Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 155

Search results for: rupture

155 Physics-Based Earthquake Source Models for Seismic Engineering: Analysis and Validation for Dip-Slip Faults

Authors: Percy Galvez, Anatoly Petukhin, Paul Somerville, Ken Miyakoshi, Kojiro Irikura, Daniel Peter


Physics-based dynamic rupture modelling is necessary for estimating parameters such as rupture velocity and slip rate function that are important for ground motion simulation, but poorly resolved by observations, e.g. by seismic source inversion. In order to generate a large number of physically self-consistent rupture models, whose rupture process is consistent with the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of past earthquakes, we use multicycle simulations under the heterogeneous rate-and-state (RS) friction law for a 45deg dip-slip fault. We performed a parametrization study by fully dynamic rupture modeling, and then, a set of spontaneous source models was generated in a large magnitude range (Mw > 7.0). In order to validate rupture models, we compare the source scaling relations vs. seismic moment Mo for the modeled rupture area S, as well as average slip Dave and the slip asperity area Sa, with similar scaling relations from the source inversions. Ground motions were also computed from our models. Their peak ground velocities (PGV) agree well with the GMPE values. We obtained good agreement of the permanent surface offset values with empirical relations. From the heterogeneous rupture models, we analyzed parameters, which are critical for ground motion simulations, i.e. distributions of slip, slip rate, rupture initiation points, rupture velocities, and source time functions. We studied cross-correlations between them and with the friction weakening distance Dc value, the only initial heterogeneity parameter in our modeling. The main findings are: (1) high slip-rate areas coincide with or are located on an outer edge of the large slip areas, (2) ruptures have a tendency to initiate in small Dc areas, and (3) high slip-rate areas correlate with areas of small Dc, large rupture velocity and short rise-time.

Keywords: earthquake dynamics, strong ground motion prediction, seismic engineering, source characterization

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154 The Rupture Potential of Nerve Tissue Constrained Intracranial Saccular Aneurysm

Authors: M. Alam, P. Seshaiyer


The rupture predictability of intracranial aneurysm is one of the most important parameters for physicians in surgical treatment. As most of the intracranial aneurysms are asymptomatic, still the rupture potential of both symptomatic and asymptomatic lesions is relatively unknown. Moreover, an intracranial aneurysm constrained by a nerve tissue might be a common scenario for a physician to deal with during the treatment process. Here, we perform a computational modeling of nerve tissue constrained intracranial saccular aneurysm to show a protective role of constrained tissue on the aneurysm. A comparative parametric study of the model also performs taking long constraint, medium constraint, short constraint, point contact, narrow neck aneurysm, wide neck aneurysm as parameters for the analysis. Results show that contact constraint aneurysm generates less stress near the fundus compared to no constraint aneurysm, hence works as a protective wall for the aneurysm not to be ruptured.

Keywords: rupture potential, intracranial saccular aneurysm, anisotropic hyper-elastic material, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
153 The Rupture of Tendon Achilles During the Recreative and Sports Activities

Authors: Jasmin S. Nurkovic, Ljubisa Dj. Jovasevic, Zana C. Dolicanin, Zoran S. Bajin


Ruptured muscles and tendons very often must be repatriated by open operation in young persons. In young, muscles are ruptured more often than tendons, at the sane time in older persons are more exposed to rupture than muscles. Ruptured of the calcaneus are the most present of all ruptures. Sometime the rupture is complete, but very often the incomplete rupture can be noticed. During six years, from 2006 to 2012, we treated nineteen male patients and three female patients with the rupture of tendon Achilles. The youngest patient was aged thirty two, and the oldest was also managed sixty four. The youngest female patient was forty one and the oldest was forty six. One of our patients who was under corticosteroid treatment did not take any part in sport activities but she was, as she told us, going for a long walk, the same was with other two patients one man and one woman. We had nineteen male patients age 32 to 64 and three female patients age 41, 44 and 46. Conservative treatment by cast was applied in five patients and very good results were in three of them. In two patients surgical treatment failed in patient’s age 53 and 64. Only one of all patients treated by surgery had healing problems because of necrotic changes of the skin where incision was made. One of our female patients age 45 was under steroid treatment for almost 20 years because of asthmatic problems. We suggested her wearing boots with 8cm long heels by day and by night eight weeks. The final results were satisfactory and all the time she was able to work and to walk. It was the only case we had with bilateral tendon rupture. After eight weeks the cast is removed and psychiatric treatment started, patient is using crutches with partial weight bearing over a period of two weeks. Quite the same treatment conservative treatment, only the cast is not removed after two but after four weeks. Everyday activities after the surgical treatment started ten weeks and sport activities can start after fourteen to sixteen weeks. An increased activity of our patient without previous preparing for forces activity can result, as we already see, with tendon rupture. Treatment is very long and very often surgical. We find that surgical treatment resulted as safer and better solution for patients. We also had a patient with spontaneous rupture of tendon during longer walking but this patient was under prolonged corticosteroid treatment.

Keywords: tendon, Achilles, rupture, sport

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
152 Creep Analysis and Rupture Evaluation of High Temperature Materials

Authors: Yuexi Xiong, Jingwu He


The structural components in an energy facility such as steam turbine machines are operated under high stress and elevated temperature in an endured time period and thus the creep deformation and creep rupture failure are important issues that need to be addressed in the design of such components. There are numerous creep models being used for creep analysis that have both advantages and disadvantages in terms of accuracy and efficiency. The Isochronous Creep Analysis is one of the simplified approaches in which a full-time dependent creep analysis is avoided and instead an elastic-plastic analysis is conducted at each time point. This approach has been established based on the rupture dependent creep equations using the well-known Larson-Miller parameter. In this paper, some fundamental aspects of creep deformation and the rupture dependent creep models are reviewed and the analysis procedures using isochronous creep curves are discussed. Four rupture failure criteria are examined from creep fundamental perspectives including criteria of Stress Damage, Strain Damage, Strain Rate Damage, and Strain Capability. The accuracy of these criteria in predicting creep life is discussed and applications of the creep analysis procedures and failure predictions of simple models will be presented. In addition, a new failure criterion is proposed to improve the accuracy and effectiveness of the existing criteria. Comparisons are made between the existing criteria and the new one using several examples materials. Both strain increase and stress relaxation form a full picture of the creep behaviour of a material under high temperature in an endured time period. It is important to bear this in mind when dealing with creep problems. Accordingly there are two sets of rupture dependent creep equations. While the rupture strength vs LMP equation shows how the rupture time depends on the stress level under load controlled condition, the strain rate vs rupture time equation reflects how the rupture time behaves under strain-controlled condition. Among the four existing failure criteria for rupture life predictions, the Stress Damage and Strain Damage Criteria provide the most conservative and non-conservative predictions, respectively. The Strain Rate and Strain Capability Criteria provide predictions in between that are believed to be more accurate because the strain rate and strain capability are more determined quantities than stress to reflect the creep rupture behaviour. A modified Strain Capability Criterion is proposed making use of the two sets of creep equations and therefore is considered to be more accurate than the original Strain Capability Criterion.

