Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 630

Search results for: evolutional triangle similarity

630 Study on the Self-Location Estimate by the Evolutional Triangle Similarity Matching Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

Authors: Yuji Kageyama, Shin Nagata, Tatsuya Takino, Izuru Nomura, Hiroyuki Kamata


In previous study, technique to estimate a self-location by using a lunar image is proposed. We consider the improvement of the conventional method in consideration of FPGA implementation in this paper. Specifically, we introduce Artificial Bee Colony algorithm for reduction of search time. In addition, we use fixed point arithmetic to enable high-speed operation on FPGA.

Keywords: SLIM, Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm, location estimate, evolutional triangle similarity

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
629 Evolutional Substitution Cipher on Chaotic Attractor

Authors: Adda Ali-Pacha, Naima Hadj-Said


Nowadays, the security of information is primarily founded on the calculation of algorithms that confidentiality depend on the number of bits necessary to define a cryptographic key. In this work, we introduce a new chaotic cryptosystem that we call evolutional substitution cipher on a chaotic attractor. In this research paper, we take the Henon attractor. The evolutional substitution cipher on Henon attractor is based on the principle of monoalphabetic cipher and it associates the plaintext at a succession of real numbers calculated from the attractor equations.

Keywords: cryptography, substitution cipher, chaos theory, Henon attractor, evolutional substitution cipher

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
628 A Study of Evolutional Control Systems

Authors: Ti-Jun Xiao, Zhe Xu


Controllability is one of the fundamental issues in control systems. In this paper, we study the controllability of second order evolutional control systems in Hilbert spaces with memory and boundary controls, which model dynamic behaviors of some viscoelastic materials. Transferring the control problem into a moment problem and showing the Riesz property of a family of functions related to Cauchy problems for some integrodifferential equations, we obtain a general boundary controllability theorem for these second order evolutional control systems. This controllability theorem is applicable to various concrete 1D viscoelastic systems and recovers some previous related results. It is worth noting that Riesz sequences can be used for numerical computations of the control functions and the identification of new Riesz sequence is of independent interest for the basis-function theory. Moreover, using the Riesz sequences, we obtain the existence and uniqueness of (weak) solutions to these second order evolutional control systems in Hilbert spaces. Finally, we derive the exact boundary controllability of a viscoelastic beam equation, as an application of our abstract theorem.

Keywords: evolutional control system, controllability, boundary control, existence and uniqueness

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
627 A Generalization of Planar Pascal’s Triangle to Polynomial Expansion and Connection with Sierpinski Patterns

Authors: Wajdi Mohamed Ratemi


The very well-known stacked sets of numbers referred to as Pascal’s triangle present the coefficients of the binomial expansion of the form (x+y)n. This paper presents an approach (the Staircase Horizontal Vertical, SHV-method) to the generalization of planar Pascal’s triangle for polynomial expansion of the form (x+y+z+w+r+⋯)n. The presented generalization of Pascal’s triangle is different from other generalizations of Pascal’s triangles given in the literature. The coefficients of the generalized Pascal’s triangles, presented in this work, are generated by inspection, using embedded Pascal’s triangles. The coefficients of I-variables expansion are generated by horizontally laying out the Pascal’s elements of (I-1) variables expansion, in a staircase manner, and multiplying them with the relevant columns of vertically laid out classical Pascal’s elements, hence avoiding factorial calculations for generating the coefficients of the polynomial expansion. Furthermore, the classical Pascal’s triangle has some pattern built into it regarding its odd and even numbers. Such pattern is known as the Sierpinski’s triangle. In this study, a presentation of Sierpinski-like patterns of the generalized Pascal’s triangles is given. Applications related to those coefficients of the binomial expansion (Pascal’s triangle), or polynomial expansion (generalized Pascal’s triangles) can be in areas of combinatorics, and probabilities.

