Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 222

Search results for: rubber

222 The Effect of Ingredients Mixing Sequence in Rubber Compounding on the Formation of Bound Rubber and Cross-Link Density of Natural Rubber

Authors: Abu Hasan, Rochmadi, Hary Sulistyo, Suharto Honggokusumo


This research purpose is to study the effect of Ingredients mixing sequence in rubber compounding onto the formation of bound rubber and cross link density of natural rubber and also the relationship of bound rubber and cross link density. Analysis of bound rubber formation of rubber compound and cross link density of rubber vulcanizates were carried out on a natural rubber formula having masticated and mixing, followed by curing. There were four methods of mixing and each mixing process was followed by four mixing sequence methods of carbon black into the rubber. In the first method of mixing sequence, rubber was masticated for 5 min and then rubber chemicals and carbon black N 330 were added simultaneously. In the second one, rubber was masticated for 1 min and followed by addition of rubber chemicals and carbon black N 330 simultaneously using the different method of mixing then the first one. In the third one, carbon black N 660 was used for the same mixing procedure of the second one, and in the last one, rubber was masticated for 3 min, carbon black N 330 and rubber chemicals were added subsequently. The addition of rubber chemicals and carbon black into masticated rubber was distinguished by the sequence and time allocated for each mixing process. Carbon black was added into two stages. In the first stage, 10 phr was added first and the remaining 40 phr was added later along with oil. In the second one to the fourth one, the addition of carbon black in the first and the second stage was added in the phr ratio 20:30, 30:20, and 40:10. The results showed that the ingredients mixing process influenced bound rubber formation and cross link density. In the three methods of mixing, the bound rubber formation was proportional with crosslink density. In contrast in the fourth one, bound rubber formation and cross link density had contradictive relation. Regardless of the mixing method operated, bound rubber had non linear relationship with cross link density. The high cross link density was formed when low bound rubber formation. The cross link density became constant at high bound rubber content.

Keywords: bound-rubber, cross-link density, natural rubber, rubber mixing process

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
221 Useful Lifetime Prediction of Chevron Rubber Spring for Railway Vehicle

Authors: Chang Su Woo, Hyun Sung Park


Useful lifetime evaluation of chevron rubber spring was very important in design procedure to assure the safety and reliability. It is, therefore, necessary to establish a suitable criterion for the replacement period of chevron rubber spring. In this study, we performed characteristic analysis and useful lifetime prediction of chevron rubber spring. Rubber material coefficient was obtained by curve fittings of uni-axial tension, equi bi-axial tension and pure shear test. Computer simulation was executed to predict and evaluate the load capacity and stiffness for chevron rubber spring. In order to useful lifetime prediction of rubber material, we carried out the compression set with heat aging test in an oven at the temperature ranging from 50°C to 100°C during a period 180 days. By using the Arrhenius plot, several useful lifetime prediction equations for rubber material was proposed.

Keywords: chevron rubber spring, material coefficient, finite element analysis, useful lifetime prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 467
220 Rubber Wood as a Potential Biomass Feedstock for Biochar via Slow Pyrolysis

Authors: Adilah Shariff, Radin Hakim, Nurhayati Abdullah


Utilisation of biomass feedstock for biochar has received increasing attention because of their potential for carbon sequestration and soil amendment. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of rubber wood as a biomass feedstock for biochar via slow pyrolysis process. This was achieved by using proximate, ultimate, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as well as heating value, pH and lignocellulosic determination. Rubber wood contains 4.13 mf wt.% moisture, 86.30 mf wt.% volatile matter, 0.60 mf wt.% ash content, and 13.10 mf wt.% fixed carbon. The ultimate analysis shows that rubber wood consists of 44.33 mf wt.% carbon, 6.26 mf wt.% hydrogen, 19.31 mf wt.% nitrogen, 0.31 mf wt.% sulphur, and 29.79 mf wt.% oxygen. The higher heating value of rubber wood is 22.5 MJ/kg, and its lower heating value is 21.2 MJ/kg. At 27 °C, the pH value of rubber wood is 6.83 which is acidic. The lignocellulosic analysis revealed that rubber wood composition consists of 2.63 mf wt.% lignin, 20.13 mf wt.% cellulose, and 65.04 mf wt.% hemicellulose. The volatile matter to fixed carbon ratio is 6.58. This led to a biochar yield of 25.14 wt.% at 500 °C. Rubber wood is an environmental friendly feedstock due to its low sulphur content. Rubber wood therefore is a suitable and a potential feedstock for biochar production via slow pyrolysis.

