Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Sharmila Sankar

26 Analysis of Threats in Interoperability of Medical Devices

Authors: M. Sandhya, R. M. Madhumitha, Sharmila Sankar

Abstract:

Interoperable medical devices (IMDs) face threats due to the increased attack surface accessible by interoperability and the corresponding infrastructure. Initiating networking and coordination functionalities primarily modify medical systems' security properties. Understanding the threats is a vital first step in ultimately crafting security solutions for such systems. The key to this problem is coming up with some common types of threats or attacks with those of security and privacy, and providing this information as a roadmap. This paper analyses the security issues in interoperability of devices and presents the main types of threats that have to be considered to build a secured system.

Keywords: interoperability, threats, attacks, medical devices

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25 Behaviour of Rc Column under Biaxial Cyclic Loading-State of the Art

Authors: L. Pavithra, R. Sharmila, Shivani Sridhar

Abstract:

Columns severe structural damage needs proportioning a significant portion of earthquake energy can be dissipated yielding in the beams. Presence of axial load along with cyclic loading has a significant influence on column. The objective of this paper is to present the analytical results of columns subjected to biaxial cyclic loading.

Keywords: RC column, Seismic behaviour, cyclic behaviour, biaxial testing, ductile behaviour

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24 Reliability Analysis in Power Distribution System

Authors: R. A. Deshpande, P. Chandhra Sekhar, V. Sankar

Abstract:

In this paper, we discussed the basic reliability evaluation techniques needed to evaluate the reliability of distribution systems which are applied in distribution system planning and operation. Basically, the reliability study can also help to predict the reliability performance of the system after quantifying the impact of adding new components to the system. The number and locations of new components needed to improve the reliability indices to certain limits are identified and studied.

Keywords: distribution system, reliability indices, urban feeder, rural feeder

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23 Foil Bearing Stiffness Estimation with Pseudospectral Scheme

Authors: Balaji Sankar, Sadanand Kulkarni

Abstract:

Compliant foil gas lubricated bearings are used for the support of light loads in the order of few kilograms at high speeds, in the order of 50,000 RPM. The stiffness of the foil bearings depends both on the stiffness of the compliant foil and on the lubricating gas film. The stiffness of the bearings plays a crucial role in the stable operation of the supported rotor over a range of speeds. This paper describes a numerical approach to estimate the stiffness of the bearings using pseudo spectral scheme. Methodology to obtain the stiffness of the foil bearing as a function of weight of the shaft is given and the results are presented.

Keywords: foil bearing, simulation, numerical, stiffness estimation

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22 EMG Based Orthosis for Upper Limb Rehabilitation in Hemiparesis Patients

Authors: Nancy N. Sharmila, Aparna Mishra

Abstract:

Hemiparesis affects almost 80% of stroke patients each year. It is marked by paralysis or weakness on one half of the body. Our model provides both assistance and physical therapy for hemiparesis patients for swift recovery. In order to accomplish our goal a force is provided that pulls the forearm up (as in flexing the arm), and pushes the forearm down (as in extending the arm), which will also assist the user during ADL (Activities of Daily Living). The model consists of a mechanical component which is placed around the patient’s bicep and an EMG control circuit to assist patients in daily activities, which makes it affordable and easy to use. In order to enhance the neuromuscular system’s effectiveness in synchronize the movement, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) concept is used. The EMG signals are acquired from the unaffected arm as an input to drive the orthosis. This way the patient is invigorated to use the orthosis for regular exercise.

Keywords: EMG, hemiparesis, orthosis, rehabilitation

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21 Empirical and Indian Automotive Equity Portfolio Decision Support

Authors: P. Sankar, P. James Daniel Paul, Siddhant Sahu

Abstract:

A brief review of the empirical studies on the methodology of the stock market decision support would indicate that they are at a threshold of validating the accuracy of the traditional and the fuzzy, artificial neural network and the decision trees. Many researchers have been attempting to compare these models using various data sets worldwide. However, the research community is on the way to the conclusive confidence in the emerged models. This paper attempts to use the automotive sector stock prices from National Stock Exchange (NSE), India and analyze them for the intra-sectorial support for stock market decisions. The study identifies the significant variables and their lags which affect the price of the stocks using OLS analysis and decision tree classifiers.

