Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: fishermen

45 Educating Farmers and Fishermen in Rural Areas in Nigeria on Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation for Global Sustainability

Authors: Benjamin Anabaraonye, Okafor Joachim Chukwuma, Olamire James

Abstract:

The impacts of climate change are greatly felt on Nigeria’s agricultural sector which in turn affects the economy of the nation. There is an urgent need to educate farmers and fishermen in rural areas in Nigeria on climate change adaptation and mitigation for sustainable development. Through our literature and participant observation, it has been discovered that many farmers and fishermen in rural areas in Nigeria have little or no knowledge about climate change adaptation and mitigation. This paper seeks to draw the attention of policy makers in government, private sectors, non-governmental organizations and interested individuals to the need to seek for innovative ways of educating farmers and fishermen in rural areas about climate change adaptation and mitigation for global sustainability. This study also explores the effective methods of bridging the communication gaps through efficient information dissemination, intensive awareness outreach, use of climate change poems and blogs, innovative loan scheme to farmers and fishermen, etc. to help ensure that farmers and fishermen in rural areas in Nigeria are adequately educated about climate change adaptation and mitigation for global sustainability.

Keywords: agriculture, climate change, farmers, fishermen

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44 Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Risk Factors among Fishermen at Lake Hawassa, Southern Ethiopia

Authors: Tadesse Menjetta, Daniel Dana, Serkadis Debalke

Abstract:

Schistosomiasis/Bilharziasis is one of the neglected tropical parasitic diseases caused by different species of genus Schistosoma. Among the species, S. mansoni (causative agents of intestinal schistosomiasis) is one of the causes of severe intestinal parasitic infections with high public and medical importance in Ethiopia. There is a scarcity of information about the status of S. mansoni infection among the fisherman in our study area and in the country at large. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of S.mansoni infection among fishermen at Lake Hawassa, southern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the fishermen from April to June 2013 in Hawassa, Southern Ethiopia. A total of 243 fishermen were included by systematic sampling from the lists of the fishermen members in the registration book of fishermen associations in the Hawassa Town. Data on socio-demographic features and risk factors were collected by using semi-structured questionnaires. Stool samples were collected and processed using Kato-Katz thick smear techniques and examined between 30- 40 minute for hookworm and after 24 hours for S. mansoni and other soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). The overall prevalence of S.mansoni among the fishermen was 29.21% (71/243), and the mean intensity of infection was 158.88 egg per gram (EPG). The prevalence of intestinal helminths including S. mansoni was 69.54% (169/243). Moreover, the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) was 40.74% (99/243), 35.80% (87/243) and 5.76% (14/243) for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworm species, respectively. Almost similar prevalence of S.mansoni, 31.82%, 31.75%, 31.94% were recorded in age groups of 15-19, 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. Fishermen who are swimming always were 2.92 times [95% CI: 1.554, 5.502] more likely to acquire S. mansoni infection than other water contacting habit of the study participants. The results of the current investigation indicated the moderate endemicity of S. mansoni among the fishermen at Lake Hawassa, southern Ethiopia. Fishermen could be the potential risk group for S. mansoni infection and might be responsible for the transmission of S. mansoni to other segments of the communities. Since the high prevalence of STH was recorded among the fishermen, integrated prevention and control strategies from different sectors might be important to tackle the problem.

Keywords: S. mansoni, soil transmitted helminths, fishermen, Lake Hawassa, Ethiopia

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43 Reinforcement of Local Law into Government Policy to Address Conflict of Utilization of Sea among Small Fishermen

Authors: Ema Septaria, Muhammad Yamani, N. S. B. Ambarini

Abstract:

The problem begins with the imposition of fine penalties by Ipuh small fishermen for customary fishing vessels encroaching catchment area in the Ipuh, a village in Muko-Muko, Bengkulu, Indonesia. Two main reasons for that are fishermen from out of Ipuh came and fished in Ipuh water using trawl as the gear and the number of fish decrease time by time as a result of irresponsible fishing practice. Such conflict has lasted since long ago. Indonesia Governing laws do not rule the utilization of sea territory by small fishermen that when the conflict appears there is a rechtvacuum on how to solve the conflict and this leads to a chaos in society. In Ipuh itself, there has been a local law in fisheries which they still adhere up to present because they believe holding to the law will keep the fish sustain. This is an empirical legal research with socio legal approach. The results of this study show even though laws do not regulate in detail about the utilization of sea territory by small fishermen, there is an article in Fisheries Act stating fisheries activity has to put attention to local law and community participation. Furthermore, constitution governs that the land, the waters and the natural resources within shall be under the powers of the State and shall be used to the greatest benefit of the people. With the power, Government has to make a policy that reinforces what has been ruled in Ipuh local law. Besides, Bengkulu Governor has to involve Ipuh community directly in managing their fisheries to ensure the fisheries sustainability therein.

Keywords: local law, reinforcement, conflict, sea utilization, small fishermen

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42 The Vulnerability of Climate Change to Farmers, Fishermen and Herdsmen in Nigeria

Authors: Nasiru Medugu Idris

Abstract:

This research is aimed at assessing the vulnerability of climate change to rural communities (farmers, herdsmen and fishermen) in Nigeria with the view to study the underlying causes and degree of vulnerability to climate change and examine the conflict between farmers and herdsmen as a result of climate change. This research employed the use of quantitative and qualitative means of data gathering techniques as well as physical observations. Six states (Kebbi, Adamawa, Nasarawa, Osun, Ebonyi, and Akwa Ibom) have been selected on the ground that they are key food production areas in the country and are therefore essential to continual food security in the country. So also, they also double as fishing communities in order to aid the comprehensive study of all the effects on climate on farmers and fishermen alike. Community focus group discussions were carried out in the various states for an interactive session and also to have firsthand information on their level of awareness on climate change. Climate data from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency over the past decade were collected for the purpose of analyzing trends in climate. The study observed that the level of vulnerability of rural dwellers most especially farmers, herdsmen and fishermen to climate change is very high due to their socioeconomic, ethnic and historical perspective of their trend. The study, therefore, recommends that urgent step needs to be put in place to help control natural hazards and man-made disasters and serious measures are also needed in order to minimize severe societal, economic and political crises; some of which may either escalate to violent conflicts or could be avoided by efforts of conflict resolution and prevention by the initiation of a process of de-escalation. So this study has recommended the best-fit adaptive and mitigation measures to climate change vulnerability in rural communities of Nigeria.