Keywords: biochar, biomass, rubber wood, slow pyrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
219 Modification Of Rubber Swab Tool With Brush To Reduce Rubber Swab Fraction Fishing Time

Authors: T. R. Hidayat, G. Irawan, F. Kurniawan, E. H. I. Prasetya, Suharto, T. F. Ridwan, A. Pitoyo, A. Juniantoro, R. T. Hidayat


Swab activities is an activity to lift fluid from inside the well with the use of a sand line that aims to find out fluid influx after conducting perforation or to reduce the level of fluid as an effort to get the difference between formation pressure with hydrostatic pressure in the well for underbalanced perforation. During the swab activity, problems occur frequent problems occur with the rubber swab. The rubber swab often breaks and becomes a fish inside the well. This rubber swab fishing activity caused the rig operation takes longer, the swab result data becomes too late and create potential losses of well operation for the company. The average time needed for fishing the fractions of rubber swab plus swab work is 42 hours. Innovation made for such problems is to modify the rubber swab tool. The rubber swab tool is modified by provided a series of brushes at the end part of the tool with a thread of connection in order to improve work safety, so when the rubber swab breaks, the broken swab will be lifted by the brush underneath; therefore, it reduces the loss time for rubber swab fishing. This tool has been applied, it and is proven that with this rubber swab tool modification, the rig operation becomes more efficient because it does not carry out the rubber swab fishing activity. The fish fractions of the rubber swab are lifted up to the surface. Therefore, it saves the fuel cost, and well production potentials are obtained. The average time to do swab work after the application of this modified tool is 8 hours.

Keywords: rubber swab, modifikasi swab, brush, fishing rubber swab, saving cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
218 Experimental Study on the Vibration Isolation Performance of Metal-Net Rubber Vibration Absorber

Authors: Su Yi Ming, Hou Ying, Zou Guang Ping


Metal-net rubber is a new dry friction damping material, compared with the traditional metal rubber, which has high mechanization degree, and the mechanical performance of metal-net rubber is more stable. Through the sine sweep experiment and random vibration experiment of metal-net rubber vibration isolator, the influence of several important factors such as the lines slope, relative density and wire diameter on the transfer rate, natural frequency and root-mean-square response acceleration of metal-net rubber vibration isolation system, were studied through the method of control variables. Also, several relevant change curves under different vibration levels were derived, and the effects of vibration level on the natural frequency and root-mean-square response acceleration were analyzed through the curves.

Keywords: metal-net rubber vibration isolator, relative density, vibration level, wire diameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
217 Comparison of Silica-Filled Rubber Compound Prepared from Unmodified and Modified Silica

Authors: Thirawudh Pongprayoon, Watcharin Rassamee


Silica-filled natural rubber compounds were prepared from unmodified and surface-modified silica. The modified silica was coated by ultrathin film of polyisoprene by admicellar polymerization. FTIR and SEM were applied to characterize the modified silica. The cure, mechanic, and dynamics properties were investigated with the comparison of the compounds. Cure characterization of modified silica rubber compound was shorter than that of unmodified silica compound. Strength and abrasion resistance of modified silica compound were better than those of unmodified silica rubber compound. Wet grip and rolling resistance analyzed by DMA from tanδ at 0°C and 60°C using 5 Hz were also better than those of unmodified silica rubber compound.

Keywords: silica, admicellar polymerization, rubber compounds, mechanical properties, dynamic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
216 Evaluation of Shear Strength Parameters of Rudsar Sandy Soil Stabilized with Waste Rubber Chips

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, M. Hamidzadeh


The use of waste rubber chips not only can be of great importance in terms of the environment, but also can be used to increase the shear strength of soils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variation of the internal friction angle of liquefiable sandy soil using waste rubber chips. For this purpose, the geotechnical properties of unmodified and modified soil samples by waste lining rubber chips have been evaluated and analyzed by performing the triaxial consolidated drained test. In order to prepare the laboratory specimens, the sandy soil in part of Rudsar shores in Gilan province, north of Iran with high liquefaction potential has been replaced by two percent of waste rubber chips. Samples have been compressed until reaching the two levels of density of 15.5 and 16.7 kN/m3. Also, in order to find the optimal length of chips in sandy soil, the rectangular rubber chips with the widths of 0.5 and 1 cm and the lengths of 0.5, 1, and 2 cm were used. The results showed that the addition of rubber chips to liquefiable sandy soil greatly increases the shear resistance of these soils. Also, it can be seen that decreasing the width and increasing the length-to-width ratio of rubber chips has a direct impact on the shear strength of the modified soil samples with rubber chips.

Keywords: improvement, shear strength, internal friction angle, sandy soil, rubber chip

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
215 Preparation and Properties of Chloroacetated Natural Rubber Rubber Foam Using Corn Starch as Curing Agent

