Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: Tatsuya Kato

37 Localization of Mobile Robots with Omnidirectional Cameras

Authors: Tatsuya Kato, Masanobu Nagata, Hidetoshi Nakashima, Kazunori Matsuo


Localization of mobile robots are important tasks for developing autonomous mobile robots. This paper proposes a method to estimate positions of a mobile robot using an omnidirectional camera on the robot. Landmarks for points of references are set up on a field where the robot works. The omnidirectional camera which can obtain 360 [deg] around images takes photographs of these landmarks. The positions of the robots are estimated from directions of these landmarks that are extracted from the images by image processing. This method can obtain the robot positions without accumulative position errors. Accuracy of the estimated robot positions by the proposed method are evaluated through some experiments. The results show that it can obtain the positions with small standard deviations. Therefore the method has possibilities of more accurate localization by tuning of appropriate offset parameters.

Keywords: mobile robots, localization, omnidirectional camera, estimating positions

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36 Study on the Self-Location Estimate by the Evolutional Triangle Similarity Matching Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

Authors: Yuji Kageyama, Shin Nagata, Tatsuya Takino, Izuru Nomura, Hiroyuki Kamata


In previous study, technique to estimate a self-location by using a lunar image is proposed. We consider the improvement of the conventional method in consideration of FPGA implementation in this paper. Specifically, we introduce Artificial Bee Colony algorithm for reduction of search time. In addition, we use fixed point arithmetic to enable high-speed operation on FPGA.

Keywords: SLIM, Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm, location estimate, evolutional triangle similarity

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35 Implementation of a Method of Crater Detection Using Principal Component Analysis in FPGA

Authors: Izuru Nomura, Tatsuya Takino, Yuji Kageyama, Shin Nagata, Hiroyuki Kamata


We propose a method of crater detection from the image of the lunar surface captured by the small space probe. We use the principal component analysis (PCA) to detect craters. Nevertheless, considering severe environment of the space, it is impossible to use generic computer in practice. Accordingly, we have to implement the method in FPGA. This paper compares FPGA and generic computer by the processing time of a method of crater detection using principal component analysis.

Keywords: crater, PCA, eigenvector, strength value, FPGA, processing time

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34 Crater Detection Using PCA from Captured CMOS Camera Data

Authors: Tatsuya Takino, Izuru Nomura, Yuji Kageyama, Shin Nagata, Hiroyuki Kamata


We propose a method of detecting the craters from the image of the lunar surface. This proposal assumes that it is applied to SLIM (Smart Lander for Investigating Moon) working group aiming at the pinpoint landing on the lunar surface and investigating scientific research. It is difficult to equip and use high-performance computers for the small space probe. So, it is necessary to use a small computer with an exclusive hardware such as FPGA. We have studied the crater detection using principal component analysis (PCA), In this paper, We implement detection algorithm into the FPGA, and the detection is performed on the data that was captured from the CMOS camera.

Keywords: crater detection, PCA, FPGA, image processing

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33 The Study about the New Monitoring System of Signal Equipment of Railways Using Radio Communication

Authors: Masahiko Suzuki, Takashi Kato , Masahiro Kobayashi


In our company, the monitoring system for signal equipment has already implemented. So, we can know the state of signal equipment, sitting in the control room or the maintenance center. But this system was installed over 20 years ago, so it cannot stand the needs such as 'more stable operation', 'broadband data transfer', 'easy construction and easy maintenance'. To satisfy these needs, we studied the monitoring system using radio communication as a new method which can realize the operation in the terrible environment along railroads. In these studies, we have developed the terminals and repeaters based on the ZigBee protocol and have implemented the application using two different radio bands simultaneously. At last, we got the good results from the fundamental examinations using the developed equipment.

Keywords: monitoring, radio communication, 2 bands, ZigBee

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32 Low-Temperature Luminescence Spectroscopy of Violet Sr-Al-O:Eu2+ Phosphor Particles

Authors: Keiji Komatsu, Hayato Maruyama, Ariyuki Kato, Atsushi Nakamura, Shigeo Ohshio, Hiroki Akasaka, Hidetoshi Saitoh


Violet Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphor particles were synthesized from a metal–ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution of Sr, Al, Eu, and particulate alumina via spray drying and sintering in a reducing atmosphere. The crystal structures and emission properties at 85–300 K were investigated. The composition of the violet Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphor particles was determined from various Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphors by their emission properties’ dependence on temperature. The highly crystalline SrAl12O19:Eu2+ emission phases were confirmed by their crystallite sizes and the activation energies for the 4f5d–8S7/2 transition of the Eu2+ ion. These results showed that the material identification for the violet Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphor was accomplished by the low-temperature luminescence measurements.

Keywords: low temperature luminescence spectroscopy, material identification, strontium aluminates phosphor, emission properties

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31 Soil Transmitted Helminth Infection and Associated Risk Factors among School Children in a Selected Barangay in the Philippines

Authors: Gil Soriano, Aubreyrose Casilang


Soil-transmitted helminth infection remains to be one of the leading public health problem worldwide, which is common in the rural developing regions especially among children. This study aimed to detect the presence of soil transmitted helminths among children and its associated transmission factors. Descriptive cross sectional research was the design used in the study and questionnaires were administered. Stool samples were collected among the samples (n=108) and were analyzed using kato thick method. Results showed that 61 out of 108 respondents are infected by soil transmitted helminth infection with A. lumbricoides the highest, followed by hookworm and T. trichuria. Parent's educational attainment, hand washing practices, and water sources were found to be associated with presence of Soil Transmitted Helminth infection.

