Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: Yttrium

32 Development of AA2024 Matrix Composites Reinforced with Micro Yttrium through Cold Compaction with Superior Mechanical Properties

Authors: C. H. S. Vidyasagar, D. B. Karunakar


In this present work, five different composite samples with AA2024 as matrix and varying amounts of yttrium (0.1-0.5 wt.%) as reinforcement are developed through cold compaction. The microstructures of the developed composite samples revealed that the yttrium reinforcement caused grain refinement up to 0.3 wt.% and beyond which the refinement is not effective. The microstructure revealed Al2Cu precipitation which strengthened the composite up to 0.3 wt.% yttrium reinforcement. Upon further increase in yttrium reinforcement, the intermetallics and the precipitation coarsen and their corresponding strengthening effect decreases. The mechanical characterization revealed that the composite sample reinforced with 0.3 wt.% yttrium showed highest mechanical properties like 82 HV of hardness, 276 MPa Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS), 229 MPa Yield Strength (YS) and an elongation (EL) of 18.9% respectively. However, the relative density of the developed composites decreased with the increase in yttrium reinforcement.

Keywords: mechanical properties, AA 2024 matrix, yttrium reinforcement, cold compaction, precipitation

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31 Mechanical Properties of Spark Plasma Sintered 2024 AA Reinforced with TiB₂ and Nano Yttrium

Authors: Suresh Vidyasagar Chevuri, D. B. Karunakar Chevuri


The main advantages of 'Metal Matrix Nano Composites (MMNCs)' include excellent mechanical performance, good wear resistance, low creep rate, etc. The method of fabrication of MMNCs is quite a challenge, which includes processing techniques like Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), etc. The objective of the present work is to fabricate aluminum based MMNCs with the addition of small amounts of yttrium using Spark Plasma Sintering and to evaluate their mechanical and microstructure properties. Samples of 2024 AA with yttrium ranging from 0.1% to 0.5 wt% keeping 1 wt% TiB2 constant are fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The mechanical property like hardness is determined using Vickers hardness testing machine. The metallurgical characterization of the samples is evaluated by Optical Microscopy (OM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Unreinforced 2024 AA sample is also fabricated as a benchmark to compare its properties with that of the composite developed. It is found that the yttrium addition increases the above-mentioned properties to some extent and then decreases gradually when yttrium wt% increases beyond a point between 0.3 and 0.4 wt%. High density is achieved in the samples fabricated by spark plasma sintering when compared to any other fabrication route, and uniform distribution of yttrium is observed.

Keywords: spark plasma sintering, 2024 AA, yttrium addition, microstructure characterization, mechanical properties

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30 Evaluation of the Effect Rare Earth Metal on the Microstructure and Properties of Zn-ZnO-Y2O3 Coating of Mild Steel

Authors: A. P. I. Popoola, O. S. I. Fayomi, V. S. Aigbodion


Mild steel has found many engineering applications due to its great formability, availability, low cost and good mechanical properties among others. However its functionality and durability is subject of concern due to corrosion deterioration. Based on these Yttrium is selected as reinforcing particles using electroplating process in this work to enhance the corrosion resistance. Bath formulation of zinc-yttrium was prepared at moderated temperature and pH, to coat mild steel sample. Corrosion and wear behaviour were analyzed using electrochemical potentiostat and abrasive test rig. The composition and microstructure of coated films were investigated standard method. The microstructure of the deposited plate obtained from optimum (10%Yttrium) bath revealed fine-grained deposit of the alloy in the presence of condensation product and hence modified the morphology of zinc–yttrium alloy deposit. It is demonstrated that by adding yttria particles, mild steel can be strengthened with improved polarization behaviour and higher resistance to corrosive in sodium chloride solutions. Microhardness of the coating compared to plain mild steel have increased before and after heat treatment, and an increased wear resistance was also obtained from the modified coating of zinc-yttrium.

Keywords: microhardness, zinc-yttrium, coating, mild steel, microstructure, wear, corrosion

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29 Preparation of Nano-Sized Samarium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet

Authors: M. Tabatabaee, N. Binavayan, M. R. Nateghi


In this research nano-size of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) containing lanthanide metals was synthesized by the sol-gel method in presente citric acid as a complexing agent. Samarium (III) was used to synthesis of YAG:M3+. The prepared powders were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The size distribution and morphology of the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results show that Sm, La, and ce doped YAG crystallizes in the cubic system and additional peaks compared to pure YAG can be assigned to the presence of Sm in the synthesize YAG. The SEM images show possess spherical nano-sized particle with average 50 nm in diameter.

Keywords: citric acid, nano particle, samarium, yttrium aluminum garnet

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28 First Principal Calculation of Structural, Elastic and Thermodynamic Properties of Yttrium-Copper Intermetallic Compound

Authors: Ammar Benamrani


This work investigates the equation of state parameters, elastic constants, and several other physical properties of (B2-type) Yttrium-Copper (YCu) rare earth intermetallic compound using the projected augmented wave (PAW) pseudopotentials method as implemented in the Quantum Espresso code. Using both the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), the finding of this research on the lattice parameter of YCu intermetallic compound agree very well with the experimental ones. The obtained results of the elastic constants and the Debye temperature are also in general in good agreement compared to the theoretical ones reported previously in literature. Furthermore, several thermodynamic properties of YCu intermetallic compound have been studied using quasi-harmonic approximations (QHA). The calculated data on the thermodynamic properties shows that the free energy and both isothermal and adiabatic bulk moduli decrease gradually with increasing of the temperature, while all other thermodynamic quantities increase with the temperature.

