Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 59

Search results for: Sudipta Seal

59 Trends in Use of Millings in Pavement Maintenance

Authors: Rafiqul Tarefder, Mohiuddin Ahmad, Mohammad Hossain

Abstract:

While milling materials from old pavement surface can be an important component of cost effective maintenance operation, their use in maintenance projects are not uniform and well documented. This study documents the different maintenance practices followed by four transportation districts of New Mexico Department of Transportation (NMDOT) in an attempt to find whether millings are being used in maintenance projects by those districts. Based on existing literature, a questionnaire was developed related to six common maintenance practices. NMDOT district personal were interviewed face to face to discuss and get answers to that questionnaire. It revealed that NMDOT districts mainly use chip seal and patching. Other maintenance procedures such as sand seal, scrub seal, slurry seal, and thin overlay have limited use. Two out of four participating districts do not have any documents on chip sealing; rather they employ the experiences of the chip seal crew. All districts use polymer modified high float emulsion (HFE100P) for chip seal with an application rate ranging from 0.4 to 0.56 gallons per square yard. Chip application rate varies from 15 to 40 lb/ square yard. State wide, the thickness of chip seal varies from 3/8" to 1" and life varies from 3 to 10 years. NMDOT districts mainly use three type of patching: pothole, dig-out and blade patch. Pothole patches are used for small potholes and during emergency, dig-out patches are used for all type of potholes sometimes after pothole patching, and blade patch is used when a significant portion of the pavement is damaged. Pothole patches last as low as three days whereas, blade patch lasts as long as 3 years. It was observed that all participating districts use millings in maintenance projects.

Keywords: chip seal, sand seal, scrub seal, slurry seal, overlay, patching, millings

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
58 Experimental and Computational Investigation of Flow Field and Thermal Behavior of a Mechanical Seal

Authors: Hossein Shokouhmand, Masoomeh Shadab, Rohallah Torabi

Abstract:

Turbulent flow inside the seal chamber of a pump operating at nearly high Reynolds number is investigated. A comparison of a 3-D computational model for flow and thermal analysis of a mechanical seal with experimental thermal results is presented. The computational model adequately predicts the flow field in the seal chamber and thermal characteristics with the rotating and stationary rings and the twister flow around the seal parts by solving N-S and energy equations in ANSYS-CFX software. The Reynolds stress model (RSM) is applied as a turbulence model for this purpose. Experimental work is discussed which quantifies the temperature of five different points of the working fluid in chamber, mass flow at inlet and the fluid pressure at inlet and outlet. Experimental measurements are combined with computational modeling to obtain local and average heat transfer characteristics. Numerical results of three cases including different flush rates are reported.

Keywords: mechanical seal, CFD_CFX, reynolds stress model, flow field, heat transfer analysis, stream line, heat transfer coefficient, heat flux, nusselt

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
57 An Investigation into Sealing Materials for Vacuum Glazing

Authors: Paul Onyegbule, Harjit Singh

Abstract:

Vacuum glazing is an innovative transparent thermal insulator that has application in high performance window, especially in renewable energy. Different materials as well as sealing methods have been adopted to seal windows with different temperatures. The impact of temperatures on sealing layers has been found to have significant effects on the microstructure of the seal. This paper seeks to investigate the effects of sealing materials specifically glass powder and flux compound (borax) for vacuum glazing. The findings of the experiment conducted show that the sealing material was rigid with some leakage around the edge, and we found that this could be stopped by enhancing the uniformity of the seal within the periphery. Also, we found that due to the intense tensile stress from the oven surface temperature of the seal at 200 0C, a crack was observed at the side of the glass. Based on the above findings, this study concludes that a glass powder with a lower melting temperature of below 250 0C with the addition of an adhesive (borax flux) should be used for future vacuum seals.

Keywords: double glazed windows, U-value, heat loss, borax powder, edge seal

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
56 Manufacturing of Vacuum Glazing with Metal Edge Seal

Authors: Won Kyeong Kang, Tae-Ho Song

Abstract:

Vacuum glazing (VG) is a super insulator, which is able to greatly improve the energy efficiency of building. However, a significant amount of heat loss occurs through the welded edge of conventional VG. The joining method should be improved for further application and commercialization. For this purpose VG with metal edge seal is conceived. In this paper, the feasibility of joining stainless steel and soda lime glass using glass solder is assessed numerically and experimentally. In the case of very thin stainless steel, partial joining with glass is identified, which need further improvement for practical application.

Keywords: VG, metal edge seal, vacuum glazing, manufacturing,

Procedia PDF Downloads 529
55 Seal Capacity Evaluation by Using Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure Method Integrated with Petrographic Data: A Case Study in Green Dragon Oilfield Offshore Vietnam

Authors: Quoc Ngoc Phan, Hieu Van Nguyen, Minh Hong Nguyen

Abstract:

This study presents an integrated approach using Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure (MICP) and petrographic analysis to assess the seal quality of the inter-bedded shale formations which are considered the intra-formation top seals of hydrocarbon bearing zones in Green Dragon structure. Based on the hydrocarbon column height (HCH) at leak point derived from capillary pressure data, four seal types were identified. Furthermore, the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were interpreted to clarify the influence of clay minerals on seal capacity. The result of the study indicated that the inter-bedded shale formations are the good sealing quality with a majority of analyzed samples ranked type A and B seals in the sample set. Both seal types occurred mainly in mudstones with pore radius estimated less than 0.251 µm. Overall, type A and B seals contained a large amount of authigenic clay minerals such as illite, chlorite which showed the complexity of morphological arrangement in pore space. Conversely, the least common seal type C and D were presented in moderately compacted sandstones with more open pore radius. It is noticeable that there was a reduction of illite and chlorite in clay mineral fraction of these seal type. It is expected that the integrated analysis approach using Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure and petrographic data employed in this study can be applied to assess the sealing quality of future well sites in Green Dragon or other structures.

