Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4519

Search results for: historical structures

4519 Retrofitting of Historical Structures in Van City

Authors: Eylem Güzel, Mustafa Gülen

Abstract:

Historical structures are the most important symbols of a country that link the past with the future. In order to transfer them in their present conditions to the next generations, maintaining these historical structures are one of our main tasks. Seismic performance of historical structures damaged by the earthquake effects can be enhanced by repair and retrofitting applications. However, repair and retrofitting applications of historical structures are more complicated compared with the traditional structures. For this reason, they need much more attention in repair and retrofitting applications to preserve the spirit of historical structures. In this study, the present condition of selected historical structures built up in Van city that has a very rich historical heritage is given and the necessity of repair and retrofitting applications of historical structures are debated in detail.

Keywords: historical structures, repair, retrofitting, Van city

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4518 A Brief Overview of Seven Churches in Van Province

Authors: Eylem Güzel, Soner Guler, Mustafa Gulen

Abstract:

Van province which has a very rich historical heritage is located in eastern part of Turkey, between Lake Van and the Iranian border. Many civilizations prevailing in Van until today have built up many historical structures such as castles, mosques, churches, bridges, baths, etc. In 2011, a devastating earthquake with magnitude 7.2 Mw, epicenter in Tabanlı Village, occurred in Van, where a large part of the city locates in the first-degree earthquake zone. As a result of this earthquake, 644 people were killed; a lot of reinforced, unreinforced and historical structures were badly damaged. Many historical structures damaged due to this earthquake have been restored. In this study, the damages observed in Seven churches (Yedi Kilise) after 2011 Van earthquake is evaluated with regard to architecture and civil engineering perspective.

Keywords: earthquake, historical structures, Van province, church

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
4517 The Usage of Adobe in Historical Structures of Van City

Authors: Mustafa Gülen, Eylem Güzel, Soner Guler

Abstract:

The studies concentrated on the historical background of Van show the fact that Van has had a significant position as a settlement since ancient times and that it has hosted many civilizations during history. With the dominance of Ottoman Empire in 16th century, the region had been re-constructed by building new walls at the southern side of Van Castle. These construction activities had mostly been fulfilled by the usage of adobe which had been a fundamental material for thousands of years. As a result of natural disasters, battles and the move at the threshold of 20th century to the new settlement which is 9 kilometers away from the Ancient City Van is an open-air museum with the ruins of churches, mosques and baths. In this study, the usage of adobe in historical structures of Van city is evaluated in detail.

Keywords: historical structures, adobe, Van city, adobe

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4516 The Usage of Mudbrick in Historical Structures of Van City

Authors: Mustafa Gulen, Eylem Guzel, Soner Guler

Abstract:

The studies concentrated on the historical background of Van city show the fact that Van city has had a significant position as a settlement since ancient times and that it has hosted many civilizations during history. With the dominance of Ottoman Empire in 16th century, the region had been re-constructed by building new walls at the southern side of Van Castle. These construction activities had mostly been fulfilled by the usage of mudbrick which had been a fundamental material for thousands of years. As a result of natural disasters, battles and the move at the threshold of 20th century to the new settlement which is 9 kilometers away from the Ancient City Van is an open-air museum with the ruins of churches, mosques and baths. In this study, the usage of mudbrick from past till today in historical structures of Van city is evaluated in detail.

Keywords: historical structures, history, mudbrick, Van city

Procedia PDF Downloads 439
4515 Energy Saving, Heritage Conserving Renovation Methods in Case of Historical Building Stock

Authors: Viktória Sugár, Zoltán Laczó, András Horkai, Gyula Kiss, Attila Talamon

Abstract:

The majority of the building stock of Budapest inner districts was built around the turn of the 19th and 20th century. Although the structural stability of the buildings is not questioned, as the load bearing structures are in sufficient state, the secondary structures are aged, resulting unsatisfactory energetic state. The renovation of these historical buildings requires special methodology and technology: their ornamented facades and custom-made fenestration cannot be insulated or exchanged with conventional solutions without damaging the heritage values. The present paper aims to introduce and systematize the possible technological solutions for heritage respecting energy retrofit in case of a historical residential building stock. Through case study, the possible energy saving potential is also calculated using multiple renovation scenarios.