Keywords: creep analysis, high temperature mateials, rapture evalution, steam turbine machines

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151 First Cracking Moments of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polymer-Steel Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Saruhan Kartal, Ilker Kalkan


The present paper reports the cracking moment estimates of a set of steel-reinforced, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP)-reinforced and hybrid steel-FRP reinforced concrete beams, calculated from different analytical formulations in the codes, together with the experimental cracking load values. A total of three steel-reinforced, four FRP-reinforced, 12 hybrid FRP-steel over-reinforced and five hybrid FRP-steel under-reinforced concrete beam tests were analyzed within the scope of the study. Glass FRP (GFRP) and Basalt FRP (BFRP) bars were used in the beams as FRP bars. In under-reinforced hybrid beams, rupture of the FRP bars preceded crushing of concrete, while concrete crushing preceded FRP rupture in over-reinforced beams. In both types, steel yielding took place long before the FRP rupture and concrete crushing. The cracking moment mainly depends on two quantities, namely the moment of inertia of the section at the initiation of cracking and the flexural tensile strength of concrete, i.e. the modulus of rupture. In the present study, two different definitions of uncracked moment of inertia, i.e. the gross and the uncracked transformed moments of inertia, were adopted. Two analytical equations for the modulus of rupture (ACI 318M and Eurocode 2) were utilized in the calculations as well as the experimental tensile strength of concrete from prismatic specimen tests. The ACI 318M modulus of rupture expression produced cracking moment estimates closer to the experimental cracking moments of FRP-reinforced and hybrid FRP-steel reinforced concrete beams when used in combination with the uncracked transformed moment of inertia, yet the Eurocode 2 modulus of rupture expression gave more accurate cracking moment estimates in steel-reinforced concrete beams. All of the analytical definitions produced analytical values considerably different from the experimental cracking load values of the solely FRP-reinforced concrete beam specimens.

Keywords: polymer reinforcement, four-point bending, hybrid use of reinforcement, cracking moment

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150 Microscale observations of a gas cell wall rupture in bread dough during baking and confrontation to 2/3D Finite Element simulations of stress concentration

Authors: Kossigan Bernard Dedey, David Grenier, Tiphaine Lucas


Bread dough is often described as a dispersion of gas cells in a continuous gluten/starch matrix. The final bread crumb structure is strongly related to gas cell walls (GCWs) rupture during baking. At the end of proofing and during baking, part of the thinnest GCWs between expanding gas cells is reduced to a gluten film of about the size of a starch granule. When such size is reached gluten and starch granules must be considered as interacting phases in order to account for heterogeneities and appropriately describe GCW rupture. Among experimental investigations carried out to assess GCW rupture, no experimental work was performed to observe the GCW rupture in the baking conditions at GCW scale. In addition, attempts to numerically understand GCW rupture are usually not performed at the GCW scale and often considered GCWs as continuous. The most relevant paper that accounted for heterogeneities dealt with the gluten/starch interactions and their impact on the mechanical behavior of dough film. However, stress concentration in GCW was not discussed. In this study, both experimental and numerical approaches were used to better understand GCW rupture in bread dough during baking. Experimentally, a macro-scope placed in front of a two-chamber device was used to observe the rupture of a real GCW of 200 micrometers in thickness. Special attention was paid in order to mimic baking conditions as far as possible (temperature, gas pressure and moisture). Various differences in pressure between both sides of GCW were applied and different modes of fracture initiation and propagation in GCWs were observed. Numerically, the impact of gluten/starch interactions (cohesion or non-cohesion) and rheological moduli ratio on the mechanical behavior of GCW under unidirectional extension was assessed in 2D/3D. A non-linear viscoelastic and hyperelastic approach was performed to match the finite strain involved in GCW during baking. Stress concentration within GCW was identified. Simulated stresses concentration was discussed at the light of GCW failure observed in the device. The gluten/starch granule interactions and rheological modulus ratio were found to have a great effect on the amount of stress possibly reached in the GCW.

Keywords: dough, experimental, numerical, rupture

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149 The Effect of Three-Dimensional Morphology on Vulnerability Assessment of Atherosclerotic Plaque

Authors: M. Zareh, H. Mohammadi, B. Naser


Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is the main trigger of heart attack and brain stroke which are the leading cause of death in developed countries. Better understanding of rupture-prone plaque can help clinicians detect vulnerable plaques- rupture prone or instable plaques- and apply immediate medical treatment to prevent these life-threatening cardiovascular events. Therefore, there are plenty of studies addressing disclosure of vulnerable plaques properties. Necrotic core and fibrous tissue are two major tissues constituting atherosclerotic plaque; using histopathological and numerical approaches, many studies have demonstrated that plaque rupture is strongly associated with a large necrotic core and a thin fibrous cap, two morphological characteristic which can be acquired by two-dimensional imaging of atherosclerotic plaque present in coronary and carotid arteries. Plaque rupture is widely considered as a mechanical failure inside plaque tissue; this failure occurs when the stress within plaque excesses the strength of tissue material; hence, finite element method, a strong numerical approach, has been extensively applied to estimate stress distribution within plaques with different compositions which is then used for assessment of various vulnerability characteristics including plaque morphology, material properties and blood pressure. This study aims to evaluate significance of three-dimensional morphology on vulnerability degree of atherosclerotic plaque. To reach this end, different two-dimensional geometrical models of atherosclerotic plaques are considered based on available data and named Main 2D Models (M2M). Then, for each of these M2Ms, two three-dimensional idealistic models are created. These two 3D models represent two possible three-dimensional morphologies which might exist for a plaque with similar 2D morphology to one of M2Ms. Finite element method is employed to estimate stress, von-Mises stress, within each 3D models. Results indicate that for each M2Ms stress can significantly varies due to possible 3D morphological changes in that plaque. Also, our results show that an atherosclerotic plaque with thick cap may experience rupture if it has a critical 3D morphology. This study highlights the effect of 3D geometry of plaque on its instability degree and suggests that 3D morphology of plaque might be necessary to more effectively and accurately assess atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability.

