Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: SLIM

39 Uniqueness and Repeatability Analysis for Slim Tube Determined Minimum Miscibility Pressure

Authors: Waqar Ahmad Butt, Gholamreza Vakili Nezhaad, Ali Soud Al Bemani, Yahya Al Wahaibi

Abstract:

Miscible gas injection processes as secondary recovery methods can be applied to a huge number of mature reservoirs to improve the trapped oil displacement. Successful miscible gas injection processes require an accurate estimation of the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) to make injection process feasible, economical, and effective. There are several methods of MMP determination like slim tube approach, vanishing interfacial tension and rising bubble apparatus but slim tube is the deployed experimental technique in this study. Slim tube method is assumed to be non-standardized for MMP determination with respect to both operating procedure and design. Therefore, 25 slim tube runs were being conducted with three different coil lengths (12, 18 and 24 m) of constant diameter using three different injection rates (0.08, 0.1 and 0.15 cc/min) to evaluate uniqueness and repeatability of determined MMP. A trend of decrease in MMP with increase in coil length was found. No unique trend was found between MMP and injection rate. Lowest MMP and highest recovery were observed with highest coil length and lowest injection rate. It shows that slim tube measured MMP does not depend solely on interacting fluids characteristics but also affected by used coil selection and injection rate choice. Therefore, both slim tube design and procedure need to be standardized. It is recommended to use lowest possible injection rate and estimated coil length depending upon the distance between injections and producing wells for accurate and reliable MMP determination.

Keywords: coil length, injection rate, minimum miscibility pressure, multiple contacts miscibility

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38 Comparative Evaluation of Vanishing Interfacial Tension Approach for Minimum Miscibility Pressure Determination

Authors: Waqar Ahmad Butt, Gholamreza Vakili Nezhaad, Ali Soud Al Bemani, Yahya Al Wahaibi

Abstract:

Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) plays a great role in determining the displacement efficiency of different gas injection processes. Experimental techniques for MMP determination include industrially recommended slim tube, vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) and rising bubble apparatus (RBA). In this paper, MMP measurement study using slim tube and VIT experimental techniques for two different crude oil samples (M and N) both in live and stock tank oil forms is being presented. VIT measured MMP values for both 'M' and 'N' live crude oils were close to slim tube determined MMP values with 6.4 and 5 % deviation respectively. Whereas for both oil samples in stock tank oil form, VIT measured MMP showed a higher unacceptable deviation from slim tube determined MMP. This higher difference appears to be related to high stabilized crude oil heavier fraction and lack of multiple contacts miscibility. None of the different nine deployed crude oil and CO2 MMP computing correlations could result in reliable MMP, close to slim tube determined MMP. Since VIT determined MMP values for both considered live crude oils are in close match with slim tube determined MMP values, it confirms reliable, reproducible, rapid and cheap alternative for live crude oil MMP determination. Whereas VIT MMP determination for stock tank oil case needed further investigation about stabilization / destabilization mechanism of oil heavier ends and multiple contacts miscibility development issues.

Keywords: minimum miscibility pressure, interfacial tension, multiple contacts miscibility, heavier ends

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37 A Study on the Effect of Design Factors of Slim Keyboard’s Tactile Feedback

Authors: Kai-Chieh Lin, Chih-Fu Wu, Hsiang Ling Hsu, Yung-Hsiang Tu, Chia-Chen Wu

Abstract:

With the rapid development of computer technology, the design of computers and keyboards moves towards a trend of slimness. The change of mobile input devices directly influences users’ behavior. Although multi-touch applications allow entering texts through a virtual keyboard, the performance, feedback, and comfortableness of the technology is inferior to traditional keyboard, and while manufacturers launch mobile touch keyboards and projection keyboards, the performance has not been satisfying. Therefore, this study discussed the design factors of slim pressure-sensitive keyboards. The factors were evaluated with an objective (accuracy and speed) and a subjective evaluation (operability, recognition, feedback, and difficulty) depending on the shape (circle, rectangle, and L-shaped), thickness (flat, 3mm, and 6mm), and force (35±10g, 60±10g, and 85±10g) of the keyboard. Moreover, MANOVA and Taguchi methods (regarding signal-to-noise ratios) were conducted to find the optimal level of each design factor. The research participants, by their typing speed (30 words/ minute), were divided in two groups. Considering the multitude of variables and levels, the experiments were implemented using the fractional factorial design. A representative model of the research samples were established for input task testing. The findings of this study showed that participants with low typing speed primarily relied on vision to recognize the keys, and those with high typing speed relied on tactile feedback that was affected by the thickness and force of the keys. In the objective and subjective evaluation, a combination of keyboard design factors that might result in higher performance and satisfaction was identified (L-shaped, 3mm, and 60±10g) as the optimal combination. The learning curve was analyzed to make a comparison with a traditional standard keyboard to investigate the influence of user experience on keyboard operation. The research results indicated the optimal combination provided input performance to inferior to a standard keyboard. The results could serve as a reference for the development of related products in industry and for applying comprehensively to touch devices and input interfaces which are interacted with people.