Authors: Ploenpit Boochathum, Pitchayanad Kaolim, Phimjutha Srisangkaew


In general, rubber foam is produced based on the sulfur curing system. However, the remaining sulfur in the rubber product waste is burned to sulfur dioxide gas causing the environment pollution. To avoid using sulfur as curing agent in the rubber foam products, this research work proposes non-sulfur curing system by using corn starch as a curing agent. The ether crosslinks were proposed to be produced via the functional bonding between hydroxyl groups of the starch molecules and chloroacetate groups added on the natural rubber molecules. The chloroacetated natural rubber (CNR) latex was prepared via the epoxidation reaction of the concentrated natural rubber latex, subsequently, epoxy rings were attacked by chloroacetic acid to produce hydroxyl groups and chloroacetate groups on the rubber molecules. Foaming agent namely NaHCO3 was selected to add in the CNR latex due to the low decomposition temperature at about 50°C. The appropriate curing temperature was assigned to be 90°C that is above gelatinization temperature; 60-70°C, of starch. The effect of weight ratio of starch, i.e., 0 phr, 3 phr and 5 phr, on the physical properties of CNR rubber foam was investigated. It was found that density reduced from 0.81 g/cm3 for 0 phr to 0.75 g/cm3 for 3 phr and 0.79 g/cm3 for 5 phr. The ability to return to its original thickness after prolonged compressive stresses of CNR rubber foam cured with starch loading of 5 phr was found to be considerably better than that of CNR rubber foam cured with starch 3 phr and CNR rubber foam without addition of starch according to the compression set that was determined to decrease from 66.67% to 40% and 26.67% with the increase loading of starch. The mechanical properties including tensile strength and modulus of CNR rubber foams cured using starch were determined to increase except that the elongation at break was found to decrease. In addition, all mechanical properties of CNR rubber foams cured with the starch 3 phr and 5 phr were found to be slightly different and drastically higher than those of CNR rubber foam without the addition of starch. This research work indicates that starch can be applicable as a curing agent for CNR rubber. This is confirmed by the increase of the elastic modulus (G') of CNR rubber foams that was cured with the starch over the CNR rubber foam without curing agent. This type of rubber foam is believed to be one of the biodegradable and environment-friendly product that can be cured at low temperature of 90°C.

Keywords: chloroacetated natural rubber, corn starch, non-sulfur curing system, rubber foam

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
214 Reduction of Dynamic Influences in Composite Rubber-Concrete Block Designed to Walls Construction

Authors: Maciej Major, Izabela Major


The aim of this paper is a numerical analysis of three-layered block design to walls construction subjected to the dynamic load. The block consists of the layers: concrete with rubber pads in shape of crosses, space filled with air and concrete with I-shape rubber pads. The main purpose of rubber inserts embedded during the production process is additional protection against the transversal dynamic load. For the analysis, as rubber, the Zahorski hyperelastic incompressible material model was assumed. A concentrated force as dynamic load applied to the external block surface was investigated. The results for the considered block observed as the stress distribution plot were compared to the results obtained for the solid concrete block. In order to estimate the percentage damping of proposed composite, rubber-concrete block in relation to the solid block the numerical analysis with the use of finite element method based on ADINA software was performed.

Keywords: dynamics, composite, rubber, Zahorski

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
213 Crumbed Rubber Modified Asphalt

Authors: Maanav M. Patel, Aarsh S. Mistry, Yash A. Dhaduk


Nowadays, only a small percentage of waste tyres are being land-filled. The Recycled Tyres Rubber is being used in new tyres, in tyre-derived fuel, in civil engineering applications and products, in molded rubber products, in agricultural uses, recreational and sports applications and in rubber modified asphalt applications. The benefits of using rubber modified asphalts are being more widely experienced and recognized, and the incorporation of tyres into asphalt is likely to increase. The technology with much different evidence of success demonstrated by roads built in the last 40 years is the rubberised asphalt mixture obtained through the so-called ‘‘wet process’’ which involves the utilisation of the Recycled Tyre Rubber Modified Bitumen (RTR-MBs). Since 1960s, asphalt mixtures produced with RTRMBs have been used in different parts of the world as solutions for different quality problems and, despite some downsides, in the majority of the cases they have demonstrated to enhance performance of road’s pavement. The present study aims in investigating the experimental performance of the bitumen modified with 15% by weight of crumb rubber varying its sizes. Four different categories of size of crumb rubber will be used, which are coarse (1 mm - 600 μm); medium size (600 μm - 300 μm); fine (300 μm150 μm); and superfine (150 μm - 75 μm). Common laboratory tests will be performed on the modified bitumen using various sizes of crumb rubber and thus analyzed. Marshall Stability method is adopted for mix design.

Keywords: Bitumen, CRMB, Marshall Stability Test, Pavement

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
212 Energy Absorption Characteristic of a Coupler Rubber Buffer Used in Rail Vehicles

Authors: Zhixiang Li, Shuguang Yao, Wen Ma


Coupler rubber buffer has been widely applied on the high-speed trains and the main function of the rubber buffer is dissipating the impact energy between vehicles. The rubber buffer consists of two groups of rubbers, which are both pre-compressed and then installed into the frame body. This paper focuses on the energy absorption characteristics of the rubber buffers particularly. Firstly, the quasi-static compression tests were carried out for 1 and 3 pairs of rubber sheets and some energy absorption responses relationship, i.e. Eabn = n×Eab1, Edissn = n×Ediss1, and Ean = Ea1, were obtained. Next, a series of quasi-static tests were performed for 1 pair of rubber sheet to investigate the energy absorption performance with different compression ratio of the rubber buffers. Then the impact tests with five impact velocities were conducted and the coupler knuckle was destroyed when the impact velocity was 10.807 km/h. The impact tests results showed that with the increase of impact velocity, the Eab, Ediss and Ea of rear buffer increased a lot, but the three responses of front buffer had not much increase. Finally, the results of impact tests and quasi-static tests were contrastively analysed and the results showed that with the increase of the stroke, the values of Eab, Ediss, and Ea were all increase. However, the increasing rates of impact tests were all larger than that of quasi-static tests. The maximum value of Ea was 68.76% in impact tests, it was a relatively high value for vehicle coupler buffer. The energy capacity of the rear buffer was determined for dynamic loading, it was 22.98 kJ.