Keywords: adaptation, farmers, fishermen, herdsmen

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41 Intelligent Fishers Harness Aquatic Organisms and Climate Change

Authors: Shih-Fang Lo, Tzu-Wei Guo, Chih-Hsuan Lee

Abstract:

Tropical fisheries are vulnerable to the physical and biogeochemical oceanic changes associated with climate change. Warmer temperatures and extreme weather have beendamaging the abundance and growth patterns of aquatic organisms. In recent year, the shrinking of fish stock and labor shortage have increased the threat to global aquacultural production. Thus, building a climate-resilient and sustainable mechanism becomes an urgent, important task for global citizens. To tackle the problem, Taiwanese fishermen applies the artificial intelligence (AI) technology. In brief, the AI system (1) measures real-time water quality and chemical parameters infish ponds; (2) monitors fish stock through segmentation, detection, and classification; and (3) implements fishermen’sprevious experiences, perceptions, and real-life practices. Applying this system can stabilize the aquacultural production and potentially increase the labor force. Furthermore, this AI technology can build up a more resilient and sustainable system for the fishermen so that they can mitigate the influence of extreme weather while maintaining or even increasing their aquacultural production. In the future, when the AI system collected and analyzed more and more data, it can be applied to different regions of the world or even adapt to the future technological or societal changes, continuously providing the most relevant and useful information for fishermen in the world.

Keywords: aquaculture, artificial intelligence (AI), real-time system, sustainable fishery

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40 Politicization of India Sri Lanka Fishing Dispute

Authors: Mohamed Faslan

Abstract:

This research examines the impact of the politicization of the fishing dispute on India-Sri Lanka relations, particularly the influence of internal and party politics. The maritime border is clearly demarcated between India and Sri Lanka. India and Sri Lanka signed bilateral agreements on maritime boundaries in 1974 and 1976 respectively. They signed the United Nations Law of the Sea- III as well. Despite this, fishing disputes persist between the two nations. Tamil Nadu politics is closely linked with Sri Lankan Tamil issues and Tamil Nadu has been playing a significant role in Indo-Lanka relations. This is due to the fact that many Indian trawlers involved in fishing activities in Sri Lankan waters are from Tamil Nadu. The Government of Tamil Nadu is also very concerned about the issue of fishing in Sri Lankan waters. During the ethnic war, Sri Lankan fishermen were restricted on fishing activities in the Northern sea by the Sri Lankan Government and Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam (LTTE). This created a vacuum in the Northern sea of Sri Lanka, and Indian trawlers filled the vacuum with the support of the LTTE. After the end of the war, Northern fishermen of Sri Lanka recommenced their fishing activities and realized that the Tamil Nadu trawlers had scooped their fishing resources. The Northern fishermen started to protest the invasion of Indian trawlers and pushed the Sri Lankan Government to stop the Indian trawlers. When Sri Lanka arrested Indian fishermen and confiscated their fishing boats, the Tamil Nadu Government used this as an opportunity to accuse Sri Lanka as having a Sinhalese government, to express feelings of hatred towards Sri Lanka due to the ethnic war against Tamils and tried to increase the voting bank by selling Tamil feelings. Thus, this research finds that Tamil Nadu does not associate this fishing dispute with Tamils in Sri Lanka but with the Sinhalese despite the status quo. This research has covered the Northern fishermen and stakeholders of Sri Lanka and could not do any field research in India due to visa restrictions. However, the researcher tries to balance the gap by referring to secondary sources and a few interviews with Indian scholars.

Keywords: Indo Lanka relations, fishing dispute, maritime border, Tamil Nadu & Sri Lankan waters

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39 A Fishery Regulation Model: Bargaining over Fishing Pressure

Authors: Duplan Yves Jamont Junior

Abstract:

The Diamond-Mortensen-Pissarides model widely used in labor economics is tailored to fishery. By this way, a fishing function is defined to depict the fishing technology, and Bellman equations are established to describe the behaviors of fishermen and conservationists. On this basis, a negotiation takes place as a Nash-bargaining over the upper limit of the fishing pressure between both political representative groups of fishermen and conservationists. The existence and uniqueness conditions of the Nash-bargained fishing pressure are established. Given the biomass evolution equation, the dynamics of the model variables (fishing pressure, biomass, fish need) is studied.

Keywords: conservation, fishery, fishing, Nash bargaining

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38 Analysis of Socio-Economics of Tuna Fisheries Management (Thunnus Albacares Marcellus Decapterus) in Makassar Waters Strait and Its Effect on Human Health and Policy Implications in Central Sulawesi-Indonesia

Authors: Siti Rahmawati

Abstract:

Indonesia has had long period of monetary economic crisis and it is followed by an upward trend in the price of fuel oil. This situation impacts all aspects of tuna fishermen community. For instance, the basic needs of fishing communities increase and the lower purchasing power then lead to economic and social instability as well as the health of fishermen household. To understand this AHP method is applied to acknowledge the model of tuna fisheries management priorities and cold chain marketing channel and the utilization levels that impact on human health. The study is designed as a development research with the number of 180 respondents. The data were analyzed by Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. The development of tuna fishery business can improve productivity of production with economic empowerment activities for coastal communities, improving the competitiveness of products, developing fish processing centers and provide internal capital for the development of optimal fishery business. From economic aspects, fishery business is more attracting because the benefit cost ratio of 2.86. This means that for 10 years, the economic life of this project can work well as B/C> 1 and therefore the rate of investment is economically viable. From the health aspects, tuna can reduce the risk of dying from heart disease by 50%, because tuna contain selenium in the human body. The consumption of 100 g of tuna meet 52.9% of the selenium in the body and activating the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidaxe which can protect the body from free radicals and stimulate various cancers. The results of the analytic hierarchy process that the quality of tuna products is the top priority for export quality as well as quality control in order to compete in the global market. The implementation of the policy can increase the income of fishermen and reduce the poverty of fishermen households and have impact on the human health whose has high risk of disease.

