeds the bearing capacity of the vertical piles in that case batter piles are used with vertical piles because batter piles can take more lateral loads than vertical piles. In this paper, a model study was conducted on three vertical pile group with single positive and negative battered pile subjected to lateral loads. The batter angle for battered piles was ±35◦ with the vertical axis. Piles were spaced at 2.5d (d=diameter of pile) to each other. The soil used for model test was cohesionless soil. Lateral loads were applied in three stages on all the pile groups individually and it was found that under the repeated action of lateral loading, the deflection of the piles increased under the same loading. After comparing the results, it was found that the pile group with positive batter pile fails at 28 kgf and the pile group with negative batter pile fails at 24 kgf so it shows that positive battered piles are stronger than the negative battered piles.

Keywords: vertical piles, positive battered piles, negative battered piles, cohesionless soil, lateral loads, model test

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
1097 A Statistical Approach to Rationalise the Number of Working Load Test for Quality Control of Pile Installation in Singapore Jurong Formation

Authors: Nuo Xu, Kok Hun Goh, Jeyatharan Kumarasamy

Abstract:

Pile load testing is significant during foundation construction due to its traditional role of design validation and routine quality control of the piling works. In order to verify whether piles can take loadings at specified settlements, piles will have to undergo working load test where the test load should normally up to 150% of the working load of a pile. Selection or sampling of piles for the working load test is done subject to the number specified in Singapore National Annex to Eurocode 7 SS EN 1997-1:2010. This paper presents an innovative way to rationalize the number of pile load test by adopting statistical analysis approach and looking at the coefficient of variance of pile elastic modulus using a case study at Singapore Tuas depot. Results are very promising and have shown that it is possible to reduce the number of working load test without influencing the reliability and confidence on the pile quality. Moving forward, it is suggested that more load test data from other geological formations to be examined to compare with the findings from this paper.

Keywords: elastic modulus of pile under soil interaction, jurong formation, kentledge test, pile load test

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1096 Behavior of a Vertical Pile under the Effect of an Inclined Load

Authors: Fathi Mohamed Abdrabbo, Khaled Elsayed Gaaver, Musab Musa Eldooma

Abstract:

This paper presents an attempt made to investigate the behavior of a single vertical steel hollow pile embedded in sand subjected to compressive inclined load at various inclination angles α through FEM package MIDAS GTS/NX 2019. The effect of the inclination angle and slenderness ratio on the performance of the pile was investigated. Inclined load caring capacity and pile stiffness, as well as lateral deformation profiles along with the pile, were presented. The global, vertical, and horizontal load displacements, as well as the deformation profiles along with the pile and the pile stiffness, are significantly affected by α. Whereas P-Y curves of the pile are independent of α., also the slenderness ratios are markedly affecting the behavior of the pile. In addition, there was a noticeable effect of the horizontal component on the vertical behavior of the pile, whereas there was no influence of the presence of vertical load on the horizontal behavior of the pile.

Keywords: deep foundations, piles, inclined load, pile deformations

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
1095 Implication of Soil and Seismic Ground Motion Variability on Dynamic Pile Group Impedance for Bridges

Authors: Muhammad Tariq Chaudhary

Abstract:

Bridges constitute a vital link in a transportation system and their functionality after an earthquake is critical in reducing disruption to social and economic activities of the society. Bridges supported on pile foundations are commonly used in many earthquake-prone regions. In order to properly design or investigate the performance of such structures, it is imperative that the effect of soil-foundation-structure interaction be properly taken into account. This study focused on the influence of soil and seismic ground motion variability on the dynamic impedance of pile-group foundations typically used for medium-span (about 30 m) urban viaduct bridges. Soil profiles corresponding to various AASHTO soil classes were selected from actual data of such bridges and / or from the literature. The selected soil profiles were subjected to 1-D wave propagation analysis to determine effective values of soil shear modulus and damping ratio for a suite of properly selected actual seismic ground motions varying in PGA from 0.01g to 0.64g, and having variable velocity and frequency content. The effective values of the soil parameters were then employed to determine the dynamic impedance of pile groups in horizontal, vertical and rocking modes in various soil profiles. Pile diameter was kept constant for bridges in various soil profiles while pile length and number of piles were changed based on AASHTO design requirements for various soil profiles and earthquake ground motions. Conclusions were drawn regarding variability in effective soil shear modulus, soil damping, shear wave velocity and pile group impedance for various soil profiles and ground motions and its implications for design and evaluation of pile-supported bridges. It was found that even though the effective soil parameters underwent drastic variation with increasing PGA, the pile group impedance was not affected much in properly designed pile foundations due to the corresponding increase in pile length or increase in a number of piles or both when subjected to increasing PGA or founded in weaker soil profiles.