Keywords: associated risk factors, barangay, school children, soil transmitted helminth infection

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30 Particle Concentration Distribution under Idling Conditions in a Residential Underground Garage

Authors: Yu Zhao, Shinsuke Kato, Jianing Zhao


Particles exhausted from cars have an adverse impacts on human health. The study developed a three-dimensional particle dispersion numerical model including particle coagulation to simulate the particle concentration distribution under idling conditions in a residential underground garage. The simulation results demonstrate that particle disperses much faster in the vertical direction than that in horizontal direction. The enhancement of particle dispersion in the vertical direction due to the increase of cars with engine running is much stronger than that in the car exhaust direction. Particle dispersion from each pair of adjacent cars has little influence on each other in the study. Average particle concentration after 120 seconds exhaust is 1.8-4.5 times higher than the initial total particles at ambient environment. Particle pollution in the residential underground garage is severe.

Keywords: dispersion, idling conditions, particle concentration, residential underground garage

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29 Development of the Structure of the Knowledgebase for Countermeasures in the Knowledge Acquisition Process for Trouble Prediction in Healthcare Processes

Authors: Shogo Kato, Daisuke Okamoto, Satoko Tsuru, Yoshinori Iizuka, Ryoko Shimono


Healthcare safety has been perceived important. It is essential to prevent troubles in healthcare processes for healthcare safety. Trouble prevention is based on trouble prediction using accumulated knowledge on processes, troubles, and countermeasures. However, information on troubles has not been accumulated in hospitals in the appropriate structure, and it has not been utilized effectively to prevent troubles. In the previous study, though a detailed knowledge acquisition process for trouble prediction was proposed, the knowledgebase for countermeasures was not involved. In this paper, we aim to propose the structure of the knowledgebase for countermeasures in the knowledge acquisition process for trouble prediction in healthcare process. We first design the structure of countermeasures and propose the knowledge representation form on countermeasures. Then, we evaluate the validity of the proposal, by applying it into an actual hospital.

Keywords: trouble prevention, knowledge structure, structured knowledge, reusable knowledge

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28 Building Capacity and Personnel Flow Modeling for Operating amid COVID-19

Authors: Samuel Fernandes, Dylan Kato, Emin Burak Onat, Patrick Keyantuo, Raja Sengupta, Amine Bouzaghrane


The COVID-19 pandemic has spread across the United States, forcing cities to impose stay-at-home and shelter-in-place orders. Building operations had to adjust as non-essential personnel worked from home. But as buildings prepare for personnel to return, they need to plan for safe operations amid new COVID-19 guidelines. In this paper we propose a methodology for capacity and flow modeling of personnel within buildings to safely operate under COVID-19 guidelines. We model personnel flow within buildings by network flows with queuing constraints. We study maximum flow, minimum cost, and minimax objectives. We compare our network flow approach with a simulation model through a case study and present the results. Our results showcase various scenarios of how buildings could be operated under new COVID-19 guidelines and provide a framework for building operators to plan and operate buildings in this new paradigm.

Keywords: network analysis, building simulation, COVID-19

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27 Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Solar Thermochemical Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: Selvan Bellan, Koji Matsubara, Nobuyuki Gokon, Tatsuya Kodama, Hyun Seok-Cho


In concentrated solar thermal industry, fluidized-bed technology has been used to produce hydrogen by thermochemical two step water splitting cycles, and synthetic gas by gasification of coal coke. Recently, couple of fluidized bed reactors have been developed and tested at Niigata University, Japan, for two-step thermochemical water splitting cycles and coal coke gasification using Xe light, solar simulator. The hydrodynamic behavior of the gas-solid flow plays a vital role in the aforementioned fluidized bed reactors. Thus, in order to study the dynamics of dense gas-solid flow, a CFD-DEM model has been developed; in which the contact forces between the particles have been calculated by the spring-dashpot model, based on the soft-sphere method. Heat transfer and hydrodynamics of a solar thermochemical fluidized bed reactor filled with ceria particles have been studied numerically and experimentally for beam-down solar concentrating system. An experimental visualization of particles circulation pattern and mixing of two-tower fluidized bed system has been presented. Simulation results have been compared with experimental data to validate the CFD-DEM model. Results indicate that the model can predict the particle-fluid flow of the two-tower fluidized bed reactor. Using this model, the key operating parameters can be optimized.

Keywords: solar reactor, CFD-DEM modeling, fluidized bed, beam-down solar concentrating system

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26 Studies of Rule Induction by STRIM from the Decision Table with Contaminated Attribute Values from Missing Data and Noise — in the Case of Critical Dataset Size —

Authors: Tetsuro Saeki, Yuichi Kato, Shoutarou Mizuno


STRIM (Statistical Test Rule Induction Method) has been proposed as a method to effectively induct if-then rules from the decision table which is considered as a sample set obtained from the population of interest. Its usefulness has been confirmed by simulation experiments specifying rules in advance, and by comparison with conventional methods. However, scope for future development remains before STRIM can be applied to the analysis of real-world data sets. The first requirement is to determine the size of the dataset needed for inducting true rules, since finding statistically significant rules is the core of the method. The second is to examine the capacity of rule induction from datasets with contaminated attribute values created by missing data and noise, since real-world datasets usually contain such contaminated data. This paper examines the first problem theoretically, in connection with the rule length. The second problem is then examined in a simulation experiment, utilizing the critical size of dataset derived from the first step. The experimental results show that STRIM is highly robust in the analysis of datasets with contaminated attribute values, and hence is applicable to realworld data.