Keywords: management of tuna, social, economic, health

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37 Obioma's 'The Fishermen' and the Redefinition of African Postcolonial Narrative Tragedy

Authors: Ezechi Onyerionwu

Abstract:

If there is a modern world literary culture that has so tremendously patronized the tragic mode, it has to be that of Africa, and this has been largely true to the extent that the African socio-historical process has been given strong projection by its literature and other art forms. From the three-century-long transatlantic slave trade which brutally translocated millions of Africans to the ‘outermost parts of the earth’, to the vicious partitioning of Africa among European powers and the subsequent imposition of colonial authority on a pulverized people, Africa has really been at the receiving end of the big negatives of global transactions. The African tale has largely been one long tragic narrative. However, the postcolonial African tragic saga has presented an interesting variety of forms and approaches, which have seen to the production of some of the most thought-provoking and acclaimed African novels of the late 20th and early 21st century. Some of the defining characteristics of the African tragic prose has been: the exploration of the many neocolonial implications of the African contemporary existence; the significance of the robust interplay between the essentially foreign, and the originally indigenous elements of the modern African society; and the implosive aftermaths of the individual modern African’s attempt to rationalize his position at the centre of a very complex society. Obioma’s incredible novel, The Fishermen, is in many ways, a classic of the African postcolonial narrative tragedy. The reasons for this bold categorization would occupy the present paper.

Keywords: African narrative tragedy, neocolonialism, postcolonial literature, twenty first century African literature

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36 Securitization of Illegal Fishing Cases in Natuna Waters by Indonesian Government: Study Case of Chinese Vessels Shootouts 2016

Authors: Ray Maximillian, Idil Syawfi

Abstract:

Indonesia’s Exclusive Economic Zone and the infamous China’s nine-dash line are intersected in Natuna waters. Even though from Indonesia perspective, that line does not possess any legal basis, China treat that line as their national boundaries, therefore allowing Chinese fishermen to fish in the area. Under President Joko Widodo leadership, Indonesia which now focusing to suppress illegal fishing cases while emphasizing their maritime sovereignty is facing an imminent threat from China’s presence in Natuna. Tension between these countries spiked after three incident happened on 2016, especially after Indonesian navy shot Chinese fishermen vessel that suspected doing illegal fishing activity. This action seen as an attempt to secure Indonesia’s law enforcement in their waters after several months before such attempt was intervened by Chinese coast guard. Indonesia tries to securitize this issue to justify the shooting they done to Chinese vessels. In the process of securitization, it is imperative to identify the existential threat that leads to implementation of emergency measures which responded by units in the cases. Chinese coast guard presence in Natuna perceived as an existential threat to Indonesia, therefore, responded by shooting to Chinese vessels on the next encounter. This action then responded by Chinese government who said that there is overlapping claim between them and Indonesia in Natuna.

Keywords: China, illegal fishing, Indonesia, natuna, securitization

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35 Fish Diversity of Two Lacustrine Wetlands of the Upper Benue Basin, Nigeria

Authors: D. L. David, J. A. Wahedi, Q. T. Zaku

Abstract:

A study was conducted at River Mayo Ranewo and River Lau, Taraba State Nigeria. The two rivers empty into the Upper Benue Basin. A survey of visual encounter was conducted within the two wetlands from June to August, 2014. The fish record was based entirely on landings of fishermen, number of canoes that land fish was counted, types of nets and baits used on each sampling day. Fishes were sorted into taxonomic groups, identified to family/ species level, counted and weighed in groups by species. Other aquatic organisms captured by the fishermen were scallops, turtles and frogs. The relative species abundance was determined by dividing the number of species from a site by the total number of species from all tributaries/sites. The fish were preserved in 2% formaldehyde solution and taken to the laboratory, were identified through keys of identification to African fishes and field guides. Shannon-Wieiner index of species diversity indicated that the diversity was highest at River Mayo Ranewo than River Lau. Results showed that at River Mayo Ranewo, the family Mochokidae recorded the highest (23.15%), followed by Mormyridae (22.64%) and the least was the family Lepidosirenidae (0.04%). While at River Lau, the family Mochokidae recorded the highest occurrence of (24.1%), followed by Bagridae (20.20%), and then Mormyridae, which also was the second highest in River Lau, with 18.46% occurrence. There was no occurrence of Malapteruridae and Osteoglossidae (0%) in River Lau, but the least occurrence was the family Gymnarchidae (0.04%). According to the result from the t-test, the fish composition was not significantly different (p≤0.05).

Keywords: Diversity Index, Lau, Mayo Ranewo, Wetlands

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34 The Survey of Sea Cucumber Fisheries in QESHM Island Coasts: Persian Gulf

Authors: Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour, Rastin Afkhami

Abstract:

Sea cucumbers are aquatic animals with a wide variety useful for human health. Sea cucumbers are from the aquatic creatures that have many important and useful properties known for human health. Increasing demand for beche-de-mer along with steady price increases have led to worldwide intensification of sea cucumber harvesting. The rearing of sea cucumber with shrimp controls the environmental pollution results from extra enriched nutritious built on the pond bottom. These animals eat detritus and with devouring of organic materials on the surface, not only do they make the environment clean, but also they cause the fast growth of shrimp and themselves. Holothuria scabra is a main species for producing of Beche-de-mer and more exploited in tropical region of the world. The wall of body is used in the process of beche-de-mer production that forms the 56% of the whole body. Holothuria scabra (sandfish) is an aspidochirote holothurian widely distributed in coastal regions throughout the Indo-Pacific region. H. scabra is often found on inner reef flats and near estuaries, half buried in the silt sand during the day and emerging at night to feed. In this study upon to information from local fishermen's in Qeshm island, we Providing some data about fishing methods, processing and distribution in the Qeshm island coastline. Comparative study of fishing status with another part of the world determined that the status of sea cucumber stocks in Qeshm Island is suitable. For preventing of over exploited of sandy sea cucumber capture prohibition should be continue. In this study, 7 explotide sites are recognized, the target size for fishermen's was more than 20 cm and sandy cucumber was the target species in Qeshm Island. In this area the fishing operation was only done by scuba diving and has been done only by men's. Although in another countries women's have an important role in sea cucumber fishing operation. In the coast around Qeshm island it is found in Hmoon, Tolla, kovei, Ramchah, Messen, and Hengam. The maximum length and weight was recorded 35 cm and 1080 gr, respectively.