Keywords: Yttrium-Copper intermetallic compound, thermo_pw package, elastic constants, thermodynamic properties

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27 Drilling Quantification and Bioactivity of Machinable Hydroxyapatite : Yttrium phosphate Bioceramic Composite

Authors: Rupita Ghosh, Ritwik Sarkar, Sumit K. Pal, Soumitra Paul


The use of Hydroxyapatite bioceramics as restorative implants is widely known. These materials can be manufactured by pressing and sintering route to a particular shape. However machining processes are still a basic requirement to give a near net shape to those implants for ensuring dimensional and geometrical accuracy. In this context, optimising the machining parameters is an important factor to understand the machinability of the materials and to reduce the production cost. In the present study a method has been optimized to produce true particulate drilled composite of Hydroxyapatite Yttrium Phosphate. The phosphates are used in varying ratio for a comparative study on the effect of flexural strength, hardness, machining (drilling) parameters and bioactivity.. The maximum flexural strength and hardness of the composite that could be attained are 46.07 MPa and 1.02 GPa respectively. Drilling is done with a conventional radial drilling machine aided with dynamometer with high speed steel (HSS) and solid carbide (SC) drills. The effect of variation in drilling parameters (cutting speed and feed), cutting tool, batch composition on torque, thrust force and tool wear are studied. It is observed that the thrust force and torque varies greatly with the increase in the speed, feed and yttrium phosphate content in the composite. Significant differences in the thrust and torque are noticed due to the change of the drills as well. Bioactivity study is done in simulated body fluid (SBF) upto 28 days. The growth of the bone like apatite has become denser with the increase in the number of days for all the composition of the composites and it is comparable to that of the pure hydroxyapatite.

Keywords: Bioactivity, Drilling, Hydroxyapatite, Yttrium Phosphate

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26 Synthesis of Y2O3 Films by Spray Coating with Milled EDTA ・Y・H Complexes

Authors: Keiji Komatsu,Tetsuo Sekiya, Ayumu Toyama, Atsushi Nakamura, Ikumi Toda, Shigeo Ohshio, Hiroyuki Muramatsu, Hidetoshi Saitoh


Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) films have been successfully deposited with yttrium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA・Y・H) complexes prepared by various milling techniques. The effects of the properties of the EDTA・Y・H complex on the properties of the deposited Y2O3 films have been analyzed. Seven different types of the raw EDTA・Y・H complexes were prepared by various commercial milling techniques such as ball milling, hammer milling, commercial milling, and mortar milling. The milled EDTA・Y・H complexes exhibited various particle sizes and distributions, depending on the milling method. Furthermore, we analyzed the crystal structure, morphology and elemental distribution profile of the metal oxide films deposited on stainless steel substrate with the milled EDTA・Y・H complexes. Depending on the milling technique, the flow properties of the raw powders differed. The X-ray diffraction pattern of all the samples revealed the formation of Y2O3 crystalline phase, irrespective of the milling technique. Of all the different milling techniques, the hammer milling technique is considered suitable for fabricating dense Y2O3 films.

Keywords: powder sizes and distributions, flame spray coating techniques, Yttrium oxide

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25 Effect of Y Addition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sn-Zn Eutectic Alloy

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha


The effect of Yttrium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-Zn eutectic alloy, which has been attracting intensive focus as a Pb-free solder material, was investigated in this study. Phase equilibrium has been calculated by using FactSage® to evaluate the composition and fraction of equilibrium intermetallic compounds and construct a phase diagram. In the case of Sn-8.8 Zn eutectic alloy, the as-cast microstructure was typical lamellar. With addition of 0.25 wt. %Y, a large amount of pro-eutectic phases have been observed and various YZnx intermetallic compounds were expected to successively form during cooling. Hardness of Sn-8.8 Zn alloy was not affected by Y-addition and both alloys could be rolled by 90% at room temperature.

Keywords: Sn-Zn eutectic alloy, yttrium, FactSage®, microstructure, mechanical properties

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24 Facial Partial Unilateral Lentiginosis Treated with Low-Fluence Q-Switched 1,064-Nm Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser

Authors: En Hyung Kim


Partial unilateral lentiginosis (PUL) is an unusual pigmentary disorder characterized by numerous lentigines grouped within an area of normal skin. Although treatment is not necessary, many patients with facial PUL seek medical help for cosmetic reasons. There is no established standard treatment for PUL. Conventional lasers may cause postinflammatory hyperpigmentation because keratinocytes are injured during the process. Also scarring, long downtime and pain are important issues. Case: A 19-year-old patient with facial PUL was treated with 1064-nm Q-Switched Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (QS Nd:YAG) laser. The patient was treated at one-week intervals starting with a spot size of 6 mm, a fluence of 2.5 J/cm2 and a pulse rate of 10 Hz with 1-2 passes of slow sliding technique with approximately 5-15 % overlap. The fluence was elevated to 3 J/cm2 after the 4th session according to treatment response and patient tolerance. After 10 treatment sessions the lesions were remarkably improved. Discussion: Although the exact mechanism by which low fluence 1,064-nm QS Nd:YAG laser improves pigmentary lesions is unclear, the term ‘subcellular selective photothermolysis’ and ‘melanocyte apoptosis and replacement’ have been proposed. If appropriate measures are taken to monitor patient response during and after the procedure, low fluence 1064-nm QS Nd:YAG laser may achieve good cosmetic result in the treatment of PUL with a very safe and effective profile.

Keywords: laser toning, low fluence, 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser, partial unilateral lentiginosis

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23 Optical Properties of Nanocrystalline Europium-Yttrium Titanate EuYTi2O7

Authors: J. Mrazek, R. Skala, S. Bysakh, Ivan Kasik


Lanthanide-doped yttrium titanium oxides, which crystallize in a pyrochlore structure with general formula (RExY1-x)2Ti2O7 (RE=rare earth element), have been extensively investigated in recent years for their interesting physical and chemical properties. Despite that the pure pyrochlore structure does not present luminescence ability, the presence of yttrium ions in the pyrochlore structure significantly improves the luminescence properties of the RE. Moreover, the luminescence properties of pyrochlores strongly depend on the size of formed nanocrystals. In this contribution, we present a versatile sol-gel synthesis of nanocrystalline EuYTi2O7pyrochlore. The nanocrystalline powders and thin films were prepared by the condensation of titanium(IV)butoxide with europium(III) chloride followed by the calcination. The introduced method leads to the formation of the highly-homogenous nanocrystalline EuYTi2O7 with tailored grain size ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm. The morphology and the structure of the formed nanocrystals are linked to the luminescence properties of Eu3+ ions incorporated into the pyrochlore lattice. The results of XRD and HRTEM analysis show that the Eu3+ and Y3+ ions are regularly distributed inside the lattice. The lifetime of Eu3+ ions in calcinated powders is regularly decreasing from 140 us to 68 us and the refractive index of prepared thin films regularly increases from 2.0 to 2.45 according to the calcination temperature. The shape of the luminescence spectra and the decrease of the lifetime correspond with the crystallinity of prepared powders. The results present fundamental information about the effect of the size of the nanocrystals to their luminescence properties. The promising application of prepared nanocrystals in the field of lasers and planar optical amplifiers is widely discussed in the contribution.