Keywords: pascal’s triangle, generalized pascal’s triangle, polynomial expansion, sierpinski’s triangle, combinatorics, probabilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
626 The Malfatti’s Problem in Reuleaux Triangle

Authors: Ching-Shoei Chiang


The Malfatti’s Problem is to ask for fitting 3 circles into a right triangle such that they are tangent to each other, and each circle is also tangent to a pair of the triangle’s side. This problem has been extended to any triangle (called general Malfatti’s Problem). Furthermore, the problem has been extended to have 1+2+…+n circles, we call it extended general Malfatti’s problem, these circles whose tangency graph, using the center of circles as vertices and the edge connect two circles center if these two circles tangent to each other, has the structure as Pascal’s triangle, and the exterior circles of these circles tangent to three sides of the triangle. In the extended general Malfatti’s problem, there are closed-form solutions for n=1, 2, and the problem becomes complex when n is greater than 2. In solving extended general Malfatti’s problem (n>2), we initially give values to the radii of all circles. From the tangency graph and current radii, we can compute angle value between two vectors. These vectors are from the center of the circle to the tangency points with surrounding elements, and these surrounding elements can be the boundary of the triangle or other circles. For each circle C, there are vectors from its center c to its tangency point with its neighbors (count clockwise) pi, i=0, 1,2,..,n. We add all angles between cpi to cp(i+1) mod (n+1), i=0,1,..,n, call it sumangle(C) for circle C. Using sumangle(C), we can reduce/enlarge the radii for all circles in next iteration, until sumangle(C) is equal to 2πfor all circles. With a similar idea, this paper proposed an algorithm to find the radii of circles whose tangency has the structure of Pascal’s triangle, and the exterior circles of these circles are tangent to the unit Realeaux Triangle.

Keywords: Malfatti’s problem, geometric constraint solver, computer-aided geometric design, circle packing, data visualization

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625 Practical Limitations of the Fraud Triangle Framework in Fraud Prevention

Authors: Alexander Glebovskiy


Practitioners charged with fraud prevention and investigation strongly rely on the Fraud Triangle framework developed by Joseph T. Wells in 1997 while analyzing the causes of fraud at business organizations. The Fraud Triangle model explains fraud by elements such as pressure, opportunity, and rationalization. This view is not fully suitable for effective fraud prevention as the Fraud Triangle model provides limited insight into the causation of fraud. Fraud is a multifaceted phenomenon, the contextual factors of which may not fit into any framework. Employee criminal behavior in business organizations is influenced by environmental, individual, and organizational aspects. Therefore, further criminogenic factors and processes facilitating fraud in organizational settings need to be considered in the root-cause analysis: organizational culture, leadership style, groupthink effect, isomorphic behavior, crime of obedience, displacement of responsibility, lack of critical thinking and unquestioning conformity and loyalty.

Keywords: criminogenesis, fraud triangle, fraud prevention, organizational culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
624 Limiting Fracture Stress of Composite Ceramics with Symmetric Triangle Eutectic

Authors: Jian Zheng, Jinfeng Yu, Xinhua Ni


The limiting fracture stress predicting model of composite ceramics with symmetric triangle eutectic was established based on its special microscopic structure. The symmetric triangle eutectic is consisted of matrix, the strong constraint inter-phase and reinforced fiber inclusions which are 120 degrees uniform symmetrical distribution. Considering the conditions of the rupture of the cohesive bond between matrix and fibers in eutectic and the stress concentration effect at the fiber end, the intrinsic fracture stress of eutectic was obtained. Based on the biggest micro-damage strain in eutectic, defining the load function, the macro-damage fracture stress of symmetric triangle eutectic was determined by boundary conditions. Introducing the conception of critical zone, the theoretical limiting fracture stress forecasting model of composite ceramics was got, and the stress was related to the fiber size and fiber volume fraction in eutectic. The calculated results agreed with the experimental results in the literature.

Keywords: symmetric triangle eutectic, composite ceramics, limiting stress, intrinsic fracture stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
623 Supply Chain Resilience Triangle: The Study and Development of a Framework