Keywords: atherosclerotic plaque, plaque rupture, finite element method, 3D model

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148 Roller Pump-Induced Tubing Rupture during Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Authors: W. G. Kim, C. H. Jo


We analyzed the effects of variations in the diameter of silicone rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubings on the likelihood of tubing rupture during modeling of accidental arterial line clamping in cardiopulmonary bypass with a roller pump. A closed CPB circuit constructed with a roller pump was tested with both PVC and silicone rubber tubings of 1/2, 3/8, and 1/4 inch internal diameter. Arterial line pressure was monitored, and an occlusive clamp was placed across the tubing distal to the pressure monitor site to model an accidental arterial line occlusion. A CCD camera with 512(H) x 492(V) pixels was installed above the roller pump to measure tubing diameters at pump outlet, where the maximum deformations (distension) of the tubings occurred. Quantitative measurement of the changes of tubing diameters with the change of arterial line pressure was performed using computerized image processing techniques. A visible change of tubing diameter was generally noticeable by around 250 psi of arterial line pressure, which was already very high. By 1500 psi, the PVC tubings showed an increase of diameter of between 5-10 %, while the silicone rubber tubings showed an increase between 20-25 %. Silicone rubber tubings of all sizes showed greater distensibility than PVC tubings of equivalent size. In conclusion, although roller-pump induced tubing rupture remains a theoretical problem during cardiopulmonary bypass in terms of the inherent mechanism of the pump, in reality such an occurrence is impossible in real clinical conditions.

Keywords: roller pump, tubing rupture, cardiopulmonary bypass, arterial line

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147 Alloy Design of Single Crystal Ni-base Superalloys by Combined Method of Neural Network and CALPHAD

Authors: Mehdi Montakhabrazlighi, Ercan Balikci


The neural network (NN) method is applied to alloy development of single crystal Ni-base Superalloys with low density and improved mechanical strength. A set of 1200 dataset which includes chemical composition of the alloys, applied stress and temperature as inputs and density and time to rupture as outputs is used for training and testing the network. Thermodynamic phase diagram modeling of the screened alloys is performed with Thermocalc software to model the equilibrium phases and also microsegregation in solidification processing. The model is first trained by 80% of the data and the 20% rest is used to test it. Comparing the predicted values and the experimental ones showed that a well-trained network is capable of accurately predicting the density and time to rupture strength of the Ni-base superalloys. Modeling results is used to determine the effect of alloying elements, stress, temperature and gamma-prime phase volume fraction on rupture strength of the Ni-base superalloys. This approach is in line with the materials genome initiative and integrated computed materials engineering approaches promoted recently with the aim of reducing the cost and time for development of new alloys for critical aerospace components. This work has been funded by TUBITAK under grant number 112M783.

Keywords: neural network, rupture strength, superalloy, thermocalc

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146 Influence of Surface Fault Rupture on Dynamic Behavior of Cantilever Retaining Wall: A Numerical Study

Authors: Partha Sarathi Nayek, Abhiparna Dasgupta, Maheshreddy Gade


Earth retaining structure plays a vital role in stabilizing unstable road cuts and slopes in the mountainous region. The retaining structures located in seismically active regions like the Himalayas may experience moderate to severe earthquakes. An earthquake produces two kinds of ground motion: permanent quasi-static displacement (fault rapture) on the fault rupture plane and transient vibration, traveling a long distance. There has been extensive research work to understand the dynamic behavior of retaining structures subjected to transient ground motions. However, understanding the effect caused by fault rapture phenomena on retaining structures is limited. The presence of shallow crustal active faults and natural slopes in the Himalayan region further highlights the need to study the response of retaining structures subjected to fault rupture phenomena. In this paper, an attempt has been made to understand the dynamic response of the cantilever retaining wall subjected to surface fault rupture. For this purpose, a 2D finite element model consists of a retaining wall, backfill and foundation have been developed using Abaqus 6.14 software. The backfill and foundation material are modeled as per the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, and the wall is modeled as linear elastic. In this present study, the interaction between backfill and wall is modeled as ‘surface-surface contact.’ The entire simulation process is divided into three steps, i.e., the initial step, gravity load step, fault rupture step. The interaction property between wall and soil and fixed boundary condition to all the boundary elements are applied in the initial step. In the next step, gravity load is applied, and the boundary elements are allowed to move in the vertical direction to incorporate the settlement of soil due to the gravity load. In the final step, surface fault rupture has been applied to the wall-backfill system. For this purpose, the foundation is divided into two blocks, namely, the hanging wall block and the footwall block. A finite fault rupture displacement is applied to the hanging wall part while the footwall bottom boundary is kept as fixed. Initially, a numerical analysis is performed considering the reverse fault mechanism with a dip angle of 45°. The simulated result is presented in terms of contour maps of permanent displacements of the wall-backfill system. These maps highlighted that surface fault rupture can induce permanent displacement in both horizontal and vertical directions, which can significantly influence the dynamic behavior of the wall-backfill system. Further, the influence of fault mechanism, dip angle, and surface fault rupture position is also investigated in this work.

Keywords: surface fault rupture, retaining wall, dynamic response, finite element analysis

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145 Strong Ground Motion Characteristics Revealed by Accelerograms in Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake

Authors: Jie Su, Zhenghua Zhou, Yushi Wang, Yongyi Li


The ground motion characteristics, which are given by the analysis of acceleration records, underlie the formulation and revision of the seismic design code of structural engineering. China Digital Strong Motion Network had recorded a lot of accelerograms of main shock from 478 permanent seismic stations, during the Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake on 12th May, 2008. These accelerograms provided a large number of essential data for the analysis of ground motion characteristics of the event. The spatial distribution characteristics, rupture directivity effect, hanging-wall and footwall effect had been studied based on these acceleration records. The results showed that the contours of horizontal peak ground acceleration and peak velocity were approximately parallel to the seismogenic fault which demonstrated that the distribution of the ground motion intensity was obviously controlled by the spatial extension direction of the seismogenic fault. Compared with the peak ground acceleration (PGA) recorded on the sites away from which the front of the fault rupture propagates, the PGA recorded on the sites toward which the front of the fault rupture propagates had larger amplitude and shorter duration, which indicated a significant rupture directivity effect. With the similar fault distance, the PGA of the hanging-wall is apparently greater than that of the foot-wall, while the peak velocity fails to observe this rule. Taking account of the seismic intensity distribution of Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake, the shape of strong ground motion contours was significantly affected by the directional effect in the regions with Chinese seismic intensity level VI ~ VIII. However, in the regions whose Chinese seismic intensity level are equal or greater than VIII, the mutual positional relationship between the strong ground motion contours and the surface outcrop trace of the fault was evidently influenced by the hanging-wall and foot-wall effect.