Keywords: rule induction, decision table, missing data, noise

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25 Disaster Mitigation from an Analysis of a Condemned Building Erected over Collapsible Clay Soil in Brazil

Authors: Marcelo Jesus Kato Avila, Joao Da Costa Pantoja


Differential settlement of foundations is a serious pathology in buildings that put at risk lives and property. A common reason for the occurrence of this specific pathology in central Brazil is the presence of collapsible clay, a typical soil in the region. In this study, the foundation of a condemned building erected above this soil is analyzed. The aim is to prevent problems in new constructions, to predict which buildings may be subjected to damages, and to make possible a more precise treatment in less advanced differential settlements observed in the buildings of the vicinity, which includes a hospital, a Military School, an indoor sporting arena, the Police Academy, and the Military Police Headquarters. The methodology consists of visual inspection, photographic report of the main pathologies, analysis of the existing foundations, determination of the soil properties, the study of the cracking level and assessment of structural failure risk of the building. The findings show that the presence of water weaken the soil structure on which the foundation rest, being the main cause of the pathologic settlement, indicating that even in a one store building it was necessary to consider deeper digging, other categories of foundations, and more elaborated and detailed foundation plans when the soil presents this behavior.

Keywords: building cracks, collapsible clay, differential settlement, structural failure risk

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24 Thresholding Approach for Automatic Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms from Fluorescence in situ Hybridization Images

Authors: Zonglin Yang, Tatsuya Akiyama, Kerry S. Williamson, Michael J. Franklin, Thiruvarangan Ramaraj


Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that forms surface-associated microbial communities (biofilms) on artificial implant devices and on human tissue. Biofilm infections are difficult to treat with antibiotics, in part, because the bacteria in biofilms are physiologically heterogeneous. One measure of biological heterogeneity in a population of cells is to quantify the cellular concentrations of ribosomes, which can be probed with fluorescently labeled nucleic acids. The fluorescent signal intensity following fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis correlates to the cellular level of ribosomes. The goals here are to provide computationally and statistically robust approaches to automatically quantify cellular heterogeneity in biofilms from a large library of epifluorescent microscopy FISH images. In this work, the initial steps were developed toward these goals by developing an automated biofilm detection approach for use with FISH images. The approach allows rapid identification of biofilm regions from FISH images that are counterstained with fluorescent dyes. This methodology provides advances over other computational methods, allowing subtraction of spurious signals and non-biological fluorescent substrata. This method will be a robust and user-friendly approach which will enable users to semi-automatically detect biofilm boundaries and extract intensity values from fluorescent images for quantitative analysis of biofilm heterogeneity.

Keywords: image informatics, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biofilm, FISH, computer vision, data visualization

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23 Temporal Focus Scale: Examination of the Reliability and Validity in Japanese Adolescents and Young Adults

Authors: Yuta Chishima, Tatsuya Murakami, Michael McKay


Temporal focus is described as one component of an individual’s time perspective and defined as the attention individuals devote to thinking about the past, present, and future. It affects how people incorporate perceptions about past experiences, current situations, and future expectations into their attitudes, cognitions, and behavior. The 12-item Temporal Focus Scale (TFS) is comprised of three-factors (past, current and future focus). The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of TFS scores in Japanese adolescents and young adults. The TFS was translated into Japanese by a professional translator, and the original author confirmed the back translated items. Study 1 involved 979 Japanese university students aged 18-25 years old in a questionnaire-based study. The hypothesized three-factor structure (with reliability) was confirmed, although there were problems with item 10. Internal consistency estimates for scores without item 10 were over .70, and test-retest reliability was also adequate. To verify the concurrent and convergent validity, we tested the relationship between TFS scores and life satisfaction, time perspective, self-esteem, and career efficacy. Results of correlational analyses supported our hypotheses. Specifically, future focus was strongly correlated to career efficacy, while past and current focus was not. Study 2 involved 1030 Japanese junior and junior high school students aged 12-18 years old in a questionnaire-based study, and results of multigroup analyses supported the age invariance of the TFS.

Keywords: Japanese, reliability, scale, temporal focus, validity

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22 MicroRNA-211 Regulates Oxidative Phosphorylation and Energy Metabolism in Human Vitiligoa

Authors: Anupama Sahoo, Bongyong Lee, Katia Boniface, Julien Seneschal, Sanjaya K. Sahoo, Tatsuya Seki, Chunyan Wang, Soumen Das, Xianlin Han, Michael Steppie, Sudipta Seal, Alain Taieb, Ranjan J. Perera


Vitiligo is a common, chronic skin disorder characterized by loss of epidermal melanocytes and progressive depigmentation. Vitiligo has a complex immune, genetic, environmental, and biochemical etiology, but the exact molecular mechanisms of vitiligo development and progression, particularly those related to metabolic control, are poorly understood. Here we characterized the human vitiligo cell line PIG3V and the normal human melanocytes, HEM-l by RNA-sequencing, targeted metabolomics, and shotgun lipidomics. Melanocyte-enriched miR-211, a known metabolic switch in non-pigmented melanoma cells, was severely downregulated in vitiligo cell line PIG3V and skin biopsies from vitiligo patients, while its novel predicted targets transcriptional co-activator PGC1-α (PPARGC1A), ribonucleotide reductase regulatory subunit M2 (RRM2), and serine-threonine protein kinase TAO1 (TAOK1) were reciprocally upregulated. miR-211 binds to PGC1-α 3’UTR locus and represses it. Although mitochondrial numbers were constant, mitochondrial complexes I, II, and IV and respiratory responses were defective in vitiligo cells. Nanoparticle-coated miR-211 partially augmented the oxygen consumption rate in PIG3V cells. The lower oxygen consumption rate, changes in lipid and metabolite profiles, and increased reactive oxygen species production observed in vitiligo cells appear to be partly due to abnormal regulation of miR-211 and its target genes. These genes represent potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in human vitiligo.