Authors: M. Bevilacqua, F. E. Ciarapica, G. Marcucci


Supply Chain Resilience has been broadly studied during the last decade, focusing the research on many aspects of Supply Chain performance. Consequently, different definitions of Supply Chain Resilience have been developed by the research community, drawing inspiration also from other fields of study such as ecology, sociology, psychology, economy et al. This way, the definitions so far developed in the extant literature are therefore very heterogeneous, and many authors have pointed out a lack of consensus in this field of analysis. The aim of this research is to find common points between these definitions, through the development of a framework of study: the Resilience Triangle. The Resilience Triangle is a tool developed in the field of civil engineering, with the objective of modeling the loss of resilience of a given structure during and after the occurrence of a disruption such as an earthquake. The Resilience Triangle is a simple yet powerful tool: in our opinion, it can summarize all the features that authors have captured in the Supply Chain Resilience definitions over the years. This research intends to recapitulate within this framework all these heterogeneities in Supply Chain Resilience research. After collecting a various number of Supply Chain Resilience definitions present in the extant literature, the methodology approach provides a taxonomy step with the scope of collecting and analyzing all the data gathered. The next step provides the comparison of the data obtained with the plotting of a disruption profile, in order to contextualize the Resilience Triangle in the Supply Chain context. The tool and the results developed in this research will allow to lay the foundation for future Supply Chain Resilience modeling and measurement work.

Keywords: supply chain resilience, resilience definition, supply chain resilience triangle

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
622 Approximately Similarity Measurement of Web Sites Using Genetic Algorithms and Binary Trees

Authors: Doru Anastasiu Popescu, Dan Rădulescu


In this paper, we determine the similarity of two HTML web applications. We are going to use a genetic algorithm in order to determine the most significant web pages of each application (we are not going to use every web page of a site). Using these significant web pages, we will find the similarity value between the two applications. The algorithm is going to be efficient because we are going to use a reduced number of web pages for comparisons but it will return an approximate value of the similarity. The binary trees are used to keep the tags from the significant pages. The algorithm was implemented in Java language.

Keywords: Tag, HTML, web page, genetic algorithm, similarity value, binary tree

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
621 Measuring Text-Based Semantics Relatedness Using WordNet

Authors: Madiha Khan, Sidrah Ramzan, Seemab Khan, Shahzad Hassan, Kamran Saeed


Measuring semantic similarity between texts is calculating semantic relatedness between texts using various techniques. Our web application (Measuring Relatedness of Concepts-MRC) allows user to input two text corpuses and get semantic similarity percentage between both using WordNet. Our application goes through five stages for the computation of semantic relatedness. Those stages are: Preprocessing (extracts keywords from content), Feature Extraction (classification of words into Parts-of-Speech), Synonyms Extraction (retrieves synonyms against each keyword), Measuring Similarity (using keywords and synonyms, similarity is measured) and Visualization (graphical representation of similarity measure). Hence the user can measure similarity on basis of features as well. The end result is a percentage score and the word(s) which form the basis of similarity between both texts with use of different tools on same platform. In future work we look forward for a Web as a live corpus application that provides a simpler and user friendly tool to compare documents and extract useful information.

Keywords: Graphviz representation, semantic relatedness, similarity measurement, WordNet similarity

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
620 Design and Evaluation on Sierpinski-Triangle Acoustic Diffusers Based on Fractal Theory

Authors: Lingge Tan, Hongpeng Xu, Jieun Yang, Maarten Hornikx


Acoustic diffusers are important components in enhancing the quality of room acoustics. This paper provides a type of modular diffuser based on the Sierpinski Triangle of the plane and combines it with fractal theory to expand the effective frequency range. In numerical calculations and full-scale model experiments, the effect of fractal design elements on normal-incidence diffusion coefficients is examined. It is demonstrated the reasonable times of iteration of modules is three, and the coverage density is 58.4% in the design frequency from 125Hz to 4kHz.

Keywords: acoustic diffuser, fractal, Sierpinski-triangle, diffusion coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
619 Quick Similarity Measurement of Binary Images via Probabilistic Pixel Mapping

Authors: Adnan A. Y. Mustafa


In this paper we present a quick technique to measure the similarity between binary images. The technique is based on a probabilistic mapping approach and is fast because only a minute percentage of the image pixels need to be compared to measure the similarity, and not the whole image. We exploit the power of the Probabilistic Matching Model for Binary Images (PMMBI) to arrive at an estimate of the similarity. We show that the estimate is a good approximation of the actual value, and the quality of the estimate can be improved further with increased image mappings. Furthermore, the technique is image size invariant; the similarity between big images can be measured as fast as that for small images. Examples of trials conducted on real images are presented.