Keywords: europium, luminescence, nanocrystals, sol-gel

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22 Structural and Optical Properties of Ce3+ Doped YPO4: Nanophosphors Synthesis by Sol Gel Method

Authors: B. Kahouadji, L. Guerbous, L. Lamiri, A. Mendoud


Recently, nanomaterials are developed in the form of nano-films, nano-crystals and nano-pores. Lanthanide phosphates as a material find extensive application as laser, ceramic, sensor, phosphor, and also in optoelectronics, medical and biological labels, solar cells and light sources. Among the different kinds of rare-earth orthophosphates, yttrium orthophosphate has been shown to be an efficient host lattice for rare earth activator ions, which have become a research focus because of their important role in the field of light display systems, lasers, and optoelectronic devices. It is in this context that the 4fn- « 4fn-1 5d transitions of rare earth in insulating materials, lying in the UV and VUV, are the aim of large number of studies .Though there has been a few reports on Eu3+, Nd3+, Pr3+,Er3+, Ce3+, Tm3+ doped YPO4. The 4fn- « 4fn-1 5d transitions of the rare earth dependent to the host-matrix, several matrices ions were used to study these transitions, in this work we are suggesting to study on a very specific class of inorganic material that are orthophosphate doped with rare earth ions. This study focused on the effect of Ce3+ concentration on the structural and optical properties of Ce3+ doped YPO4 yttrium orthophosphate with powder form prepared by the Sol Gel method.

Keywords: YPO4, Ce3+, 4fn- <->4fn-1 5d transitions, scintillator

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21 Photoluminescent Properties of Noble Metal Nanoparticles Supported Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Nanoparticles Doped with Cerium (Ⅲ) Ions

Authors: Mitsunobu Iwasaki, Akifumi Iseda


Yttrium aluminum garnet doped with cerium (Ⅲ) ions (Y3Al5O12:Ce3+, YAG:Ce3+) has attracted a great attention because it can efficiently convert the blue light into a very broad yellow emission band, which produces white light emitting diodes and is applied for panel displays. To improve the brightness and resolution of the display, a considerable attention has been directed to develop fine phosphor particles. We have prepared YAG:Ce3+ nanophosphors by environmental-friendly wet process. The peak maximum of absorption spectra of surface plasmon of Ag nanopaticles are close to that of the excitation spectra (460 nm) of YAG:Ce3+. It can be expected that Ag nanoparticles supported onto the surface of YAG:Ce3+ (Ag-YAG:Ce3+) enhance the absorption of Ce3+ ions. In this study, we have prepared Ag-YAG:Ce3+ nanophosphors and investigated their photoluminescent properties. YCl3・6H2O and AlCl3・6H2O with a molar ratio of Y:Al=3:5 were dissolved in ethanol (100 ml), and CeCl3•7H2O (0.3 mol%) was further added to the above solution. Then, NaOH (4.6×10-2 mol) dissolved in ethanol (50 ml) was added dropwise to the mixture under reflux over 2 hours, and the solution was further refluxed for 1 hour. After cooling to room temperature, precipitates in the reaction mixture were heated at 673 K for 1 hour. After the calcination, the particles were immersed in AgNO3 solution for 1 hour, followed by sintering at 1123 K for 1 hour. YAG:Ce3+ were confirmed to be nanocrystals with a crystallite size of 50-80 nm in diameter. Ag nanoparticles supported onto YAG:Ce3+ were single nanometers in diameter. The excitation and emission spectra were 454 nm and 539 nm at a maximum wavelength, respectively. The emission intensity was maximum for Ag-YAG:Ce3+ immersed into 0.5 mM AgCl (Ag-YAG:Ce (0.5 mM)). The absorption maximum (461 nm) was increased for Ag-YAG:Ce3+ in comparison with that for YAG:Ce3+, indicating that the absorption was enhanced by the addition of Ag. The external and internal quantum efficiencies became 11.2 % and 36.9 % for Ag-YAG:Ce (0.5 mM), respectively. The emission intensity and absorption maximum of Ag-YAG:Ce (0.5 mM)×n (n=1, 2, 3) were increased with an increase of the number of supporting times (n), respectively. The external and internal quantum efficiencies were increased for the increase of n, respectively. The external quantum efficiency of Ag-YAG:Ce (0.5 mM) (n=3) became twice as large as that of YAG:Ce. In conclusion, Ag nanoparticles supported onto YAG:Ce3+ increased absorption and quantum efficiency. Therefore, the support of Ag nanoparticles enhanced the photoluminescent properties of YAG:Ce3+.