Keywords: metabolism, microRNA, mitochondria, vitiligo

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21 Optimal Selling Prices for Small Sized Poultry Farmers

Authors: Hidefumi Kawakatsu, Dong Li, Kosuke Kato


In Japan, meat-type chickens are mainly classified into three categories: (1) Broilers, (2) Branded chickens, and (3) Jidori (Free-range local traditional pedigree chickens). The Jidori chickens are certified by the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, whilst, for the Branded chickens, there is no regulation with respect to their breed (genotype) or methods for rearing them. It is, therefore, relatively easy for poultry farmers to introduce Branded than Jidori chickens. The Branded chickens are normally fed a low-calorie diet with ingredients such as herbs, which lengthens their breeding period (compared with that of the Broilers) and increases their market value. In the field of inventory management, fast-growing animals such as broilers are categorised as ameliorating items. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous studies that have explicitly considered smaller sized poultry farmers with limited breeding areas. This study develops an inventory model for a small sized poultry farmer that produces both the Broilers (Product 1) and the Branded chickens (Product 2) with different amelioration rates. The poultry farmer’s total profit per unit of time is formulated as a function of selling prices by using a price-dependent demand function. The existence of a unique optimal selling price for each product, which maximises the total profit, established. It has also been confirmed through numerical examples that, when the breeding area is fixed, the total profit could increase if the poultry farmer reduced the product quantity of Product 1 to introduce Product 2.

Keywords: amelioration, deterioration, small sized poultry farmers, optimal price

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20 Development and Evaluation of Virtual Basketball Game Using Motion Capture Technology

Authors: Shunsuke Aoki, Taku Ri, Tatsuya Yamazaki


These days, along with the development of e-sports, video games as a competitive sport is attracting attention. But, in many cases, action in the screen does not match the real motion of operation. Inclusiveness of player motion is needed to increase reality and excitement for sports games. Therefore, in this study, the authors propose a method to recognize player motion by using the motion capture technology and develop a virtual basketball game. The virtual basketball game consists of a screen with nine targets, players, depth sensors, and no ball. The players pretend a two-handed basketball shot without a ball aiming at one of the nine targets on the screen. Time-series data of three-dimensional coordinates of player joints are captured by the depth sensor. 20 joints data are measured for each player to estimate the shooting motion in real-time. The trajectory of the thrown virtual ball is calculated based on the time-series data and hitting on the target is judged as success or failure. The virtual basketball game can be played by 2 to 4 players as a competitive game among the players. The developed game was exhibited to the public for evaluation on the authors' university open campus days. 339 visitors participated in the exhibition and enjoyed the virtual basketball game over the two days. A questionnaire survey on the developed game was conducted for the visitors who experienced the game. As a result of the survey, about 97.3% of the players found the game interesting regardless of whether they had experienced actual basketball before or not. In addition, it is found that women are easy to comfort for shooting motion. The virtual game with motion capture technology has the potential to become a universal entertainment between e-sports and actual sports.

Keywords: basketball, motion capture, questionnaire survey, video ga

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19 Effect of Burdock Root Extract Concentration on Physiochemical Property of Coated Jasmine Rice by Using Top-Spay Fluidized Bed Coating Technique

Authors: Donludee Jaisut, Norihisa Kato, Thanutchaporn Kumrungsee, Kiyoshi Kawai, Somkiat Prachayawarakorn, Patchalee Tungtrakul


Jasmine Rice is a principle food of Thai people. However, glycemic index of jasmine rice is in high level, risk of type II diabetes after consuming. Burdock root is a good source of non-starch polysaccharides such as inulin. Inulin acts as prebiotic and helps reduce blood-sugar level. The purpose of this research was to reduce digestion rate of jasmine rice by coating burdock root extract on rice surface, using top-spay fluidized bed coating technique. Coating experiments were performed by spraying burdock root solution onto Jasmine rice kernels (Khao Dawk Mali-105; KDML), which had an initial moisture content of 11.6% wet basis, suspended in the fluidized bed. The experimental conditions were: solution spray rates of 31.7 mL/min, atomization pressure of 1.5 bar, spray time of 10 min, time of drying after spraying of 30 s, superficial air velocity of 3.2 m/s and drying temperatures of 60°C. The coated rice quality was evaluated in terms of the moisture content, texture, whiteness and digestion rate. The results showed that initial and final moisture contents of samples were the same in concentration 8% (v/v) and 10% (v/v). The texture was insignificantly changed from that of uncoated sample. The whiteness values were varied on concentration of burdock root extract. Coated samples were slower digested.