Keywords: seal capacity, hydrocarbon height column, seal type, SEM, XRD

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
54 Overview on the Failure in the Multiphase Mechanical Seal in Centrifugal Pumps

Authors: Aydin Azizi, Ahmed Al. Azizi

Abstract:

Mechanical seals are essential components in centrifugal pumps since they help in controlling leaking out of the liquid that is pumped under pressure. Unlike the common types of packaging, mechanical seals are highly efficient and they reduce leakage by a great extent. However, all multiphase mechanical seals leak and they are subject to failure. Some of the factors that have been recognized to their failure include excessive heating, open seal faces, as well as environment related factors that trigger failure of the materials used to manufacture seals. The proposed research study will explore the failure of multiphase mechanical seal in centrifugal pumps. The objective of the study includes how to reduce the failure in multiphase mechanical seals and to make them more efficient.

Keywords: mechanical seals, centrifugal pumps, multi phase failure, excessive heating

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
53 The Effect of Glass Thickness on Stress in Vacuum Glazing

Authors: Farid Arya, Trevor Hyde, Andrea Trevisi, Paolo Basso, Danilo Bardaro

Abstract:

Heat transfer through multiple pane windows can be reduced by creating a vacuum pressure less than 0.1 Pa between the glass panes, with low emittance coatings on one or more of the internal surfaces. Fabrication of vacuum glazing (VG) requires the formation of a hermetic seal around the periphery of the glass panes together with an array of support pillars between the panes to prevent them from touching under atmospheric pressure. Atmospheric pressure and temperature differentials induce stress which can affect the integrity of the glazing. Several parameters define the stresses in VG including the glass thickness, pillar specifications, glazing dimensions and edge seal configuration. Inherent stresses in VG can result in fractures in the glass panes and failure of the edge seal. In this study, stress in VG with different glass thicknesses is theoretically studied using Finite Element Modelling (FEM). Based on the finding in this study, suggestions are made to address problems resulting from the use of thinner glass panes in the fabrication of VG. This can lead to the development of high performance, light and thin VG.

Keywords: vacuum glazing, stress, vacuum insulation, support pillars

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
52 Official Seals on the Russian-Qing Treaties: Material Manifestations and Visual Enunciations

Authors: Ning Chia

Abstract:

Each of the three different language texts (Manchu, Russian, and Latin) of the 1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk bore official seals from Imperial Russia and Qing China. These seals have received no academic attention, yet they can reveal a site of a layered and shared material, cultural, political, and diplomatic world of the time in Eastern Eurasia. The very different seal selections from both empires while ratifying the Treaty of Beijing in 1860 have obtained no scholarly advertency either; they can also explicate a tremendously changed relationship with visual and material manifestation. Exploring primary sources in Manchu, Russian, and Chinese languages as well as the images of the visual seals, this study investigates the reasons and purposes of utilizing official seals for the treaty agreement. A refreshed understanding of Russian-Qing diplomacy will be developed by pursuing the following aspects: (i) Analyzing the iconographic meanings of each seal insignia and unearthing a competitive, yet symbols-delivered and seal-generated, 'dialogue' between the two empires (ii) Contextualizing treaty seals within the historical seal cultures, and discovering how domestic seal system in each empire’s political institution developed into treaty-defined bilateral relations (iii) Expounding the seal confiding in each empire’s daily governing routines, and annotating the trust in the seal as a quested promise from the opponent negotiator to fulfill the treaty terms (iv) Contrasting the two seal traditions along two civilization-lines, Eastern vs. Western, and dissecting how the two styles of seal emblems affected the cross-cultural understanding or misunderstanding between the two empires (v) Comprehending the history-making events from the substantial resources such as the treaty seals, and grasping why the seals for the two treaties, so different in both visual design and symbolic value, were chosen in the two relationship eras (vi) Correlating the materialized seal 'expression' and the imperial worldviews based on each empire’s national/or power identity, and probing the seal-represented 'rule under the Heaven' assumption of China and Russian rising role in 'European-American imperialism … centered on East Asia' (Victor Shmagin, 2020). In conclusion, the impact of official seals on diplomatic treaties needs profound knowledge in seal history, insignia culture, and emblem belief to be able to comprehend. The official seals in both Imperial Russia and Qing China belonged to a particular statecraft art in a specific material and visual form. Once utilized in diplomatic treaties, the meticulously decorated and politically institutionalized seals were transformed from the determinant means for domestic administration and social control into the markers of an empire’s sovereign authority. Overlooked in historical practice, the insignia seal created a wire of 'visual contest' between the two rival powers. Through this material lens, the scholarly knowledge of the Russian-Qing diplomatic relationship will be significantly upgraded. Connecting Russian studies, Qing/Chinese studies, and Eurasian studies, this study also ties material culture, political culture, and diplomatic culture together. It promotes the study of official seals and emblem symbols in worldwide diplomatic history.