Keywords: big images, binary images, image matching, image similarity

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
618 A Context-Sensitive Algorithm for Media Similarity Search

Authors: Guang-Ho Cha


This paper presents a context-sensitive media similarity search algorithm. One of the central problems regarding media search is the semantic gap between the low-level features computed automatically from media data and the human interpretation of them. This is because the notion of similarity is usually based on high-level abstraction but the low-level features do not sometimes reflect the human perception. Many media search algorithms have used the Minkowski metric to measure similarity between image pairs. However those functions cannot adequately capture the aspects of the characteristics of the human visual system as well as the nonlinear relationships in contextual information given by images in a collection. Our search algorithm tackles this problem by employing a similarity measure and a ranking strategy that reflect the nonlinearity of human perception and contextual information in a dataset. Similarity search in an image database based on this contextual information shows encouraging experimental results.

Keywords: context-sensitive search, image search, similarity ranking, similarity search

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
617 An Anatomic Approach to the Lingual Artery in the Carotid Triangle in South Indian Population

Authors: Ashwin Rai, Rajalakshmi Rai, Rajanigandha Vadgoankar


Lingual artery is the chief artery of the tongue and the neighboring structures pertaining to the oral cavity. At the carotid triangle, this artery arises from the external carotid artery opposite to the tip of greater cornua of hyoid bone, undergoes a tortuous course with its first part being crossed by the hypoglossal nerve and runs beneath the digastric muscle. Then it continues to supply the tongue as the deep lingual artery. The aim of this study is to draw surgeon's attention to the course of lingual artery in this area since it can be accidentally lesioned causing an extensive hemorrhage in certain surgical or dental procedures. The study was conducted on 44 formalin fixed head and neck specimens focusing on the anatomic relations of lingual artery. In this study, we found that the lingual artery is located inferior to the digastric muscle and the hypoglossal nerve contradictory to the classical description. This data would be useful during ligation of lingual artery to avoid injury to the hypoglossal nerve in surgeries related to the anterior triangle of neck.

Keywords: anterior triangle, digastric muscle, hypoglossal nerve, lingual artery

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
616 Application of Intelligent City and Hierarchy Intelligent Buildings in Kuala Lumpur

Authors: Jalalludin Abdul Malek, Zurinah Tahir


When the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) was launched in 1995, it became the catalyst for the implementation of the intelligent city concept, an area that covers about 15 x 50 kilometres from Kuala Lumpur City Centre (KLCC), Putrajaya and Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA). The concept of intelligent city means that the city has an advanced infrastructure and infostructure such as information technology, advanced telecommunication systems, electronic technology and mechanical technology to be utilized for the development of urban elements such as industries, health, services, transportation and communications. For example, the Golden Triangle of Kuala Lumpur has also many intelligent buildings developed by the private sector such as the KLCC Tower to implement the intelligent city concept. Consequently, the intelligent buildings in the Golden Triangle can be linked directly to the Putrajaya Intelligent City and Cyberjaya Intelligent City within the confines of the MSC. However, the reality of the situation is that there are not many intelligent buildings within the Golden Triangle Kuala Lumpur scope which can be considered of high-standard intelligent buildings as referred to by the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) building standard. This increases the need to implement the real ‘intelligent city’ concept. This paper aims to show the strengths and weaknesses of the intelligent buildings in the Golden Triangle by taking into account aspects of 'intelligence' in the areas of technology and infrastructure of buildings.

Keywords: intelligent city concepts, intelligent building, Golden Triangle, Kuala Lumpur

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
615 Review and Suggestions of the Similarity between Employee and Its Workplace

Authors: Gi Ryung Song, Kyoung Seok Kim


This study reviewed the literature that focused on similarity of various characteristics such as values, personality, or demographics between employee and other elements in its organization for example employee with leader, job, and organization. We divided a body of this study into two parts and organized and demonstrated recent studies in first part. Three issues appeared in this part, which are statistical ways of measuring similarity, supervisor-subordinate similarity, and person-organization fit with person-job fit. In the latter part, based on the three issues of recent studies, we suggested three propositions about points that the recent studies missed or the studies did not orient. First proposition argued about the direction of similarity, which could also be interpreted as there is causal relation between employee and its workplace environments. Second, we suggested a consideration of eliminating common variance buried in one’s characteristics or its profiles. Third proposition was about the similarity of extra role behavior between individual and organization, and we treated this organization’s level of extra role behavior as a kind of its culture. In doing so, similarity of individual’s extra role behavior and organization’s has the meaning that individual’s congruence against their organization culture.