Keywords: energy efficiency, heritage, historical building, renovation

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4514 Determination of Weathering at Kilistra Ancient City by Using Non-Destructive Techniques, Central Anatolia, Turkey

Authors: İsmail İnce, Osman Günaydin, Fatma Özer

Abstract:

Stones used in the construction of historical structures are exposed to various direct or indirect atmospheric effects depending on climatic conditions. Building stones deteriorate partially or fully as a result of this exposure. The historic structures are important symbols of any cultural heritage. Therefore, it is important to protect and restore these historical structures. The aim of this study is to determine the weathering conditions at the Kilistra ancient city. It is located in the southwest of the Konya city, Central Anatolia, and was built by carving into pyroclastic rocks during the Byzantine Era. For this purpose, the petrographic and mechanical properties of the pyroclastic rocks were determined. In the assessment of weathering of structures in the ancient city, in-situ non-destructive testing (i.e., Schmidt hardness rebound value, relative humidity measurement) methods were applied.

Keywords: cultural heritage, Kilistra ancient city, non-destructive techniques, weathering

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4513 Revisiting the Historical Narratives of the Old Churches in Albay, Bikol Region, Philippines

Authors: Ruby Ann L. Ayo

Abstract:

As cultural heritage reflects the historical origin of a certain group of people, it reveals their customs, traits, beliefs, practices and even values they hold on for years. One of the tangible examples of cultural heritage is the physical structures including the old churches. The study looked-into the existing historical narratives of the century Old Catholic churches in the Province of Albay, Bikol Region, Philippines: NuestraSeñora de Salvacion in Joroan, Tiwi, Albay; the Our Lady of the Gate in Daraga, Albay; the San Juan de Bautista in Tabaco City and the St. John the Baptist in Camalig, Albay. The historical narratives were analysed in terms of validity and reliability of the secondary documents with reference to the elements of history revealing consistency and adequacy of historical facts. The contents were examined using a modified Checklist of Historical Documents. The historical narratives were likewise submitted to the content expert for validation as regards historical authenticity and accuracy. The contents of the narratives were scrutinized according to the following codes: (1.1) the Patron Saints;(1.2) factors that paved to their constructions; (1.3) the people responsible for their constructions; (1.4) the misconceptions about their constructions; and (1.5) their contributions to Bikol heritage. Based on the codes, themes were identified as: (2.1) Marian Devotees and Christ-centered Patron Saints; (2.2) geographical, socio-political and cultural factors; (2.3) church and government officials; (2.4) misconceptions on the dates of constructions and original sites; and (2.5) popular pilgrim sites and well-admired architectural designs.

Keywords: historical narratives, old churches, cultural heritage, historical validity and reliability, elements of history

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4512 Restoration Process of Kastamonu - Tufekciler Village Houses for Potential Eco-Tourism Purposes

Authors: Turkan Sultan Yasar Ismail, Mehmet Cetin, M. Danial Ismail, Hakan Sevik

Abstract:

Nowadays, there is a need for the real world to be translated to the virtual environment by three-dimensional visualisation for restoration and promotional modelling of historic sites in protected areas. Visualisation models have also become the very important basis for the creation of three-dimensional Geographic Information System. The protection of historical and cultural heritage and documenting in Turkey as well as all over the world is an important issue. This heritage is a bridge between the past and the future of humanity. Many historical and cultural heritages suffer neglect and for reasons arising from natural causes. This is to determine the current status of the work and documenting information from the selected buildings. This process is important for their conservation and renovation work that might be done in the future. Kastamonu city is one of the historical cities in Turkey with a number of heritage buildings. However, Tufekciler Village is not visited and famous even though it includes several historical buildings and peaceful landscape. Digital terrestrial photogrammetry is one of the most important methods used in the documentation of cultural and historical heritage. Firstly, measurements were made primarily around creating polygon mesh and 3D model drawings of the structures to be modelled on images with the move to digital media such as picture size and by subsequent visualisation process. Secondly, a restoration project is offered to the village with the concept of eco-tourism with all scales such as, interior space to landscape design.

Keywords: eco-tourism, restoration, sustainability, cultural village

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4511 Development of Historical City Centers and Revitalization in Isfahan/Iran

Authors: Reihaneh Rafiemanzelt

Abstract:

The need to protect our cultural heritage was stressed on revitalization of historical city centers in communities. The main goals the proses was to attract finance and activities to the historical city centers through the citizens and municipalities participation while cities expanded their boundaries toward suburban areas. Todays the main problems which facing to the most historical city centers, is loss of their centrality through effect of urbanization on any point of the cities which is the most important issue on neglect and abandonment of the historical central area by decentralizing living, commerce and public areas. This article evaluate the ways in which city center revitalization can be effect on vitality and viability of the central area in case of Naghshe Jahan square which situated at the center of Isfahan city, Iran. Constructed between 1598 and 1629, it is now an important historical site, and one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites.