Keywords: bridge, pile foundation, dynamic foundation impedance, soil profile, shear wave velocity, seismic ground motion, seismic wave propagation

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
1094 High-Frequency Monitoring Results of a Piled Raft Foundation under Wind Loading

Authors: Laurent Pitteloud, Jörg Meier

Abstract:

Piled raft foundations represent an efficient and reliable technique for transferring high vertical and horizontal loads to the subsoil. Piled raft foundations were success­fully implemented for several high-rise buildings world­wide over the last decades. For the structural design of this foundation type the stiffnesses of both the piles and the raft have to be deter­mined for the static (e.g. dead load, live load) and the dynamic load cases (e.g. earthquake). In this context the question often arises, to which proportion wind loads are to be considered as dynamic loads. Usually a piled raft foundation has to be monitored in order to verify the design hypotheses. As an additional benefit, the analysis of this monitoring data may lead to a better under­standing of the behaviour of this foundation type for future projects in similar subsoil conditions. In case the measurement frequency is high enough, one may also draw conclusions on the effect of wind loading on the piled raft foundation. For a 41-storey office building in Basel, Switzerland, the preliminary design showed that a piled raft foundation was the best solution to satisfy both design requirements, as well as economic aspects. A high-frequency monitoring of the foundation including pile loads, vertical stresses under the raft, as well as pore water pressures was performed over 5 years. In windy situations the analysis of the measure­ments shows that the pile load increment due to wind consists of a static and a cyclic load term. As piles and raft react with different stiffnesses under static and dynamic loading, these measure­ments are useful for the correct definition of stiffnesses of future piled raft foundations. This paper outlines the design strategy and the numerical modelling of the aforementioned piled raft foundation. The measurement results are presented and analysed. Based on the findings, comments and conclusions on the definition of pile and raft stiffnesses for vertical and wind loading are proposed.

Keywords: design, dynamic, foundation, monitoring, pile, raft, wind load

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1093 Shaft Friction of Bored Pile Socketed in Weathered Limestone in Qatar

Authors: Thanawat Chuleekiat

Abstract:

Socketing of bored piles in rock is always seen as a matter of debate on construction sites between consultants and contractors. The socketing depth normally depends on the type of rock, depth at which the rock is available below the pile cap and load carrying capacity of the pile. In this paper, the review of field load test data of drilled shaft socketed in weathered limestone conducted using conventional static pile load test and dynamic pile load test was made to evaluate a unit shaft friction for the bored piles socketed in weathered limestone (weak rock). The borehole drilling data were also reviewed in conjunction with the pile test result. In addition, the back-calculated unit shaft friction was reviewed against various empirical methods for bored piles socketed in weak rock. The paper concludes with an estimated ultimate unit shaft friction from the case study in Qatar for preliminary design.

Keywords: piled foundation, weathered limestone, shaft friction, rock socket, pile load test

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1092 Behavior of the Foundation of Bridge Reinforced by Rigid and Flexible Inclusions

Authors: T. Karech A. Noui, T. Bouzid

Abstract:

This article presents a comparative study by numerical analysis of the behavior of reinforcements of clayey soils by flexible columns (stone columns) and rigid columns (piles). The numerical simulation was carried out in 3D for an assembly of foundation, columns and a pile of a bridge. Particular attention has been paid to take into account the installation of the columns. Indeed, in practice, due to the compaction of the column, the soil around it sustains a lateral expansion and the horizontal stresses are increased. This lateral expansion of the column can be simulated numerically. This work represents a comparative study of the interaction between the soil on one side, and the two types of reinforcement on the other side, and their influence on the behavior of the soil and of the pile of a bridge.