Keywords: similarity, person-organization fit, supervisor-subordinate similarity, literature review

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
614 2D Fingerprint Performance for PubChem Chemical Database

Authors: Fatimah Zawani Abdullah, Shereena Mohd Arif, Nurul Malim


The study of molecular similarity search in chemical database is increasingly widespread, especially in the area of drug discovery. Similarity search is an application in the field of Chemoinformatics to measure the similarity between the molecular structure which is known as the query and the structure of chemical compounds in the database. Similarity search is also one of the approaches in virtual screening which involves computational techniques and scoring the probabilities of activity. The main objective of this work is to determine the best fingerprint when compared to the other five fingerprints selected in this study using PubChem chemical dataset. This paper will discuss the similarity searching process conducted using 6 types of descriptors, which are ECFP4, ECFC4, FCFP4, FCFC4, SRECFC4 and SRFCFC4 on 15 activity classes of PubChem dataset using Tanimoto coefficient to calculate the similarity between the query structures and each of the database structure. The results suggest that ECFP4 performs the best to be used with Tanimoto coefficient in the PubChem dataset.

Keywords: 2D fingerprints, Tanimoto, PubChem, similarity searching, chemoinformatics

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
613 Similarity Based Membership of Elements to Uncertain Concept in Information System

Authors: M. Kamel El-Sayed


The process of determining the degree of membership for an element to an uncertain concept has been found in many ways, using equivalence and symmetry relations in information systems. In the case of similarity, these methods did not take into account the degree of symmetry between elements. In this paper, we use a new definition for finding the membership based on the degree of symmetry. We provide an example to clarify the suggested methods and compare it with previous methods. This method opens the door to more accurate decisions in information systems.

Keywords: information system, uncertain concept, membership function, similarity relation, degree of similarity

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
612 Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering Using the Tθ Family of Similarity Measures

Authors: Salima Kouici, Abdelkader Khelladi


In this work, we begin with the presentation of the Tθ family of usual similarity measures concerning multidimensional binary data. Subsequently, some properties of these measures are proposed. Finally, the impact of the use of different inter-elements measures on the results of the Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering Methods is studied.

Keywords: binary data, similarity measure, Tθ measures, agglomerative hierarchical clustering

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
611 Empirical Study of Partitions Similarity Measures

Authors: Abdelkrim Alfalah, Lahcen Ouarbya, John Howroyd


This paper investigates and compares the performance of four existing distances and similarity measures between partitions. The partition measures considered are Rand Index (RI), Adjusted Rand Index (ARI), Variation of Information (VI), and Normalised Variation of Information (NVI). This work investigates the ability of these partition measures to capture three predefined intuitions: the variation within randomly generated partitions, the sensitivity to small perturbations, and finally the independence from the dataset scale. It has been shown that the Adjusted Rand Index performed well overall, with regards to these three intuitions.

Keywords: clustering, comparing partitions, similarity measure, partition distance, partition metric, similarity between partitions, clustering comparison.

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
610 A Similarity Measure for Classification and Clustering in Image Based Medical and Text Based Banking Applications

Authors: K. P. Sandesh, M. H. Suman


Text processing plays an important role in information retrieval, data-mining, and web search. Measuring the similarity between the documents is an important operation in the text processing field. In this project, a new similarity measure is proposed. To compute the similarity between two documents with respect to a feature the proposed measure takes the following three cases into account: (1) The feature appears in both documents; (2) The feature appears in only one document and; (3) The feature appears in none of the documents. The proposed measure is extended to gauge the similarity between two sets of documents. The effectiveness of our measure is evaluated on several real-world data sets for text classification and clustering problems, especially in banking and health sectors. The results show that the performance obtained by the proposed measure is better than that achieved by the other measures.