Keywords: input performance, mobile device, slim keyboard, tactile feedback

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36 Hybrid Approach for Country’s Performance Evaluation

Authors: C. Slim

Abstract:

This paper presents an integrated model, which hybridized data envelopment analysis (DEA) and support vector machine (SVM) together, to class countries according to their efficiency and performance. This model takes into account aspects of multi-dimensional indicators, decision-making hierarchy and relativity of measurement. Starting from a set of indicators of performance as exhaustive as possible, a process of successive aggregations has been developed to attain an overall evaluation of a country’s competitiveness.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Support vector machine (SVM), Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), Aggregations, indicators of performance

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35 Study on the Self-Location Estimate by the Evolutional Triangle Similarity Matching Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

Authors: Yuji Kageyama, Shin Nagata, Tatsuya Takino, Izuru Nomura, Hiroyuki Kamata

Abstract:

In previous study, technique to estimate a self-location by using a lunar image is proposed. We consider the improvement of the conventional method in consideration of FPGA implementation in this paper. Specifically, we introduce Artificial Bee Colony algorithm for reduction of search time. In addition, we use fixed point arithmetic to enable high-speed operation on FPGA.

Keywords: SLIM, Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm, location estimate, evolutional triangle similarity

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34 Crater Detection Using PCA from Captured CMOS Camera Data

Authors: Tatsuya Takino, Izuru Nomura, Yuji Kageyama, Shin Nagata, Hiroyuki Kamata

Abstract:

We propose a method of detecting the craters from the image of the lunar surface. This proposal assumes that it is applied to SLIM (Smart Lander for Investigating Moon) working group aiming at the pinpoint landing on the lunar surface and investigating scientific research. It is difficult to equip and use high-performance computers for the small space probe. So, it is necessary to use a small computer with an exclusive hardware such as FPGA. We have studied the crater detection using principal component analysis (PCA), In this paper, We implement detection algorithm into the FPGA, and the detection is performed on the data that was captured from the CMOS camera.

Keywords: crater detection, PCA, FPGA, image processing

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33 Nonstationarity Modeling of Economic and Financial Time Series

Authors: C. Slim

Abstract:

Traditional techniques for analyzing time series are based on the notion of stationarity of phenomena under study, but in reality most economic and financial series do not verify this hypothesis, which implies the implementation of specific tools for the detection of such behavior. In this paper, we study nonstationary non-seasonal time series tests in a non-exhaustive manner. We formalize the problem of nonstationary processes with numerical simulations and take stock of their statistical characteristics. The theoretical aspects of some of the most common unit root tests will be discussed. We detail the specification of the tests, showing the advantages and disadvantages of each. The empirical study focuses on the application of these tests to the exchange rate (USD/TND) and the Consumer Price Index (CPI) in Tunisia, in order to compare the Power of these tests with the characteristics of the series.

Keywords: stationarity, unit root tests, economic time series, ADF tests

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32 3D Model Completion Based on Similarity Search with Slim-Tree

Authors: Alexis Aldo Mendoza Villarroel, Ademir Clemente Villena Zevallos, Cristian Jose Lopez Del Alamo

Abstract:

With the advancement of technology it is now possible to scan entire objects and obtain their digital representation by using point clouds or polygon meshes. However, some objects may be broken or have missing parts; thus, several methods focused on this problem have been proposed based on Geometric Deep Learning, such as GCNN, ACNN, PointNet, among others. In this article an approach from a different paradigm is proposed, using metric data structures to index global descriptors in the spectral domain and allow the recovery of a set of similar models in polynomial time; to later use the Iterative Close Point algorithm and recover the parts of the incomplete model using the geometry and topology of the model with less Hausdorff distance.

Keywords: 3D reconstruction method, point cloud completion, shape completion, similarity search

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
31 Investigation on Mechanical Properties of a Composite Material of Olive Flour Wood with a Polymer Matrix

Authors: Slim Souissi, Mohamed Ben Amar, Nesrine Bouhamed, Pierre Marechal

Abstract:

The bio-composites development from biodegradable materials and natural fibers has a growing interest in the science of composite materials. The present work was conducted as part of a cooperation project between the Sfax University and the Havre University. This work consists in developing and monitoring the properties of a composite material of olive flour wood with a polymer matrix (urea formaldehyde). For this, ultrasonic non-destructive and destructive methods of characterization were used to optimize the mechanical and acoustic properties of the studied material based on the elaboration parameters.