Keywords: Russia-Qing diplomatic relation, Treaty of Beijing (1860), Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689), Treaty seals

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51 Theoretical Study of Flexible Edge Seals for Vacuum Glazing

Authors: Farid Arya, Trevor Hyde

Abstract:

The development of vacuum glazing represents a significant advancement in the area of low heat loss glazing systems with the potential to substantially reduce building heating and cooling loads. Vacuum glazing consists of two or more glass panes hermetically sealed together around the edge with a vacuum gap between the panes. To avoid the glass panes from collapsing and touching each other under the influence of atmospheric pressure an array of support pillars is provided between the glass panes. A high level of thermal insulation is achieved by evacuating the spaces between the glass panes to a very low pressure which greatly reduces conduction and convection within the space; therefore heat transfer through this kind of glazing is significantly lower when compared with conventional insulating glazing. However, vacuum glazing is subject to inherent stresses due to atmospheric pressure and temperature differentials which can lead to fracture of the glass panes and failure of the edge seal. A flexible edge seal has been proposed to minimise the impact of these issues. In this paper, vacuum glazing system with rigid and flexible edge seals is theoretically studied and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

Keywords: flexible edge seal, stress, support pillar, vacuum glazing

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
50 Causes of Deteriorations of Flexible Pavement, Its Condition Rating and Maintenance

Authors: Pooja Kherudkar, Namdeo Hedaoo

Abstract:

There are various causes for asphalt pavement distresses which can develop prematurely or with aging in services. These causes are not limited to aging of bitumen binder but include poor quality materials and construction, inadequate mix design, inadequate pavement structure design considering the traffic and lack of preventive maintenance. There is physical evidence available for each type of pavement distress. Distress in asphalt pavements can be categorized in different distress modes like fracture (cracking and spalling), distortion (permanent deformation and slippage), and disintegration (raveling and potholes). This study shows the importance of severity determination of distresses for the selection of appropriate preventive maintenance treatment. Distress analysis of the deteriorated roads was carried out. Four roads of urban flexible pavements from Pune city was selected as a case study. The roads were surveyed to detect the types, to measure the severity and extent of the distresses. Causes of distresses were investigated. The pavement condition rating values of the roads were calculated. These ranges of ratings were as follows; 1 for poor condition road, 1.1 to 2 for fair condition road and 2.1 to 3 for good condition road. Out of the four roads, two roads were found to be in fair condition and the other two were found in good condition. From the various preventive maintenance treatments like crack seal, fog seal, slurry seal, microsurfacing, surface dressing and thin hot mix/cold mix bituminous overlays, the effective maintenance treatments with respect to the surface condition and severity levels of the existing pavement were recommended.

Keywords: distress analysis, pavement condition rating, preventive maintenance treatments, surface distress measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
49 MicroRNA-211 Regulates Oxidative Phosphorylation and Energy Metabolism in Human Vitiligoa

Authors: Anupama Sahoo, Bongyong Lee, Katia Boniface, Julien Seneschal, Sanjaya K. Sahoo, Tatsuya Seki, Chunyan Wang, Soumen Das, Xianlin Han, Michael Steppie, Sudipta Seal, Alain Taieb, Ranjan J. Perera

Abstract:

Vitiligo is a common, chronic skin disorder characterized by loss of epidermal melanocytes and progressive depigmentation. Vitiligo has a complex immune, genetic, environmental, and biochemical etiology, but the exact molecular mechanisms of vitiligo development and progression, particularly those related to metabolic control, are poorly understood. Here we characterized the human vitiligo cell line PIG3V and the normal human melanocytes, HEM-l by RNA-sequencing, targeted metabolomics, and shotgun lipidomics. Melanocyte-enriched miR-211, a known metabolic switch in non-pigmented melanoma cells, was severely downregulated in vitiligo cell line PIG3V and skin biopsies from vitiligo patients, while its novel predicted targets transcriptional co-activator PGC1-α (PPARGC1A), ribonucleotide reductase regulatory subunit M2 (RRM2), and serine-threonine protein kinase TAO1 (TAOK1) were reciprocally upregulated. miR-211 binds to PGC1-α 3’UTR locus and represses it. Although mitochondrial numbers were constant, mitochondrial complexes I, II, and IV and respiratory responses were defective in vitiligo cells. Nanoparticle-coated miR-211 partially augmented the oxygen consumption rate in PIG3V cells. The lower oxygen consumption rate, changes in lipid and metabolite profiles, and increased reactive oxygen species production observed in vitiligo cells appear to be partly due to abnormal regulation of miR-211 and its target genes. These genes represent potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in human vitiligo.

Keywords: metabolism, microRNA, mitochondria, vitiligo

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
48 Cellulose Nanocrystals Suspensions as Water-Based Lubricants for Slurry Pump Gland Seals

Authors: Mohammad Javad Shariatzadeh, Dana Grecov

Abstract:

The tribological tests were performed on a new tribometer, in order to measure the coefficient of friction of a gland seal packing material on stainless steel shafts in presence of Cellulose Nanocrystal (CNC) suspension as a sustainable, environmentally friendly, water-based lubricant. To simulate the real situation from the slurry pumps, silica sands were used as slurry particles. The surface profiles after tests were measured by interferometer microscope to characterize the surface wear. Moreover, the coefficient of friction and surface wear were measured between stainless steel shaft and chrome steel ball to investigate the tribological effects of CNC in boundary lubrication region. Alignment of nanoparticles in the CNC suspensions are the main reason for friction and wear reduction. The homogeneous concentrated suspensions showed fingerprint patterns of a chiral nematic liquid crystal. These properties made CNC a very good lubricant additive in water.