Keywords: document classification, document clustering, entropy, accuracy, classifiers, clustering algorithms

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609 Detecting Model Financial Statement Fraud by Auditor Industry Specialization with Fraud Triangle Analysis

Authors: Reskino Resky


This research purposes to create a model to detecting financial statement fraud. This research examines the variable of fraud triangle and auditor industry specialization with financial statement fraud. This research used sample of company which is listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange that have sanctions and cases by Financial Services Authority in 2011-2013. The number of company that were became in this research were 30 fraud company and 30 non-fraud company. The method of determining the sample is by using purposive sampling method with judgement sampling, while the data processing methods used by researcher are mann-whitney u and discriminants analysis. This research have two from five variable that can be process with discriminant analysis. The result shows the financial targets can be detect financial statement fraud, while financial stability can’t be detect financial statement fraud.

Keywords: fraud triangle analysis, financial targets, financial stability, auditor industry specialization, financial statement fraud

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
608 Tool for Determining the Similarity between Two Web Applications

Authors: Doru Anastasiu Popescu, Raducanu Dragos Ionut


In this paper the presentation of a tool which measures the similarity between two websites is made. The websites are compound only from webpages created with HTML. The tool uses three ways of calculating the similarity between two websites based on certain results already published. The first way compares all the webpages within a website, the second way compares a webpage with all the pages within the second website and the third way compares two webpages. Java programming language and technologies such as spring, Jsoup, log4j were used for the implementation of the tool.

Keywords: Java, Jsoup, HTM, spring

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
607 Improving Similarity Search Using Clustered Data

Authors: Deokho Kim, Wonwoo Lee, Jaewoong Lee, Teresa Ng, Gun-Ill Lee, Jiwon Jeong


This paper presents a method for improving object search accuracy using a deep learning model. A major limitation to provide accurate similarity with deep learning is the requirement of huge amount of data for training pairwise similarity scores (metrics), which is impractical to collect. Thus, similarity scores are usually trained with a relatively small dataset, which comes from a different domain, causing limited accuracy on measuring similarity. For this reason, this paper proposes a deep learning model that can be trained with a significantly small amount of data, a clustered data which of each cluster contains a set of visually similar images. In order to measure similarity distance with the proposed method, visual features of two images are extracted from intermediate layers of a convolutional neural network with various pooling methods, and the network is trained with pairwise similarity scores which is defined zero for images in identical cluster. The proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art object similarity scoring techniques on evaluation for finding exact items. The proposed method achieves 86.5% of accuracy compared to the accuracy of the state-of-the-art technique, which is 59.9%. That is, an exact item can be found among four retrieved images with an accuracy of 86.5%, and the rest can possibly be similar products more than the accuracy. Therefore, the proposed method can greatly reduce the amount of training data with an order of magnitude as well as providing a reliable similarity metric.

Keywords: visual search, deep learning, convolutional neural network, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
606 Text Similarity in Vector Space Models: A Comparative Study

Authors: Omid Shahmirzadi, Adam Lugowski, Kenneth Younge


Automatic measurement of semantic text similarity is an important task in natural language processing. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of different vector space models to perform this task. We address the real-world problem of modeling patent-to-patent similarity and compare TFIDF (and related extensions), topic models (e.g., latent semantic indexing), and neural models (e.g., paragraph vectors). Contrary to expectations, the added computational cost of text embedding methods is justified only when: 1) the target text is condensed; and 2) the similarity comparison is trivial. Otherwise, TFIDF performs surprisingly well in other cases: in particular for longer and more technical texts or for making finer-grained distinctions between nearest neighbors. Unexpectedly, extensions to the TFIDF method, such as adding noun phrases or calculating term weights incrementally, were not helpful in our context.

Keywords: big data, patent, text embedding, text similarity, vector space model

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605 Static vs. Stream Mining Trajectories Similarity Measures

Authors: Musaab Riyadh, Norwati Mustapha, Dina Riyadh


Trajectory similarity can be defined as the cost of transforming one trajectory into another based on certain similarity method. It is the core of numerous mining tasks such as clustering, classification, and indexing. Various approaches have been suggested to measure similarity based on the geometric and dynamic properties of trajectory, the overlapping between trajectory segments, and the confined area between entire trajectories. In this article, an evaluation of these approaches has been done based on computational cost, usage memory, accuracy, and the amount of data which is needed in advance to determine its suitability to stream mining applications. The evaluation results show that the stream mining applications support similarity methods which have low computational cost and memory, single scan on data, and free of mathematical complexity due to the high-speed generation of data.