Keywords: rubber buffer, coupler, energy absorption, impact tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
211 Material Characterization and Numerical Simulation of a Rubber Bumper

Authors: Tamás Mankovits, Dávid Huri, Imre Kállai, Imre Kocsis, Tamás Szabó


Non-linear FEM calculations are indispensable when important technical information like operating performance of a rubber component is desired. Rubber bumpers built into air-spring structures may undergo large deformations under load, which in itself shows non-linear behavior. The changing contact range between the parts and the incompressibility of the rubber increases this non-linear behavior further. The material characterization of an elastomeric component is also a demanding engineering task. In this paper, a comprehensive investigation is introduced including laboratory measurements, mesh density analysis and complex finite element simulations to obtain the load-displacement curve of the chosen rubber bumper. Contact and friction effects are also taken into consideration. The aim of this research is to elaborate an FEM model which is accurate and competitive for a future shape optimization task.

Keywords: rubber bumper, finite element analysis, compression test, Mooney-Rivlin material model

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
210 Advanced Materials Based on Ethylene-Propylene-Diene Terpolymers and Organically Modified Montmorillonite

Authors: M. D. Stelescu, E. Manaila, G. Pelin, M. Georgescu, M. Sonmez


This paper presents studies on the development and characterization of nanocomposites based on ethylene-propylene terpolymer rubber (EPDM), chlorobutyl rubber (IIR-Cl) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT). Mixtures were made containing 0, 3 and 6 phr (parts per 100 parts rubber) OMMT, respectively. They were obtained by melt intercalation in an internal mixer - Plasti-Corder Brabender, in suitable blending parameters, at high temperature for 11 minutes. Curing agents were embedded on a laboratory roller at 70-100 ºC, friction 1:1.1, processing time 5 minutes. Rubber specimens were obtained by compression, using a hydraulic press at 165 ºC and a pressing force of 300 kN. Curing time, determined using the Monsanto rheometer, decreases with the increased amount of OMMT in the mixtures. At the same time, it was noticed that mixtures containing OMMT show improvement in physical-mechanical properties. These types of nanocomposites may be used to obtain rubber seals for the space application or for other areas of application.

Keywords: chlorobutyl rubber, ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymers, montmorillonite, rubber seals, space application

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
209 Comparison of Different Data Acquisition Techniques for Shape Optimization Problems

Authors: Attila Vámosi, Tamás Mankovits, Dávid Huri, Imre Kocsis, Tamás Szabó


Non-linear FEM calculations are indispensable when important technical information like operating performance of a rubber component is desired. Rubber bumpers built into air-spring structures may undergo large deformations under load, which in itself shows non-linear behavior. The changing contact range between the parts and the incompressibility of the rubber increases this non-linear behavior further. The material characterization of an elastomeric component is also a demanding engineering task. The shape optimization problem of rubber parts led to the study of FEM based calculation processes. This type of problems was posed and investigated by several authors. In this paper the time demand of certain calculation methods are studied and the possibilities of time reduction is presented.

Keywords: rubber bumper, data acquisition, finite element analysis, support vector regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
208 Experimental and Numerical Study on Energy Absorption Characteristic of a Coupler Rubber Buffer Used in Rail Vehicles

Authors: Zhixiang Li, Shuguang Yao, Wen Ma


Coupler rubber buffer has been widely applied on the high-speed trains and the main function of the rubber buffer is dissipating the impact energy between vehicles. The rubber buffer consists of two groups of rubbers, which are both pre-compressed and then installed into the frame body. This work focuses on the energy absorption capacity of each group of buffers particularly. The quasi-static compression tests were carried out to obtain the pre-compression force and the load-defection response of the buffers. Then a finite element (FE) model was constructed using Ls_dyna program. The rubber material was modeled with a tabulated method easily, in which no more material constants need to be fitted. The simulation results agreed with the experimental results well. Numerical study of the buffers was performed using the validated FE model and the influence of the initial pressure on the buffers was obtained. In addition, the interaction between the two groups of buffers was also investigated and the optimum distribution of the two was found.