Keywords: plasmon, quantum efficiency, silver nanoparticles, yttrium aluminum garnet

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20 Comparison of Methods for the Synthesis of Eu+++, Tb+++, and Tm+++ Doped Y2O3 Nanophosphors by Sol-Gel and Hydrothermal Methods for Bioconjugation

Authors: Ravindra P. Singh, Drupad Ram, Dinesh K. Gupta


Rare earth ions doped metal oxides are a class of luminescent materials which have been proved to be excellent for applications in field emission displays and cathode ray tubes, plasma display panels. Under UV irradiation Eu+++ doped Y2O3 is a red phosphor and Tb+++ doped Y 2O3 is a green phosphor. It is possible that, due to their high quantum efficiency, they might serve as improved luminescent markers for identification of biomolecules, as already reported for CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals. However, for any biological applications these particle powders must be suspended in water while retaining their phosphorescence. We hereby report synthesis and characterization of Eu+++ and Tb+++ doped yttrium oxide nanoparticles by sol-gel and hydrothermal processes. Eu+++ and Tb+++ doped Y2O3 nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrothermal process using yttrium oxo isopropoxide [Y5O(OPri)13] (crystallized twice) and it’s acetyl acetone modified product [Y(O)(acac)] as precursors. Generally the sol-gel derived metal oxides are required to be annealed to the temperature ranging from 400°C-800°C in order to develop crystalline phases. However, this annealing also results in the development of aggregates which are undesirable for bio-conjugation experiments. In the hydrothermal process, we have achieved crystallinity of the nanoparticles at 300°C and the development of crystalline phases has been found to be proportional to the time of heating of the reactor. The average particle sizes as calculated from XRD were found to be 28 nm, 32 nm, and 34 nm by hydrothermal process. The particles were successfully suspended in chloroform in the presence of trioctyl phosphene oxide and TEM investigations showed the presence of single particles along with agglomerates.

Keywords: nanophosphors, Y2O3:Eu+3, Y2O3:Tb+3, sol-gel, hydrothermal method, TEM, XRD

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19 Enhancement of Critical Temperature and Improvement of Mechanical Properties of Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide Superconductor

Authors: Hamed Rahmati


Nowadays, increasing demand for electric energy makes applying high-temperature superconductors inevitable. However, the most important problem of the superconductors is their critical temperature, which necessitates using a cryogenic system for keeping these substances’ temperatures lower than the critical level. Cryogenic systems used for this reason are not efficient enough, and keeping these large systems maintained is costly. Moreover, the low critical temperature of superconductors has delayed using them in electrical equipment. In this article, at first, characteristics of three superconductors, magnesium diboride (MgB2), yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO), and iron-based superconductors (FeSC), have been analyzed and a new structure of YBCO superconductors is presented. Generally, YBCO (YBa2Cu7O2) has a weak mechanical structure. By introducing some changes in its configuration and adding one silver atom (Ag) to it, its mechanical characteristics improved significantly. Moreover, for each added atom, a star-form structure was introduced in which changing the location of Ag atom led to considerable changes in temperature. In this study, Ag has been added by applying two accurate methods named random and substitute ones. The results of both methods have been examined. It has been shown that adding Ag by applying the substitute method can improve the mechanical properties of the superconductor in addition to increasing its critical temperature. In the mentioned strategy (using the substitute method), the critical temperature of the superconductor was measured up to 99 Kelvin. This new structure is usable in designing superconductors’ rings to be applied in superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). It can also lead to a reduction in the cryogenic system size, a decline in conductor wastes, and a decrease in costs of the whole system.

Keywords: critical temperature, cryogenic system, high-temperature superconductors, YBCO

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18 Analysis of Radiation-Induced Liver Disease (RILD) and Evaluation of Relationship between Therapeutic Activity and Liver Clearance Rate with Tc-99m-Mebrofenin in Yttrium-90 Microspheres Treatment

Authors: H. Tanyildizi, M. Abuqebitah, I. Cavdar, M. Demir, L. Kabasakal


Aim: Whole liver radiation has the modest benefit in the treatment of unresectable hepatic metastases but the radiation doses must keep in control. Otherwise, RILD complications may arise. In this study, we aimed to calculate amount of maximum permissible activity (MPA) and critical organ absorbed doses with MIRD methodology, to evaluate tumour doses for treatment response and whole liver doses for RILD and to find optimal liver function test additionally. Materials and Methods: This study includes 29 patients who attended our nuclear medicine department suffering from Y-90 microspheres treatment. 10 mCi Tc-99m MAA was applied to the patients for dosimetry via IV. After the injection, whole body SPECT/CT images were taken in one hour. The minimum therapeutic tumour dose is on the point of being 120 Gy1, the amount of activities were calculated with MIRD methodology considering volumetric tumour/liver rate. A sub-working group was created with 11 patients randomly and liver clearance rate with Tc-99m-Mebrofenin was calculated according to Ekman formalism. Results: The volumetric tumour/liver rates were found between 33-66% (Maksimum Tolarable Dose (MTD) 48-52Gy3) for 4 patients, were found less than 33% (MTD 72Gy3) for 25 patients. According to these results the average amount of activity, mean liver dose and mean tumour dose were found 1793.9±1.46 MBq, 32.86±0.19 Gy, and 138.26±0.40 Gy. RILD was not observed in any patient. In sub-working group, the relationship between Bilirubin, Albumin, INR (which show presence of liver disease and its degree), liver clearance with Tc-99m-Mebrofenin and calculated activity amounts were found r=0.49, r=0.27, r=0.43, r=0.57, respectively. Discussions: The minimum tumour dose was found 120 Gy for positive dose-response relation. If volumetric tumour/liver rate was > 66%, dose 30 Gy; if volumetric tumour/liver rate 33-66%, dose escalation 48 Gy; if volumetric tumour/liver rate < 33%, dose 72 Gy. These dose limitations did not create RILD. Clearance measurement with Mebrofenin was concluded that the best method to determine the liver function. Therefore, liver clearance rate with Tc-99m-Mebrofenin should be considered in calculation of yttrium-90 microspheres dosimetry.