Keywords: urban development, revitalization, city centers, vitality and viability

Procedia PDF Downloads 536
4510 Sustainable Design in the Use of Deployable Structures

Authors: Umweni Osahon Joshua, Anton Ianakiev

Abstract:

Deployable structures have been used in various scenarios from moving roofs in stadia, space antennae or booms. There has been a lot of literature relating deployable structures but with main focus on space applications. The complexities in the design of deployable structures may be the reason only few have been constructed for earth based solutions. This paper intends to explore the possibilities of integrating sustainable design concepts in deployable structures. Key aspects of sustainable design of structures as applicable to deployable structures have not been explored. Sustainable design of structures have mainly been concerned with static structures in the built environment. However, very little literature, concepts or framework has been drafted as it relates to deployable structures or their integration to static structures as a model for sustainable design. This article seeks to address this flaw in sustainable design for structural engineering and to provide a framework for designing structures in a sustainable manner. This framework will apply to deployable structures for earth-based environments as a form of disaster relief measures and also as part of static structures in the built environment.

Keywords: deployable structures, sustainable design, framework, earth-based environments

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
4509 From Equations to Structures: Linking Abstract Algebra and High-School Algebra for Secondary School Teachers

Authors: J. Shamash

Abstract:

The high-school curriculum in algebra deals mainly with the solution of different types of equations. However, modern algebra has a completely different viewpoint and is concerned with algebraic structures and operations. A question then arises: What might be the relevance and contribution of an abstract algebra course for developing expertise and mathematical perspective in secondary school mathematics instruction? This is the focus of this paper. The course Algebra: From Equations to Structures is a carefully designed abstract algebra course for Israeli secondary school mathematics teachers. The course provides an introduction to algebraic structures and modern abstract algebra, and links abstract algebra to the high-school curriculum in algebra. It follows the historical attempts of mathematicians to solve polynomial equations of higher degrees, attempts which resulted in the development of group theory and field theory by Galois and Abel. In other words, algebraic structures grew out of a need to solve certain problems, and proved to be a much more fruitful way of viewing them. This theorems in both group theory and field theory. Along the historical ‘journey’, many other major results in algebra in the past 150 years are introduced, and recent directions that current research in algebra is taking are highlighted. This course is part of a unique master’s program – the Rothschild-Weizmann Program – offered by the Weizmann Institute of Science, especially designed for practicing Israeli secondary school teachers. A major component of the program comprises mathematical studies tailored for the students at the program. The rationale and structure of the course Algebra: From Equations to Structures are described, and its relevance to teaching school algebra is examined by analyzing three kinds of data sources. The first are position papers written by the participating teachers regarding the relevance of advanced mathematics studies to expertise in classroom instruction. The second data source are didactic materials designed by the participating teachers in which they connected the mathematics learned in the mathematics courses to the school curriculum and teaching. The third date source are final projects carried out by the teachers based on material learned in the course.

Keywords: abstract algebra , linking abstract algebra and school mathematics, school algebra, secondary school mathematics, teacher professional development

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
4508 Implementation-Oriented Discussion for Historical and Cultural Villages’ Conservation Planning

Authors: Xing Zhang

Abstract:

Since the State Council of China issued the Regulations on the Conservation of Historical Cultural Towns and Villages in 2008, formulation of conservation planning has been carried out in national, provincial and municipal historical and cultural villages for protection needs, which provides a legal basis for inheritance of historical culture and protection of historical resources. Although the quantity and content of the conservation planning are continually increasing, the implementation and application are still ambiguous. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper explores methods to enhance the implementation of conservation planning from the perspective of planning formulation. Specifically, the technical framework of "overall objectives planning - sub-objectives planning - zoning guidelines - implementation by stages" is proposed to implement the planning objectives in different classifications and stages. Then combined with details of the Qiqiao historical and cultural village conservation planning project in Ningbo, five sub-objectives are set, which are implemented through the village zoning guidelines. At the same time, the key points and specific projects in the near-term, medium-term and long-term work are clarified, and the spatial planning is transformed into the action plan with time scale. The proposed framework and method provide a reference for the implementation and management of the conservation planning of historical and cultural villages in the future.