Keywords: initial pressure, rubber buffer, simulation, tabulated method

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
207 Experimental Investigation of Folding of Rubber-Filled Circular Tubes on Energy Absorption Capacity

Authors: MohammadSadegh SaeediFakher, Jafar Rouzegar, Hassan Assaee


In this research, mechanical behavior and energy absorption capacity of empty and rubber-filled brazen circular tubes under quasi-static axial loading are investigated, experimentally. The brazen tubes were cut out of commercially available brazen circular tubes with the same length and diameter. Some of the specimens were filled with rubbers with three different shores and also, an empty tube was prepared. The specimens were axially compressed between two rigid plates in a quasi-static process using a Zwick testing machine. Load-displacement diagrams and energy absorption of the tested tubes were extracted from experimental data. The results show that filling the brazen tubes with rubber causes those to absorb more energy and the energy absorption of specimens are increased by increasing the shore of rubbers. In comparison to the empty tube, the first fold for the rubber-filled tubes occurs at lower load and it can be concluded that the rubber-filled tubes are better energy absorbers than the empty tubes. Also, in contrast with the empty tubes, the tubes that were filled with lower rubber shore deform asymmetrically.

Keywords: axial compression, quasi-static loading, folding, energy absorbers, rubber-filled tubes

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
206 Effect of Inclusion of Rubber on the Compaction Characteristics of Cement - MSWIFA- Clayey Soil Mixtures

Authors: Gehan Aouf, Diala Tabbal, Abd El Rahim Sabsabi, Rashad Aouf


The aim of this study is to show the effect of adding cement municipal solid incineration fly ash and rubber as stabilizer materials on weak soil. A detailed experimental study was conducted in order to show the viability of using these admixtures in improving the maximum dry density and optimum moisture content of the composite soil. Soil samples were prepared by adding Rubber and Cement to municipal solid waste incineration fly-ash - oil mix at different percentages. Then, a series of laboratory tests were performed, namely: Sieve analysis, Atterberg limits tests, Unconfined compression test, and Proctor tests. Three different percentages of fly ash (10%, 20%, and 30%) MSWFA by total dry weight of soil and three different percentages of Portland cement (10%, 15%, and 20%) by total dry weight of the mix and 0%, 5%, 10% for Rubber by total dry weight of the mix were used to find the optimum value. The test results reveal that adding MSWIFA to the soil up to 20% increased the MDD of the mixture and decreased the OMC, then an opposite trend for results were found when the percentage of MSWIFA exceeded 20%. This is due to the low specific gravity of MSWIFA and to the greater water absorption of MSWIFA. The laboratory tests also indicate that adding Rubber to the mix Soil-MSWIFA-Cement decreases its MDD due to the low specific gravity of rubber and it affects a slight decrease in OMC because the rubber has low absorption of water.

Keywords: clayey soil, MSWIFA, proctor test, rubber

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
205 Effect of Rubber Treatment on Compressive Strength and Modulus of Elasticity of Self-Compacting Rubberized Concrete

Authors: I. Miličević, M. Hadzima Nyarko, R. Bušić, J. Simonović Radosavljević, M. Prokopijević, K. Vojisavljević


This paper investigates the effects of different treatment methods of rubber aggregates for self-compacting concrete (SCC) on compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. SCC mixtures with 10% replacement of fine aggregate with crumb rubber by total aggregate volume and with different aggregate treatment methods were investigated. The rubber aggregate was treated in three different methods: dry process, water-soaking, and NaOH treatment plus water soaking. Properties of SCC in a fresh and hardened state were tested and evaluated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of three different SCC patches were made and discussed. It was observed that applying the proposed NaOH plus water soaking method resulted in the improvement of fresh and hardened concrete properties. It resulted in a more uniform distribution of rubber particles in the cement matrix, a better bond between rubber particles and the cement matrix, and higher compressive strength of SCC rubberized concrete.

Keywords: compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, NaOH treatment, rubber aggregate, self-compacting rubberized concrete, scanning electron microscope analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
204 The Effect of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) Polymer Modifier on Properties of Bitumen

Authors: Seyed Abbas Tabatabaei, Alireza Kiasat, Ferdows Karimi Alkouhi


In order to use bitumen in hot mix asphalt, it must have specific characteristics. There are some methods to reach these properties. Using polymer modifiers are one of the methods to modify the bitumen properties. In this paper, the effect of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber that is one of the bitumen polymer modifiers on rheology properties of bitumen is studied. In this regard, the rheological properties of base bitumen and the modified bitumen with 3, 4, and 5 percent of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) were analysed. The results show that bitumen modified with 5 percent of SBR has the best performance than the other samples.