Keywords: clearance, dosimetry, liver, RILD

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17 Colocalization Analysis to Understand Yttrium Uptake in Saxifraga paniculata Using Complementary Imaging Technics

Authors: Till Fehlauer, Blanche Collin, Bernard Angeletti, Andrea Somogyi, Claire Lallemand, Perrine Chaurand, Cédric Dentant, Clement Levard, Jerome Rose


Over the last decades, yttrium (Y) has gained importance in high-tech applications. It is an essential part of alloys and compounds used for lasers, displays, or cell phones, for example. Due to its chemical similarities with the lanthanides, Y is often considered a rare earth element (REE). Despite their increased usage, the environmental behavior of REEs remains poorly understood. Especially regarding their interactions with plants, many uncertainties exist. On the one hand, Y is known to have a negative effect on root development and germination, but on the other hand, it appears to promote plant growth at low concentrations. In order to understand these phenomena, a precise knowledge is necessary about how Y is absorbed by the plant and how it is handled once inside the organism. Contradictory studies exist, stating that due to a similar ionic radius, Y and the other REEs might be absorbed through Ca²⁺-channels, while others suspect that Y has a shared pathway with Al³⁺. In this study, laser ablation coupled ICP-MS, and synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (µXRF, beamline Nanoscopium, SOLEIL, France) have been used in order to localize Y within the plant tissue and identify associated elements. The plant used in this study is Saxifraga paniculata, a rugged alpine plant that has shown an affinity for Y in previous studies (in prep.). Furthermore, Saxifraga paniculata performs guttation, which means that it possesses phloem sap secreting openings on the leaf surface that serve to regulate root pressure. These so-called hydathodes could provide special insights in elemental transport in plants. The plants have been grown on Y doped soil (500mg/kg DW) for four months. The results showed that Y was mainly concentrated in the roots of Saxifraga paniculata (260 ± 85mg/kg), and only a small amount was translocated to the leaves (10 ± 7.8mg/kg). µXRF analysis indicated that within the root transects, the majority of Y remained in the epidermis and hardly penetrated the stele. Laser ablation coupled ICP-MS confirmed this finding and showed a positive correlation in the roots between Y, Fe, Al, and to a lesser extent Ca. In the stem transect, Y was mainly detected in a hotspot of approximately 40µm in diameter situated in the endodermis area. Within the stem and especially in the hotspot, Y was highly colocalized with Al and Fe. Similar-sized Y hotspots have been detected in/on the leaves. All of them were strongly colocalized with Al and Fe, except for those situated within the hydathodes, which showed no colocalization with any of the measured elements. Accordingly, a relation between Y and Ca during root uptake remains possible, whereas a correlation to Fe and Al appears to be dominant in the aerial parts, suggesting common storage compartments, the formation of complexes, or a shared pathway during translocation.

Keywords: laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), Phytoaccumulation, Rare earth elements, Saxifraga paniculata, Synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence, Yttrium

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16 Synthesis, Structure and Functional Characteristics of Solid Electrolytes Based on Lanthanum Niobates

Authors: Maria V. Morozova, Yulia V. Emelyanova, Anastasia A. Levina, Elena S. Buyanova, Zoya A. Mikhaylovskaya, Sofia A. Petrova


The solid solutions of lanthanum niobates substituted by yttrium, bismuth and tungsten were synthesized. The structure of the solid solutions is either LaNbO4-based monoclinic or BiNbO4-based triclinic. The series where niobium is substituted by tungsten on B site reveals phase-modulated structure. The values of cell parameters decrease with increasing the dopant concentration for all samples except the tungsten series although the latter show higher total conductivity.

Keywords: impedance spectroscopy, LaNbO4, lanthanum ortho-niobates, solid electrolyte

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15 Characterization and Modification of the Optical Properties of Zirconia Ceramics for Aesthetic Dental Restorations

Authors: R. A. Shahmiri, O. Standard, J. Hart, C. C. Sorrell


Yttrium stabilized tetragonal zirconium polycrystalline (Y-TZP) has been used as a dental biomaterial. The strength and toughness of zirconia can be accounted for by its toughening mechanisms, such as crack deflection, zone shielding, contact shielding, and crack bridging. Prevention of crack propagation is of critical importance in high-fatigue situations, such as those encountered in mastication and para-function. However, the poor translucency of Y-TZP means that it may not meet the aesthetic requirements due to its white/grey appearance in polycrystalline form. To improve optical property of the Zirconia, precise evaluation of its refractive index is of significance. Zirconia`s optical properties need to be studied more in depth. Number of studies assumed, scattered light is isotropically distributed over all angles from biological media when defining optical parameters. Nevertheless, optical behaviour of real biological material depends on angular scattering of light by anisotropy material. Therefore, the average cosine of the scattering angle (which represent recovery phase function in the scattering angular distribution) usually characterized by anisotropy material. It has been identified that yttrium anti-sites present in the space charge layer have no significant role in the absorption of light in the visible range. Addition of cation dopant to polycrystalline zirconia results in segregate to grain boundaries and grain growth. Intrinsic and extrinsic properties of ZrO2 and their effect on optical properties need to be investigated. Intrinsic properties such as chemical composition, defect structure (oxygen vacancy), phase configuration (porosity, second phase) and distribution of phase need to be studied to comprehend their effect on refraction index, absorption/reflection and scattering. Extrinsic properties such as surface structure, thickness, underlying tooth structure, cement layer (type, thickness), and light source (natural, curing, artificial) of ZrO2 need to be studied to understand their effect on colour and translucency of material. This research reviewed effect of stabilization of tetragonal zirconia on optical property of zirconia for dental application.

Keywords: optical properties, zirconia dental biomaterial, chemical composition, phase composition

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14 Phase Equilibria in Zn-Al-Sn Alloy for Lead-free Solder Application

Authors: Ji Chan Kim, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


The effect of Yttrium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-Zn eutectic alloy, which has been attracting intensive focus as a Pb-free solder material, was investigated in this study. Phase equilibrium has been calculated by using FactSage® to evaluate the composition and fraction of equilibrium intermetallic compounds and construct a phase diagram. In the case of Sn-8.8 Zn eutectic alloy, the as-cast microstructure was typical lamellar. With addition of 0.25 wt. %Y, a large amount of pro-eutectic phases have been observed and various YZnx intermetallic compounds were expected to successively form during cooling. Hardness of Sn-8.8 Zn alloy was not affected by Y-addition and both alloys could be rolled by 90% at room temperature.