Keywords: burdock root, digestion, drying, rice

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18 Influence of Peripheral Vision Restrictions on the Walking Trajectory When Texting While Walking

Authors: Macky Kato, Takeshi Sato, Mizuki Nakajima


One major problem related to the use of smartphones is texting while simultaneously engaging in other things, resulting in serious road accidents. Apart from texting while driving being one of the most dangerous behaviors, texting while walking is also dangerous because it narrows the pedestrians’ field of vision. However, many of pedestrian text while walking very habitually. Smartphone users often overlook the potential harm associated with this behavior even while crossing roads. The successful texting while walking make them think that they are safe. The purpose of this study is to reveal of the influence of peripheral vision to the stability of walking trajectory with texting while walking. In total, 9 healthy male university students participated in the experiment. Their mean age was 21.4 years, and standard deviation was 0.7 years. They attempted to walk 10 m in three conditions. First one is the control (CTR) condition, with no phone and no restriction. The second one is the texting while walking (TWG) with no restrictions. The third one is restriction condition (PRS), with phone restricted by experimental peripheral goggles. The horizontal distances (HDS) and directions are measured as the scale of horizontal stability. The longitudinal distances (LDS) between the footprints were measured as the scale of the walking rhythm. The results showed that the HDS of the footprints from the straight line increased as the participants walked in the TWG and PRS conditions. In the PRS condition, this tendency was particularly remarkable. In addition, the LDS between the footprints decreased in the order of the CTR, TWG, and PRS conditions. The ANOVA results showed significant differences in the three conditions with respect to HDS. The differences among these conditions showed that the narrowing of the Pedestrian's vision because of smartphone use influences the walking trajectory and rhythm. It can be said that the pedestrians seem to use their peripheral vision marginally on texting while walking. Therefore, we concluded that the texting while walking narrows the peripheral vision so danger to increase the risk of the accidents.

Keywords: peripheral vision, stability, texting while walking, walking trajectory

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17 Effect of Pole Weight on Nordic Walking

Authors: Takeshi Sato, Mizuki Nakajima, Macky Kato, Shoji Igawa


The purpose of study was to investigate the effect of varying pole weights on energy expenditure, upper limb and lower limb muscle activity as Electromyogram during Nordic walking (NW). Four healthy men [age = 22.5 (±1.0) years, body mass = 61.4 (±3.6) kg, height = 170.3 (±4.3) cm] and three healthy women [age = 22.7 (±2.9) years, body mass = 53.0 (±1.7) kg, height = 156.7 (±4.5) cm] participated in the experiments after informed consent. Seven healthy subjects were tested on the treadmill, walking, walking (W) with Nordic Poles (NW) and walking with 1kg weight Nordic Poles (NW+1). Walking speed was 6 km per hours in all trials. Eight EMG activities were recorded by bipolar surface methods in biceps brachii, triceps brachii, trapezius, deltoideus, tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles. And heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. The level of significance was set at a = 0.05, with p < 0.05 regarded as statistically significant. Our results confirmed that use of NW poles increased HR at a given upper arm muscle activity but decreased lower limb EMGs in comparison with W. Moreover NW was able to increase more step lengths with hip joint extension during NW rather than W. Also, EMG revealed higher activation of upper limb for almost all NW and 1kgNW tests plus added masses compared to W (p < 0.05). Therefore, it was thought either of NW and 1kgNW were to have benefit as a physical exercise for safe, feasible, and readily training for a wide range of aged people in the quality of daily life. However, there was no significant effected in leg muscles activity by using 1kgNW except for upper arm muscle activity during Nordic pole walking.

Keywords: Nordic walking, electromyogram, heart rate, RPE

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16 Study on Shifting Properties of CVT Rubber V-belt

Authors: Natsuki Tsuda, Kiyotaka Obunai, Kazuya Okubo, Hideyuki Tashiro, Yoshinori Yamaji, Hideyuki Kato


The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of belt stiffness on the performance of the CVT unit, such as the required pulley thrust force and the ratio coverage. The CVT unit consists of the V-grooved pulleys and the rubber CVT belt. The width of the driving pulley groove was controlled by the stepper motor, while that of the driven pulley was controlled by the hydraulic pressure. The generated mechanical power on the motor was transmitted from the driving axis to the driven axis through the CVT unit. The rotational speed and the transmitting torque of both axes were measured by the tachometers and the torque meters attached with these axes, respectively. The transmitted, mechanical power was absorbed by the magnetic powder brake. The thrust force acting on both pulleys and the force between both shafts were measured by the load cell. The back face profile of the rubber CVT belt along with width direction was measured by the 2-dimensional laser displacement meter. This paper found that when the stiffness of the rubber CVT belt in the belt width direction was reduced, the thrust force required for shifting was reduced. Moreover, when the stiffness of the rubber CVT belt in the belt width direction was reduced, the ratio coverage of the CVT unit was reduced. Due to the decrement of stiffness in belt width direction, the excessive concave deformation of belt in pulley groove was confirmed. Because of this excessive concave deformation, apparent wrapping radius of belt would have been reduced. Proposed model could be effectively estimated the difference of ratio coverage due to concave deformation. The proposed model could also be utilized for designing the rubber CVT belt with optimal bending stiffness in width direction.