Keywords: Indian automotive sector, stock market decisions, equity portfolio analysis, decision tree classifiers, statistical data analysis

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20 Unfolding Prison Crisis in India: An Evaluation from a Human Rights Perspective

Authors: Sharmila Sakravarthy

Abstract:

Prison administration in India, even though an important limb of the criminal justice system are worse off in terms of overcrowding, prolonged detention of under-trial prisoners, and a host of other problems. Considering the statistics of the prison population, over a thousand three hundred prisons across the country were overcrowded, even to the extent of more than six hundred percent. A total of eighteen thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight female prisoners were in India, out of which thirteen thousand hundred and sixty-five were under trials and five thousand and sixty-three convicts. A total of around one thousand seven hundred thirty-five children are residing in prisons along with their mothers. District prisons are more overcrowded than the other prisons, and their practices are at odd with human rights standards. This article examines a range of issues in prisons throughout India including pretrial detention, overcrowding, resources and governance, women and children in prison and rehabilitation. A substantial amount of space is devoted to the reforms that are occurring across the nation, and recommendations are made with regard to what further reforms are necessary.

Keywords: human rights, overcrowding, prisons, rehabilitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
19 Disability, Stigma and In-Group Identification: An Exploration across Different Disability Subgroups

Authors: Sharmila Rathee

Abstract:

Individuals with disability/ies often face negative attitudes, discrimination, exclusion, and inequality of treatment due to stigmatization and stigmatized treatment. While a significant number of studies in field of stigma suggest that group-identification has positive consequences for stigmatized individuals, ironically very miniscule empirical work in sight has attempted to investigate in-group identification as a coping measure against stigma, humiliation and related experiences among disability group. In view of death of empirical research on in-group identification among disability group, through present work, an attempt has been made to examine the experiences of stigma, humiliation, and in-group identification among disability group. Results of the study suggest that use of in-group identification as a coping strategy is not uniform across members of disability group and degree of in-group identification differs across different sub-groups of disability groups. Further, in-group identification among members of disability group depends on variables like degree and impact of disability, factors like onset of disability, nature, and visibility of disability, educational experiences and resources available to deal with disabling conditions.

Keywords: disability, stigma, in-group identification, social identity

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18 Study of Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Ethylene/1-Octene Copolymer Based Nanocomposites

Authors: Sharmila Pradhan, Ralf Lach, George Michler, Jean Mark Saiter, Rameshwar Adhikari

Abstract:

Ethylene/1-octene copolymer was modified incorporating three types of nanofillers differed in their dimensionality in order to investigate the effect of filler dimensionality on mechanical properties, for instance, tensile strength, microhardness etc. The samples were prepared by melt mixing followed by compression moldings. The microstructure of the novel material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Other important properties such as melting, crystallizing and thermal stability were also investigated via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The FTIR and XRD results showed that the composites were formed by physical mixing. The TEM result supported the homogeneous dispersion of nanofillers in the matrix. The mechanical characterization performed by tensile testing showed that the composites with 1D nanofiller effectively reinforced the polymer. TGA results revealed that the thermal stability of pure EOC is marginally improved by the addition of nanofillers. Likewise, melting and crystallizing properties of the composites are not much different from that of pure.

Keywords: copolymer, differential scanning calorimetry, nanofiller, tensile strength

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17 Environmental Risk Assessment for Beneficiary Use of Coal Combustion Residues Using Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework

Authors: D. V. S. Praneeth, V. R. Sankar Cheela, Brajesh Dubey

Abstract:

Coal Combustion (CC) residues are the major by-products from thermal power plants. The disposal of ash on to land creates havoc to environment and humans. The leaching of the constituent elements pollutes ground water. Beneficiary use of coal combustion residues in structural components is being investigated as a part of this study. This application reduces stress on the convention materials in the construction industry. The present study involves determination of leaching parameters of the CC residues. Batch and column studies are performed based on Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) protocol. The column studies are conducted to simulate the real time percolation conditions in the field. The structural and environmental studies are performed to determine the usability of CC residues as bricks. The physical, chemical, geo environmental and mechanical properties of the alternate materials are investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction analysis (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy tests were conducted to determine the characteristics of CC residue ash and bricks.