Keywords: global distance measure, local distance measure, semantic trajectory, spatial dimension, stream data mining

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604 The Planner's Pentangle: A Proposal for a 21st-Century Model of Planning for Sustainable Development

Authors: Sonia Hirt


The Planner's Triangle, an oft-cited model that visually defined planning as the search for sustainability to balance the three basic priorities of equity, economy, and environment, has influenced planning theory and practice for a quarter of a century. In this essay, we argue that the triangle requires updating and expansion. Even if planners keep sustainability as their key core aspiration at the center of their imaginary geometry, the triangle's vertices have to be rethought. Planners should move on to a 21st-century concept. We propose a Planner's Pentangle with five basic priorities as vertices of a new conceptual polygon. These five priorities are Wellbeing, Equity, Economy, Environment, and Esthetics (WE⁴). The WE⁴ concept more accurately and fully represents planning’s history. This is especially true in the United States, where public art and public health played pivotal roles in the establishment of the profession in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It also more accurately represents planning’s future. Both health/wellness and aesthetic concerns are becoming increasingly important in the 21st century. The pentangle can become an effective tool for understanding and visualizing planning's history and present. Planning has a long history of representing urban presents and future as conceptual models in visual form. Such models can play an important role in understanding and shaping practice. For over two decades, one such model, the Planner's Triangle, stood apart as the expression of planning's pursuit for sustainability. But if the model is outdated and insufficiently robust, it can diminish our understanding of planning practice, as well as the appreciation of the profession among non-planners. Thus, we argue for a new conceptual model of what planners do.

Keywords: sustainable development, planning for sustainable development, planner's triangle, planner's pentangle, planning and health, planning and art, planning history

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603 Seismic Performance of RC Frames Equipped with Friction Panels Under Different Slip Load Distributions

Authors: Neda Nabid, Iman Hajirasouliha, Sanaz Shirinbar


One of the most challenging issues in earthquake engineering is to find effective ways to reduce earthquake forces and damage to structural and non-structural elements under strong earthquakes. While friction dampers are the most efficient systems to improve the seismic performance of substandard structures, their optimum design is a challenging task. This research aims to find more appropriate slip load distribution pattern for efficient design of friction panels. Non-linear dynamic analyses are performed on 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20-story RC frame using Drain-2dx software to find the appropriate range of slip loads and investigate the effects of different distribution patterns (cantilever, uniform, triangle, and reverse triangle) under six different earthquake records. The results indicate that using triangle load distribution can significantly increase the energy dissipation capacity of the frame and reduce the maximum inter-storey drift, and roof displacement.

Keywords: friction panels, slip load, distribution patterns, RC frames, energy dissipation

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602 Discovering the Dimension of Abstractness: Structure-Based Model that Learns New Categories and Categorizes on Different Levels of Abstraction

Authors: Georgi I. Petkov, Ivan I. Vankov, Yolina A. Petrova


A structure-based model of category learning and categorization at different levels of abstraction is presented. The model compares different structures and expresses their similarity implicitly in the forms of mappings. Based on this similarity, the model can categorize different targets either as members of categories that it already has or creates new categories. The model is novel using two threshold parameters to evaluate the structural correspondence. If the similarity between two structures exceeds the higher threshold, a new sub-ordinate category is created. Vice versa, if the similarity does not exceed the higher threshold but does the lower one, the model creates a new category on higher level of abstraction.

Keywords: analogy-making, categorization, learning of categories, abstraction, hierarchical structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
601 Graph Similarity: Algebraic Model and Its Application to Nonuniform Signal Processing

Authors: Nileshkumar Vishnav, Aditya Tatu


A recent approach of representing graph signals and graph filters as polynomials is useful for graph signal processing. In this approach, the adjacency matrix plays pivotal role; instead of the more common approach involving graph-Laplacian. In this work, we follow the adjacency matrix based approach and corresponding algebraic signal model. We further expand the theory and introduce the concept of similarity of two graphs. The similarity of graphs is useful in that key properties (such as filter-response, algebra related to graph) get transferred from one graph to another. We demonstrate potential applications of the relation between two similar graphs, such as nonuniform filter design, DTMF detection and signal reconstruction.

Keywords: graph signal processing, algebraic signal processing, graph similarity, isospectral graphs, nonuniform signal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 249