Keywords: conservation planning, planning by stages, planning implementation, zoning guidelines

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4507 Historical Studies on Gilt Decorations on Glazed Surfaces

Authors: Sabra Saeidi

Abstract:

This research focuses on the historical techniques associated with the lajevardina and Haft-Rangi production methods in creating tiles, with emphasis on the identification of the techniques of inserting gold sheets on the surface of such historical glazed tiles. In this regard, firstly, the history of the production of enamel, gold plated, and Lajevardina glazed pottery work made during the Khwarizmanshahid and Mongol era (eleventh to the thirteenth century) have been assessed to reach a better understanding of the background and the history associated with historical glazing methods. After the historical overview of the production technique of glazed pottery work and introductions of the civilizations using those techniques, we focused on the niches production methods of enamel and Lajevardina glazing, which are two categories of decorations usually found in tiles. Next, a general classification method for various types of gilt tiles has been introduced, which is applicable to the tile works up to Safavid period (Sixteenth to the seventeenth century). Gilded lajevardina glazed tiles, gilt Haft-Rangi tiles, monolithic glazed gilt tiles, and gilt mosaic tiles are included in the categories.

Keywords: gilt tiles, Islamic art, Iranian art, historical studies, gilding

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4506 Difficulty and Complexity in Dealing with Visual Pollution in the Historical Cities: The Historical City of Ibb-Yemen as a Case Study

Authors: Abdulfattah A. Q .Alwah, Wen Li, Mohammed A. Q. Alwah, Duc Thien Tran, Bing Xi Liu

Abstract:

The historical cities in the third world suffer from many environmental problems; one of them is the spread of visual pollution manifestations. These phenomena increase with low levels of public awareness and low per capita income. The historical city of Ibb is suffering from a variety of visual pollution of the urban environment, so it has been chosen as a case study. This study aims to identify the difficulty and complexity of dealing with visual pollutions manifestations in the historical city of Ibb, and to provide appropriate solutions, which suit with the complex and contradictory circumstances. The study relies on an inductive approach to achieve its aims through two methods; the first is a visual survey of the visual pollution phenomenon based on images and researcher notes. The Second method is the analyses of the opinions and impressions of the city's residents and visitors through interviews, in addition to interviews with the officials in the competent authorities, and some specialists in the field of urban environment. Through the results of the field study and discussion of the interview results, this study presents an analysis of the phenomenon of visual distortion of the historical city of Ibb regarding the appearances and the reasons. Furthermore, this study provides appropriate solutions, which suitable with the complex and contradictory circumstances. These solutions take two paths: the first one is to stop the spread of visual distortions, and the second path is to address the current visual pollutions.

Keywords: visual pollution, visual image, urban environment, difficulty, complexity, historical cities, the historical city of Ibb

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4505 Digital Mapping as a Tool for Finding Cities' DNA

Authors: Sanja Peter

Abstract:

Transformation of urban environments can be compared to evolutionary processes. Systematic digital mapping of historical data can enable capturing some of these processes and their outcomes. For example, it may help reveal the structure of a city’s historical DNA. Gathering historical data for automatic processing may be giving a basis for cultural algorithms. Gothenburg City museum is trying to make city’s heritage information accessible through GIS-platforms and is now partnering with academic institutions to find appropriate methods to make accessible the knowledge on the city’s historical fabric. Hopefully, this will be carried out through a project called Digital Twin Cities. One part of this large project, concerning matters of Cultural Heritage, will be in collaboration with Chalmers University of Technology. The aim is to create a layered map showing historical developments of the city and extracting quantitative data about its built heritage, above and below the earth. It will allow interpreting the information from historic maps through, for example, names of the streets/places, geography, structural changes in urban fabric and information gathered by archaeologists’ excavations. Through the study of these geographical, historical and local metamorphoses, urban environment will reveal its metaphorical DNA or its MEM (Dawkins).

Keywords: Gothenburg, mapping, cultural heritage, city history

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4504 In Search of Lost Subject: Marx's Historical Materialism, Subject and Existentialism

Authors: Doruk Atahan Erbas

Abstract:

This paper concerns the early writings of Karl Marx, specifically The Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, The German Ideology and Theses on Feuerbach. The two crucial themes of these early writings are the doctrine called historical materialism and, as a worker, the worker's resistance towards the current condition of society out of the division of labor. After Marx, including his closest friend Friedrich Engels, some of the philosophers, activists, and politicians have considered the historical materialism as a rigorous science which includes the explanation of historical causality manifested in the social, political sphere. However, this consideration, by its description as a science, is completely alienated from the concept of subject (as the suffering worker) nothing other than one of the abovementioned themes. Therefore, from this perspective, Marx's early doctrine seems to be self contradictory. The alternative approach which will be introduced in this essay offers a new basis for a correlation between the concept of subject and historical materiality by means of investigating materiality as phenomenality and ultimately rereading Marx as a creator of an existential subject surrounded by phenomenality. So that, it provides an opportunity to rethink the concept of historical materiality from an existential point of view.