Keywords: piles, stone columns, interaction, foundation, settlement, consolidation

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1091 Improvement of Bearing Capacity of Soft Clay Using Geo-Cells

Authors: Siddhartha Paul, Aman Harlalka, Ashim K. Dey

Abstract:

Soft clayey soil possesses poor bearing capacity and high compressibility because of which foundations cannot be directly placed over soft clay. Normally pile foundations are constructed to carry the load through the soft soil up to the hard stratum below. Pile construction is costly and time consuming. In order to increase the properties of soft clay, many ground improvement techniques like stone column, preloading with and without sand drains/band drains, etc. are in vogue. Time is a constraint for successful application of these improvement techniques. Another way to improve the bearing capacity of soft clay and to reduce the settlement possibility is to apply geocells below the foundation. The geocells impart rigidity to the foundation soil, reduce the net load intensity on soil and thus reduce the compressibility. A well designed geocell reinforced soil may replace the pile foundation. The present paper deals with the applicability of geocells on improvement of the bearing capacity. It is observed that a properly designed geocell may increase the bearing capacity of soft clay up to two and a half times.

Keywords: bearing capacity, geo-cell, ground improvement, soft clay

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1090 Simulation of Soil-Pile Interaction of Steel Batter Piles Penetrated in Sandy Soil Subjected to Pull-Out Loads

Authors: Ameer A. Jebur, William Atherton, Rafid M. Alkhaddar, Edward Loffill

Abstract:

Superstructures like offshore platforms, tall buildings, transition towers, skyscrapers and bridges are normally designed to resist compression, uplift and lateral forces from wind waves, negative skin friction, ship impact and other applied loads. Better understanding and the precise simulation of the response of batter piles under the action of independent uplift loads is a vital topic and an area of active research in the field of geotechnical engineering. This paper investigates the use of finite element code (FEC) to examine the behaviour of model batter piles penetrated in dense sand, subjected to pull-out pressure by means of numerical modelling. The concept of the Winkler Model (beam on elastic foundation) has been used in which the interaction between the pile embedded depth and adjacent soil in the bearing zone is simulated by nonlinear p-y curves. The analysis was conducted on different pile slenderness ratios (lc⁄d) ranging from 7.5, 15.22 and 30 respectively. In addition, the optimum batter angle for a model steel pile penetrated in dense sand has been chosen to be 20° as this is the best angle for this simulation as demonstrated by other researcher published in literature. In this numerical analysis, the soil response is idealized as elasto-plastic and the model piles are described as elastic materials for the purpose of simulation. The results revealed that the applied loads affect the pullout pile capacity as well as the lateral pile response for dense sand together with varying shear strength parameters linked to the pile critical depth. Furthermore, the pile pull-out capacity increases with increasing the pile aspect ratios.

Keywords: slenderness ratio, soil-pile interaction, winkler model (beam on elastic foundation), pull-out capacity

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1089 Deep Foundations: Analysis of the Lateral Response of Closed Ended Steel Tubular Piles Embedded in Sandy Soil Using P-Y Curves

Authors: Ameer A. Jebur, William Atherton, Rafid M. Alkhaddar, Edward Loffill

Abstract:

Understanding the behaviour of the piles under the action of the independent lateral loads and the precise prediction of the capacity of piles subjected to different lateral loads are vital topics in foundation design and analysis. Moreover, the laterally loaded behaviour of deep foundations penetrated in cohesive and non-cohesive soils is basically analysed by the Winkler Model (beam on elastic foundation), in which the interaction between the pile embedded depth and contacted soil is simulated by nonlinear p–y curves. The presence of many approaches to interpret the behaviour of soil-pile interaction has resulted in numerous outputs and indicates that no general approach has yet been adopted. The current study presents the result of numerical modelling of the behaviour of steel tubular piles (25.4mm) outside diameter with various embedment depth-to-diameter ratios (L/d) embedded in a sand calibrated chamber of known relative density. The study revealed that the shear strength parameters of the sand specimens and the (L/d) ratios are the most significant factor influencing the response of the pile and its capacity while taking into consideration the complex interaction between the pile and soil. Good agreement has been achieved when comparing the application of this modelling approach with experimental physical modelling carried out by another researcher.

Keywords: deep foundations, slenderness ratio, soil-pile interaction, winkler model (beam on elastic foundation), non-cohesive soil

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1088 Seismic Soil-Pile Interaction Considering Nonlinear Soil Column Behavior in Saturated and Dry Soil Conditions

Authors: Mohammad Moeini, Mehrdad Ghyabi, Kiarash Mohtasham Dolatshahi

Abstract:

This paper investigates seismic soil-pile interaction using the Beam on Nonlinear Winkler Foundation (BNWF) approach. Three soil types are considered to cover all the possible responses, as well as nonlinear site response analysis using finite element method in OpenSees platform. Excitations at each elevation that are output of the site response analysis are used as the input excitation to the soil pile system implementing multi-support excitation method. Spectral intensities of acceleration show that the extent of the response in sand is more severe than that of clay, in addition, increasing the PGA of ground strong motion will affect the sandy soil more, in comparison with clayey medium, which is an indicator of the sensitivity of soil-pile systems in sandy soil.