Keywords: hanging-wall and foot-wall effect, peak ground acceleration, rupture directivity effect, strong ground motion

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144 Left Cornual Ectopic Pregnancy with Uterine Rupture - a Case Report

Authors: Vinodhini Elangovan, Jen Heng Pek


Background: An ectopic pregnancy is defined as any pregnancy implanted outside of the endometrial cavity. Cornual pregnancy, a rare variety of ectopic pregnancies, is seen in about 2-4% of ectopic pregnancies. It develops in the interstitial portion of the fallopian tube and invades through the uterine wall. This case describes a third-trimester cornual pregnancy that resulted in a uterine rupture. Case: A 38-year old Chinese lady was brought to the Emergency Department (ED) as a standby case for hypotension. She was 30+6 weeks pregnant (Gravida 3, Parous 1). Her past obstetric history included a live birth delivered via lower segment Caesarean section due to non-reassuring fetal status in 2002 and a miscarriage in 2012. She developed generalized abdominal pain. There was no per vaginal bleeding or leaking liquor. There was also no fever, nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, or urinary symptoms. On arrival in the ED, she was pale, diaphoretic, and lethargic. She had generalized tenderness with guarding and rebound over her abdomen. Point of care ultrasound was performed and showed a large amount of intra-abdominal free fluid, and the fetal heart rate was 170 beats per minute. The point of care hemoglobin was 7.1 g/dL, and lactate was 6.8 mmol/L. The patient’s blood pressure dropped precipitously to 50/36 mmHg, and her heart rate went up to 141 beats per minute. The clinical impression was profound shock secondary to uterine rupture. Intra-operatively, there was extensive haemoperitoneum, and the fetus was seen in the abdominal cavity. The fetus was delivered immediately and handed to the neonatal team. On exploration of the uterus, the point of rupture was at the left cornual region where the placenta was attached to. Discussion: Cornual pregnancies are difficult to diagnose pre-operatively with low ultrasonographic sensitivity and hence are commonly confused with normal intrauterine pregnancies. They pose a higher risk of rupture and hemorrhage compared to other types of ectopic pregnancies. In very rare circumstances, interstitial pregnancies can result in a viable fetus. Uterine rupture resulting in hemorrhagic shock is a true obstetric emergency that can result in significant morbidity and mortality for the patient and the fetus, and early diagnosis in the emergency department is crucial. The patient in this case presented with known risk factors of multiparity, advanced maternal age, and previous lower segment cesarean section, which increased the suspicion of uterine rupture. Ultrasound assessment may be beneficial to any patient who presents with symptoms and a history of uterine surgery to assess the possibility of uterine dehiscence or rupture. Management of a patient suspected of uterine rupture should be systematic in the emergency department and follow an ABC approach. Conclusion: This case demonstrates the importance for an emergency physician to maintain the suspicion for ectopic pregnancy even at advanced gestational ages. It also highlights how even though all emergency physicians may not be qualified to do a detailed pelvic ultrasound, it is essential for them to be competent with a point of care ultrasound to make a prompt diagnosis of conditions such as uterine rupture.

Keywords: cornual ectopic , ectopic pregnancy, emergency medicine, obstetric emergencies

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143 Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of the Effects of Mechanical Forces in Cerebral Aneurysms

Authors: Hashem Al Argha


Cerebral Aneurysms are the ballooning and defect that occurs in the arteries of the brain. This ballooning might enlarge in size due to mechanical forces and could lead to rupture and death. Computational Fluid Dynamics has been used in the recent years in creating a link between engineering sciences and medical sciences. In this paper, the effects of mechanical forces on cerebral aneurysms will be studied. Results of this study show that mechanical forces could lead to rupture of the aneurysm and could lead to death. High mechanical forces including stresses up to 1.7 MPa could pop aneurysms and lead to a brain hemorrhage.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, numerical, aneurysm, mechanical forces

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
142 Biomechanical Analysis on Skin and Jejunum of Chemically Prepared Cat Cadavers Used in Surgery Training

Authors: Raphael C. Zero, Thiago A. S. S. Rocha, Marita V. Cardozo, Caio C. C. Santos, Alisson D. S. Fechis, Antonio C. Shimano, FabríCio S. Oliveira


Biomechanical analysis is an important factor in tissue studies. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of a new anatomical technique and quantify the changes in skin and the jejunum resistance of cats’ corpses throughout the process. Eight adult cat cadavers were used. For every kilogram of weight, 120ml of fixative solution (95% 96GL ethyl alcohol and 5% pure glycerin) was applied via the external common carotid artery. Next, the carcasses were placed in a container with 96 GL ethyl alcohol for 60 days. After fixing, all carcasses were preserved in a 30% sodium chloride solution for 60 days. Before fixation, control samples were collected from fresh cadavers and after fixation, three skin and jejunum fragments from each cadaver were tested monthly for strength and displacement until complete rupture in a universal testing machine. All results were analyzed by F-test (P <0.05). In the jejunum, the force required to rupture the fresh samples and the samples fixed in alcohol for 60 days was 31.27±19.14N and 29.25±11.69N, respectively. For the samples preserved in the sodium chloride solution for 30 and 60 days, the strength was 26.17±16.18N and 30.57±13.77N, respectively. In relation to the displacement required for the rupture of the samples, the values of fresh specimens and those fixed in alcohol for 60 days was 2.79±0.73mm and 2.80±1.13mm, respectively. For the samples preserved for 30 and 60 days with sodium chloride solution, the displacement was 2.53±1.03mm and 2.83±1.27mm, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the samples (P=0.68 with respect to strength, and P=0.75 with respect to displacement). In the skin, the force needed to rupture the fresh samples and the samples fixed for 60 days in alcohol was 223.86±131.5N and 211.86±137.53N respectively. For the samples preserved in sodium chloride solution for 30 and 60 days, the force was 227.73±129.06 and 224.78±143.83N, respectively. In relation to the displacement required for the rupture of the samples, the values of fresh specimens and those fixed in alcohol for 60 days were 3.67±1.03mm and 4.11±0.87mm, respectively. For the samples preserved for 30 and 60 days with sodium chloride solution, the displacement was 4.21±0.93mm and 3.93±0.71mm, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the samples (P=0.65 with respect to strength, and P=0.98 with respect to displacement). The resistance of the skin and intestines of the cat carcasses suffered little change when subjected to alcohol fixation and preservation in sodium chloride solution, each for 60 days, which is promising for use in surgery training. All experimental procedures were approved by the Municipal Legal Department (protocol 02.2014.000027-1). The project was funded by FAPESP (protocol 2015-08259-9).