Keywords: CVT, countinuously variable transmission, rubber, belt stiffness, transmission

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15 Anti-Parasite Targeting with Amino Acid-Capped Nanoparticles Modulates Multiple Cellular Processes in Host

Authors: Oluyomi Stephen Adeyemi, Kentaro Kato


Toxoplasma gondii is the etiological agent of toxoplasmosis, a common parasitic disease capable of infecting a range of hosts, including nearly one-third of the human population. Current treatment options for toxoplasmosis patients are limited. In consequence, toxoplasmosis represents a large global burden that is further enhanced by the shortcomings of the current therapeutic options. These factors underscore the need for better anti-T. gondii agents and/or new treatment approach. In the present study, we sought to find out whether preparing and capping nanoparticles (NPs) in amino acids, would enhance specificity toward the parasite versus the host cell. The selection of amino acids was premised on the fact that T. gondii is auxotrophic for some amino acids. The amino acid-nanoparticles (amino-NPs) were synthesized, purified and characterized following established protocols. Next, we tested to determine the anti-T. gondii activity of the amino-NPs using in vitro experimental model of infection. Overall, our data show evidence that supports enhanced and excellent selective action against the parasite versus the host cells by amino-NPs. The findings are promising and provide additional support that warrants exploring the prospects of NPs as alternative anti-parasite agents. In addition, the anti-parasite action by amino-NPs indicates that nutritional requirement of parasite may represent a viable target in the development of better alternative anti-parasite agents. Furthermore, data suggest the anti-parasite mechanism of the amino-NPs involves multiple cellular processes including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), modulation of hypoxia-inducing factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) as well as the activation of kynurenine pathway. Taken together, findings highlight further, the prospects of NPs as alternative source of anti-parasite agents.

Keywords: drug discovery, infectious diseases, mode of action, nanomedicine

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14 Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Risk Factors among Fishermen at Lake Hawassa, Southern Ethiopia

Authors: Tadesse Menjetta, Daniel Dana, Serkadis Debalke


Schistosomiasis/Bilharziasis is one of the neglected tropical parasitic diseases caused by different species of genus Schistosoma. Among the species, S. mansoni (causative agents of intestinal schistosomiasis) is one of the causes of severe intestinal parasitic infections with high public and medical importance in Ethiopia. There is a scarcity of information about the status of S. mansoni infection among the fisherman in our study area and in the country at large. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of S.mansoni infection among fishermen at Lake Hawassa, southern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the fishermen from April to June 2013 in Hawassa, Southern Ethiopia. A total of 243 fishermen were included by systematic sampling from the lists of the fishermen members in the registration book of fishermen associations in the Hawassa Town. Data on socio-demographic features and risk factors were collected by using semi-structured questionnaires. Stool samples were collected and processed using Kato-Katz thick smear techniques and examined between 30- 40 minute for hookworm and after 24 hours for S. mansoni and other soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). The overall prevalence of S.mansoni among the fishermen was 29.21% (71/243), and the mean intensity of infection was 158.88 egg per gram (EPG). The prevalence of intestinal helminths including S. mansoni was 69.54% (169/243). Moreover, the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) was 40.74% (99/243), 35.80% (87/243) and 5.76% (14/243) for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworm species, respectively. Almost similar prevalence of S.mansoni, 31.82%, 31.75%, 31.94% were recorded in age groups of 15-19, 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. Fishermen who are swimming always were 2.92 times [95% CI: 1.554, 5.502] more likely to acquire S. mansoni infection than other water contacting habit of the study participants. The results of the current investigation indicated the moderate endemicity of S. mansoni among the fishermen at Lake Hawassa, southern Ethiopia. Fishermen could be the potential risk group for S. mansoni infection and might be responsible for the transmission of S. mansoni to other segments of the communities. Since the high prevalence of STH was recorded among the fishermen, integrated prevention and control strategies from different sectors might be important to tackle the problem.

Keywords: S. mansoni, soil transmitted helminths, fishermen, Lake Hawassa, Ethiopia

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13 Occurrence of Broiler Chicken Breast White Striping Meat in Brazilian Commercial Plant

Authors: Talita Kato, Moises Grespan, Elza I. Ida, Massami Shimokomaki, Adriana L. Soares


White Striping (WS) is becoming a concern for the poultry industry, as it affects the look of breast broiler chicken meat leading it to rejection by the consumers. It is characterized by the appearance of varying degrees of white striations on the Pectoralis major muscle surface following the direction of the muscle fiber. The etiology of this myopathy is still unknown, however it is suggested to be associated with increased weight gain rate and age of the bird, attributing the phenomenon to the genetically bird’s selection for efficiently higher meat production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Pectoralis major WS in a commercial plant in southern Brazil and its chemical characterization. The breast meat samples (n=660) from birds of 47 days of age, were classified as: Normal NG (no apparent white striations), Moderate MG (when the fillets present thin lines <1 mm) and Severe SG (white striations present ˃1 mm thick covering a large part of the fillet surface). Thirty samples (n = 10 for each level of severity) were analyzed for pH, color (L*, a*, b*), proximate chemical composition (moisture, protein, ash and lipids contents) and hydroxyproline in order to determine the collagen content. The results revealed the occurrence for NG group was 16.97%, 51.67% for MG group and 31.36% for SG group. Although the total protein content did not differ significantly, the collagen index was 42% higher in favor to SG in relation to NG. Also the lipid fraction was 27% higher for SG group. The NG presented the lowest values of the parameters L* and a* (P ≤ 0.05), as there was no white striations on its surface and highest b* value in SG, because of the maximum lipid contents. These results indicate there was a contribution of the SG muscle cells to oversynthesize connective tissue components on the muscle fascia. In conclusion, this study revealed a high incidence of White Striping on broiler commercial line in Brazil thus, there is a need to identify the causes of this abnormality in order to diminish or to eliminate it.