Keywords: coal combustion residues, LEAF, leaching, SEM

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16 Innovations in Enterprises (with References to Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in Visakhapatnam District, India)

Authors: D. Lalitha Rani, K. Sankar Rao

Abstract:

MSMEs, due to their unique characteristics, are found to have inherent capabilities to undertake technological and non-technological innovations successfully across industries and nations. While there is considerable empirical evidence to throw light on SME innovation contributions in the context of developed countries, there is hardly any evidence to reveal how innovative SMEs are in rapidly industrializing economies like India. Indian MSMEs are largely incremental innovators, prompted by their customers and involved in product and/or process innovations. But majority carried out innovations with internal efforts only whereas the minority which obtained external support, had better technical strength, indulged in more frequent and both product & process innovations. Such MSMEs achieved better innovation performance as well as better economic performance. Some of them internationalized themselves in the process. However such achievements are “an oasis” in the vast Indian SME sector. How to promote (i) innovations, (ii) quality of innovations and (iii) patenting culture among the SMEs is a challenge for Indian Policy Makers. However this paper examines what are the innovation practices which are being carried out in this sector and identified the barriers for innovations in this sector and concludes with proposing some policy recommendations for promoting innovations in MSME sector in India.

Keywords: MSMEs, incremental innovators, policies, non-technological innovations

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15 Development of Rural Entrepreneurs: Challenges Faced in India

Authors: Sankar Majumder

Abstract:

Development of Rural Entrepreneurs requires a holistic approach involving social, economic, political, technical, and environmental and many other issues. It needs a thorough understanding of the economy and society. It's true that agricultural development, rural development and many other social and right based development programmes have resulted in the growth of income in the rural sector. The development of rural entrepreneurs is necessary to utilise these opportunities. Many programmes and policies in the spheres of organisational, financial, infrastructural and technical supports have been taken to promote rural industries. But if one looks at the growth and development of rural industrial units, especially the manufacturing units, the picture is not promising. This paper aims at analysing the possible causes and its solutions in terms of (1) Mind set of the society towards business as a livelihood; (2) Sufficiency and appropriateness of the existing organisational, financial, infrastructural and technical supports. The paper is based on secondary data on various aspects of rural enterprises and the author’s experiences in the course of his work as a practitioner in this field. Growth of units and employment in the rural industries shows that the entrepreneurs are more inclined towards trading units than towards manufacturing ventures. The growth of rural industries is constrained not by the insufficiency of the supply of finance but by the insufficient demand for finance. The task is to increase the supply of entrepreneurs by creating an entrepreneurial environment. Incubation for rural entrepreneurs is the need of the hour.

Keywords: business mind set, entrepreneurial environment, supply of finance, technical support

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14 Optimization the Multiplicity of Infection for Large Produce of Lytic Bacteriophage pAh6-C

Authors: Sang Guen Kim, Sib Sankar Giri, Jin Woo Jun, Saekil Yun, Hyoun Joong Kim, Sang Wha Kim, Jung Woo Kang, Se Jin Han, Se Chang Park

Abstract:

Emerging of the super bacteria, bacteriophages are considered to be as an alternative to antibiotics. As the demand of phage increased, economical and large production of phage is becoming one of the critical points. For the therapeutic use, what is important is to eradicate the pathogenic bacteria as fast as possible, so higher concentration of phages is generally needed for effective therapeutic function. On the contrary, for the maximum production, bacteria work as a phage producing factory. As a microbial cell factory, bacteria is needed to last longer producing the phages without eradication. Consequently, killing the bacteria fast has a negative effect on large production. In this study, Multiplicity of Infection (MOI) was manipulated based on initial bacterial inoculation and used phage pAh-6C which has therapeutic effect against Aeromonas hydrophila. 1, 5 and 10 percent of overnight bacterial culture was inoculated and each bacterial culture was co-cultured with the phage of which MOI of 0.01, 0.0001, and 0.000001 respectively. Simply changing the initial MOI as well as bacterial inoculation concentration has regulated the production quantity of the phage without any other changes to culture conditions. It is anticipated that this result can be used as a foundational data for mass production of lytic bacteriophages which can be used as the therapeutic bio-control agent.