Keywords: BNWF method, multi-support excitation, nonlinear site response analysis, seismic soil-pile interaction

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1087 Seismic Behavior of Pile-Supported Bridges Considering Soil-Structure Interaction and Structural Non-Linearity

Authors: Muhammad Tariq A. Chaudhary

Abstract:

Soil-structure interaction (SSI) in bridges under seismic excitation is a complex phenomenon which involves coupling between the non-linear behavior of bridge pier columns and SSI in the soil-foundation part. It is a common practice in the study of SSI to model the bridge piers as linear elastic while treating the soil and foundation with a non-linear or an equivalent linear modeling approach. Consequently, the contribution of soil and foundation to the SSI phenomenon is disproportionately highlighted. The present study considered non-linear behavior of bridge piers in FEM model of a 4-span, pile-supported bridge that was designed for five different soil conditions in a moderate seismic zone. The FEM model of the bridge system was subjected to a suite of 21 actual ground motions representative of three levels of earthquake hazard (i.e. Design Basis Earthquake, Functional Evaluation Earthquake and Maximum Considered Earthquake). Results of the FEM analysis were used to delineate the influence of pier column non-linearity and SSI on critical design parameters of the bridge system. It was found that pier column non-linearity influenced the bridge lateral displacement and base shear more than SSI for majority of the analysis cases for the class of bridge investigated in the study.

Keywords: bridge, FEM model, reinforced concrete pier, pile foundation, seismic loading, soil-structure interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
1086 Analysis of Bridge-Pile Foundation System in Multi-layered Non-Linear Soil Strata Using Energy-Based Method

Authors: Arvan Prakash Ankitha, Madasamy Arockiasamy

Abstract:

The increasing demand for adopting pile foundations in bridgeshas pointed towardsthe need to constantly improve the existing analytical techniques for better understanding of the behavior of such foundation systems. This study presents a simplistic approach using the energy-based method to assess the displacement responses of piles subjected to general loading conditions: Axial Load, Lateral Load, and a Bending Moment. The governing differential equations and the boundary conditions for a bridge pile embedded in multi-layered soil strata subjected to the general loading conditions are obtained using the Hamilton’s principle employing variational principles and minimization of energies. The soil non-linearity has been incorporated through simple constitutive relationships that account for degradation of soil moduli with increasing strain values.A simple power law based on published literature is used where the soil is assumed to be nonlinear-elastic and perfectly plastic. A Tresca yield surface is assumed to develop the soil stiffness variation with different strain levels that defines the non-linearity of the soil strata. This numerical technique has been applied to a pile foundation in a two - layered soil strata for a pier supporting the bridge and solved using the software MATLAB R2019a. The analysis yields the bridge pile displacements at any depth along the length of the pile. The results of the analysis are in good agreement with the published field data and the three-dimensional finite element analysis results performed using the software ANSYS 2019R3. The methodology can be extended to study the response of the multi-strata soil supporting group piles underneath the bridge piers.

Keywords: pile foundations, deep foundations, multilayer soil strata, energy based method

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1085 Bearing Behavior of a Hybrid Monopile Foundation for Offshore Wind Turbines

Authors: Zicheng Wang

Abstract:

Offshore wind energy provides a huge potential for the expansion of renewable energies to the coastal countries. High demands are required concerning the shape and type of foundations for offshore wind turbines (OWTs) to find an economically, technically and environmentally-friendly optimal solution. A promising foundation concept is the hybrid foundation system, which consists of a steel plate attached to the outer side of a hollow steel pipe pile. In this study, the bearing behavior of a large diameter foundation is analyzed using a 3-dimensional finite element (FE) model. Non-linear plastic soil behavior is considered. The results of the numerical simulations are compared to highlight the priority of the hybrid foundation to the conventional monopile foundation.