Keywords: existentialism, Karl Marx, materiality, phenomenality, subject

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
4503 Ill-Defined and Ill-Equipped: Understanding the Limits of the Concept of Truth in South Africa’S Truth and Reconciliation Commission

Authors: Keo Mbebe

Abstract:

The South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) is widely regarded as a blueprint for countries seeking to transcend the atrocities of their past and create a new human rights-based administration. The aim of these societies is to establish historical truth. Within the TRC, the aspects of truth-finding and truth-telling were considered to be catalysts for national unity and reconciliation. Truth-seeking, in addition, was mandated in the Promotion of National Unity and Reconciliation Act (TRC Act), which is the legislation behind the TRC. However, there is an incongruency between the conception of truth outlined in the Act, and the conception of truth explained in the Report of the TRC proceedings. The aim of this paper is to delineate these two kinds of “truth” and to critically analyze them. Doing so, it will then be evident in the discussion that there is a need for substantial clarity in the conception of truth used in transitional justice settings based on truth-finding and truth-seeking, and the paper will present ways in which such clarity may be achieved. The paper will begin with a philosophical engagement on the notion of historical truth used by the TRC legislation. Thereafter, the historical background to the political context in which the TRC Act was mandated will be provided. The next section would then be a sketch of the conceptions of historical truth and historical injustice in the Act, as well as its supporting documents. Lastly, it will be argued that the subversion of the TRC’s mandate to promote reconciliation and national unity by bringing to light past human rights violations during apartheid is betrayed by its amorphous conception of historical truth.

Keywords: historical truth, human rights, transitional justice, truth commission

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4502 Analysis of Coloring Styles of Brazilian Urban Heritage

Authors: Natalia Naoumova

Abstract:

Facing changes and continuous growth of the contemporary cities, along with the globalization effects that accelerate cultural dissolution, the maintenance of cultural authenticity, which is implicit in historical areas as a part of cultural diversity, can be considered one of the key elements of a sustainable society. This article focuses on the polychromy of buildings in a historical context as an important feature of urban settings. It analyses the coloring of Brazilian urban heritage, characterized by the study of historical districts in Pelotas and Piratini, located in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The objective is to reveal the coloring characteristics of different historical periods, determine the chromatic typologies of the corresponding building styles, and clarify the connection between the historical chromatic aspects and their relationship with the contemporary urban identity. Architectural style data were collected by different techniques such as stratigraphic prospects of buildings, survey of historical records and descriptions, analysis of images and study of projects with colored facades kept in historical archives. Three groups of characteristics were considered in searching for working criteria in the formation of chromatic model typologies: 1) coloring palette; 2) morphology of the facade, and 3) their relationship. The performed analysis shows the formation of the urban chromatic image of the historical center as a continuous and dynamic process with the development of constant chromatic resources. It establishes that the changes in the formal language of subsequent historical periods lead to the changes in the chromatic schemes, providing a different reading of the facades both in terms of formal interpretation and symbolic meaning.

Keywords: building style, historic colors, urban heritage, urban polychromy

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4501 The Analysis of the Protection of Historical and Cultural Heritage in the Development of Cities: Taking Quzhou Ancient City as an Example

Authors: Zhen Shu

Abstract:

The historical and cultural heritage demonstrates the wisdom of the entire nation and it has left its own traces in the process of urban construction. It has very important instructional significance for the construction of modern cities and the development of cultural aspects of modern people. The Protection of historical and cultural heritage has become an inevitable choice for the development of modern civilization. This paper discusses the relationship between urban development and historic preservation. And it emphasizes the important value of strengthening the protection of historical and cultural heritage in urban construction, introduces the value of cultural heritage, the process of historic preservation and its problems in Quzhou, Zhejiang Province. In conclusion, we puts forward some Suggestions for strengthening the protection of historical heritage in the process of urban construction.