Keywords: sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra, fishing status, Qeshm Island

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33 The Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Marine-Wildlife Tourism in Massachusetts, United States

Authors: K. C. Bloom, Cynde McInnis

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The Covid-19 pandemic has caused immense changes in the way that we live, work and travel. The impact of these changes is readily apparent in tourism to Massachusetts and the region of New England. Whereas, in general, Massachusetts and New England are a hotspot for travelers from around the world, this form of travel has largely been shut down due to the pandemic. One such area where the impact has been felt is in marine-based wildlife tourism. Massachusetts is home to not only whales but also seals and great white sharks. Prior to the pandemic, whale watching had long been a popular activity while seal and shark tourism has been a developing one. Given that seeing a great white shark was rare in New England for many years, shark tourism has not played a role in the economies of the region until recently. While whales have steadily been found within the marine environments of Massachusetts and whale watching has been a popular attraction since the mid-1970s, the lack of great white sharks in New England was, in part, a response to a change in their environment in that a favorite food source, the gray seals, were culled by regional fishermen as the fishermen believed that seals were taking their catch. This retaliatory behavior ended when the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 (MMPA) was passed. The MMPA prohibited the killing of seals and since then the seal population has increased to traditional numbers (Tech Times, 2014). Given the increase in the seal population in New England, and especially Cape Cod, Massachusetts, there has been a similar increase in the numbers of great white sharks. In fact, over the time between 2004 and 2014, the number of sightings increased from an average of two per year to more than 20 (NY Post, 7/21/14). This has increased even more over the last six years. As a result, residents and businesses in Massachusetts have begun to embrace the great whites as a potential tourism draw. Local business owners are considering opening up cage diving and shark viewing businesses while there has also been an increase in shark-related merchandise throughout the Cape Cod region. Combined with a large whale watching industry, marine-based wildlife tourism is big business to Massachusetts. With the Covid-19 pandemic shuttering international travel, this study aims to look at the impacts of the pandemic on this industry. Through interviews with marine-based wildlife tourism businesses as well as survey data collection from visitors, this study looks at the holistic impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic on an important part of the marine tourism industry in the state.

Keywords: marine tourism, ecotourism, Covid, wildlife

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32 Potency of Minapolitan Area Development to Enhance Gross Domestic Product and Prosperty in Indonesia

Authors: Shobrina Silmi Qori Tarlita, Fariz Kukuh Harwinda

Abstract:

Indonesia has 81.000 kilometers coastal line and 70% water surface which is known as the country who has a huge potential in fisheries sector and also which is able to support more than 50 % of Gross Domestic Product. But according to Department of Marine and Fisheries data, fisheries sector supported only 20% of Total GDP in 1998. Not only that, the highest decline in fisheries sector income occured in 2009. Those conditions occur, because of some factors contributed to the lack of integrated working platform for the fisheries and marine management in some areas which have a high productivity to increase the economical profit every year for the country, especially Indonesia, besides the labor requirement for every company, whether a big company or smaller one, depends on the natural condition that makes a lot of people become unemployed if the weather condition or any other conditions dealing with the natural condition is bad for creating fisheries and marine management, especially in aquaculture and fish – captured operation. Not only those, a lot of fishermen, especially in Indonesia, mostly make their job profession as an additional job or side job to fulfill their own needs, although they are averagely poor. Another major problem are the lack of the sustainable developmental program to stabilize the productivity of fisheries and marine natural source, like protecting the environment for fish nursery ground and migration channel, that makes the low productivity of fisheries and marine natural resource, even though the growth of the society in Indonesia has increased for years and needs more food resource to comply the high demand nutrition for living. The development of Minapolitan Area is one of the alternative solution to build a better place for aqua-culturist as well as the fishermen which focusing on systemic and business effort for fisheries and marine management. Minapolitan is kind of integration area which gathers and integrates the ones who is focusing their effort and business in fisheries sector, so that Minapolitan is capable of triggering the fishery activity on the area which using Minapolitan management intensively. From those things, finally, Minapolitan is expected to reinforce the sustainable development through increasing the productivity of fish – capturing operation as well as aquaculture, and it is also expected that Minapolitan will be able to increase GDP, the earning for a lot of people and also will be able to bring prosperity around the world. From those backgrounds, this paper will explain more about the Minapolitan Area and the design of reinforcing the Minapolitan Area by zonation in the Fishery and Marine exploitation area with high productivity as well as low productivity. Hopefully, this solution will be able to answer the economical and social issue for declining food resource, especially fishery and marine resource.

Keywords: Minapolitan, fisheries, economy, Indonesia

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31 The Ballistics Case Study of the Enrica Lexie Incident

Authors: Diego Abbo

Abstract:

On February 15, 2012 off the Indian coast of Kerala, in position 091702N-0760180E by the oil tanker Enrica Lexie, flying the Italian flag, bursts of 5.56 x45 caliber shots were fired from assault rifles AR/70 Italian-made Beretta towards the Indian fisher boat St. Anthony. The shots that hit the St. Anthony fishing boat were six, of which two killed the Indian fishermen Ajesh Pink and Valentine Jelestine. From the analysis concerning the kinematic engagement of the two ships and from the autopsy and ballistic results of the Indian judicial authorities it is possible to reconstruct the trajectories of the six aforementioned shots. This essay reconstructs the trajectories of the six shots that cannot be of direct shooting but have undergone a rebound on the water. The investigation carried out scientifically demonstrates the rebound of the blows on the water, the gyrostatic deviation due to the rebound and the tumbling effect always due to the rebound as regards intermediate ballistics. In consideration of the four shots that directly impacted the fishing vessel, the current examination proves, with scientific value, that the trajectories could not be downwards but upwards. Also, the trajectory of two shots that hit to death the two fishermen could not be downwards but only upwards. In fact, this paper demonstrates, with scientific value: The loss of speed of the projectiles due to the rebound on the water; The tumbling effect in the ballistic medium within the two victims; The permanent cavities subject to the injury ballistics and the related ballistic trauma that prevented homeostasis causing bleeding in one case; The thermo-hardening deformation of the bullet found in Valentine Jelestine's skull; The upward and non-downward trajectories. The paper constitutes a tool in forensic ballistics in that it manages to reconstruct, from the final spot of the projectiles fired, all phases of ballistics like the internal one of the weapons that fired, the intermediate one, the terminal one and the penetrative structural one. In general terms the ballistics reconstruction is based on measurable parameters whose entity is contained with certainty within a lower and upper limit. Therefore, quantities that refer to angles, speed, impact energy and firing position of the shooter can be identified within the aforementioned limits. Finally, the investigation into the internal bullet track, obtained from any autopsy examination, offers a significant “lesson learned” but overall a starting point to contain or mitigate bleeding as a rescue from future gunshot wounds.

Keywords: impact physics, intermediate ballistics, terminal ballistics, tumbling effect

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30 Fish Catch Composition from Gobind Sagar Reservoir during 2006-2012

Authors: Krishan Lal, Anish Dua

Abstract:

Gobind Sagar Reservoir has been created in Himachal Pradesh, India (31° 25´ N and 76 ° 25´E) by damming River Sutlej at village Bhakra in 1963. The average water spread area of this reservoir is 10,000 hectares. Fishermen have organized themselves in the form of co-operative societies. 26 fisheries co-operative societies were working in Gobind Sagar Reservoir up till 2012. June and July months were observed as closed season, no fishing was done during this period. Proper record maintaining of fish catch was done at different levels by the state fisheries department. Different measures like minimum harvestable size, mesh size regulation and prohibition of illegal fishing etc. were taken for fish conservation. Fishermen were actively involved in the management. Gill nets were used for catching fishes from this reservoir. State fisheries department is realizing 15% royalty of the sold fish. Data used in this paper is about the fish catch during 2006-2012 and were obtained from the state fisheries department, Himachal Pradesh. Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, Sperata seenghala, Cyprinus carpio, Tor putitora, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Labeo calbasu, Labeo dero and Ctenopharyngodon idella etc., were the fish species exploited for commercial purposes. Total number of individuals of all species caught was 3141236 weighing 5637108.9 kg during 2006-2012. H. molitrix was introduced accidently in this reservoir and was making a good share of fish catch in this reservoir. The annual catch of this species was varying between 161279.6 kg, caught in 2011 and 788030.8 kg caught in 2009. Total numbers of individuals of C. idella caught were 8966 weighing 64320.2 kg. The catch of Cyprinus carpio was varying between 144826.1 kg caught in 2006 and 214480.1 kg caught in 2010. Total catch of Tor putitora was 180263.2 kg during 2006-2012. Total catch of L. dero, S. seenghala and Catla catla remained 100637.4 kg, 75297.8 kg and 561802.9 kg, respectively, during 2006-2012. Maximum fish catch was observed during the months of August (after observing Closed Season). Maximum catch of exotic carps was from Bhakra area of the reservoir which has fewer fluctuations in water levels. The reservoir has been divided into eight beats for administrative purpose, to avoid conflicts between operating fisheries co-operative societies for area of operation. Fish catch was more by co-operative societies operating in the area of reservoir having fewer fluctuations in water level and catch was less by co-operative societies operating in the area of more fluctuations in water level. Species-wise fish catch by different co-operative societies from their allotted area was studied. This reservoir is one of most scientifically managed reservoirs.

Keywords: co-operative societies, fish catch, fish species, reservoir

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29 A Drop of Water for the Thirsty Ground: Implementing Drip-Irrigation System as an Alternative to the Existing System to Promote Sustainable Livelihoods in the Archipelagic Dryland East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

Authors: F. L. Benu, I. W. Mudita, R. L. Natonis

Abstract:

East Nusa Tenggara, together with part of East Java, West Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku, has been included as part of global drylands defined according to the ratio of annual precipitation (P) and annual potential evaporation (PET) and major vegetation types of grassland and savannah ecosystems. These tropical drylands are unique because, whereas drylands in other countries are mostly continental, here they are archipelagic. These archipelagic drylands are also unique in terms of being included because of more on their major vegetation types than of their P/PET ratio. Slash-and-burn cultivation and free roaming animal husbandry are two major livelihoods being widely practiced, along with alternative seasonal livelihood such as traditional fishing. Such livelihoods are vulnerable in various respects, especially because of drought, which becomes more unpredictable in the face of climate changes. To cope with such vulnerability, semi-intensive farming using drip irrigation is implemented as an appropriate technology with the goal of promoting a more sustainable alternative to the existing livelihoods. The implementation was started in 2016 with a pilot system at the university field laboratory in Kupang in which various designs of installation were tested. The modified system consisting of an uplifted water reservoir and solar-powered pump was tested in Papela, the District of Rote-Ndao, in 2017 to convince fishermen who had been involved in illegal fishing in Australia-Indonesia transboundary waters, to adopt small-scale farming as a more sustainable alternative to their existing livelihoods. The system was again tested in a larger coverage in Oesena, the District of Kupang, in 2018 to convince slash-and-burn cultivators to adopt an environmentally friendlier cultivation system. From the implementation of the modified system in both sites, the participating fishermen in Papela were able to manage the system under tight water supply to grow chili pepper, tomatoes, and watermelon and the slash-and-burn cultivators in Oesena to grow chili pepper in a more efficient water use than water use in a conventional irrigation system. The gross margin obtained from growing chili pepper, tomatoes, and watermelon in Papela and from growing chili pepper in Oesena showed that small-scale farming using drip irrigation system was a promising alternative to local people in generating cash income to support their livelihoods. However, before promoting this appropriate technology as a more sustainable alternative to the existing livelihoods elsewhere in the region, better understanding on social-related contexts of the implementation is needed.