Keywords: lead-free solder, zn-al-sn alloy, phase equilibrium, rolling, microstructure, hardness

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13 Technological Properties and Characterization of Ceramic Slurries Based on Yttrium Iii Oxide for Shell Moulds Preparation

Authors: D. Jakubowska, M. Malek, P. Wisniewski, J. Mizera, K. J. Kurzydlowski


The goal of this study was to analyze the technological properties of ceramic slurries based on Ytttria (Y2O3) for fabrication “prime coat” in ceramic shell moulds for investment casting process. The Yttria with two different granulation of (200# and 325#) in ratio-65%-35% by weight were used for preparation the ceramic slurries. Solid phase was 77 wt.%. The experiment was carried out for 96h. Main technological properties like: viscosity, pH, plate weight test, and density were measured every 24h. Additionally, dynamic viscosity was performed after 96h of test. For further material characterization SEM observations, Zeta potential, XRD measurements were done. Those research showed that Yttria ceramic slurries had very promising properties and there are perspective for future fabrication.

Keywords: ceramic slurries, mechanizal properties, viscosity, fabrication

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12 Application of MRI in Radioembolization Imaging and Dosimetry

Authors: Salehi Zahabi Saleh, Rajabi Hosaien, Rasaneh Samira


Yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolisation(RE) is increasingly used for the treatment of patients with unresectable primary or metastatic liver tumours. Image-based approaches to assess microsphere distribution after RE have gained interest but are mostly hampered by the limited imaging possibilities of the Isotope 90Y. Quantitative 90Y-SPECT imaging has limited spatial resolution because it is based on 90Y Bremsstrahlung whereas 90Y-PET has better spatial resolution but low sensitivity. As a consequence, new alternative methods of visualizing the microspheres have been investigated, such as MR imaging of iron-labelled microspheres. It was also shown that MRI combines high sensitivity with high spatial and temporal resolution and with superior soft tissue contrast and thus can be used to cover a broad range of clinically interesting imaging parameters.The aim of the study in this article was to investigate the capability of MRI to measure the intrahepatic microsphere distribution in order to quantify the absorbed radiation dose in RE.

Keywords: radioembolisation, MRI, imaging, dosimetry

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11 Synthesis, Microstructure and Photoluminescence Properties of Yttrium Orthovanadates: Influences of Silica Nano-Particles and Nano-Layers

Authors: Seyed Mahdi Rafiaei


In this investigation, firstly Eu3+ doped YVO4 phosphor was synthesized using solid-state method. Then silica was coated on the surface of particles via sol-gel method. To study the influence of SiO2 addition on microstructure and photoluminescence characteristics of YVO4:4% Eu3+ phosphor materials, we employed X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), High-Resolution Transmitted Electron Microscope (HRTEM), Focused Ion Beam (FIB), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET), Inductively coupled plasma (ICP), Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and Photoluminescence (PL) equipments. The XPS characterization confirmed the formation of Y–O–Si and V-O-Si bondings between YVO4:Eu3+ phosphor particle and SiO2 coating. In addition, it was found that although the amounts of added SiO2 were not remarkable, but it resulted in enhancement of emission intensity of the phosphors. Finally by employing ESR analysis, it was shown that surface oxygen vacancies, result in reduction of V5+ to the lower valence state of V4+.

Keywords: solid state, sol-gel, silica, coating, photoluminescence

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10 Rapid Method for Low Level 90Sr Determination in Seawater by Liquid Extraction Technique

Authors: S. Visetpotjanakit, N. Nakkaew


Determination of low level 90Sr in seawater has been widely developed for the purpose of environmental monitoring and radiological research because 90Sr is one of the most hazardous radionuclides released from atmospheric during the testing of nuclear weapons, waste discharge from the generation nuclear energy and nuclear accident occurring at power plants. A liquid extraction technique using bis-2-etylhexyl-phosphoric acid to separate and purify yttrium followed by Cherenkov counting using a liquid scintillation counter to determine 90Y in secular equilibrium to 90Sr was developed to monitor 90Sr in the Asia Pacific Ocean. The analytical performance was validated for the accuracy, precision, and trueness criteria. Sr-90 determination in seawater using various low concentrations in a range of 0.01 – 1 Bq/L of 30 liters spiked seawater samples and 0.5 liters of IAEA-RML-2015-01 proficiency test sample was performed for statistical evaluation. The results had a relative bias in the range from 3.41% to 12.28%, which is below accepted relative bias of ± 25% and passed the criteria confirming that our analytical approach for determination of low levels of 90Sr in seawater was acceptable. Moreover, the approach is economical, non-laborious and fast.

Keywords: proficiency test, radiation monitoring, seawater, strontium determination

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9 Rare Earth Metal Ion-Doped SiO2 Nanocomposite Membranes for Gas Separation in Steam Atmosphere

Authors: Md. Hasan Zahir


Y2O3-doped silica membranes were synthesized with the sol-gel method by using a tetraethyl orthosilicate-derived sol mixed with yttrium nitrate hexahydrate. These solutions were used to fabricate hydrogen separation microporous membranes with a sandwich-type structure on γ-Al2O3 supported by tubular α-Al2O3. Pore size distribution measurements were conducted directly on the membranes before and after hydrothermal treatment with a nano-permporometer. The gas permeance properties of the membranes were measured in the temperature range 100–500°C. The Y-doped SiO2 membrane (Si/Y = 3/1) was found to exhibit asymptotically stable permeances of 2.39×10-7 mol m-2 s -1 Pa-1 for He and 6.19 ×10-10 mol m-2 s -1 Pa-1 for CO2, with a high selectivity of 386 (He/CO2) at 500°C for 20 h in the presence of steam. The Y-doped silica membranes exhibit very high gas permeances for molecules with smaller kinetic diameters. The apparent activation energies of the H2 permeance at 400°C were 24.2±0.2 and 21.3±0.7 kJ mol−1 for SiO2 and Si/Y, respectively. Very high permeances were obtained for N2 and O2, 2.2 and 5 × 10-8 mol m-2 s -1 Pa-1 respectively, which demonstrates that these materials are promising air purification and/or separation systems that block larger impurity molecules by molecular sieving effects. Y-doped SiO2 exhibits greater hydrothermal stability at high temperatures and higher selectivity than SiO2 membranes.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, gas separation, hydrothermal stability, rare earth doped-Silica

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8 Effect of Yttrium Doping on Properties of Bi2Sr1.9Ca0.1-xYxCu2O7+δ (Bi-2202) Cuprate Ceramics