Keywords: gland seal, lubricant additives, nanocrystalline cellulose, water-based lubricants

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
47 The Contact Behaviors of Seals Under Combined Normal and Tangential Loading: A Multiscale Finite Element Contact Analysis

Authors: Runliang Wang, Jianhua Liu, Duo Jia, Xiaoyu Ding

Abstract:

The contact between sealing surfaces plays a vital role in guaranteeing the sealing performance of various seals. To date, analyses of sealing structures have rarely considered both structural parameters (macroscale) and surface roughness information (microscale) of sealing surfaces due to the complex modeling process. Meanwhile, most of the contact analyses applied to seals were conducted only under normal loading, which still existssome distance from real loading conditions in engineering. In this paper, a multiscale rough contact model, which took both macrostructural parameters of seals and surface roughness information of sealing surfaces into consideration for the cone-cone seal, was established. By using the finite element method (FEM), the combined normal and tangential loading was applied to the model to simulate the assembly process of the cone-cone seal. The evolution of the contact behaviors during the assembly process, such as the real contact area (RCA), the distribution of contact pressure, and contact status, are studied in detail. The results showed the non-linear relationship between the RCA and the load, which was different from the normal loading cases. In addition, the evolution of the real contact area of cone-cone seals with isotropic and anisotropic rough surfaces are also compared quantitatively.

Keywords: contact mechanics, FEM, randomly rough surface, real contact area, sealing

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
46 Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (Evar) with Endoanchors: For Tandem Aortic Abdominal Aneurysm (Aaa) with Hostile Neck & Proximal Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer

Authors: Von Jerick Tenorio, Jonald Lucero, Marivic Vestal, Edwin Tiempo

Abstract:

In patients with hostile aortic neck anatomy, the risks of proximal seal complications and stent migration remain with EVAR despite improved endograft technology. This case report discusses how the technical challenges of the hostile neck anatomy, proximal penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) and tortuous femoral access were addressed. The CT aortogram of a 63-year-old hypertensive and diabetic man with recurring abdominal discomfort revealed a fusiform infra-renal aneurysm measuring 8.8 cm in length and 5.7 cm in diameter. The proximal landing zone only has a 3 mm healthy neck with a conicity of > 10% and a thrombus of 4 mm thick. Proximal to the aneurysm is a PAU with a circumferential mural thrombus. The right femoral artery is tortuous with > 90o angulation. A 20% oversized Endurant II endograft and Aptus Heli-FX EndoAnchors were deployed as prophylaxis for type I endoleaks and endograft migration consequent to the conical neck and proximal aneurysm extension consequent to the PAU. A stiff Backup Meier guide wire facilitated the deployment of the endograft. Coil embolization of the right internal iliac artery was performed as prophylaxis for type II endoleaks. EndoAnchors can be used as an adjunct to EVAR as prophylaxis for proximal seal complications and stent migration in patients with hostile aortic aneurysm neck anatomy and concomitant proximal PAU.

Keywords: endoAnchors, endoleaks, EVAR, hostile neck

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
45 The Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Marine-Wildlife Tourism in Massachusetts, United States

Authors: K. C. Bloom, Cynde McInnis

Abstract:

The Covid-19 pandemic has caused immense changes in the way that we live, work and travel. The impact of these changes is readily apparent in tourism to Massachusetts and the region of New England. Whereas, in general, Massachusetts and New England are a hotspot for travelers from around the world, this form of travel has largely been shut down due to the pandemic. One such area where the impact has been felt is in marine-based wildlife tourism. Massachusetts is home to not only whales but also seals and great white sharks. Prior to the pandemic, whale watching had long been a popular activity while seal and shark tourism has been a developing one. Given that seeing a great white shark was rare in New England for many years, shark tourism has not played a role in the economies of the region until recently. While whales have steadily been found within the marine environments of Massachusetts and whale watching has been a popular attraction since the mid-1970s, the lack of great white sharks in New England was, in part, a response to a change in their environment in that a favorite food source, the gray seals, were culled by regional fishermen as the fishermen believed that seals were taking their catch. This retaliatory behavior ended when the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 (MMPA) was passed. The MMPA prohibited the killing of seals and since then the seal population has increased to traditional numbers (Tech Times, 2014). Given the increase in the seal population in New England, and especially Cape Cod, Massachusetts, there has been a similar increase in the numbers of great white sharks. In fact, over the time between 2004 and 2014, the number of sightings increased from an average of two per year to more than 20 (NY Post, 7/21/14). This has increased even more over the last six years. As a result, residents and businesses in Massachusetts have begun to embrace the great whites as a potential tourism draw. Local business owners are considering opening up cage diving and shark viewing businesses while there has also been an increase in shark-related merchandise throughout the Cape Cod region. Combined with a large whale watching industry, marine-based wildlife tourism is big business to Massachusetts. With the Covid-19 pandemic shuttering international travel, this study aims to look at the impacts of the pandemic on this industry. Through interviews with marine-based wildlife tourism businesses as well as survey data collection from visitors, this study looks at the holistic impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic on an important part of the marine tourism industry in the state.