Keywords: cultural heritage, historic preservation, Quzhou ancient city, urban development

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4500 Assessment of the Energy Balance Method in the Case of Masonry Domes

Authors: M. M. Sadeghi, S. Vahdani

Abstract:

Masonry dome structures had been widely used for covering large spans in the past. The seismic assessment of these historical structures is very complicated due to the nonlinear behavior of the material, their rigidness, and special stability configuration. The assessment method based on energy balance concept, as well as the standard pushover analysis, is used to evaluate the effectiveness of these methods in the case of masonry dome structures. The Soltanieh dome building is used as an example to which two methods are applied. The performance points are given from superimposing the capacity, and demand curves in Acceleration Displacement Response Spectra (ADRS) and energy coordination are compared with the nonlinear time history analysis as the exact result. The results show a good agreement between the dynamic analysis and the energy balance method, but standard pushover method does not provide an acceptable estimation.

Keywords: energy balance method, pushover analysis, time history analysis, masonry dome

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4499 Effects of Blast Load on Historic Stone Masonry Buildings in Canada: A Review and Analytical Study

Authors: Abass Braimah, Maha Hussein Abdallah

Abstract:

The global ascendancy of terrorist attacks on building infrastructure with economic and heritage significance has increased awareness of the possibility of terrorism in Canada. Many structures in Canada that are at risk of terrorist attacks include government buildings, built many years ago of historic stone masonry construction. Although many researchers are investigating ways to retrofit masonry stone buildings to mitigate the effect of blast loadings, lack of knowledge on the dynamic behavior of historic stone masonry structures under blast loads makes it difficult to ascertain the effectiveness of the retrofitting techniques. This paper presents a review of open-source literature for the experimental and numerical stone masonry structures under blast loads. This review yielded very little information of the response of the historic stone masonry structures under blast loads. Thus, a comprehensive study is needed to understand the blast load effects on historic stone masonry buildings. The out-of-plane response of historic masonry structures to blast loads is investigated by using single-degree-of-freedom analysis. This approach presents equations that can be used effectively in the analysis of historic masonry walls to out-of-plane blast loading.

Keywords: blast loads, historical buildings, masonry structure, single-degree-of-freedom analysis

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4498 A Recognition Method for Spatio-Temporal Background in Korean Historical Novels

Authors: Seo-Hee Kim, Kee-Won Kim, Seung-Hoon Kim

Abstract:

The most important elements of a novel are the characters, events and background. The background represents the time, place and situation that character appears, and conveys event and atmosphere more realistically. If readers have the proper knowledge about background of novels, it may be helpful for understanding the atmosphere of a novel and choosing a novel that readers want to read. In this paper, we are targeting Korean historical novels because spatio-temporal background especially performs an important role in historical novels among the genre of Korean novels. To the best of our knowledge, we could not find previous study that was aimed at Korean novels. In this paper, we build a Korean historical national dictionary. Our dictionary has historical places and temple names of kings over many generations as well as currently existing spatial words or temporal words in Korean history. We also present a method for recognizing spatio-temporal background based on patterns of phrasal words in Korean sentences. Our rules utilize postposition for spatial background recognition and temple names for temporal background recognition. The knowledge of the recognized background can help readers to understand the flow of events and atmosphere, and can use to visualize the elements of novels.

Keywords: data mining, Korean historical novels, Korean linguistic feature, spatio-temporal background

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
4497 Data Gathering and Analysis for Arabic Historical Documents

Authors: Ali Dulla

Abstract:

This paper introduces a new dataset (and the methodology used to generate it) based on a wide range of historical Arabic documents containing clean data simple and homogeneous-page layouts. The experiments are implemented on printed and handwritten documents obtained respectively from some important libraries such as Qatar Digital Library, the British Library and the Library of Congress. We have gathered and commented on 150 archival document images from different locations and time periods. It is based on different documents from the 17th-19th century. The dataset comprises differing page layouts and degradations that challenge text line segmentation methods. Ground truth is produced using the Aletheia tool by PRImA and stored in an XML representation, in the PAGE (Page Analysis and Ground truth Elements) format. The dataset presented will be easily available to researchers world-wide for research into the obstacles facing various historical Arabic documents such as geometric correction of historical Arabic documents.