Keywords: anatomy, conservation, fixation, small animal

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141 Experimental and Numerical Studies on Earthquake Shear Rupture Generation

Authors: Louis N. Y. Wong


En-echelon fractures are commonly found in rocks, which appear as a special set of regularly oriented and spaced fractures. By using both experimental and numerical approaches, this study investigates the interaction among them, and how this interaction finally contributes to the development of a shear rupture (fault), especially in brittle natural rocks. Firstly, uniaxial compression tests are conducted on marble specimens containing en-echelon flaws. The latter is cut by using the water abrasive jet into the rock specimens. The fracturing processes of these specimens leading to the formation of a fault are observed in detail by the use of a high speed camera. The influences of the flaw geometry on the production of tensile cracks and shear cracks, which in turn dictate the coalescence patterns of the entire set of en-echelon flaws are comprehensively studied. Secondly, a numerical study based on a recently developed contact model, flat-joint contact model using the discrete element method (DEM) is carried out to model the present laboratory experiments. The numerical results provide a quantitative assessment of the interaction of en-echelon flaws. Particularly, the evolution of the stress field, as well as the characteristics of new crack initiation, propagation and coalescence associated with the generation of an eventual shear rupture are studied in detail. The numerical results are found to agree well with the experimental results obtained in both microscopic and macroscopic observations.

Keywords: discrete element method, en-echelon flaws, fault, marble

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140 Strength Translation from Spun Yarns to Woven Fabrics

Authors: Anindya Ghosh


Structural parameters, yarn to yarn friction, strength of ring, rotor, air-jet and open-end friction spun yarns and the strength of fabrics made from these yarns are measured. The ratio of fabric strip strength per yarn and corresponding single yarn strength is considered as a measure of quantifying the fabric assistance. Mechanism of yarn failure inside the fabric is different as that of single yarn and the former exhibit more fibre rupture. Fabrics made from weaker yarns have higher ratio of strip strength to single yarn strength than that made from stronger yarns due to larger increase in the percentage of rupture fibres in the former. The fabric assistance also depends to some extent on the degree of gripping of the yarns that is influenced by the yarn to yarn friction, extent of yarn flattening and yarn diameter.

Keywords: fabric assistance, fabric strength, yarn diameter, yarn friction, yarn strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
139 Spontaneous Rupture of Splenic Artery Pseudoaneurysm; A Rare Presentation of Acute Abdominal Pain in the Emergency Department: Case Report

Authors: Zainab Elazab, Azhar Aziz


Background: Spontaneous Splenic artery pseudoaneurysm rupture is a rare condition which is potentially life threatening, if not detected and managed early. We report a case of abdominal pain with intraperitoneal free fluid, which turned out to be spontaneous rupture of a splenic artery pseudoaneurysm, and was treated with arterial embolization. Case presentation: A 28-year old, previously healthy male presented to the ED with a history of sudden onset upper abdominal pain and fainting attack. The patient denied any history of trauma or prior similar attacks. On examination, the patient had tachycardia and a low-normal BP (HR 110, BP 106/66) but his other vital signs were normal (Temp. 37.2, RR 18 and SpO2 100%). His abdomen was initially soft with mild tenderness in the upper region. Blood tests showed leukocytosis of 12.3 X109/L, Hb of 12.6 g/dl and lactic acid of 5.9 mmol/L. Ultrasound showed trace of free fluid in the perihepatic and perisplenic areas, and a splenic hypoechoic lesion. The patient remained stable; however, his abdomen became increasingly tender with guarding. We made a provisional diagnosis of a perforated viscus and the patient was started on IV fluids and IV antibiotics. An erect abdominal x-ray did not show any free air under the diaphragm so a CT abdomen was requested. Meanwhile, bedside ultrasound was repeated which showed increased amount of free fluid, suggesting intra-abdominal bleeding as the most probable etiology for the condition. His CT abdomen revealed a splenic injury with multiple lacerations, a focal intrasplenic enhancing area on venous phase scan (suggesting a pseudoaneurysm with associated splenic intraparenchymal, sub capsular and perisplenic hematomas). Free fluid in the subhepatic and intraperitoneal regions along the small bowel was also detected. Angiogram was done which confirmed a diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm of intrasplenic arterial branch, and angio-embolization was done to control the bleeding. The patient was later discharged in good condition with a surgery follow-up. Conclusion: Splenic artery pseudoaneurysm rupture is a rare cause of abdominal pain which should be considered in any case of abdominal pain with intraperitoneal bleeding. Early management is crucial as it carries a high mortality. Bedside ultrasound is a useful tool to help for early diagnosis of such cases.

Keywords: abdominal pain, pseudo aneurysm, rupture, splenic artery

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138 The Characteristics of the Fragments from Cylindrical Casing with One of End Caps Fully Constrained

Authors: Yueguang Gao, Qi Huang, Shunshan Feng


In order to study the process and characteristic of the fragments in the warhead with one end cap under full constraint condition, we established a cylindrical casing with two end caps which one of which was fully constrained using the simulation analysis. The result showed that the fragmentation of cylindrical casing with one end full constrained has its own characteristic. The Mach stem was generated when the detonation wave propagated to the fully constrained end cap under the condition of one end detonation, working on unreactive explosives and causing the nearby fragment subjected to nearly 2.5 times the normal pressure to obtain a higher speed. The cylindrical casing first ruptured at the contact surface with the fully constrained end, and then at the end cover of the initiating end, and then the rupture extends to the whole cylindrical casing. The detonation products started to leak out from the rupture. Driving fragments to fly and forming two dense flying areas. The analysis of this paper can provide a reference for the optimal design of this kind of warhead.