Keywords: marine tourism, ecotourism, Covid, wildlife

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
44 Modeling of Gas Migration in High-Pressure–High-Temperature Fields

Authors: Deane Roehl, Roberto Quevedo

Abstract:

Gas migration from pressurized formations is a problem reported in the oil and gas industry. This means increased risks for drilling, production, well integrity, and hydrocarbon escape. Different processes can contribute to the development of pressurized formations, particularly in High-Pressure–High-Temperature (HPHT) gas fields. Over geological time-scales, the different formations of those fields have maintained and/or developed abnormal pressures owing to low permeability and the presence of an impermeable seal. However, if this seal is broken, large volumes of gas could migrate into other less pressurized formations. Three main mechanisms for gas migration have been identified in the literature –molecular diffusion, continuous-phase flow, and continuous-phase flow coupled with mechanical effects. In relation to the latter, gas migration can occur as a consequence of the mechanical effects triggered by reservoir depletion. The compaction of the reservoir can redistribute the in-situ stresses sufficiently to induce deformations that may increase the permeability of rocks and lead to fracture processes or reactivate nearby faults. The understanding of gas flow through discontinuities is still under development. However, some models based on porosity changes and fracture aperture have been developed in order to obtain enhanced permeabilities in numerical simulations. In this work, a simple relationship to integrate fluid flow through rock matrix and discontinuities has been implemented in a fully thermo-hydro-mechanical simulator developed in-house. Numerical simulations of hydrocarbon production in an HPHT field were carried out. Results suggest that rock permeability can be considerably affected by the deformation of the field, creating preferential flow paths for the transport of large volumes of gas.

Keywords: gas migration, pressurized formations, fractured rocks, numerical modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
43 Using Traffic Micro-Simulation to Assess the Benefits of Accelerated Pavement Construction for Reducing Traffic Emissions

Authors: Sudipta Ghorai, Ossama Salem

Abstract:

Pavement maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation (MRR) processes may have considerable environmental impacts due to traffic disruptions associated with work zones. The simulation models in use to predict the emission of work zones were mostly static emission factor models (SEFD). SEFD calculates emissions based on average operation conditions e.g. average speed and type of vehicles. Although these models produce accurate results for large-scale planning studies, they are not suitable for analyzing driving conditions at the micro level such as acceleration, deceleration, idling, cruising, and queuing in a work zone. The purpose of this study is to prepare a comprehensive work zone environmental assessment (WEA) framework to calculate the emissions caused due to disrupted traffic; by integrating traffic microsimulation tools with emission models. This will help highway officials to assess the benefits of accelerated construction and opt for the most suitable TMP not only economically but also from an environmental point of view.

Keywords: accelerated construction, pavement MRR, traffic microsimulation, congestion, emissions

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42 Producing Lutein Powder from Algae by Extraction and Drying

Authors: Zexin Lei, Timothy Langrish

Abstract:

Lutein is a type of carotene believed to be beneficial to the eyes. This study aims to explore the possibility of using a closed cycle spray drying system to produce lutein. The system contains a spray dryer, a condenser, a heater, and a pressure seal. Hexane, ethanol, and isopropanol will be used as organic solvents to compare the extraction effects. Several physical and chemical methods of cell disruption will be compared. By continuously sweeping the system with nitrogen, the oxygen content will be controlled below 2%, reducing the concentration of organic solvent below the explosion limit and preventing lutein from being oxidized. Lutein powder will be recovered in the collection device. The volatile organic solvent will be cooled in the condenser and deposited in the bottom until it is discharged from the bottom of the condenser.

Keywords: closed cycle spray drying system, Chlorella vulgaris, organic solvent, solvent recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
41 Critical Realism as a Bridge between Critical Pedagogy and Queer Theory

Authors: Mike Seal

Abstract:

This paper explores the traditions of critical and queer pedagogy, its intersections, tensions and paradoxes. Critical pedagogy, with a materialist realist ontology, and queer theory, which is often post-modern, post-structural and anti-essential, may not seem compatible. Similarly, there are tensions between activist orientations, often enacted through essential sexual identities, and a queer approach that questions such identities and subjectivities. It will argue that critical realism gives us a bridge between critical and queer pedagogy in preserving a realist materialist ontology, where economic forces are real, and independent of consciousness and hermeneutic constructions of them. At the same time, it offers an epistemology that does not necessitate a binary view of the roles of the oppressed, liberator, or even oppressor. It accepts that our knowledge is contingent, partial and contestable, but has the potential, and enough validity, to demand action and potentially inform the actions of others.

Keywords: critical pedagogy, queer pedagogy, critical realsim, heteronormativity

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40 Sustainable Harvesting, Conservation and Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Polygonatum Verticillatum Linn.