Keywords: collagen content, commercial line, pectoralis major muscle, proximate composition

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12 Revealing Single Crystal Quality by Insight Diffraction Imaging Technique

Authors: Thu Nhi Tran Caliste


X-ray Bragg diffraction imaging (“topography”)entered into practical use when Lang designed an “easy” technical setup to characterise the defects / distortions in the high perfection crystals produced for the microelectronics industry. The use of this technique extended to all kind of high quality crystals, and deposited layers, and a series of publications explained, starting from the dynamical theory of diffraction, the contrast of the images of the defects. A quantitative version of “monochromatic topography” known as“Rocking Curve Imaging” (RCI) was implemented, by using synchrotron light and taking advantage of the dramatic improvement of the 2D-detectors and computerised image processing. The rough data is constituted by a number (~300) of images recorded along the diffraction (“rocking”) curve. If the quality of the crystal is such that a one-to-onerelation between a pixel of the detector and a voxel within the crystal can be established (this approximation is very well fulfilled if the local mosaic spread of the voxel is < 1 mradian), a software we developped provides, from the each rocking curve recorded on each of the pixels of the detector, not only the “voxel” integrated intensity (the only data provided by the previous techniques) but also its “mosaic spread” (FWHM) and peak position. We will show, based on many examples, that this new data, never recorded before, open the field to a highly enhanced characterization of the crystal and deposited layers. These examples include the characterization of dislocations and twins occurring during silicon growth, various growth features in Al203, GaNand CdTe (where the diffraction displays the Borrmannanomalous absorption, which leads to a new type of images), and the characterisation of the defects within deposited layers, or their effect on the substrate. We could also observe (due to the very high sensitivity of the setup installed on BM05, which allows revealing these faint effects) that, when dealing with very perfect crystals, the Kato’s interference fringes predicted by dynamical theory are also associated with very small modifications of the local FWHM and peak position (of the order of the µradian). This rather unexpected (at least for us) result appears to be in keeping with preliminary dynamical theory calculations.

Keywords: rocking curve imaging, X-ray diffraction, defect, distortion

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11 Field Environment Sensing and Modeling for Pears towards Precision Agriculture

Authors: Tatsuya Yamazaki, Kazuya Miyakawa, Tomohiko Sugiyama, Toshitaka Iwatani


The introduction of sensor technologies into agriculture is a necessary step to realize Precision Agriculture. Although sensing methodologies themselves have been prevailing owing to miniaturization and reduction in costs of sensors, there are some difficulties to analyze and understand the sensing data. Targeting at pears ’Le Lectier’, which is particular to Niigata in Japan, cultivation environmental data have been collected at pear fields by eight sorts of sensors: field temperature, field humidity, rain gauge, soil water potential, soil temperature, soil moisture, inner-bag temperature, and inner-bag humidity sensors. With regard to the inner-bag temperature and humidity sensors, they are used to measure the environment inside the fruit bag used for pre-harvest bagging of pears. In this experiment, three kinds of fruit bags were used for the pre-harvest bagging. After over 100 days continuous measurement, volumes of sensing data have been collected. Firstly, correlation analysis among sensing data measured by respective sensors reveals that one sensor can replace another sensor so that more efficient and cost-saving sensing systems can be proposed to pear farmers. Secondly, differences in characteristic and performance of the three kinds of fruit bags are clarified by the measurement results by the inner-bag environmental sensing. It is found that characteristic and performance of the inner-bags significantly differ from each other by statistical analysis. Lastly, a relational model between the sensing data and the pear outlook quality is established by use of Structural Equation Model (SEM). Here, the pear outlook quality is related with existence of stain, blob, scratch, and so on caused by physiological impair or diseases. Conceptually SEM is a combination of exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression. By using SEM, a model is constructed to connect independent and dependent variables. The proposed SEM model relates the measured sensing data and the pear outlook quality determined on the basis of farmer judgement. In particularly, it is found that the inner-bag humidity variable relatively affects the pear outlook quality. Therefore, inner-bag humidity sensing might help the farmers to control the pear outlook quality. These results are supported by a large quantity of inner-bag humidity data measured over the years 2014, 2015, and 2016. The experimental and analytical results in this research contribute to spreading Precision Agriculture technologies among the farmers growing ’Le Lectier’.

Keywords: precision agriculture, pre-harvest bagging, sensor fusion, structural equation model

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10 The Efficacy of Albendazole against Soil-Transmitted Helminths and the Impact of Mass Drug Administration of Albendazole and Ivermectin on Health Status

Authors: Mike Yaw Osei-Atweneboana, John Asiedu Larbi, Edward Jenner Tettevi


Background: The lymphatic filariasis (LF) control programme has been on-going in Ghana since 2000. This community-wide approach involves the use of ivermectin (IVM) and albendazole (ALB). Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections control is augmented within this programme; however, in areas where LF is not prevalent, albendazole alone is administered to school children. The purpose of this study was therefore, to determine the efficacy of albendazole against soils transmitted helminths and the impact of mass drug administration of albendazole and ivermectin on the health status of children of school going age and pregnant women. Material/Methods: This was a twelve months longitudinal study. A total of 412 subjects including school children (between the ages of 2-17 years) and pregnant women were randomly selected from four endemic communities in Kpandai district of the Northern region. Coprological assessment for parasites was based on the Kato–Katz technique in both dry and rainy seasons at baseline, 21 days and 3 months post-treatment. Single-dose albendazole treatment was administered to all patients at baseline. Preserved samples are currently under molecular studies to identify possible single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the beta tubulin gene which is associated with benzimidazole resistance. Results: Of all the parasites found (hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, and Taenia sp.); hookworm was the most prevalent. In the dry season, the overall STHs prevalence at pre-treatment was 29%, while 9% and 13% prevalence was recorded at 21 days, and three months after treatment respectively. However, in the rainy season, the overall STHs prevalence was 8%, while 4% and 12% was recorded at 21 days and three months respectively after ALB treatment. In general, ALB treatment resulted in an overall hookworm egg count reduction rate of 89% in the dry season and 93% in the rainy season, while the T. trichiura egg count reduction rate was 100% in both seasons. Conclusions: STH infections still remains a significant public health burden in Ghana. Hookworm infection seems to respond poorly or sub-optimally to ALB, raising concerns of possible emergence of resistance which may lead to a major setback for the control and elimination of STH infections, especially hookworm infections.