Keywords: bacteriophage, multiplicity of infection, optimization, Aeromonas hydrophila

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13 Behaviour of Model Square Footing Resting on Three Dimensional Geogrid Reinforced Sand Bed

Authors: Femy M. Makkar, S. Chandrakaran, N. Sankar

Abstract:

The concept of reinforced earth has been used in the field of geotechnical engineering since 1960s, for many applications such as, construction of road and rail embankments, pavements, retaining walls, shallow foundations, soft ground improvement and so on. Conventionally, planar geosynthetic materials such as geotextiles and geogrids were used as the reinforcing elements. Recently, the use of three dimensional reinforcements becomes one of the emerging trends in this field. So, in the present investigation, three dimensional geogrid is proposed as a reinforcing material. Laboratory scaled plate load tests are conducted on a model square footing resting on 3D geogrid reinforced sand bed. The performance of 3D geogrids in triangular and square pattern was compared with conventional geogrids and the improvement in bearing capacity and reduction in settlement and heave are evaluated. When single layer of reinforcement was placed at an optimum depth of 0.25B from the bottom of the footing, the bearing capacity of conventional geogrid reinforced soil improved by 1.85 times compared to unreinforced soil, where as 3D geogrid reinforced soil with triangular pattern and square pattern shows 2.69 and 3.05 times improvement respectively compared to unreinforced soil. Also, 3D geogrids performs better than conventional geogrids in reducing the settlement and heave of sand bed around the model footing.

Keywords: 3D reinforcing elements, bearing capacity, heavy, settlement

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12 Biodegradable Poly D,L-Lactide-Co-Glycolic Acid Microparticle Vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila Infection

Authors: Saekil Yun, Sib Sankar Giri, Jin Woo Jun, Hyoun Joong Kim, Sang Guen Kim, Sang Wha Kim, Jung Woo Kang, Se Jin Han, Se Chang Park

Abstract:

In aquaculture, vaccination is important to control and prevent diseases. In the study, we utilized poly D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microparticles (MPs) for encapsulating formalin-killed Aeromonas hydrophila cells. To assess the innate and adaptive immune responses, carps and loaches were used for the experiments. Fish were divided into three groups (A, B, C). Total antigen of 0.1 ml vaccine was adjusted by 2 x 108 CFU and injected via intraperitoneal route. Group A was vaccinated with 0.1 ml of PLGA vaccine, group B was with 0.1 ml of FKC vaccine and group C was with 0.1 ml of sterile PBS. All three groups were challenged with A. hydrophila and challenge dose was lethal dose (LD50). Loaches and carp were then challenged with A. hydrophila at 12 and 20 weeks post vaccination (wpv), and 10 and 14 wpv, respectively, and relative survival rates were calculated. For both fish species, the curve of antibody titer over time was shallower in the PLGA group than the FKC group and the PLGA groups demonstrated higher survival rates at all time-points. In the groups of PLGA-MP, relative mRNA levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, lysozyme C and IgM were significantly upregulated than FKC treated groups. Biodegradable PLGA microparticle vaccine could induce longer immune responses than original FKC vaccines to protect from A. hydrophila infection.