Keywords: hybrid foundation system, mechanical parameters, plastic soil behaviors, numerical simulations

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1084 Development of Interaction Factors Charts for Piled Raft Foundation

Authors: Abdelazim Makki Ibrahim, Esamaldeen Ali

Abstract:

This study aims at analysing the load settlement behavior and predict the bearing capacity of piled raft foundation a series of finite element models with different foundation configurations and stiffness were established. Numerical modeling is used to study the behavior of the piled raft foundation due to the complexity of piles, raft, and soil interaction and also due to the lack of reliable analytical method that can predict the behavior of the piled raft foundation system. Simple analytical models are developed to predict the average settlement and the load sharing between the piles and the raft in piled raft foundation system. A simple example to demonstrate the applications of these charts is included.

Keywords: finite element, pile-raft foundation, method, PLAXIS software, settlement

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1083 Prediction of Pile-Raft Responses Induced by Adjacent Braced Excavation in Layered Soil

Authors: Linlong Mu, Maosong Huang

Abstract:

Considering excavations in urban areas, the soil deformation induced by the excavations usually causes damage to the surrounding structures. Displacement control becomes a critical indicator of foundation design in order to protect the surrounding structures. Evaluation, the damage potential of the surrounding structures induced by the excavations, usually depends on the finite element method (FEM) because of the complexity of the excavation and the variety of the surrounding structures. Besides, evaluation the influence of the excavation on surrounding structures is a three-dimensional problem. And it is now well recognized that small strain behaviour of the soil influences the responses of the excavation significantly. Three-dimensional FEM considering small strain behaviour of the soil is a very complex method, which is hard for engineers to use. Thus, it is important to obtain a simplified method for engineers to predict the influence of the excavations on the surrounding structures. Based on large-scale finite element calculation with small-strain based soil model coupling with inverse analysis, an empirical method is proposed to calculate the three-dimensional soil movement induced by braced excavation. The empirical method is able to capture the small-strain behaviour of the soil. And it is suitable to be used in layered soil. Then the free-field soil movement is applied to the pile to calculate the responses of the pile in both vertical and horizontal directions. The asymmetric solutions for problems in layered elastic half-space are employed to solve the interactions between soil points. Both vertical and horizontal pile responses are solved through finite difference method based on elastic theory. Interactions among the nodes along a single pile, pile-pile interactions, pile-soil-pile interaction action and soil-soil interactions are counted to improve the calculation accuracy of the method. For passive piles, the shadow effects are also calculated in the method. Finally, the restrictions of the raft on the piles and the soils are summarized as: (1) the summations of the internal forces between the elements of the raft and the elements of the foundation, including piles and soil surface elements, is equal to 0; (2) the deformations of pile heads or of the soil surface elements are the same as the deformations of the corresponding elements of the raft. Validations are carried out by comparing the results from the proposed method with the results from the model tests, FEM and other existing literatures. From the comparisons, it can be seen that the results from the proposed method fit with the results from other methods very well. The method proposed herein is suitable to predict the responses of the pile-raft foundation induced by braced excavation in layered soil in both vertical and horizontal directions when the deformation is small. However, more data is needed to verify the method before it can be used in practice.

Keywords: excavation, pile-raft foundation, passive piles, deformation control, soil movement

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1082 Studying on Pile Seismic Operation with Numerical Method by Using FLAC 3D Software

Authors: Hossein Motaghedi, Kaveh Arkani, Siavash Salamatpoor

Abstract:

Usually the piles are important tools for safety and economical design of high and heavy structures. For this aim the response of single pile under dynamic load is so effective. Also, the agents which have influence on single pile response are properties of pile geometrical, soil and subjected loads. In this study the finite difference numerical method and by using FLAC 3D software is used for evaluation of single pile behavior under peak ground acceleration (PGA) of El Centro earthquake record in California (1940). The results of this models compared by experimental results of other researchers and it will be seen that the results of this models are approximately coincide by experimental data's. For example the maximum moment and displacement in top of the pile is corresponding to the other experimental results of pervious researchers. Furthermore, in this paper is tried to evaluate the effective properties between soil and pile. The results is shown that by increasing the pile diagonal, the pile top displacement will be decreased. As well as, by increasing the length of pile, the top displacement will be increased. Also, by increasing the stiffness ratio of pile to soil, the produced moment in pile body will be increased and the taller piles have more interaction by soils and have high inertia. So, these results can help directly to optimization design of pile dimensions.

Keywords: pile seismic response, interaction between soil and pile, numerical analysis, FLAC 3D

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