Keywords: fragment, cylindrical casing, detonation waves, numerical simulation

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137 Rupture Probability of Type of Coarse Aggregate on Fracture Surface of Concrete

Authors: B. Ramakrishna, S. Sivamurthy Reddy


The various types of aggregates such as granite, dolerite, Quartzite, dolomitic limestone, limestone and river gravel were used to produce the concrete with 28-day target compressive strength of 35, 60, and 80 Mpa. The compressive strength of concrete, as well as aggregates, was measured to study the effect of rupture probability of aggregate on the fracture surface of the concrete. Also, the petrographic studies were carried out to study the texture, type of minerals present and their relative proportions in various types of aggregates. The concrete of various grades produced with the same aggregate has shown a rise in RPCA with strength. However, the above relationship has ceased to exist in the concretes of the same grade, made of different types of aggregates. The carbonate aggregates namely Limestone and Dolomitic limestone have produced concrete with higher RPCA irrespective of the strength of concrete. The mode of origin, texture and mineralogical composition of aggregates have a significant impact on their pulse velocity and thereby the pulse velocity of concrete.

Keywords: RPCA, DL, G, LS, RG

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136 The Development of Cardiac Tamponade after Spinal Surgery in a Patient with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Authors: Hacer Y. Teke, Sultan Pehlivan, Mustafa Karapırlı, Asude Gökmen, Sait Özsoy


The case is here presented of a patient with DMD with electrocardiograph findings within normal limits who underwent spinal surgery then developed the rarely seen complication of cardiac tamponade which resulted in death. A 17-year old male with DMD was admitted to hospital for spinal surgery. Due to a postoperative drop in hemoglobin, blood transfusion was administered to the patient, no complication developed and he was discharged on the third day. Four days after discharge, the patient worsened at home and an ambulance was called. Before the nearest hospital was reached, the patient died in the ambulance. An autopsy was performed. A fatal but rarely seen complication of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) is myocardial rupture. 85% of ruptures occur in the first week of AMI but just as they can be seen on the day of the infarct, they can also be seen 2 weeks later. The case presented here had infarction findings related to different times and in different areas.

Keywords: duchenne muscular dystrophy, myocardial infarction, myocardial rupture, anesthesia

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135 Minimum Ratio of Flexural Reinforcement for High Strength Concrete Beams

Authors: Azad A. Mohammed, Dunyazad K. Assi, Alan S. Abdulrahman


Current ACI 318 Code provides two limits for minimum steel ratio for concrete beams. When concrete compressive strength be larger than 31 MPa the limit of √(fc')/4fy usually governs. In this paper shortcomings related to using this limit was fairly discussed and showed that the limit is based on 90% safety factor and was derived based on modulus of rupture equation suitable for concretes of compressive strength lower than 31 MPa. Accordingly, the limit is nor suitable and critical for concretes of higher compressive strength. An alternative equation was proposed for minimum steel ratio of rectangular beams and was found that the proposed limit is accurate for beams of wide range of concrete compressive strength. Shortcomings of the current ACI 318 Code equation and accuracy of the proposed equation were supported by test data obtained from testing six reinforced concrete beams.

Keywords: concrete beam, compressive strength, minimum steel ratio, modulus of rupture

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134 Mechanical Properties of Enset Fibers Obtained from Different Breeds of Enset Plant

Authors: Diriba T. Balcha, Boris Kulig, Oliver Hensel, Eyassu Woldesenbet


Enset fiber is agricultural waste and available in a surplus amount in Ethiopia. However, the hypothesized variation in properties of this fiber due to diversity of its plant source breed, fiber position within plant stem and chemical treatment duration had not proven that its application for the development of composite products is problematic. Currently, limited data are known on the functional properties of the fiber as a potential functional fiber. Thus, an effort is made in this study to narrow the knowledge gaps by characterizing it. The experimental design was conducted using Design-Expert software and the tensile test was conducted on Enset fiber from 10 breeds: Dego, Dirbo, Gishera, Itine, Siskela, Neciho, Yesherkinke, Tuzuma, Ankogena, and Kucharkia. The effects of 5% Na-OH surface treatment duration and fiber location along and across the plant pseudostem was also investigated. The test result shows that the rupture stress variation is not significant among the fibers from 10 Enset breeds. However, strain variation is significant among the fibers from 10 Enset breeds that breed Dego fiber has the highest strain before failure. Surface treated fibers showed improved rupture strength and elastic modulus per 24 hours of treatment duration. Also, the result showed that chemical treatment can deteriorate the load-bearing capacity of the fiber. The raw fiber has the higher load-bearing capacity than the treated fiber. And, it was noted that both the rupture stress and strain increase in the top to bottom gradient, whereas there is no significant variation across the stem. Elastic modulus variation both along and across the stem was insignificant. The rupture stress, elastic modulus, and strain result of Enset fiber are 360.11 ± 181.86 MPa, 12.80 ± 6.85 GPa and 0.04 ± 0.02 mm/mm, respectively. These results show that Enset fiber is comparable to other natural fibers such as abaca, banana, and sisal fibers and can be used as alternatives natural fiber for composites application. Besides, the insignificant variation of properties among breeds and across stem is essential for all breeds and all leaf sheath of the Enset fiber plant for fiber extraction. The use of short natural fiber over the long is preferable to reduce the significant variation of properties along the stem or fiber direction. In conclusion, Enset fiber application for composite product design and development is mechanically feasible.

Keywords: Agricultural waste, Chemical treatment, Fiber characteristics, Natural fiber

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133 Comparison of Cervical Length Using Transvaginal Ultrasonography and Bishop Score to Predict Succesful Induction

Authors: Lubena Achmad, Herman Kristanto, Julian Dewantiningrum


Background: The Bishop score is a standard method used to predict the success of induction. This examination tends to be subjective with high inter and intraobserver variability, so it was presumed to have a low predictive value in terms of the outcome of labor induction. Cervical length measurement using transvaginal ultrasound is considered to be more objective to assess the cervical length. Meanwhile, this examination is not a complicated procedure and less invasive than vaginal touché. Objective: To compare transvaginal ultrasound and Bishop score in predicting successful induction. Methods: This study was a prospective cohort study. One hundred and twenty women with singleton pregnancies undergoing induction of labor at 37 – 42 weeks and met inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. Cervical assessment by both transvaginal ultrasound and Bishop score were conducted prior induction. The success of labor induction was defined as an ability to achieve active phase ≤ 12 hours after induction. To figure out the best cut-off point of cervical length and Bishop score, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine which factors best-predicted induction success. Results: This study showed significant differences in terms of age, premature rupture of the membrane, the Bishop score, cervical length and funneling as significant predictors of successful induction. Using ROC curves found that the best cut-off point for prediction of successful induction was 25.45 mm for cervical length and 3 for Bishop score. Logistic regression was performed and showed only premature rupture of membranes and cervical length ≤ 25.45 that significantly predicted the success of labor induction. By excluding premature rupture of the membrane as the indication of induction, cervical length less than 25.3 mm was a better predictor of successful induction. Conclusion: Compared to Bishop score, cervical length using transvaginal ultrasound was a better predictor of successful induction.