Keywords: bio-composite, olive flour wood, polymer matrix, ultrasonic methods, mechanical properties

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30 Energy Efficient Alternate Hydraulic System Called TejHydroLift

Authors: Tejinder Singh

Abstract:

This paper describes a new more efficient Hydraulic System which uses lesser work to produce more output. Conventional Hydraulic System like Hydraulic Lifts and Rams use lots of water to be pumped to produce output. TejHydroLift will do the equal amount of force with lesser input of water. The paper will show that force applied can be increased manifold without requiring to move smaller force by more distance which used to be required in Conventional Hydraulic Lifts. The paper describes one of the configurations of TejHydroLift System called “Slim Antenna TejHydroLift Configuration”. The TejHydroLift uses lesser water and hence demands lesser work to be performed to move the same load.

Keywords: alternate, hydraulic system, efficient, TejHydroLift

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29 Trabecular Bone Radiograph Characterization Using Fractal, Multifractal Analysis and SVM Classifier

Authors: I. Slim, H. Akkari, A. Ben Abdallah, I. Bhouri, M. Hedi Bedoui

Abstract:

Osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of micro-architectural bone tissue, which provokes an increased risk of fracture. This work treats the texture characterization of trabecular bone radiographs. The aim was to analyze according to clinical research a group of 174 subjects: 87 osteoporotic patients (OP) with various bone fracture types and 87 control cases (CC). To characterize osteoporosis, Fractal and MultiFractal (MF) methods were applied to images for features (attributes) extraction. In order to improve the results, a new method of MF spectrum based on the q-stucture function calculation was proposed and a combination of Fractal and MF attributes was used. The Support Vector Machines (SVM) was applied as a classifier to distinguish between OP patients and CC subjects. The features fusion (fractal and MF) allowed a good discrimination between the two groups with an accuracy rate of 96.22%.

Keywords: fractal, micro-architecture analysis, multifractal, osteoporosis, SVM

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28 New Approach for Load Modeling

Authors: Slim Chokri

Abstract:

Load forecasting is one of the central functions in power systems operations. Electricity cannot be stored, which means that for electric utility, the estimate of the future demand is necessary in managing the production and purchasing in an economically reasonable way. A majority of the recently reported approaches are based on neural network. The attraction of the methods lies in the assumption that neural networks are able to learn properties of the load. However, the development of the methods is not finished, and the lack of comparative results on different model variations is a problem. This paper presents a new approach in order to predict the Tunisia daily peak load. The proposed method employs a computational intelligence scheme based on the Fuzzy neural network (FNN) and support vector regression (SVR). Experimental results obtained indicate that our proposed FNN-SVR technique gives significantly good prediction accuracy compared to some classical techniques.

Keywords: neural network, load forecasting, fuzzy inference, machine learning, fuzzy modeling and rule extraction, support vector regression

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27 An Industrial Scada System Remote Control Using Mobile Phones

Authors: Ahmidah Elgali, Ahmad Saad

Abstract:

SCADA is the abbreviation for "Administrative Control And Data Acquisition." SCADA frameworks are generally utilized in industry for administrative control and information securing of modern cycles. Regular SCADA frameworks use PC, journal, slim client, and PDA as a client. In this paper, a Java-empowered cell phone has been utilized as a client in an example SCADA application to show and regulate the place of an example model crane. The paper presents a genuine execution of the online control of the model crane through a cell phone. The remote correspondence between the cell phone and the SCADA server is performed through a base station by means of general parcel radio assistance GPRS and remote application convention WAP. This application can be used in industrial sites in areas that are likely to be exposed to a security emergency (like terrorist attacks) which causes the sudden exit of the operators; however, no time to perform the shutdown procedures for the plant. Hence this application allows shutting down units and equipment remotely by mobile and so avoids damage and losses.