Authors: Anchal Rana

Abstract:

Indian Himalayas with their diverse climatic conditions are home to many rare and endangered medicinal flora. One such species is Polygonatum verticillatum Linn., popularly known as King Solomon’s Seal or Solomon’s Seal. Its mention as an incredible medicinal herb comes from 5000 years ago in Indian Materia Medica as a component of Ashtavarga, a poly-herbal formulation comprising of eight herbs illustrated as world’s first ever revitalizing and rejuvenating nutraceutical food, which is now commercialised in the name ‘Chaywanprash’. It is an erect tall (60 to 120 cm) perennial herb with sessile, linear leaves and white pendulous flowers. The species grows well in an altitude range of 1600 to 3600 m amsl, and propagates mostly through rhizomes. The rhizomes are potential source for significant phytochemicals like flavonoids, phenolics, lectins, terpenoids, allantoin, diosgenin, β-Sitosterol and quinine. The presence of such phytochemicals makes the species an asset for antioxidant, cardiotonic, demulcent, diuretic, energizer, emollient, aphrodisiac, appetizer, glactagogue, etc. properties. Having profound concentrations of macro and micronutrients, species has fine prospects of being used as a diet supplement. However, due to unscientific and gregarious uprooting, it has been assigned a status of ‘vulnerable’ and ‘endangered’ in the Conservation Assessment and Management Plan (CAMP) process conducted by Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions (FRLHT) during 2010, according to IUCN Red-List Criteria. Further, destructive harvesting, land use disturbances, heavy livestock grazing, climatic changes and habitat fragmentation have substantially contributed towards anomaly of the species. It, therefore, became imperative to conserve the diversity of the species and make judicious use in future research and commercial programme and schemes. A Gene Bank was therefore established at High Altitude Herbal Garden of the Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, India situated at Chakarata (30042’52.99’’N, 77051’36.77’’E, 2205 m amsl) consisting 149 accessions collected from thirty-one geographical locations spread over three Himalayan States of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttarakhand. The present investigations purport towards sampling and collection of divergent germplasm followed by planting and cultivation techniques. The ultimate aim is thereby focussed on analysing genetic diversity of the species and capturing promising genotypes for carrying out further genetic improvement programme so to contribute towards sustainable development and healthcare.

Keywords: Polygonatum verticillatum Linn., phytochemicals, genetic diversity, conservation, gene bank

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39 Charging-Vacuum Helium Mass Spectrometer Leak Detection Technology in the Application of Space Products Leak Testing and Error Control

Authors: Jijun Shi, Lichen Sun, Jianchao Zhao, Lizhi Sun, Enjun Liu, Chongwu Guo

Abstract:

Because of the consistency of pressure direction, more short cycle, and high sensitivity, Charging-Vacuum helium mass spectrometer leak testing technology is the most popular leak testing technology for the seal testing of the spacecraft parts, especially the small and medium size ones. Usually, auxiliary pump was used, and the minimum detectable leak rate could reach 5E-9Pa•m3/s, even better on certain occasions. Relative error is more important when evaluating the results. How to choose the reference leak, the background level of helium, and record formats would affect the leak rate tested. In the linearity range of leak testing system, it would reduce 10% relative error if the reference leak with larger leak rate was used, and the relative error would reduce obviously if the background of helium was low efficiently, the record format of decimal was used, and the more stable data were recorded.

Keywords: leak testing, spacecraft parts, relative error, error control

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38 Analysis of the Acoustic Performance of Vertical Internal Seals with Pet Wool as NBR 15.575-4NO Green Towers Building-DF

Authors: Lucas Aerre, Wallesson Faria, Roberto Pimentel, Juliana Santos

Abstract:

An extremely disturbing and irritating element in the lives of people and organizations is the noise, the consequences that can bring us has a lot of connection with human health as well as financial and economic aspects. In order to improve the efficiency of buildings in Brazil in general, a performance standard was created, NBR 15.575 in which all buildings are seen in a more systemic and peculiar way, while following the requirements of the standard. The acoustic performance present in these buildings is one such requirement. Based on this, the present work was elaborated with the objective of evaluating through acoustic measurements the acoustic performance of vertical internal fences that are under the incidence of aerial noise of a building in the city of Brasilia-DF. A short theoretical basis is made and soon after the procedures of measurement are described through the control method established by the standard, and its results are evaluated according to the parameters of the same. The measurement performed between rooms of the same unit, presented a standardized sound pressure level difference (D nT, w) equal to 40 dB, thus being classified within the minimum performance required by the standard in question.

Keywords: airborne noise, performance standard, soundproofing, vertical seal

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37 Manufacturing of Twist-Free Surfaces by Magnetism Aided Machining Technologies

Authors: Zs. Kovács, Zs. J. Viharos, J. Kodácsy

Abstract:

As a well-known conventional finishing process, the grinding is commonly used to manufacture seal mating surfaces and bearing surfaces, but is also creates twisted surfaces. The machined surfaces by turning or grinding usually have twist structure on the surfaces, which can convey lubricants such as conveyor screw. To avoid this phenomenon, have to use special techniques or machines, for example start-stop turning, tangential turning, ultrasonic protection or special toll geometries. All of these solutions have high cost and difficult usability. In this paper, we describe a system and summarize the results of the experimental research carried out mainly in the field of Magnetic Abrasive Polishing (MAP) and Magnetic Roller Burnishing (MRB). These technologies are simple and also green while able to produce twist-free surfaces. During the tests, C45 normalized steel was used as workpiece material which was machined by simple and Wiper geometrical turning inserts in a CNC turning lathe. After the turning, the MAP and MRB technologies can be used directly to reduce the twist of surfaces. The evaluation was completed by advanced measuring and IT equipment.