Keywords: Bishop Score, cervical length, induction, successful induction, transvaginal sonography

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132 The Flexural Improvement of RC Beams Using an Inserted Plate between Concrete and FRP Bonding Surface

Authors: Woo Young Jung, Min Ho Kwon, Bu Seog Ju


The primary objective of this research is to improve the flexural capacity of FRP strengthened RC Beam structures with Aluminum and Titanium laminates. FRP rupture of flexural strengthened RC beams using FRP plates generally occurs at the interface between FRP plate and the beam. Therefore, in order to prevent brittle rupture and improve the ductility of the system, this research was performed by using Aluminum and Titanium materials between the two different structural systems. The research also aims to provide various strengthening/retrofitting methods for RC beam structures and to conduct a preliminary analysis of the demands on the structural systems. This was achieved by estimation using the experimental data from this research to identify a flexural capacity for the systems. Ultimately, the preliminary analysis of current study showed that the flexural capacity and system demand ductility was significantly improved by the systems inserted with Aluminum and Titanium anchor plates. Further verification of the experimental research is currently on its way to develop a new or reliable design guideline to retrofit/strengthen the concrete-FRP structural system can be evaluated.

Keywords: reinforced concrete, FRP laminate, flexural capacity, ductility

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131 Outcome of Induction of Labour by Cervical Ripening with an Osmotic Dilator in a District General Hospital

Authors: A. Wahid Uddin


Osmotic dilator for cervical ripening bypasses the initial hormonal exposure necessary for a routine method of induction. The study was a clinical intervention with an osmotic dilator followed by prospective observation. The aim was to calculate the percentage of women who had successful cervical ripening using modified BISHOP score as evidenced by artificial rupture of membrane. The study also estimated the delivery interval following a single administration of osmotic dilators. Randomly selected patients booked for induction of labour accepting the intervention were included in the study. The study population comprised singleton term pregnancy, cephalic presentation, intact membranes with a modified BISHOP score of less than 6. Initial sample recruited was 30, but 6 patients left the study and the study was concluded on 24 patients. The data were collected in a pre-designed questionnaire and analysis were expressed in percentages along with using mean value for continuous variables. In 70 % of cases, artificial rupture of the membrane was possible and the mean time from insertion of the osmotic dilator to the delivery interval was 30 hours. The study concluded that an osmotic dilator could be a suitable alternative for hormone-based induction of labour.

Keywords: dilator, induction, labour, osmotic

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130 The Influence of Mechanical and Physicochemical Characteristics of Perfume Microcapsules on Their Rupture Behaviour and How This Relates to Performance in Consumer Products

Authors: Andrew Gray, Zhibing Zhang


The ability for consumer products to deliver a sustained perfume response can be a key driver for a variety of applications. Many compounds in perfume oils are highly volatile, meaning they readily evaporate once the product is applied, and the longevity of the scent is poor. Perfume capsules have been introduced as a means of abating this evaporation once the product has been delivered. The impermeable capsules are aimed to be stable within the formulation, and remain intact during delivery to the desired substrate, only rupturing to release the core perfume oil through application of mechanical force applied by the consumer. This opens up the possibility of obtaining an olfactive response hours, weeks or even months after delivery, depending on the nature of the desired application. Tailoring the properties of the polymeric capsules to better address the needs of the application is not a trivial challenge and currently design of capsules is largely done by trial and error. The aim of this work is to have more predictive methods for capsule design depending on the consumer application. This means refining formulations such that they rupture at the right time for the specific consumer application, not too early, not too late. Finding the right balance between these extremes is essential if a benefit is sought with respect to neat addition of perfume to formulations. It is important to understand the forces that influence capsule rupture, first, by quantifying the magnitude of these different forces, and then by assessing bulk rupture in real-world applications to understand how capsules actually respond. Samples were provided by an industrial partner and the mechanical properties of individual capsules within the samples were characterized via a micromanipulation technique, developed by Professor Zhang at the University of Birmingham. The capsules were synthesized such as to change one particular physicochemical property at a time, such as core: wall material ratio, and the average size of capsules. Analysis of shell thickness via Transmission Electron Microscopy, size distribution via the use of a Mastersizer, as well as a variety of other techniques confirmed that only one particular physicochemical property was altered for each sample. The mechanical analysis was subsequently undertaken, showing the effect that changing certain capsule properties had on the response under compression. It was, however, important to link this fundamental mechanical response to capsule performance in real-world applications. As such, the capsule samples were introduced to a formulation and exposed to full scale stresses. GC-MS headspace analysis of the perfume oil released from broken capsules enabled quantification of what the relative strengths of capsules truly means for product performance. Correlations have been found between the mechanical strength of capsule samples and performance in terms of perfume release in consumer applications. Having a better understanding of the key parameters that drive performance benefits the design of future formulations by offering better guidelines on the parameters that can be adjusted without worrying about the performance effects, and singles out those parameters that are essential in finding the sweet spot for capsule performance.

Keywords: consumer products, mechanical and physicochemical properties, perfume capsules, rupture behaviour

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129 Repair of Thermoplastic Composites for Structural Applications