Keywords: hookworm, sub-optimal response, albendazole, trichuriasis, soil-transmitted helminths

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9 Prevalence and Intensity of Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections among the School Children in the State of Uttar Pradesh, India

Authors: Prasanta Saini, Junaid Jibran Jawed, Subrata Majumdar


Infections caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are the major problem in all the nations of the world. The major focus of STH research is to study the prevalence of three major helminths, such as Ascaris, Trituris and hookworm. Here we are reporting the prevalence and intensity of the STH in the school children of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence and risk factors of STH infection among the school children, aged between 5-10 years in 27 districts randomly selected districts with covering nine agro-climatic zones of Uttar Pradesh, India. For this cross-sectional survey, we have selected the populations of government primary school going children in Uttar Pradesh. The sampling was performed in the nine different agro-climatic zones. Every individual of the study populations filled their daily information in the questioner's form and then the sample was collected and processed by kato-katz methods by following the guidelines of WHO. In this method, the sampling was performed in total of 6421 populations. A total of 6,421 children from 130 schools were surveyed. Infection with any soil-transmitted helminths was detected among 4,578 children with an overall prevalence of 75.6% (95% CI: 65.3-83.6). Among the 6421 population, the prevalence of Ascaris is 69.6% (95% CL 57.97-79.11), hookworm is 22.7% (95%CL 19.3-26.3) and Trichuris sp is 4.6% (95% CL 0.8-21.6), so the predicted prevalence map indicates that the STH infection was hyperendemic in this state. The findings of our survey in 130 schools covering 9 agro-climatic with one or more soil transmitted helminths. Majority of STH infections were of light intensity. STH infection was hyper-endemic in entire state, except three zones in western Uttar Pradesh. High prevalence ( > 75%) in all age groups also indicate little impact of existing deworming initiatives, including those among pre-school aged children. WHO recommends annual treatment in areas where STH prevalence is between 20% and 50%, and, a bi-annual treatment in areas with prevalence rates of over 50%. In view of high prevalence of STH infection in Uttar Pradesh, it is strongly recommended to initiate a deworming programme for school children in the state. Although our survey was among primary school children, high prevalence among children aged 4-6 years also indicates the need to strengthen the existing deworming programs for pre-school children. Extending the benefits of deworming to pre-school children through deworming in Anganwadi schools would further reduce to decrease the load of infection in community. As a long-term solution for control STH infection, it is also necessary to improve the sanitation levels in the area, as majority of the houses did not have latrines and most of the children were defecating in open fields, a factor that was found to be significantly associated with STH infection.

Keywords: prevalence, school going children, soil transmitted helminthes, Uttar Pradesh-India

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8 Nondestructive Inspection of Reagents under High Attenuated Cardboard Box Using Injection-Seeded THz-Wave Parametric Generator

Authors: Shin Yoneda, Mikiya Kato, Kosuke Murate, Kodo Kawase


In recent years, there have been numerous attempts to smuggle narcotic drugs and chemicals by concealing them in international mail. Combatting this requires a non-destructive technique that can identify such illicit substances in mail. Terahertz (THz) waves can pass through a wide variety of materials, and many chemicals show specific frequency-dependent absorption, known as a spectral fingerprint, in the THz range. Therefore, it is reasonable to investigate non-destructive mail inspection techniques that use THz waves. For this reason, in this work, we tried to identify reagents under high attenuation shielding materials using injection-seeded THz-wave parametric generator (is-TPG). Our THz spectroscopic imaging system using is-TPG consisted of two non-linear crystals for emission and detection of THz waves. A micro-chip Nd:YAG laser and a continuous wave tunable external cavity diode laser were used as the pump and seed source, respectively. The pump beam and seed beam were injected to the LiNbO₃ crystal satisfying the noncollinear phase matching condition in order to generate high power THz-wave. The emitted THz wave was irradiated to the sample which was raster scanned by the x-z stage while changing the frequencies, and we obtained multispectral images. Then the transmitted THz wave was focused onto another crystal for detection and up-converted to the near infrared detection beam based on nonlinear optical parametric effects, wherein the detection beam intensity was measured using an infrared pyroelectric detector. It was difficult to identify reagents in a cardboard box because of high noise levels. In this work, we introduce improvements for noise reduction and image clarification, and the intensity of the near infrared detection beam was converted correctly to the intensity of the THz wave. A Gaussian spatial filter is also introduced for a clearer THz image. Through these improvements, we succeeded in identification of reagents hidden in a 42-mm thick cardboard box filled with several obstacles, which attenuate 56 dB at 1.3 THz, by improving analysis methods. Using this system, THz spectroscopic imaging was possible for saccharides and may also be applied to cases where illicit drugs are hidden in the box, and multiple reagents are mixed together. Moreover, THz spectroscopic imaging can be achieved through even thicker obstacles by introducing an NIR detector with higher sensitivity.

Keywords: nondestructive inspection, principal component analysis, terahertz parametric source, THz spectroscopic imaging

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