Keywords: bitumen, polymer modifier, styrene-butadiene-rubber, rheological properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
203 Assessment of Analytical Equations for the Derivation of Young’s Modulus of Bonded Rubber Materials

Authors: Z. N. Haji, S. O. Oyadiji, H. Samami, O. Farrell


The prediction of the vibration response of rubber products by analytical or numerical method depends mainly on the predefined intrinsic material properties such as Young’s modulus, damping factor and Poisson’s ratio. Such intrinsic properties are determined experimentally by subjecting a bonded rubber sample to compression tests. The compression tests on such a sample yield an apparent Young’s modulus which is greater in magnitude than the intrinsic Young’s modulus of the rubber. As a result, many analytical equations have been developed to determine Young’s modulus from an apparent Young’s modulus of bonded rubber materials. In this work, the applicability of some of these analytical equations is assessed via experimental testing. The assessment is based on testing of vulcanized nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR70) samples using tensile test and compression test methods. The analytical equations are used to determine the intrinsic Young’s modulus from the apparent modulus that is derived from the compression test data of the bonded rubber samples. Then, these Young’s moduli are compared with the actual Young’s modulus that is derived from the tensile test data. The results show significant discrepancy between the Young’s modulus derived using the analytical equations and the actual Young’s modulus.

Keywords: bonded rubber, quasi-static test, shape factor, apparent Young’s modulus

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
202 Reactive Blending of Thermoplastic Starch, Ethylene-1-Butene Rubber, and Chitosan

Authors: Kittisak Jantanasakulwong, Toshiaki Ougizawa


Thermoplastic starch (TPS) was prepared by melt-blending of cassava starch with glycerol (70/30 wt%/wt%) at 130 ◦C for 10 min. Chitosan (CTS) was used as a compatibilizer. TPS/CTS blend was melt-blended with maleic anhydride grafted ethylene-1-butene rubber (EB-MAH) in the composition of 80/20 respectively. Addition of CTS in TPS/EB-MAH blend decreased particles size of EB-MAH rubber to 1µm in TPS matrix. Mechanical properties, solubility, swelling property, morphology, and water contact angle of TPS/EB-MAH blend were improved by CTS incorporation. FTIR confirmed a reaction had occurred between amino groups (-NH2) of CTS and the MAH groups of EB-MAH. This reaction and the enhanced miscibility between TPS and CTS improved morphology and properties of the TPS/EB-MAH/CTS blend.

Keywords: thermoplastic starch, rubber, reactive blending, chitosan

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
201 Study of Rheological, Physic-Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Nitrile Butadiene Rubber Loaded with Organo-Bentonite

Authors: Doaa S. Mahmoud, Nivin M. Ahmed, Salwa H. El-Sabbagh


The rheometric characteristics and physicomechanical properties of bentonite / acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) were investigated. The influences of adding bentonite (Bt) and / or modified bentonite (organo-Bt) to the rubber were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the rubber chains may be confined within the interparticle space and the Bt particles presented a physical dispersion in NBR matrix. Bentonite (Bt) was modified with tetra butyl phosphonium bromide (TBP) in order to produce organo-Bt. The modification was carried out at 0.5, 1 and 2 cation exchange capacity (CEC) of bentonite. Results showed that the maximum torque of organo-Bt / NBR composite increases at high bentonite loading. The scorch time (tS2) and cure time (tC90) of the organo-Bt / NBR composites decreased simultaneously relative to those of the neat NBR. The prepared composite exhibited significant improvement in mechanical compared with that of neat NBR.

Keywords: acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber, bentonite, composites, physico-mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
200 Modeling the Cyclic Behavior of High Damping Rubber Bearings

Authors: Donatello Cardone


Bilinear hysteresis models are usually used to describe the cyclic behavior of high damping rubber bearings. However, they neglect a number of phenomena (such as the interaction between axial load and shear force, buckling and post-buckling behavior, cavitation, scragging effects, etc.) that can significantly influence the dynamic behavior of such isolation devices. In this work, an advanced hysteresis model is examined and properly calibrated using consolidated procedures. Results of preliminary numerical analyses, performed in OpenSees, are shown and compared with the results of experimental tests on high damping rubber bearings and simulation analyses using alternative nonlinear models. The findings of this study can provide an useful tool for the accurate evaluation of the seismic response of structures with rubber-based isolation systems.

Keywords: seismic isolation, high damping rubber bearings, numerical modeling, axial-shear force interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
199 Improvement of Frictional Coefficient of Modified Shoe Soles onto Icy and Snowy Road by Tilting of Added Glass Fibers into Rubber

Authors: Wakayama Shunya, Okubo Kazuya, Fujii Toru, Sakata Daisuke, Kado Noriyuki, Furutachi Hiroshi


The purpose of this study is to propose an effective method to improve frictional coefficient of modified shoe rubber soles with added glass fibers onto the icy and snowy road surfaces in order to prevent slip-and-fall accidents by the users. Added fibers in the rubber were uniformly tilted to the perpendicular direction of the frictional surface, where tilting angle was -60, -30, +30, +60, 90 degrees and 0 for usual specimen, respectively. It was found that horizontal arraignment was effective to improve the frictional coefficient when glass fibers were embedded in the shoe rubber, while the standing in normal direction of the embedded glass fibers on the shoe surface was also effective to do that once after they were exposed from the shoe rubber with its abrasion. These improvements were explained by the increase of stiffness against the shear deformation of the rubber at the critical frictional state and the enlargement of resistance force for extracting exposed fibers from the ice and snow, respectively. Current study suggested that effective arraignments in the tilting angle of the added fibers should be applied in designing rubber shoe soles to keep the safeties for uses in regions of cold climates.