Keywords: control, industrial, mobile, network, remote, SCADA

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26 Evolution of Pop Art Pattern on Modern Ao Dai

Authors: Mai Anh Pham Ho

Abstract:

Ao Dai is the traditional dress of Vietnamese women that consists of a long tunic with slits on either side and wide trousers. This is the Vietnamese national costume which most common worn by women in daily life. The Vietnamese men may wear Ao Dai on special occasions like New Year Eve or Wedding Ceremony. Ao Dai is one of the few Vietnamese words that appear in English language dictionaries. Nowadays, there are variations in modern Ao Dai that consist of a short tunic on knee and slim trousers with the other materials like kaki or jeans. This paper aims to apply Pop art pattern on modern Ao Dai through the image of Vietnamese women by modifying the creation process of fashion design. It reflects on how modern culture is involved in Ao Dai and how it affects on fashion design. The research method of this paper is done through surveying the various examples of technological applications to fashion design, then the pop art pattern with the image of Vietnamese women is applied on modern Ao Dai. The results of this paper have shown through the collection of modern Ao Dai with three artworks applied the pop art pattern. In conclusion, the role of fashion technology supports and evolves the traditional value in order to establish the Vietnamese national personality as well as distinguish to other cultural values in the world.

Keywords: pop art pattern, Vietnamese national costume, modern ao dai, fashion design

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25 Conceptional Design of a Hyperloop Capsule with Linear Induction Propulsion System

Authors: Ahmed E. Hodaib, Samar F. Abdel Fattah

Abstract:

High-speed transportation is a growing concern. To develop high-speed rails and to increase high-speed efficiencies, the idea of Hyperloop was introduced. The challenge is to overcome the difficulties of managing friction and air-resistance which become substantial when vehicles approach high speeds. In this paper, we are presenting the methodologies of the capsule design which got a design concept innovation award at SpaceX competition in January, 2016. MATLAB scripts are written for the levitation and propulsion calculations and iterations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate the air flow around the capsule considering the effect of the axial-flow air compressor and the levitation cushion on the air flow. The design procedures of a single-sided linear induction motor are analyzed in detail and its geometric and magnetic parameters are determined. A structural design is introduced and Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to analyze the stresses in different parts. The configuration and the arrangement of the components are illustrated. Moreover, comments on manufacturing are made.

Keywords: high-speed transportation, hyperloop, railways transportation, single-sided linear induction Motor (SLIM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
24 Handwriting Velocity Modeling by Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Mohamed Aymen Slim, Afef Abdelkrim, Mohamed Benrejeb

Abstract:

The handwriting is a physical demonstration of a complex cognitive process learnt by man since his childhood. People with disabilities or suffering from various neurological diseases are facing so many difficulties resulting from problems located at the muscle stimuli (EMG) or signals from the brain (EEG) and which arise at the stage of writing. The handwriting velocity of the same writer or different writers varies according to different criteria: age, attitude, mood, writing surface, etc. Therefore, it is interesting to reconstruct an experimental basis records taking, as primary reference, the writing speed for different writers which would allow studying the global system during handwriting process. This paper deals with a new approach of the handwriting system modeling based on the velocity criterion through the concepts of artificial neural networks, precisely the Radial Basis Functions (RBF) neural networks. The obtained simulation results show a satisfactory agreement between responses of the developed neural model and the experimental data for various letters and forms then the efficiency of the proposed approaches.

Keywords: Electro Myo Graphic (EMG) signals, experimental approach, handwriting process, Radial Basis Functions (RBF) neural networks, velocity modeling

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23 Current Developments in Flat-Plate Vacuum Solar Thermal Collectors

Authors: Farid Arya, Trevor Hyde, Paul Henshall, Phillip Eames, Roger Moss, Stan Shire

Abstract:

Vacuum flat plate solar thermal collectors offer several advantages over other collectors namely the excellent optical and thermal characteristics they exhibit due to a combination of their wide surface area and high vacuum thermal insulation. These characteristics can offer a variety of applications for industrial process heat as well as for building integration as they are much thinner than conventional collectors making installation possible in limited spaces. However, many technical challenges which need to be addressed to enable wide scale adoption of the technology still remain. This paper will discuss the challenges, expectations and requirements for the flat-plate vacuum solar collector development. In addition, it will provide an overview of work undertaken in Ulster University, Loughborough University, and the University of Warwick on flat-plate vacuum solar thermal collectors. Finally, this paper will present a detailed experimental investigation on the development of a vacuum panel with a novel sealing method which will be used to accommodate a novel slim hydroformed solar absorber.