Keywords: archipelagic drylands, drip irrigation system, East Nusa Tenggara, sustainable livelihoods

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28 Efficient Utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for Fishing through Surveillance for Fishermen

Authors: T. Ahilan, V. Aswin Adityan, S. Kailash

Abstract:

UAV’s are small remote operated or automated aerial surveillance systems without a human pilot aboard. UAV’s generally finds its use in military and special operation application, a recent growing trend in UAV’s finds its application in several civil and non military works such as inspection of power or pipelines. The objective of this paper is the augmentation of a UAV in order to replace the existing expensive sonar (sound navigation and ranging) based equipment amongst small scale fisherman, for whom access to sonar equipment are restricted due to limited economic resources. The surveillance equipment’s present in the UAV will relay data and GPS location onto a receiver on the fishing boat using RF signals, using which the location of the schools of fishes can be found. In addition to this, an emergency beacon system is present for rescue operations and drone recovery.

Keywords: UAV, Surveillance, RF signals, fishing, sonar, GPS, video stream, school of fish

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27 Ethno-Medical Potentials of Tacazzea apiculata Oliv. (Periplocaceae)

Authors: Abubakar Ahmed, Zainab Mohammed, Hadiza D. Nuhu, Hamisu Ibrahim

Abstract:

Introduction: The plant Tacazzea apiculata Oliv (Periplocaceae) is widely distributed in tropical West Africa. It is claimed to have multiple uses in traditional medicine among which are its use to treat hemorrhoids, inflammations and cancers. Methods: Ethno-botanical survey through interview and using show-and-tell method of data collection were conducted among Hausa and Fulani tribes of northern Nigeria with the view to document useful information on the numerous claims by the local people on the plant. Results: The results revealed that the plant T. apiculata has relative popularity among the herbalist (38.2 %), nomads (14.8 %) and fishermen (16.0%). The most important uses of the plant in traditional medicine are inflammation (Fedelity level: 25.7 %) and Haemorrhoids (Fedelity level: 17.1 %) Conclusion: These results suggest the relevance of T. apiculata in traditional medicine and as a good candidate for drug Development.

Keywords: ethno-botany, periplocaceae, Tacazzea apiculata, traditional medicine

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26 Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing in ASEAN Countries

Authors: Wen Chiat Lee, K. Kuperan Viswanathan

Abstract:

Illegal, Unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing brings great losses to the economies of the fishing nations. Understanding the reasons contributing to IUU fishing is crucial in reducing it. Economic, institutional and social factors are key drivers of IIU fishing. The economic factor is the main contributor to IUU fishing. The two possible ways to curb the IUU fishing is highlighted. One way is to reduce the revenue from IUU fishing and another way is to increase the cost of IUU fishing. There are three costs of IUU fishing that can be increased namely the operating, capital and risk costs. Approaches for reducing the economic rent or profit from IUU fishing are developed and directions for reducing IUU fishing are also suggested. Improved registration of fishing vessels, preventing entry of illegal fish products and most importantly, developing co-management of fisheries are the ways forward for reducing IUU fishing. All governments in ASEAN must work in tandem with the stakeholders involved such as fishers, fishermen agencies or associations to exchange information for reducing the transaction cost of IUU fishing.

Keywords: Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, co-management, fisheries management, economic rent framework

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25 Negative Environmental Impacts on Marine Seismic Survey Activities

Authors: Katherine Del Carmen Camacho Zorogastua, Victor Hugo Gallo Ramos, Jhon Walter Gomez Lora

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Marine hydrocarbon exploration (oil and natural gas) activities are developed using 2D, 3D and 4D seismic prospecting techniques where sound waves are directed from a seismic vessel emitted every few seconds depending on the variety of air compressors, which cross the layers of rock at the bottom of the sea and are reflected to the surface of the water. Hydrophones receive and record the reflected energy signals for cross-sectional mapping of the lithological profile in order to identify possible areas where hydrocarbon deposits can be formed. However, they produce several significant negative environmental impacts on the marine ecosystem and in the social and economic sectors. Therefore, the objective of the research is to publicize the negative impacts and environmental measures that must be carried out during the development of these activities to prevent and mitigate water quality, the population involved (fishermen) and the marine biota (e.g., Cetaceans, fish) that are the most vulnerable. The research contains technical environmental aspects based on bibliographic sources of environmental studies approved by the Peruvian authority, research articles, undergraduate and postgraduate theses, books, guides, and manuals from Spain, Australia, Canada, Brazil, and Mexico. It describes the negative impacts on the environment and population (fishing sector), environmental prevention, mitigation, recovery and compensation measures that must be properly implemented and the cases of global sea species stranding, for which international experiences from Spain, Madagascar, Mexico, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Peru were referenced. Negative impacts on marine fauna, seawater quality, and the socioeconomic sector (fishermen) were identified. Omission or inadequate biological monitoring in mammals could alter their ability to communicate, feed, and displacement resulting in their stranding and death. In fish, they cause deadly damage to physical-physiological type and in their behavior. Inadequate wastewater treatment and waste management could increase the organic load and oily waste on seawater quality in violation of marine flora and fauna. The possible estrangement of marine resources (fish) affects the economic sector as they carry out their fishing activity for consumption or sale. Finally, it is concluded from the experiences gathered from Spain, Madagascar, Mexico, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Peru that there is a cause and effect relationship between the inadequate development of seismic exploration activities (cause) and marine species strandings (effect) since over the years, stranded or dead marine mammals have been detected on the shores of the sea in areas of seismic acquisition of hydrocarbons. In this regard, it is recommended to establish technical procedures, guidelines, and protocols for the monitoring of marine species in order to contribute to the conservation of hydrobiological resources.