Keywords: frictional coefficient, shoe soles, icy and snowy road, glass fibers, tilting angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
198 Preparation and Properties of NR Based Ebonite Rubber Suitable for Use as Engineering Material

Authors: Dosu Malomo, O. E. Edeh, P. O. Okolo, F. C. Ibeh


The preparation of various samples of ebonite vulcanizates and their physico-mechanical properties have been investigated using standard methods. This work explores the production of ebonite dust, production of ebonite vulcanizates and investigation of the characterisation of the ebonite. Five different ebonite materials – labelled A, B, C, D, and E with sulphur content in parts per hundred grams of rubber (Phr) of 32, 34, 36, 38 and 40 respectively were produced. The physico-mechanical properties carried out were tensile strength, hardness and abrasion resistance. The tensile strength (MPa) for sample A, B, C, D and E were 5.6, 3.5, 4.7, 1.7 and 2.0 respectively while the abrasion(%mass loss) were 8.49, 4.24, 2.59, 1.08 and 1.05 respectively and the hardness (IRHD) being 63, 64, 65, 70 and 82. The results show that the preparation of ebonite from natural rubber as a base polymer is feasible considering the results of characterisation obtained.

Keywords: compounding, ebonite dust, natural rubber, vulcanization

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197 Development, Characterization and Properties of Novel Quaternary Rubber Nanocomposites

Authors: Kumar Sankaran, Santanu Chattopadhyay, Golok Behari Nando, Sujith Nair, Sreejesh Arayambath, Unnikrishnan Govindan


Rubber nanocomposites based on Bromobutyl rubber (BIIR), Polyepichlorohydrin rubber (CO), Carbon black (CB) and organically modified montmorillonite clay (NC) were prepared via melt compounding technique. The developed quaternary nanocomposites were characterized analytically and their properties were compared against the standard BIIR compound. BIIR-CO nanocomposites showed improved physico-mechanical properties as compared to that of the standard BIIR compound. Hybrid microstructure (NC-CB) development, clay exfoliation and better filler dispersion in the quaternary nanocomposite significantly contributed to the overall enhancement of properties. Introduction of CO in the system increased the specific gravity and hardness of the compound as compared to that of the standard compound. XRD analysis, AFM imaging and HR-TEM measurements confirmed exfoliation and a good level of dispersion of the NC in the composites. Permeability of developed BIIR-CO nanocomposites decreases significantly as compared to that of the standard BIIR compound.

Keywords: rubber nanocomposites, morphology, permeability, BIIR

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196 Influence of Natural Rubber on the Frictional and Mechanical Behavior of the Composite Brake Pad Materials

Authors: H. Yanar, G. Purcek, H. H. Ayar


The ingredients of composite materials used for the production of composite brake pads play an important role in terms of safety braking performance of automobiles and trains. Therefore, the ingredients must be selected carefully and used in appropriate ratios in the matrix structure of the brake pad materials. In the present study, a non-asbestos organic composite brake pad materials containing binder resin, space fillers, solid lubricants, and friction modifier was developed, and its fillers content was optimized by adding natural rubber with different rate into the specified matrix structure in order to achieve the best combination of tribo-performance and mechanical properties. For this purpose, four compositions with different rubber content (2.5wt.%, 5.0wt.%, 7.5wt.% and 10wt.%) were prepared and then test samples with the diameter of 20 mm and length of 15 mm were produced to evaluate the friction and mechanical behaviors of the mixture. The friction and wear tests were performed using a pin-on-disc type test rig which was designed according to NF-F-11-292 French standard. All test samples were subjected to two different types of friction tests defined as periodic braking and continuous braking (also known as fade test). In this way, the coefficient of friction (CoF) of composite sample with different rubber content were determined as a function of number of braking cycle and temperature of the disc surface. The results demonstrated that addition of rubber into the matrix structure of the composite caused a significant change in the CoF. Average CoF of the composite samples increased linearly with increasing rubber content into the matrix. While the average CoF was 0.19 for the rubber-free composite, the composite sample containing 20wt.% rubber had the maximum CoF of about 0.24. Although the CoF of composite sample increased, the amount of specific wear rate decreased with increasing rubber content into the matrix. On the other hand, it was observed that the CoF decreased with increasing temperature generated in-between sample and disk depending on the increasing rubber content. While the CoF decreased to the minimum value of 0.15 at 400 °C for the rubber-free composite sample, the sample having the maximum rubber content of 10wt.% exhibited the lowest one of 0.09 at the same temperature. Addition of rubber into the matrix structure decreased the hardness and strength of the samples. It was concluded from the results that the composite matrix with 5 wt.% rubber had the best composition regarding the performance parameters such as required frictional and mechanical behavior. This composition has the average CoF of 0.21, specific wear rate of 0.024 cm³/MJ and hardness value of 63 HRX.