Keywords: hot box calorimeter, infrared thermography, solar thermal collector, vacuum insulation

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22 Perception of Reproductive Age Group Females of a Central University in India about Body Image

Authors: Rajani Vishal, C. P. Mishra

Abstract:

Background: Self-perception of an individual about own body has a strong influence on their food preference and thereby on their nutritional status. Body image is gaining importance in social theory. Globally, women in particular seem to be favour of one ideal body type (Viz A slim, tall and perfectly proportionate body). Beauty and body image ideals among research scholars can play a significant influence on their own actions. Objectives: 1) To assess perception of study subjects about body image; 2)To analyze the relationship between body image and residential status of study subjects. Material and Method: 176 female research scholars of Banaras Hindu University were selected through multistage sampling. They were interviewed with pre designed and pre-tested proforma about area of residence and perception about body image. Result: As much as 86.4% subjects were happy with the way they looked whereas 83.0% subjects considered themselves as attractive. In case of 13.6%, 27.3%, 31.8%, 14.2% and 13.1% subjects, best-described body shapes were thin, normal, curvy, athletic and overweight, respectively. Area of residence was significantly (p< o.o5) associated with perception of attractiveness and description of body shape. Conclusion: In spite of varied description of body image, majority of subjects had positive perception about their body image.

Keywords: attractiveness, body image, body shape, nutritional status

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21 Optimal Evaluation of Weather Risk Insurance for Wheat

Authors: Slim Amami

Abstract:

A model is developed to prevent the risks related to climate conditions in the agricultural sector. It will determine the yearly optimum premium to be paid by a farmer in order to reach his required turnover. The model is mainly based on both climatic stability and 'soft' responses of usually grown species to average climate variations at the same place and inside a safety ball which can be determined from past meteorological data. This allows the use of linear regression expression for dependence of production result in terms of driving meteorological parameters, main ones of which are daily average sunlight, rainfall and temperature. By a simple best parameter fit from the expert table drawn with professionals, optimal representation of yearly production is deduced from records of previous years, and yearly payback is evaluated from minimum yearly produced turnover. Optimal premium is then deduced, and gives the producer a useful bound for negotiating an offer by insurance companies to effectively protect their harvest. The application to wheat production in the French Oise department illustrates the reliability of the present model with as low as 6% difference between predicted and real data. The model can be adapted to almost every agricultural field by changing state parameters and calibrating their associated coefficients.

Keywords: agriculture, database, meteorological factors, production model, optimal price

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
20 Competition between Regression Technique and Statistical Learning Models for Predicting Credit Risk Management

Authors: Chokri Slim

Abstract:

The objective of this research is attempting to respond to this question: Is there a significant difference between the regression model and statistical learning models in predicting credit risk management? A Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) model was compared with neural networks including Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), and a Support vector regression (SVR). The population of this study includes 50 listed Banks in Tunis Stock Exchange (TSE) market from 2000 to 2016. Firstly, we show the factors that have significant effect on the quality of loan portfolios of banks in Tunisia. Secondly, it attempts to establish that the systematic use of objective techniques and methods designed to apprehend and assess risk when considering applications for granting credit, has a positive effect on the quality of loan portfolios of banks and their future collectability. Finally, we will try to show that the bank governance has an impact on the choice of methods and techniques for analyzing and measuring the risks inherent in the banking business, including the risk of non-repayment. The results of empirical tests confirm our claims.

Keywords: credit risk management, multiple linear regression, principal components analysis, artificial neural networks, support vector machines

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19 Proposition of an Intelligent System Based on the Augmented Reality for Warehouse Logistics

Authors: Safa Gharbi, Hayfa Zgaya, Nesrine Zoghlami, Slim Hammadi, Cyril De Barbarin, Laurent Vinatier, Christiane Coupier

Abstract:

Increasing productivity and quality of service, improving the working comfort and ensuring the efficiency of all processes are important challenges for every warehouse. The order picking is recognized to be the most important and costly activity of all the process in warehouses. This paper presents a new approach using Augmented Reality (AR) in the field of logistics. It aims to create a Head-Up Display (HUD) interface with a Warehouse Management System (WMS), using AR glasses. Integrating AR technology allows the optimization of order picking by reducing time of picking process, increasing the efficiency and delivering quickly. The picker will be able to access immediately to all the information needed for his tasks. All the information is displayed when needed in the field of vision (FOV) of the operator, without any action requested from him. These research works are part of the industrial project RASL (Réalité Augmentée au Service de la Logistique) which gathers two major partners: the LAGIS (Laboratory of Automatics, Computer Engineering and Signal Processing in Lille-France) and Genrix Group, European leader in warehouses logistics, who provided his software for implementation, and his logistics expertise.