Authors: Philippe Castaing, Thomas Jollivet


As a result of their advantages, i.e. recyclability, weld-ability, environmental compatibility, long (continuous) fiber thermoplastic composites (LFTPC) are increasingly used in many industrial sectors (mainly automotive and aeronautic) for structural applications. Indeed, in the next ten years, the environmental rules will put the pressure on the use of new structural materials like composites. In aerospace, more than 50% of the damage are due to stress impact and 85% of damage are repaired on the fuselage (fuselage skin panels and around doors). With the arrival of airplanes mainly of composite materials, replacement of sections or panels seems difficult economically speaking and repair becomes essential. The objective of the present study is to propose a solution of repair to prevent the replacement the damaged part in thermoplastic composites in order to recover the initial mechanical properties. The classification of impact damage is not so not easy : talking about low energy impact (less than 35 J) can be totally wrong when high speed or weak thicknesses as well as thermoplastic resins are considered. Crash and perforation with higher energy create important damages and the structures are replaced without repairing, so we just consider here damages due to impacts at low energy that are as follows for laminates : − Transverse cracking; − Delamination; − Fiber rupture. At low energy, the damages are barely visible but can nevertheless reduce significantly the mechanical strength of the part due to resin cracks while few fiber rupture is observed. The patch repair solution remains the standard one but may lead to the rupture of fibers and consequently creates more damages. That is the reason why we investigate the repair of thermoplastic composites impacted at low energy. Indeed, thermoplastic resins are interesting as they absorb impact energy through plastic strain. The methodology is as follows: - impact tests at low energy on thermoplastic composites; - identification of the damage by micrographic observations; - evaluation of the harmfulness of the damage; - repair by reconsolidation according to the extent of the damage ; -validation of the repair by mechanical characterization (compression). In this study, the impacts tests are performed at various levels of energy on thermoplastic composites (PA/C, PEEK/C and PPS/C woven 50/50 and unidirectional) to determine the level of impact energy creating damages in the resin without fiber rupture. We identify the extent of the damage by US inspection and micrographic observations in the plane part thickness. The samples were in addition characterized in compression to evaluate the loss of mechanical properties. Then the strategy of repair consists in reconsolidating the damaged parts by thermoforming, and after reconsolidation the laminates are characterized in compression for validation. To conclude, the study demonstrates the feasibility of the repair for low energy impact on thermoplastic composites as the samples recover their properties. At a first step of the study, the “repair” is made by reconsolidation on a thermoforming press but we could imagine a process in situ to reconsolidate the damaged parts.

Keywords: aerospace, automotive, composites, compression, damages, repair, structural applications, thermoplastic

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128 Properties of Epoxy Composite Reinforced with Amorphous and Crystalline Silica from Rice Husk

Authors: Norul Hisham Hamid, Amir Affan, Ummi Hani Abdullah, Paridah Md. Tahir, Khairul Akmal Azhar, Rahmat Nawai, W. B. H. Wan Sulwani Izzati


The dimensional stability and static bending properties of epoxy composite reinforced with amorphous and crystalline silica were investigated. The amorphous and crystalline silica was obtained by the precipitation method from carbonisation process of the rice husk at a temperature of 600 °C and 1000 °C for 7 hours respectively. The epoxy resin was mixed with 5%, 10% and 15% concentrations of amorphous and crystalline silica. The mixture was stirred for 10 minutes and cured at 28 °C for 72 hours and oven dried at 80 °C for 72 hours. The scanning electron microscope image showed the silica sized of 10-30nm was obtained. The water absorption and thickness swelling of epoxy/amorphous silica composite was not significantly different with silica concentration ranged from 0.08% to 0.09% and 0.17% to 0.20% respectively. The maximum modulus of rupture (85 MPa) and modulus of elasticity (3284 MPa) were achieved for 10% silica concentration. For epoxy/crystalline silica composite; the water absorption and thickness swelling were also not significantly different with silica concentration, ranged from 0.08% to 0.11% and 0.16% to 0.18% respectively. The maximum modulus of rupture (47.9 MPa) and modulus of elasticity (2760 MPa) were achieved for 10% silica concentration. Overall, the water absorption and thickness swelling were almost identical for epoxy composite made from either amorphous or crystalline silica. The epoxy composite made from amorphous silica was stronger than crystalline silica.

Keywords: epoxy, composite, dimensional stability, static bending, silica

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127 Epidemiological and Clinical Profile of Patients with Chorioamnionitis

Authors: Isabel Cristina Ortiz Trujillo, Lina Maria Martinez Sanchez, Felipe Hernández Restrepo, Daniel Gallego Gonzalez, Natalia Vargas Grisales, Camilo Andrés Agudelo Vélez


Chorioamnionitis, is a pregnancy infection, causes different fetal and maternal symptoms. Streptococcus agalactiae present in the normal vaginal microflora of some women, favouring its abnormal multiplication during pregnancy, causing perinatal morbidity and mortality. Objective. Describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of the patients with diagnosis of clinical chorioanmionitis. Methodology. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. The population was patients with diagnosis of clinical chorioanmionitis. The information was taken from the medical records. The research was approved by the Ethics Committee. We used the program SPSS ® version 17.0 (SPSS Inc; Chicago, Illinois, USA) for the information analysis, descriptive statistics were used. Results. 78 patients in total with clinical chorioamnionitis, with a mean age of 26.3 ±5, 8 years old, the 69.2% primigravid women. 2.6% of women had positive culture for Streptococcus agalactiae in urine sample during current pregnancy and 30.7% had received some kind of antibiotics during current pregnancy. The 57.7% had 37 to 40 weeks of gestation in the current pregnancy it was calculated more frequently by ultrasound (66.7% in first quarter, 11.5% in the second and 1.9% in the third). In a 60.3% way of termination of pregnancy was vaginal and a 35.9 percent were caesarean section. Among the women in the study, a 30.8% had premature rupture of membranes. Conclusion. The chorioamnionitis continues to be an important cause of antibiotic use during pregnancy or labour and the decision to do a caesarean, with highest percentage in pregnancies-preterm and preterm premature rupture of membranes.

Keywords: chorioamnionitis, Streptococcus agalactiae, pregnancy complications, infectious

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126 Comparison of Visual Acuity Outcome and Complication after Phacoemulsification between Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients at Burapha University Hospital, Chonburi, Thailand

Authors: Luksanaporn Krungkraipetch


One hundred cataract patients with phacoemulsification were enrolled in the study to compare of visual acuity outcome and complication after phacoemulsification between diabetic and non-diabetic patients at Burapha University Hospital, Chonburi, Thailand. Fifty patients were diabetic (type II) group and 50 patients were non-diabetic group. All cases were operated by one doctor with the same pre-operative care, operation (phacoemulsification), and post-operative care. Visual acuity and complication after surgery were assessed after the operation for two years. There were no significant differences in demographic data between the two groups. The visual outcome values ≥ 2 lines and ≥ 20/40 had no significant differences between two groups after two years of surgery. The complication rate in diabetic group had cystoid macular edema 16%, rupture posterior capsule 8%, posterior capsule opacity 2%, uveitis 2 %, and 2% endophthalmitis. The non-diabetic group had cystoid macular edema 12%, rupture posterior capsule 8%, uveitis 2%, posterior capsule opacity 2%, and 2% wound leak. Comparison of visual acuity outcome and complication after phacoemulsification between diabetic and non-diabetic patients had no statistical significant differences between these two groups. It was found that cystoid macular edema was the most common complication in both groups and 10% of retinopathy progression was seen.

Keywords: cataract, visual acuity, cataract extraction, phacoemulsification, diabetic retinopathy

Procedia PDF Downloads 255