Keywords: brake pad composite, friction and wear, rubber, friction materials

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195 Characterization and Design of a Crumb Rubber Modified Asphalt Mix Formulation

Authors: H. Al-Baghli


Laboratory trial results of mixing crumb rubber produced from discarded tires with 60/70 pen grade Kuwaiti bitumen are presented on this paper. PG grading and multiple stress creep recovery tests were conducted on Kuwaiti bitumen blended with 15% and 18% crumb rubber at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70 °C. The results from elastic recovery and non-recoverable creep presented optimum performance at 18% rubber content. The optimum rubberized-bitumen mix was next transformed into a pelletized form (PelletPave®), and was used as a partial replacement to the conventional bitumen in the manufacture of continuously graded hot mix asphalts at a number of binder contents. The trialed PelletPave® contents were at 2.5%, 3.0%, and 3.5% by mass of asphalt mix. In this investigation, it was not possible to utilize the results of standard Marshall method of mix design (i.e. volumetric, stability and flow tests) and subsequently additional assessment of mix compactability was carried out using gyratory compactor in order to determine the optimum PelletPave® and total binder contents.

Keywords: crumb rubber, Marshall mix design, PG grading, rubberized-bitumen

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194 Flooring Solution for Sports Courts Such as Ecological Mortar

Authors: Helida T. G. Soares, Antonio J. P. da Silva


As the society develops, the accumulation of solid waste in landfills, in the environment, and the depletion of the raw material increases. In this way, there is relevance in researching the interaction between the environmental management and civil construction; therefore, this project has for scope the analysis and the effects of the rubber microparticles use as a small aggregate added to the sand, producing an ecological mortar for the pavement constitution, from the mixture of a paste, composed of Portland cement and water, and its application in sports courts. It was used the detailed reutilization of micro rubber in its most primordial, micro form, highlighting the powder pattern as the additional balancing of the mortar, analyzing the evolution of the mechanical properties. Percentages of 5, 10 and 15% rubber were used based on the total mass of the trace, where there is no removal of aggregates or cement, only increment of the rubber. The results obtained through the mechanical test of simple compression showed that the rubber, added to the mortar, presents low mechanical resistance compared to the reference trait, the study of this subject is vast of possibilities to be explored. In this sense, we seek sustainability and innovation from the use of an ecological material, thus adding value and reducing the impact of this material on the environment. The manufacturing process takes place from the direct mixing of cement paste and rubber, whether manually, mechanically or industrially. It results in the production of a low-cost mortar, through the use of recycled rubber, with high efficiency in general properties, such as compressive strength and friction coefficient, allowing its use for the construction of floors for sports courts with high durability. Thus, it is possible to reuse this micro rubber residue in other applications in simple concrete artifacts.

Keywords: civil construction, ecological mortar, high efficiency, rubber

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193 Shear Strength Characteristics of Sand Mixed with Particulate Rubber

Authors: Firas Daghistani, Hossam Abuel Naga


Waste tyres is a global problem that has a negative effect on the environment, where there are approximately one billion waste tyres discarded worldwide yearly. Waste tyres are discarded in stockpiles, where they provide harm to the environment in many ways. Finding applications to these materials can help in reducing this global problem. One of these applications is recycling these waste materials and using them in geotechnical engineering. Recycled waste tyre particulates can be mixed with sand to form a lightweight material with varying shear strength characteristics. Contradicting results were found in the literature on the inclusion of particulate rubber to sand, where some experiments found that the inclusion of particulate rubber can increase the shear strength of the mixture, while other experiments stated that the addition of particulate rubber decreases the shear strength of the mixture. This research further investigates the inclusion of particulate rubber to sand and whether it can increase or decrease the shear strength characteristics of the mixture. For the experiment, a series of direct shear tests were performed on a poorly graded sand with a mean particle size of 0.32 mm mixed with recycled poorly graded particulate rubber with a mean particle size of 0.51 mm. The shear tests were performedon four normal stresses 30, 55, 105, 200 kPa at a shear rate of 1 mm/minute. Different percentages ofparticulate rubber content were used in the mixture i.e., 10%, 20%, 30% and 50% of sand dry weight at three density states, namely loose, slight dense, and dense state. The size ratio of the mixture,which is the mean particle size of the particulate rubber divided by the mean particle size of the sand, was 1.59. The results identified multiple parameters that can influence the shear strength of the mixture. The parameters were: normal stress, particulate rubber content, mixture gradation, mixture size ratio, and the mixture’s density. The inclusion of particulate rubber tosand showed a decrease to the internal friction angle and an increase to the apparent cohesion. Overall, the inclusion of particulate rubber did not have a significant influenceon the shear strength of the mixture. For all the dense states at the low normal stresses 33 and 55 kPa, the inclusion of particulate rubber showed aslight increase in the shear strength where the peak was at 20% rubber content of the sand’s dry weight. On the other hand, at the high normal stresses 105, and 200 kPa, there was a slight decrease in the shear strength.

Keywords: shear strength, direct shear, sand-rubber mixture, waste material, granular material

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