Keywords: Augmented Reality (AR), logistics and optimization, Warehouse Management System (WMS), Head-Up Display (HUD)

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18 Experiment Study on the Influence of Tool Materials on the Drilling of Thick Stacked Plate of 2219 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: G. H. Li, M. Liu, H. J. Qi, Q. Zhu, W. Z. He

Abstract:

The drilling and riveting processes are widely used in the assembly of carrier rocket, which makes the efficiency and quality of drilling become the important factor affecting the assembly process. According to the problem existing in the drilling of thick stacked plate (thickness larger than 10mm) of carrier rocket, such as drill break, large noise and burr etc., experimental study of the influence of tool material on the drilling was carried out. The cutting force was measured by a piezoelectric dynamometer, the aperture was measured with an outline projector, and the burr is observed and measured by a digital stereo microscope. Through the measurement, the effects of tool material on the drilling were analyzed from the aspects of drilling force, diameter, and burr. The results show that, compared with carbide drill and coated carbide one, the drilling force of high speed steel is larger. But, the application of high speed steel also has some advantages, e.g. a higher number of hole can be obtained, the height of burr is small, the exit is smooth and the slim burr is less, and the tool experiences wear but not fracture. Therefore, the high speed steel tool is suitable for the drilling of thick stacked plate of 2219 Aluminum alloy.

Keywords: 2219 aluminum alloy, thick stacked plate, drilling, tool material

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17 Successful Optimization of a Shallow Marginal Offshore Field and Its Applications

Authors: Kumar Satyam Das, Murali Raghunathan

Abstract:

This note discusses the feasibility of field development of a challenging shallow offshore field in South East Asia and how its learnings can be applied to marginal field development across the world especially developing marginal fields in this low oil price world. The field was found to be economically challenging even during high oil prices and the project was put on hold. Shell started development study with the aim to significantly reduce cost through competitively scoping and revive stranded projects. The proposed strategy to achieve this involved Improve Per platform recovery and Reduction in CAPEX. Methodology: Based on various Benchmarking Tool such as Woodmac for similar projects in the region and economic affordability, a challenging target of 50% reduction in unit development cost (UDC) was set for the project. Technical scope was defined to the minimum as to be a wellhead platform with minimum functionality to ensure production. The evaluation of key project decisions like Well location and number, well design, Artificial lift methods and wellhead platform type under different development concept was carried out through integrated multi-discipline approach. Key elements influencing per platform recovery were Wellhead Platform (WHP) location, Well count, well reach and well productivity. Major Findings: Reservoir being shallow posed challenges in well design (dog-leg severity, casing size and the achievable step-out), choice of artificial lift and sand-control method. Integrated approach amongst relevant disciplines with challenging mind-set enabled to achieve optimized set of development decisions. This led to significant improvement in per platform recovery. It was concluded that platform recovery largely depended on the reach of the well. Choice of slim well design enabled designing of high inclination and better productivity wells. However, there is trade-off between high inclination Gas Lift (GL) wells and low inclination wells in terms of long term value, operational complexity, well reach, recovery and uptime. Well design element like casing size, well completion, artificial lift and sand control were added successively over the minimum technical scope design leading to a value and risk staircase. Logical combinations of options (slim well, GL) were competitively screened to achieve 25% reduction in well cost. Facility cost reduction was achieved through sourcing standardized Low Cost Facilities platform in combination with portfolio execution to maximizing execution efficiency; this approach is expected to reduce facilities cost by ~23% with respect to the development costs. Further cost reductions were achieved by maximizing use of existing facilities nearby; changing reliance on existing water injection wells and utilizing existing water injector (W.I.) platform for new injectors. Conclusion: The study provides a spectrum of technically feasible options. It also made clear that different drivers lead to different development concepts and the cost value trade off staircase made this very visible. Scoping of the project through competitive way has proven to be valuable for decision makers by creating a transparent view of value and associated risks/uncertainty/trade-offs for difficult choices: elements of the projects can be competitive, whilst other parts will struggle, even though contributing to significant volumes. Reduction in UDC through proper scoping of present projects and its benchmarking paves as a learning for the development of marginal fields across the world, especially in this low oil price scenario. This way of developing a field has on average a reduction of 40% of cost for the Shell projects.

Keywords: benchmarking, full field development, CAPEX, feasibility

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16 A Review on 3D Smart City Platforms Using Remotely Sensed Data to Aid Simulation and Urban Analysis

Authors: Slim Namouchi, Bruno Vallet, Imed Riadh Farah

Abstract:

3D urban models provide powerful tools for decision making, urban planning, and smart city services. The accuracy of this 3D based systems is directly related to the quality of these models. Since manual large-scale modeling, such as cities or countries is highly time intensive and very expensive process, a fully automatic 3D building generation is needed. However, 3D modeling process result depends on the input data, the proprieties of the captured objects, and the required characteristics of the reconstructed 3D model. Nowadays, producing 3D real-world model is no longer a problem. Remotely sensed data had experienced a remarkable increase in the recent years, especially data acquired using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). While the scanning techniques are developing, the captured data amount and the resolution are getting bigger and more precise. This paper presents a literature review, which aims to identify different methods of automatic 3D buildings extractions either from LiDAR or the combination of LiDAR and satellite or aerial images. Then, we present open source technologies, and data models (e.g., CityGML, PostGIS, Cesiumjs) used to integrate these models in geospatial base layers for smart city services.