Keywords: 3D seismic prospecting, cetaceans, significant environmental impacts, prevention, mitigation, recovery, environmental compensation

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24 Using Fishers Knowledge in Community Based Fisheries Management in River Nun Estuary, Niger Delta

Authors: Sabina Ngodigha, Roland Gbarabe, Aiyebatonworio Austin

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A study of fisher’s knowledge (FK) and community-based fisheries management practices in River Nun estuary was conducted to assess the contribution of FK to fisheries resources conservation. A total of 390 fishers operates in the area of which 221 were interviewed based on having a minimum of 10 years of experience. Community-based fisheries management programme was introduced and implemented by fishermen’s union in 2010 for the sustainable management and conservation of fisheries resources. Local law introduced were: band on the use of mesh size of less than 5cm and band on chemical fishing. Defaulters were made to pay monetary fines ranging from #2,000 to #6,000 while fishers caught using chemicals to fish were arrested and landed over to the police for prosecution. The management method has enhanced conservation of fisheries resources which is a major source of livelihood for the people. Landings increased tremendously resulting in positive increase in the finances of the fishers. It is, therefore, pertinent to introduce community-based laws to check over exploitation of fisheries resources in the Niger Delta.

Keywords: community, conservation, fishers knowledge, local laws, management

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23 Elements of Socio-Ecological Knowledge for Sustainable Fisheries Management: An Analysis of Chakara Fishery Management in South West India

Authors: Antony Thomas Vanchipurrakkal

Abstract:

Common property resource like fisheries is conserved and managed by fishermen with the help of Local Ecological Knowledge system. Various forms of Social and Ecological elements adapted to formularize management of Chakara fishery. This study tries for a better understanding of elements involved in fishery management in India, such traditional knowledge system practicing within the fishing communities for management and conservation of the marine resources. Participatory Rural Appraisal technique is applied to seize the traditional knowledge system in central Kerala coastal region, India. Socio-Ecological Analysis framework is used for the study. This paper discusses that traditional knowledge systems of chakara fishery and discloses need for inclusive governance system. The paper also discusses adaptation of different elements of the ecological, biological and institutional knowledge system in local ecological knowledge for sustain the fishery. A framework is formulized based on elements operating in chakara fishery management.

Keywords: common property, fisheries, India, local ecological knowledge, management

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22 Proximate Compositions and Fatty Acid Profiles of Farmed and Wild Striped Sea Bream (Lithognathus mormyrus)

Authors: Mahmut Ali Gökçe, Oguz Tasbozan, Celal Erbas, Zafer Akpinar, S. Surhan Tabakoglu, Mehmet Celik, Bilge Kaan Tekelioglu

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate proximate compositions and fatty acid profiles of marketable size striped sea bream of obtained from fish cages of aquaculture companies and fishermen. Ten fish samples were used for both groups. The average total weight of farmed and wild samples was 252,75 ± 36,78 g and 193,0 ± 32 g respectively. While the protein level of farmed samples was (23,49±0,15) higher than that of wild fish (21,80±0,18), lipid level was less (1,55±0,08) in farmed group than wild fish samples (2,52±0,07). Amount of Σ SFA was significantly higher in wild group (44,09±0,9) than the farmed (32,79±1,13) group. Total MUFA were 36,38±29,91 in wild and 29,91±1,52 in farmed fish. However, Σ PUFA (27,89±1,53) and EPA+DHA values (15,73±1,63) of farmed samples were significantly higher than the wild (14,06 ±3,67 and 9,7±0,86) counterparts. Σώ3/ώ6 rate was better in farmed group with 2,54±0,84 in comparison with (1,59±0,06) the other group. As a result, it can be speculated that the farmed striped sea bream can be preferred by the consumers. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Scientific Research Project Unit of the University of Cukurova, Turkey under grant no FBA-2016-5073.

Keywords: striped sea bream, Litognathus mormyrus, proximate composition, fatty acid profile

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21 Growth Pattern and Condition Factor of Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon galilaeus in Epe Lagoon, Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors: Ahmed Bolaji Alarape, Oluwatobi Damilola Aba

Abstract:

The growth pattern of Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon galilaeus in Epe Lagoon Lagos State was investigated. One hundred (100) samples of each species were collected from fishermen at the landing site. They were transported to the Fisheries Laboratory of National Institute of Oceanography for identification, sexing morphometric measurement. The results showed that 58.0% and 56.0 % of the O.niloticus and S.galilaeus were female respectively while 42.0% and 44.0% were male respectively. The length-weight relationship of O.niloticus showed a strong regression coefficient (r = 0.944) (p<0.05) for the combined sex, (r =0.901) (p<0.05) for female and (r=0.985) (p<.05) for male with b-value of 2.5, 3.1 and 2.8 respectively. The S.galilaeus also showed a regression coefficient of r=0.970; p<0.05 for the combined sex, r=0.953; p<0.05 for the female and r= 0.979; p<0.05 for the male with b-value of 3.4, 3.1 and 3.6 respectively. O.niloticus showed an isometric growth pattern both in male and female. The condition factor in O.niloticus are 1.93 and 1.95 for male and female respectively while that of S.galilaeus is 1.95 for both sexes. Positive allometric was observed in both species except the male O.niloticus that showed negative allometric growth pattern. From the results of this study, the growth pattern of the two species indicated a good healthy environment.

Keywords: Epe Lagoon, length-weight relationship, Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus

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20 The Impact on Habitat of Reef Traps Used in the Freshwater Shrimp (Palaemonetes antennarius, H. Milne Erwards, 1837) Catch

Authors: Cenkmen R. Begburs

Abstract:

In Antalya region, freshwater shrimps are usually collected with scoops and tin traps. However, it can be catched by reef traps in some water sources. Freshwater shrimps are constantly catching for commercial reasons because of a favorite bait for angling. There are more or less damage catching fishing vehicles to the habitat. This study was carried out in the Kırkgöz spring, Antalya and examined the effect of reef traps on the Kırkgöz spring habitat. Reef traps used 18.5x23.5x25 cm perforated bricks are arranged next to each other, blocks of random dimensions are prepared in 5x10, 18x24, 7x8 meter dimensions. These blocks are constructed with two layers of bricks that are covered with various materials such as carpets and blankets. Then, freshwater shrimps enter the holes of bricks. The bricks are closed off from both sides and discharged into a container when it is desired to be caught. The reef traps built on the plants which staying on the plant for a long time have been damaging the vegetation under the reef traps. Fishermen are setting new traps on the plants to increase the fishing efficiency since the freshwater shrimps are among the water plants. As a result, this application disrupts the aquatic organisms in their habitats. It is important to use fishing gears which will cause less damage and conserve stocks for sustainable fishing.