Keywords: dataset production, ground truth production, historical documents, arbitrary warping, geometric correction

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
4496 Public Squares and Their Potential for Social Interactions: A Case Study of Historical Public Squares in Tehran

Authors: Asma Mehan

Abstract:

Under the thrust of technological changes, population growth and vehicular traffic, Iranian historical squares have lost their significance and they are no longer the main social nodes of the society. This research focuses on how historical public squares can inspire designers to enhance social interactions among citizens in Iranian urban context. Moreover, the recent master plan of Tehran demonstrates the lack of public spaces designed for the purpose of people’s social gatherings. For filling this gap, first the current situation of 7 selected primary historical public squares in Tehran including Sabze Meydan, Arg, Topkhaneh, Baherstan, Mokhber-al-dole, Rah Ahan and Hassan Abad have been compared. Later, the influencing elements on social interactions of the public squares such as subjective factors (human relationships and memories) and objective factors (natural and built environment) have been investigated. As a conclusion, some strategies are proposed for improving social interactions in historical public squares like; holding cultural, national, athletic and religious events, defining different and new functions in public squares’ surrounding, increasing pedestrian routs, reviving the collective memory, demonstrating the historical importance of square, eliminating visual obstacles across the square, organization the natural elements of the square, appropriate pavement for social activities. Finally, it is argued that the combination of all influencing factors which are: human interactions, natural elements and built environment criteria will lead to enhance the historical public squares’ potential for social interaction.

Keywords: historical square, Iranian public square, social interaction, Tehran

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4495 Reinvestment of the Urban Context in Historic Cities: The Case Study of El Sheikh Kandil Street, Rosetta, Egypt

Authors: Riham A. Ragheb, Ingy M. Naguib

Abstract:

Conservation and urban investment are a prerequisite to improve the quality of life. Since the historic street is a part of the economic system, it should be able to play an important role in the city development by upgrading all services, public open spaces and reuse of historical buildings and sites. Furthermore, historical conservation enriches the political, economic, social, cultural and functional aspects of the site. Rosetta has been selected as an area of study because it has a unique character due to its possession of a variety of monuments and historical buildings. The aim of this research is to analyze the existing situation of an historic street named El Sheikh Kandil, to be able to identify the potentials and problems. The paper gives a proposal for the redesign and reinvestment of the street and the reuse for the historical buildings to serve the community, users and visitors. Then, it concludes with recommendations to improve quality of life through the rehabilitation of the historical buildings and strengthening of the cultural and historical identity of the street. Rosetta city can benefit from these development proposals by preserving and revitalizing its unique character which leads to tourism development and benefits from the new investments.

Keywords: adaptive reuse, heritage street, historic investment, restoration, urban design

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
4494 Words Spotting in the Images Handwritten Historical Documents

Authors: Issam Ben Jami

Abstract:

Information retrieval in digital libraries is very important because most famous historical documents occupy a significant value. The word spotting in historical documents is a very difficult notion, because automatic recognition of such documents is naturally cursive, it represents a wide variability in the level scale and translation words in the same documents. We first present a system for the automatic recognition, based on the extraction of interest points words from the image model. The extraction phase of the key points is chosen from the representation of the image as a synthetic description of the shape recognition in a multidimensional space. As a result, we use advanced methods that can find and describe interesting points invariant to scale, rotation and lighting which are linked to local configurations of pixels. We test this approach on documents of the 15th century. Our experiments give important results.

Keywords: feature matching, historical documents, pattern recognition, word spotting

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4493 Preliminary Studies in the Determination of Deteriorations in Eflatunpınar Hitit Water Monument (Konya, Turkey) by Non-Destructive Tests

Authors: İsmail İnce, Ali Bozdag, Ayla Bozdag, M. Bahadır Tosunlar, M. Ergun Hatır, Mustafa Korkanc

Abstract:

The building stones used in the construction of historical structures are exposed to atmospheric effects directly or indirectly. As a result of this process, building stones are partially or completely degraded. Historical buildings are important symbols of cultural heritage, so it is very significant to transfer to the future generations by protecting and repairing of these historical buildings. The Eflatunpınar Hitit Monument located near the Eflatunpınar cold water spring was constructed by using natural rock blocks during the Hittites Empire period. The monument has been protected without losing its function until today. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the deteriorations in the Eflatunpınar Hitit Monument and to detect the water chemistry of the Eflatunpınar spring located around the Beysehir County in the west of Konya. For this purpose, the petrographic and mechanical properties of the rocks used in this monument were determined, and the deteriorations in the monument were determined with the aid of non-destructive test methods including Schmidt hardness value, relative humidity measurement, thermal imaging. Additionally, the physical (electrical conductivity (EC), pH and temperature) and chemical characteristics (major anions and cations) of the Eflatunpınar cold water spring have been detected.