Keywords: magnetism, finishing, polishing, roller burnishing, twist-free

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36 Normally Closed Thermoplastic Microfluidic Valves with Microstructured Valve Seats: A Strategy to Avoid Permanently Bonded Valves during Channel Sealing

Authors: Kebin Li, Keith Morton, Matthew Shiu, Karine Turcotte, Luke Lukic, Teodor Veres

Abstract:

We present a normally closed thermoplastic microfluidic valve design that uses microstructured valve seats to locally prevent the membrane from bonding to the valve seat during microfluidic channel sealing. The microstructured valve seat reduces the adhesion force between the contact surfaces of the valve seat and the membrane locally, allowing valve open and close operations while simultaneously providing a permanent and robust bond elsewhere to cover and seal the microfluidic channel network. Dynamic valve operation including opening and closing times can be tuned by changing the valve seat diameter as well as the density of the microstructures on the valve seats. The influence of the microstructured valve seat on the general flow behavior through the microfluidic devices was also studied. A design window for the fabrication of valve structure is identified and discussed to minimize the fabrication complexity.

Keywords: hot-embossing, injection molding, microfabrication, microfluidics, microvalves, thermoplastic elastomer

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35 Formal History Teaching and Lifeworld Literacies: Developing Transversal Skills as an Embodied Learning Outcomes in Historical Research Projects

Authors: Paul Flynn, Luke O’Donnell

Abstract:

There is a pressing societal need for educators in formal and non-formal settings to develop pedagogical frameworks, programmes, and interventions that support the development of transversal skills for life beyond the classroom. These skills include communication, collaboration, interpersonal relationship building, problem-solving, and planning, and organizational skills; or lifeworld literacies encountered first hand. This is particularly true for young people aged between 15-18. This demographic represents both the future of society and those best positioned to take advantage of well-designed, structured educational supports within and across formal and non-formal settings. Secondary school history has been identified as an appropriate area of study which deftly develops many of those transversal skills so crucial to positive societal engagement. However, in the formal context, students often challenge history’s relevance to their own lived experience and dismiss it as a study option. In response to such challenges, teachers will often design stimulating lessons which are often well-received. That said, some students continue to question modern-day connections, presenting a persistent and pervasive classroom distraction. The continuing decline in numbers opting to study second-level history indicates an erosion of what should be a critical opportunity to develop all-important lifeworld literacies within formal education. In contrast, students readily acknowledge relevance in non-formal settings where many participants meaningfully engage with history by way of student-focused activities. Furthermore, many do so without predesigned pedagogical aids which support transversal skills development as embodied learning outcomes. As this paper will present, there is a dearth of work pertaining to the circular subject of history and its embodied learning outcomes, including lifeworld literacies, in formal and non-formal settings. While frequently challenging to reconcile formal (often defined by strict curricula and examination processes), and non-formal engagement with history, opportunities do exist. In the Irish context, this is exemplified by a popular university outreach programme: breaking the SEAL. This programme supports second-level history students as they fulfill curriculum requirements in completing a research study report. This report is a student-led research project pulling on communication skills, collaboration with peers and teachers, interpersonal relationships, problem-solving, and planning and organizational skills. Completion of this process has been widely recognized as excellent preparation not only for higher education (third level) but work-life demands as well. Within a formal education setting, the RSR harnesses non-formal learning virtues and exposes students to limited aspects of independent learning that relate to a professional work setting –a lifeworld literacy. Breaking the SEAL provides opportunities for students to enhance their lifeworld literacy by engaging in an independent research and learning process within the protective security of the classroom and its teacher. This paper will highlight the critical role this programme plays in preparing participating students (n=315) for life after compulsory education and presents examples of how lifeworld literacies may be developed through a scaffolded process of historical research and reporting anchored in non-formal contexts.

Keywords: history, education, literacy, transversal skills

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34 First Order Moment Bounds on DMRL and IMRL Classes of Life Distributions

Authors: Debasis Sengupta, Sudipta Das

Abstract:

The class of life distributions with decreasing mean residual life (DMRL) is well known in the field of reliability modeling. It contains the IFR class of distributions and is contained in the NBUE class of distributions. While upper and lower bounds of the reliability distribution function of aging classes such as IFR, IFRA, NBU, NBUE, and HNBUE have discussed in the literature for a long time, there is no analogous result available for the DMRL class. We obtain the upper and lower bounds for the reliability function of the DMRL class in terms of first order finite moment. The lower bound is obtained by showing that for any fixed time, the minimization of the reliability function over the class of all DMRL distributions with a fixed mean is equivalent to its minimization over a smaller class of distribution with a special form. Optimization over this restricted set can be made algebraically. Likewise, the maximization of the reliability function over the class of all DMRL distributions with a fixed mean turns out to be a parametric optimization problem over the class of DMRL distributions of a special form. The constructive proofs also establish that both the upper and lower bounds are sharp. Further, the DMRL upper bound coincides with the HNBUE upper bound and the lower bound coincides with the IFR lower bound. We also prove that a pair of sharp upper and lower bounds for the reliability function when the distribution is increasing mean residual life (IMRL) with a fixed mean. This result is proved in a similar way. These inequalities fill a long-standing void in the literature of the life distribution modeling.