Authors: Y. Boudjadja, A. Amira, A. Saoudel, A. Varilci, S. P. Altintas, C. Terzioglu


In this work, we report the effect of Y3+ doping on structural, mechanical and electrical properties of Bi-2202 phase. Samples of Bi2Sr1.9Ca0.1-xYxCu2O7+δ with x = 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1 are elaborated in air by conventional solid state reaction and characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) combined with EDS spectroscopy, density, Vickers micro-hardness and resistivity measurements. A good correlation between the variations of the bulk density and the Vickers micro-hardness with doping is obtained. The SEM photograph shows that the samples are composed of grains with a flat shape that characterizes the Bi-based cuprates. Quantitative EDS analysis confirms the reduction of Ca content and the increase of Y content when x is increased. The variation of resistivity with temperature shows that only samples with x = 0, 0.025 and 0.05 present an onset transition to the superconducting state. The higher onset transition temperature is obtained for x = 0.025 and is about 93.62 K. The transition is wide and is realized in two steps confirming then the presence of the low Tc Bi-2201 phase in the samples. For x = 0.075 and 0.1, a transition to a semiconducting state is seen at low temperatures. Some physical parameters are extracted from these curves and discussed.

Keywords: Bi-2202 phase, doping, structure, mechanical and electrical properties

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7 Development of LSM/YSZ Composite Anode Materials for Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells

Authors: Christian C. Vaso, Rinlee Butch M. Cervera


Solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) is a promising technology for hydrogen production that will contribute to the sustainable energy of the future. An important component of this SOEC is the anode material and one of the promising anode material for such application is the Sr-doped LaMnO3 (LSM) and Yttrium-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) composite material. In this study, LSM/YSZ with different weight percent compositions of LSM and YSZ were synthesized using solid-state reaction method. The obtained samples, 60LSM/40YSZ, 50LSM/50YSZ, and 40LSM/60YSZ, were fully characterized for its microstructure using X-ray diffraction, FTIR, and SEM/EDS. EDS analysis confirmed the elemental composition and distribution of the synthesized samples. Surface morphology of the sample using SEM exhibited a well sintered and densified samples and revealed a beveled cube-like LSM morphology while the YSZ phase appeared to have a sphere-like microstructure. Density measurements using Archimedes principle showed relative densities greater than 90%. In addition, AC impedance measurement of the synthesized samples have been investigated at intermediate temperature range (400-700 °C) in an inert and oxygen gas flow environment. At pure states, LSM exhibited a high electronic conductivity while YSZ demonstrated an ionic conductivity of 3.25 x 10-4 S/cm at 700 °C under Oxygen gas environment with calculated activation energy of 0.85eV. The composite samples were also studied and revealed that as the YSZ content of the composite electrode increases, the total conductivity decreases.

Keywords: ceramic composites, fuel cells, strontium lanthanum manganite, yttria partially-stabilized zirconia

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6 Determination of Rare Earth Element Patterns in Uranium Matrix for Nuclear Forensics Application: Method Development for Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) Measurements

Authors: Bernadett Henn, Katalin Tálos, Éva Kováss Széles


During the last 50 years, the worldwide permeation of the nuclear techniques induces several new problems in the environmental and in the human life. Nowadays, due to the increasing of the risk of terrorism worldwide, the potential occurrence of terrorist attacks using also weapon of mass destruction containing radioactive or nuclear materials as e.g. dirty bombs, is a real threat. For instance, the uranium pellets are one of the potential nuclear materials which are suitable for making special weapons. The nuclear forensics mainly focuses on the determination of the origin of the confiscated or found nuclear and other radioactive materials, which could be used for making any radioactive dispersive device. One of the most important signatures in nuclear forensics to find the origin of the material is the determination of the rare earth element patterns (REE) in the seized or found radioactive or nuclear samples. The concentration and the normalized pattern of the REE can be used as an evidence of uranium origin. The REE are the fourteen Lanthanides in addition scandium and yttrium what are mostly found together and really low concentration in uranium pellets. The problems of the REE determination using ICP-MS technique are the uranium matrix (high concentration of uranium) and the interferences among Lanthanides. In this work, our aim was to develop an effective chemical sample preparation process using extraction chromatography for separation the uranium matrix and the rare earth elements from each other following some publications can be found in the literature and modified them. Secondly, our purpose was the optimization of the ICP-MS measuring process for REE concentration. During method development, in the first step, a REE model solution was used in two different types of extraction chromatographic resins (LN® and TRU®) and different acidic media for environmental testing the Lanthanides separation. Uranium matrix was added to the model solution and was proved in the same conditions. Methods were tested and validated using REE UOC (uranium ore concentrate) reference materials. Samples were analyzed by sector field mass spectrometer (ICP-SFMS).

Keywords: extraction chromatography, nuclear forensics, rare earth elements, uranium

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5 Sintering of YNbO3:Eu3+ Compound: Correlation between Luminescence and Spark Plasma Sintering Effect

Authors: Veronique Jubera, Ka-Young Kim, U-Chan Chung, Amelie Veillere, Jean-Marc Heintz


Emitting materials and all solid state lasers are widely used in the field of optical applications and materials science as a source of excitement, instrumental measurements, medical applications, metal shaping etc. Recently promising optical efficiencies were recorded on ceramics which result from a cheaper and faster ways to obtain crystallized materials. The choice and optimization of the sintering process is the key point to fabricate transparent ceramics. It includes a high control on the preparation of the powder with the choice of an adequate synthesis, a pre-heat-treatment, the reproducibility of the sintering cycle, the polishing and post-annealing of the ceramic. The densification is the main factor needed to reach a satisfying transparency, and many technologies are now available. The symmetry of the unit cell plays a crucial role in the diffusion rate of the material. Therefore, the cubic symmetry compounds having an isotropic refractive index is preferred. The cubic Y3NbO7 matrix is an interesting host which can accept a high concentration of rare earth doping element and it has been demonstrated that SPS is an efficient way to sinter this material. The optimization of diffusion losses requires a microstructure of fine ceramics, generally less than one hundred nanometers. In this case, grain growth is not an obstacle to transparency. The ceramics properties are then isotropic thereby to free-shaping step by orienting the ceramics as this is the case for the compounds of lower symmetry. After optimization of the synthesis route, several SPS parameters as heating rate, holding, dwell time and pressure were adjusted in order to increase the densification of the Eu3+ doped Y3NbO7 pellets. The luminescence data coupled with X-Ray diffraction analysis and electronic diffraction microscopy highlight the existence of several distorted environments of the doping element in the studied defective fluorite-type host lattice. Indeed, the fast and high crystallization rate obtained to put in evidence a lack of miscibility in the phase diagram, being the final composition of the pellet driven by the ratio between niobium and yttrium elements. By following the luminescence properties, we demonstrate a direct impact on the SPS process on this material.