Keywords: deteriorations, Eflatunpınar Hitit monument, Eflatunpınar spring, Konya, non-destructıve tests

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4492 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of a Historical Bell Tower

Authors: Milorad Pavlovic, Sebastiano Trevisani, Antonella Cecchi

Abstract:

In this paper, a procedure for the evaluation of seismic behavior of slender masonry structures (towers, bell towers, chimneys, minarets, etc.) is presented. The presented procedure is based on a full three-dimensional modal analyses and frequency measurements. As well-known, masonry is a composite material formed by bricks, or stone blocks, and mortar arranged more or less regularly and adopted for many centuries as structural material. Dynamic actions may represent the major risk of collapse of brickworks, and despite the progress achieved so far in science and mechanics; the assessment of their seismic performance remains a challenging task. Then, reliable physical and numerical models are worthy of recommendation. In this paper, attention is paid to the historical bell tower of the Basilica of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari - usually called Frari - one of the greatest churches in Venice, Italy.

Keywords: bell tower, FEM, masonry, modal analysis, non-destructive testing

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4491 The Development and Change of Settlement in Tainan County (1904-2015) Using Historical Geographic Information System

Authors: Wei Ting Han, Shiann-Far Kung

Abstract:

In the early time, most of the arable land is dry farming and using rainfall as water sources for irrigation in Tainan county. After the Chia-nan Irrigation System (CIS) was completed in 1930, Chia-nan Plain was more efficient allocation of limited water sources or irrigation, because of the benefit from irrigation systems, drainage systems, and land improvement projects. The problem of long-term drought, flood and salt damage in the past were also improved by CIS. The canal greatly improved the paddy field area and agricultural output, Tainan county has become one of the important agricultural producing areas in Taiwan. With the development of water conservancy facilities, affected by national policies and other factors, many agricultural communities and settlements are formed indirectly, also promoted the change of settlement patterns and internal structures. With the development of historical geographic information system (HGIS), Academia Sinica developed the WebGIS theme with the century old maps of Taiwan which is the most complete historical map of database in Taiwan. It can be used to overlay historical figures of different periods, present the timeline of the settlement change, also grasp the changes in the natural environment or social sciences and humanities, and the changes in the settlements presented by the visualized areas. This study will explore the historical development and spatial characteristics of the settlements in various areas of Tainan County. Using of large-scale areas to explore the settlement changes and spatial patterns of the entire county, through the dynamic time and space evolution from Japanese rule to the present day. Then, digitizing the settlement of different periods to perform overlay analysis by using Taiwan historical topographic maps in 1904, 1921, 1956 and 1989. Moreover, using document analysis to analyze the temporal and spatial changes of regional environment and settlement structure. In addition, the comparison analysis method is used to classify the spatial characteristics and differences between the settlements. Exploring the influence of external environments in different time and space backgrounds, such as government policies, major construction, and industrial development. This paper helps to understand the evolution of the settlement space and the internal structural changes in Tainan County.

Keywords: historical geographic information system, overlay analysis, settlement change, Tainan County

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4490 Techniques for Seismic Strengthening of Historical Monuments from Diagnosis to Implementation

Authors: Mircan Kaya

Abstract:

A multi-disciplinary approach is required in any intervention project for historical monuments. Due to the complexity of their geometry, the variable and unpredictable characteristics of original materials used in their creation, heritage structures are peculiar. Their histories are often complex, and they require correct diagnoses to decide on the techniques of intervention. This approach should not only combine technical aspects but also historical research that may help discover phenomena involving structural issues, and acquire a knowledge of the structure on its concept, method of construction, previous interventions, process of damage, and its current state. In addition to the traditional techniques like bed joint reinforcement, the repairing, strengthening and restoration of historical buildings may require several other modern methods which may be described as innovative techniques like pre-stressing and post-tensioning, use of shape memory alloy devices and shock transmission units, shoring, drilling, and the use of stainless steel or titanium. Regardless of the method to be incorporated in the strengthening process, which can be traditional or innovative, it is crucial to recognize that structural strengthening is the process of upgrading the structural system of the existing building with the aim of improving its performance under existing and additional loads like seismic loads. This process is much more complex than dealing with a new construction, owing to the fact that there are several unknown factors associated with the structural system. Material properties, load paths, previous interventions, existing reinforcement are especially important matters to be considered. There are several examples of seismic strengthening with traditional and innovative techniques around the world, which will be discussed in this paper in detail, including their pros and cons. Ultimately, however, the main idea underlying the philosophy of a successful intervention with the most appropriate techniques of strengthening a historic monument should be decided by a proper assessment of the specific needs of the building.

Keywords: bed joint reinforcement, historical monuments, post-tensioning, pre-stressing, seismic strengthening, shape memory alloy devices, shock transmitters, tie rods

Procedia PDF Downloads 187