Keywords: DMRL, IMRL, reliability bounds, hazard functions

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33 Impact of Climate Change on Sea Level Rise along the Coastline of Mumbai City, India

Authors: Chakraborty Sudipta, A. R. Kambekar, Sarma Arnab

Abstract:

Sea-level rise being one of the most important impacts of anthropogenic induced climate change resulting from global warming and melting of icebergs at Arctic and Antarctic, the investigations done by various researchers both on Indian Coast and elsewhere during the last decade has been reviewed in this paper. The paper aims to ascertain the propensity of consistency of different suggested methods to predict the near-accurate future sea level rise along the coast of Mumbai. Case studies at East Coast, Southern Tip and West and South West coast of India have been reviewed. Coastal Vulnerability Index of several important international places has been compared, which matched with Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts. The application of Geographic Information System mapping, use of remote sensing technology, both Multi Spectral Scanner and Thematic Mapping data from Landsat classified through Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique for arriving at high, moderate and low Coastal Vulnerability Index at various important coastal cities have been observed. Instead of data driven, hindcast based forecast for Significant Wave Height, additional impact of sea level rise has been suggested. Efficacy and limitations of numerical methods vis-à-vis Artificial Neural Network has been assessed, importance of Root Mean Square error on numerical results is mentioned. Comparing between various computerized methods on forecast results obtained from MIKE 21 has been opined to be more reliable than Delft 3D model.

Keywords: climate change, Coastal Vulnerability Index, global warming, sea level rise

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32 Shoring System Selection for Deep Excavation

Authors: Faouzi Ahtchi-Ali, Marcus Vitiello

Abstract:

A study was conducted in the east region of the Middle East to assess the constructability of a shoring system for a 12-meter deep excavation. Several shoring systems were considered in this study including secant concrete piling, contiguous concrete piling, and sheet-piling. The excavation was carried out in a very dense sand with the groundwater level located at 3 meters below ground surface. The study included conducting a pilot test for each shoring system listed above. The secant concrete piling included overlapping concrete piles to a depth of 16 meters. Drilling method with full steel casing was utilized to install the concrete piles. The verticality of the piles was a concern for the overlap. The contiguous concrete piling required the installation of micro-piles to seal the gap between the concrete piles. This method revealed that the gap between the piles was not fully sealed as observed by the groundwater penetration to the excavation. The sheet-piling method required pre-drilling due to the high blow count of the penetrated layer of saturated sand. This study concluded that the sheet-piling method with pre-drilling was the most cost effective and recommended a method for the shoring system.

Keywords: excavation, shoring system, middle east, Drilling method

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31 Sustainable Development: Evaluation of an Urban Neighborhood

Authors: Harith Mohammed Benbouali

Abstract:

The concept of sustainable development is becoming increasingly important in our society. The efforts of specialized agencies, cleverly portrayed in the media, allow a widespread environmental awareness. Far from the old environmental movement in the backward-looking nostalgia, the environment is combined with today's progress. Many areas now include these concerns in their efforts, this in order to try to reduce the negative impact of human activities on the environment. The quantitative dimension of development has given way to the quality aspect. However, this feature is not common, and the initial target was abandoned in favor of economic considerations. Specialists in the field of building and construction have constantly sought to further integrate the environmental dimension, creating a seal of high environmental quality buildings. The pursuit of well-being of neighborhood residents and the quality of buildings are also a hot topic in planning. Quality of life is considered so on, since financial concerns dominate to the detriment of the environment and the welfare of the occupants. This work concerns the development of an analytical method based on multiple indicators of objectives across the district. The quantification of indicators related to objectives allows the construction professional, the developer or the community, to quantify and compare different alternatives for development of a neighborhood. This quantification is based on the use of simulation tools and a multi-criteria aggregation.

Keywords: sustainable development, environment, district, indicators, multi-criteria analysis, evaluation

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30 Synthesis of Erlotinib Analogues, Conjugation of BSA to Erlotinib Alcohol and Their Anti-Cancer Activity against NSCLC

Authors: Ramalingam Boobalan, Chinpiao Chen, Jui-I. Chiao

Abstract:

A series of erlotinib analogues that have structural modification at 6,7-alkoxyl positions is efficiently synthesized. The key reactions that involved in synthesis are one-pot oxime formation-dehydration for the formation of nitrile, quinazoline ring formation reaction between aniline and o-cyanoaniline via formamidine intermediate, Fe/NH4Cl catalyzed reduction-hetereocyclization-reductive ring opening reaction for the formation of o-aminobenzamide, high yielding seal tube reactions for O-demethylation, sodium iodide substitution, ammonia substitution. The in vitro anti-tumor activity of synthesized compounds is studied in two non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines (A549 and H1975). Among the synthesized compounds, the iodo compound 6 (ETN-6) exhibits higher anti-cancer activity compared to erlotinib. An efficient method is developed for the conjugation of erlotinib analogue-4, alcohol compound, with protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), via succinic acid linker. The in vitro anti-tumor activity of the protein attached erlotinib analogue, 8 (ETN-4-Suc-BSA), showed stronger inhibitory activity in both A549 and H1975 NSCLC cell lines.

Keywords: anti-cancer, BSA, EGFR, Erlotinib

Procedia PDF Downloads 263