Keywords: emission, niobate of rare earth, Spark plasma sintering, lack of miscibility

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4 Study of Lanthanoide Organic Frameworks Properties and Synthesis: Multicomponent Ligands

Authors: Ayla Roberta Galaco, Juliana Fonseca De Lima, Osvaldo Antonio Serra


Coordination polymers, also known as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) or lanthanoide organic frameworks (LOFs) have been reported due of their promising applications in gas storage, separation, catalysis, luminescence, magnetism, drug delivery, and so on. As a type of organic–inorganic hybrid materials, the properties of coordination polymers could be chosen by deliberately selecting the organic and inorganic components. LOFs have received considerable attention because of their properties such as porosity, luminescence, and magnetism. Methods such as solvothermal synthesis are important as a strategy to control the structural and morphological properties as well as the composition of the target compounds. In this work the first solvothermal synthesis was employed to obtain the compound [Y0.4,Yb0.4,Er0.2(dmf)(for)(H2O)(tft)], by using terephthalic acid (tft) and oxalic acid, decomposed in formate (for), as ligands; Yttrium, Ytterbium and, Erbium as metal centers, in DMF and water for 4 days under 160 °C. The semi-rigid terephthalic acid (dicarboxylic) coordinates with Ln3+ ions and also is possible to form a polyfunctional bridge. On the other hand, oxalate anion has no high-energy vibrational groups, which benefits the excitation of Yb3+ in upconversion process. It was observed that the compounds with water molecules in the coordination sphere of the lanthanoide ions cause lower crystalline properties and change the structure of the LOF (1D, 2D, 3D). In the FTIR, the bands at 1589 and 1500 cm-1 correspond to the asymmetric stretching vibration of –COO. The band at 1383 cm-1 is assigned to the symmetric stretching vibration of –COO. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals an infinite 3D coordination framework that crystalizes in space group P21/c. The other three products, [TR(chel)(ofd)0,5(H2O)2], where TR= Eu3+, Y3, and Yb3+/Er3+ were obtained by using 1, 2-phenylenedioxydiacetic acid (ofd) and chelidonic acid (chel) as organic ligands. Thermal analysis shows that the lanthanoide organic frameworks do not collapse at temperatures below 250 °C. By the polycrystalline X-ray diffraction patterns (PXRD) it was observed that the compounds with Eu3+, Y3+, and Yb3+/Er3+ ions are isostructural. From PXRD patterns, high crystallinity can be noticed for the complexes. The final products were characterized by single X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) is an effective method to investigate crystalline properties of synthesized materials. The solid crystal obtained in the synthesis show peaks at 2θ < 10°, indicating the MOF formation. The chemical composition of LOFs was also confirmed by EDS.

Keywords: isostructural, lanthanoids, lanthanoids organic frameworks (LOFs), metal organic frameworks (MOFs), thermogravimetry, X-Ray diffraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
3 Sol-Gel Derived Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Nanoparticles for Dental Applications: Synthesis and Characterization

Authors: Anastasia Beketova, Emmanouil-George C. Tzanakakis, Ioannis G. Tzoutzas, Eleana Kontonasaki


In restorative dentistry, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanoparticles can be applied as fillers to improve the mechanical properties of various resin-based materials. Using sol-gel based synthesis as simple and cost-effective method, nano-sized YSZ particles with high purity can be produced. The aim of this study was to synthesize YSZ nanoparticles by the Pechini sol-gel method at different temperatures and to investigate their composition, structure, and morphology. YSZ nanopowders were synthesized by the sol-gel method using zirconium oxychloride octahydrate (ZrOCl₂.8H₂O) and yttrium nitrate hexahydrate (Y(NO₃)₃.6H₂O) as precursors with the addition of acid chelating agents to control hydrolysis and gelation reactions. The obtained powders underwent TG_DTA analysis and were sintered at three different temperatures: 800, 1000, and 1200°C for 2 hours. Their composition and morphology were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy with associated with Energy Dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) methods, and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). FTIR and XRD analysis showed the presence of pure tetragonal phase in the composition of nanopowders. By increasing the calcination temperature, the crystallinity of materials increased, reaching 47.2 nm for the YSZ1200 specimens. SEM analysis at high magnifications and DLS analysis showed submicron-sized particles with good dispersion and low agglomeration, which increased in size as the sintering temperature was elevated. From the TEM images of the YSZ1000 specimen, it can be seen that zirconia nanoparticles are uniform in size and shape and attain an average particle size of about 50 nm. The electron diffraction patterns clearly revealed ring patterns of polycrystalline tetragonal zirconia phase. Pure YSZ nanopowders have been successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method at different temperatures. Their size is small, and uniform, allowing their incorporation of dental luting resin cements to improve their mechanical properties and possibly enhance the bond strength of demanding dental ceramics such as zirconia to the tooth structure. This research is co-financed by Greece and the European Union (European Social Fund- ESF) through the Operational Programme 'Human Resources Development, Education and Lifelong Learning 2014- 2020' in the context of the project 'Development of zirconia adhesion cements with stabilized zirconia nanoparticles: physicochemical properties and bond strength under aging conditions' (MIS 5047876).

Keywords: dental cements, nanoparticles, sol-gel, yttria-stabilized zirconia, YSZ

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