Keywords: CityGML, LiDAR, remote sensing, SIG, Smart City, 3D urban modeling

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15 Failure Analysis of Low Relaxation Prestressed High Carbon Steel Wire During Drawing Operation: A Metallurgical Investigation

Authors: Souvik Das, Sandip Bhattacharya, Goutam Mukhopadhyay, Manashi Adhikary

Abstract:

Wires breakages during cold drawing are a complex phenomenon; wire breakages may be induced by improper wire-rod quality, inappropriate heat-treated microstructure, and/or lubrication breakdown on the wire surface. A comprehensive metallurgical investigation of failed/broken wire samples is therefore essential for understanding the origin of failure. Frequent breakage of wires during drawing is a matter of serious concern to the wire drawers as it erodes their already slim margins through reduced productivity and loss in yield. The present paper highlights the failure investigation of wires of Low Relaxation Prestressed High Carbon grade during cold drawing due to entrapment of hard constituents detached from the roller entry guide during rolling operations. The hardness measurement of this entrapped location indicates 54.9 Rockwell Hardness as against the rest portion 33.4 Rockwell Hardness. The microstructure chemical analysis and X-ray mapping analysis data of the entrapment location confirmed complex chromium carbide originated from D2-steel used in entry guide during the rolling process. Since the harder entrapped phase could not be deformed in the same manner as the parent phase, the failure of the wire rod occurs during hot rolling.

Keywords: LRPC, D2-steel, chromium carbide, roller guide

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14 Depositional Environment of the Babouchite Rocks of Numidian Formation, Northwestern Tunisia: Mineralogical Study and Geochemical Properties

Authors: Ben Yahia Nouha, Harris Chris, Boussen Slim, Chaabani Fredj

Abstract:

The present work has set itself the objective of studying non-detritic siliceous rocks in the extreme northwestern of Tunisia. It aims to discuss the origin and depositional environment of siliceous rocks based on petrographic, mineralogical, and geochemical results. The different sections were made in the area of Babouch and the area of Cap-Serrat. The collected samples were subjected to petrographic, mineralogical, and geochemical characterization using different analytical methods: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), geochemical analysis (ICP- AES), isotopic geochemistry (δ¹⁸O) to assess their suitability for industrial use. These babouchite shows that the mineralogy consists of quartz as the dominant mineral with the total lack of amorphous silica, while clay represents the minor phase. The petrographic examination revealed allowed to deduce that it is a rock of chemical origin deriving from tests of siliceous organisms (the radiolarians). Chemical analyzes show that SiO₂, Al₂O₃, and Fe₂O₃ represent the most abundant oxides. The other oxides are present in negligible quantity. Geochemical data support a biogenic and non-hydrothermal origin of babouchite silica. Oxygen isotopic has shown that babouchites are formed in an environment with a high temperature, ranging from 56°C to 73°C.

Keywords: siliceous rocks, babouchite formation, XRD, chemical analysis, isotopic geochemistry, Northwestern of Tunisia

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13 The Effect of AMBs Number of a Dynamics Behavior of a Spur Gear Reducer in Non-Stationary Regime

Authors: Najib Belhadj Messaoud, Slim Souissi

Abstract:

The non-linear dynamic behavior of a single stage spur gear reducer is studied in this paper in transient regime. Driving and driver rotors are, respectively, powered by a motor torque Cm and loaded by a resistive torque Cr. They are supported by two identical Active Magnetic Bearings (AMBs). Gear excitation is induced by the motor torque and load variation in addition to the fluctuation of meshing stiff-ness due to the variation of input rotational speed. Three models of AMBs were used with four, six and eight magnets. They are operated by P.D controller and powered by control and bias currents. The dynamic parameters of the AMBs are modeled by stiffness and damping matrices computed by the derivation of the electromagnetic forces. The equations of motion are solved iteratively using Newmark time integration method. In the first part of the study, the model is powered by an electric motor and by a four strokes four cylinders diesel engine in the second part. The numerical results of the dynamic responses of the system come to confirm the significant effect of the transient regime on the dynamic behavior of a gear set, particularly in the case of engine acyclism condition. Results also confirm the influence of the magnet number by AMBs on the dynamic behavior of the system. Indeed, vibrations were more important in the case of gear reducer supported by AMBs with four magnets.