Keywords: reef trap, Antalya, environment, damage

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19 Fish Check-List and Their Characteristics in Bayeku Water, Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: A. W. Kashimawo

Abstract:

Fish check list of Bayeku water, Lagos, Nigeria was investigated between February 2012 and January 2013. Fish specimens were caught with gill and cast-nets, and non-return valve basket trap. Services of artisanal fishermen were employed for the setting of gears and collections of fish. Species not captured after sampling were assumed to be absent or so rare as to be of minimal ecological importance. The 632 specimens were preserved in 10 % formaldehyde in the field prior to their identification. Physicochemical parameters such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH were determined from the lagoon water samples following standard methods. A total of 632 fish were encountered, belonging to 23 families, 27 genera and 29 species. The most abundant species were Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (9.65 %), Macrobrachium vollenhoveni (7.94 %), Ethmalosa fimbriata (7.12 %), Elops lacerta (6.96 %), Cynoglossus browni (6.17 %), Gobioides broussonnetii (5.69 %), Sphyraena piscatorum (5.39 %), Polydactylus quadrifilis (5.06 %), and Mugil cephalus (4.91 %). There were seasonal variations in species occurrence and abundance. Marine fishes were found in dry season.. Freshwater fishes were more during the wet season. There are marine and freshwater fishes that have euryhaline characteristics and have adapted to the lagoon environment such that they were encountered both in dry and wet seasons.

Keywords: fish check list, species occurrence, abundance, ecological importance

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18 Seasonal Profile of the Feeding Ecology of Auchenoglanis Occidentalis from Tagwai Lake, Minna Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: V. I. Chukwuemeka, S. M. Tsadu, R. O. Ojutiku, R. J. Kolo

Abstract:

The food and feeding habits of Auchenoglanis occidentalis, which is commonly called the “BuBu” cat fish or the giraffe cat fish from Tagwai Lake Minna, was analysed from January to June, 2013. A total of 216 fish specimen were used for the study which were obtained from the local fishermen operating in Tagwai Lake Minna. Fishing gears used include cast nets and gills nets of various sizes. They also use hook and lines. The frequency of occurrence and dominance method were used to analyse the food in the gut. Auchenoglanis occidentalis from Tagwai Lake, Minna had a broad spectrum of food items in the gut, ranging from insects, fish, plant materials to protozoan. The percentage of insects was (31.75%), fish (12.70%), Chyme (20.63%), plant materials (20.63%), protozoa (1.59%) and soil (12.70%). The presence of different food items in the gut of the Auchenoglanis occidentalis which ranged from animal to plant and soil made it to be considered as an omnivore bottom feeder. The food habits of this fish showed no remarkable difference between the dry season months and the rainy season months. The broad food spectrum of the fish makes them a good aquaculture candidate. It also suggests that the specie feed both in surface water and near the substratum (sand).

Keywords: Auchenoglanis occidentalis, ecology, Tagwai Lake, Nigeria

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17 Fish Diversity and Conservation of Two Lacustrine Wetlands of the Upper Benue Basin, Nigeria

Authors: D. L. David, J. A. Wahedi, Q. T. Zaku

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A study was conducted at River Mayo Ranewo and River Lau, Taraba State Nigeria. The two rivers empty into the Upper Benue Basin. A visual encounter survey was conducted within the two wetlands from June to August, 2014. The fish record was based entirely on landings of fishermen, number of canoes that land fish was counted, types of nets and baits used on each sampling day. Fish were sorted into taxonomic groups, identified to family/species level, counted and weighed in groups. The relative species abundance was determined by dividing the number of species from a site by the total number of species from all tributaries/sites. Fish was preserved in 2% formaldehyde solution and taken to the laboratory, where they were identified. Shannon-Weiner index of species diversity indicated that the diversity was highest at River Mayo Ranewo than River Lau. In the result showed at River Mayo Ranewo, the family Mochokidae recorded the highest (23.15%), followed by Mormyridae (2.64%) and the least was the family Lepidosirenidae (0.04%). While at River Lau the family Mochokidae recorded the highest occurrence of (24.1%), followed by Bagridae (20.20%), and then Mormyridae, which also was the second highest in River Lau, with 18.46% occurrence. There was no occurrence of Malapteruridae and Osteoglossidae (0%) in River Lau, but the least occurrence was the family Gymnarchidae (0.04%). These results indicated that the fish composition were not significantly (p ≤ 0.05) different based on t-test.

Keywords: conservation, diversity index, Lau, Mayo Ranewo, wetlands

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16 Atlantic Sailfish (Istiophorus albicans) Distribution off the East Coast of Florida from 2003 to 2018 in Response to Sea Surface Temperature

Authors: Meredith M. Pratt

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The Atlantic sailfish (Istiophorus albicans) ranges from 40°N to 40°S in the Western Atlantic Ocean and has great economic and recreational value for sport fishers. Off the eastern coast of Florida, charter boats often target this species. Stuart, Florida, bills itself as the sailfish capital of the world. Sailfish tag data from The Billfish Foundation and NOAA was used to determine the relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) and the distribution of Atlantic sailfish caught and released over a fifteen-year period (2003 to 2018). Tagging information was collected from local sports fishermen in Florida. Using the time and location of each landed sailfish, a satellite-derived SST value was obtained for each point. The purpose of this study was to determine if sea surface warming was associated with changes in sailfish distribution. On average, sailfish were caught at 26.16 ± 1.70°C (x̄ ± s.d.) over the fifteen-year period. The most sailfish catches occurred at temperatures ranging from 25.2°C to 25.5°C. Over the fifteen-year period, sailfish catches decreased at lower temperatures (~23°C and ~24°C) and at 31°C. At ~25°C and ~30°C there was no change in catch numbers of sailfish. From 26°C to 29°C, there was an increase in the number of sailfish. Based on these results, increasing ocean temperatures will have an impact on the distribution and habitat utilization of sailfish. Warming sea surface temperatures create a need for more policy and regulation to protect the Atlantic sailfish and related highly migratory billfish species.

Keywords: atlantic sailfish, Billfish, istiophorus albicans, sea surface temperature

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