Keywords: motor, stiffness, gear, acyclism, fluctuation, torque

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12 Pre-Operative Tool for Facial-Post-Surgical Estimation and Detection

Authors: Ayat E. Ali, Christeen R. Aziz, Merna A. Helmy, Mohammed M. Malek, Sherif H. El-Gohary

Abstract:

Goal: Purpose of the project was to make a plastic surgery prediction by using pre-operative images for the plastic surgeries’ patients and to show this prediction on a screen to compare between the current case and the appearance after the surgery. Methods: To this aim, we implemented a software which used data from the internet for facial skin diseases, skin burns, pre-and post-images for plastic surgeries then the post- surgical prediction is done by using K-nearest neighbor (KNN). So we designed and fabricated a smart mirror divided into two parts a screen and a reflective mirror so patient's pre- and post-appearance will be showed at the same time. Results: We worked on some skin diseases like vitiligo, skin burns and wrinkles. We classified the three degrees of burns using KNN classifier with accuracy 60%. We also succeeded in segmenting the area of vitiligo. Our future work will include working on more skin diseases, classify them and give a prediction for the look after the surgery. Also we will go deeper into facial deformities and plastic surgeries like nose reshaping and face slim down. Conclusion: Our project will give a prediction relates strongly to the real look after surgery and decrease different diagnoses among doctors. Significance: The mirror may have broad societal appeal as it will make the distance between patient's satisfaction and the medical standards smaller.

Keywords: k-nearest neighbor (knn), face detection, vitiligo, bone deformity

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11 Dynamic Modeling of the Exchange Rate in Tunisia: Theoretical and Empirical Study

Authors: Chokri Slim

Abstract:

The relative failure of simultaneous equation models in the seventies has led researchers to turn to other approaches that take into account the dynamics of economic and financial systems. In this paper, we use an approach based on vector autoregressive model that is widely used in recent years. Their popularity is due to their flexible nature and ease of use to produce models with useful descriptive characteristics. It is also easy to use them to test economic hypotheses. The standard econometric techniques assume that the series studied are stable over time (stationary hypothesis). Most economic series do not verify this hypothesis, which assumes, when one wishes to study the relationships that bind them to implement specific techniques. This is cointegration which characterizes non-stationary series (integrated) with a linear combination is stationary, will also be presented in this paper. Since the work of Johansen, this approach is generally presented as part of a multivariate analysis and to specify long-term stable relationships while at the same time analyzing the short-term dynamics of the variables considered. In the empirical part, we have applied these concepts to study the dynamics of of the exchange rate in Tunisia, which is one of the most important economic policy of a country open to the outside. According to the results of the empirical study by the cointegration method, there is a cointegration relationship between the exchange rate and its determinants. This relationship shows that the variables have a significant influence in determining the exchange rate in Tunisia.

Keywords: stationarity, cointegration, dynamic models, causality, VECM models

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10 Mineralogical and Geochemical Constraints on the Origin and Environment of Numidian Siliceous Sedimentary Rocks of the Extreme Northwest Tunisia

Authors: Ben Yahia Nouha, Harris Chris, Sebei Abdelaziz, Boussen Slim, Chaabani Fredj

Abstract:

The present work has set itself the objective of studying non-detritic siliceous rocks of the extreme northwest Tunisia. It aims to examine the origin and their sedimentary depositional environment based on mineralogical and geochemical characteristics. The different sections were located in the area of Babouch and the area of Tabarka. The collected samples were subjected to mineralogical and geochemical characterization using different analytical methods: X-ray diffraction (XRD), geochemical analysis (ICP- AES), isotopic geochemistry (δ18O), to assess their suitability for industrial use. X-ray powder diffraction of the pure siliceous rock indicates quartz as the major mineral, with the total lack of amorphous silica. Trace impurities, such as carbonate and clay minerals, are concealed in the analytical results. The petrographic examination revealed allowed us to deduce that this rock was deriving from tests of siliceous organisms (the radiolarians). The chemical composition shows that SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 represent the most abundant oxides. The other oxides are present in negligible quantities. Geochemical data support a biogenic and non-hydrothermal origin of babouchite silica. Oxygen isotopic has shown that babouchites were formed in an environment with a high temperature ranging from 56 °C to 73 °C.

Keywords: biogenic silica, babouchite formation, XRD, chemical analysis, oxygen isotopic, northwest tunisia

Procedia PDF Downloads 61