Keywords: PLGA, microparticles, Aeromonas hydrophila, vaccine

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11 High Photosensitivity and Broad Spectral Response of Multi-Layered Germanium Sulfide Transistors

Authors: Rajesh Kumar Ulaganathan, Yi-Ying Lu, Chia-Jung Kuo, Srinivasa Reddy Tamalampudi, Raman Sankar, Fang Cheng Chou, Yit-Tsong Chen

Abstract:

In this paper, we report the optoelectronic properties of multi-layered GeS nanosheets (~28 nm thick)-based field-effect transistors (called GeS-FETs). The multi-layered GeS-FETs exhibit remarkably high photoresponsivity of Rλ ~ 206 AW-1 under illumination of 1.5 µW/cm2 at  = 633 nm, Vg = 0 V, and Vds = 10 V. The obtained Rλ ~ 206 AW-1 is excellent as compared with a GeS nanoribbon-based and the other family members of group IV-VI-based photodetectors in the two-dimensional (2D) realm, such as GeSe and SnS2. The gate-dependent photoresponsivity of GeS-FETs was further measured to be able to reach Rλ ~ 655 AW-1 operated at Vg = -80 V. Moreover, the multi-layered GeS photodetector holds high external quantum efficiency (EQE ~ 4.0 × 104 %) and specific detectivity (D* ~ 2.35 × 1013 Jones). The measured D* is comparable to those of the advanced commercial Si- and InGaAs-based photodiodes. The GeS photodetector also shows an excellent long-term photoswitching stability with a response time of ~7 ms over a long period of operation (>1 h). These extraordinary properties of high photocurrent generation, broad spectral range, fast response, and long-term stability make the GeS-FET photodetector a highly qualified candidate for future optoelectronic applications.

Keywords: germanium sulfide, photodetector, photoresponsivity, external quantum efficiency, specific detectivity

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10 Hybrid Equity Warrants Pricing Formulation under Stochastic Dynamics

Authors: Teh Raihana Nazirah Roslan, Siti Zulaiha Ibrahim, Sharmila Karim

Abstract:

A warrant is a financial contract that confers the right but not the obligation, to buy or sell a security at a certain price before expiration. The standard procedure to value equity warrants using call option pricing models such as the Black–Scholes model had been proven to contain many flaws, such as the assumption of constant interest rate and constant volatility. In fact, existing alternative models were found focusing more on demonstrating techniques for pricing, rather than empirical testing. Therefore, a mathematical model for pricing and analyzing equity warrants which comprises stochastic interest rate and stochastic volatility is essential to incorporate the dynamic relationships between the identified variables and illustrate the real market. Here, the aim is to develop dynamic pricing formulations for hybrid equity warrants by incorporating stochastic interest rates from the Cox-Ingersoll-Ross (CIR) model, along with stochastic volatility from the Heston model. The development of the model involves the derivations of stochastic differential equations that govern the model dynamics. The resulting equations which involve Cauchy problem and heat equations are then solved using partial differential equation approaches. The analytical pricing formulas obtained in this study comply with the form of analytical expressions embedded in the Black-Scholes model and other existing pricing models for equity warrants. This facilitates the practicality of this proposed formula for comparison purposes and further empirical study.

Keywords: Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model, equity warrants, Heston model, hybrid models, stochastic

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9 Chaupadi Practice: A Cruel Discrimination against Women a Case Study of Achham District of Nepal

Authors: Santosh Thapa, Sankar Gurung

Abstract:

Chaupadi is a tradition widely practiced in the far and mid-western region of Nepal. It is a practice where girls and women are not allowed to inter the house and touch the food, water and milk during their menstruation period of 4-7 days. They have to spend all the nights during the period in a specific hut (Chhaupadi Goth) which is a bit far from their residence where they faces various kinds of risk and violence like bullying, snakes and insect bite, wild animal attack etc. Sometimes the girls even do not go to school during their menstruation periods. After childbirth, the woman must stay in a cow shed for 11 days in such Chhaupadi practiced areas. This study limits the Achham district of the far western region which is the most vulnerable Chhaupadi practicing district. Several governmental and non-governmental organizations have been involving and spending huge amount of money for capacity building and awareness raising campaign for last 2 decades but still 9 out of 75 Village Development Committees (VDCs) have been partially practicing Chaupadi in the district. This study shows that the school attendance rate of the girls during the period have visibly increased which helps to increase the number of the girl graduation as well. Similarly, the practice of Chhaupadi is one of the reasons for increasing the number of cases of uterus prolapsus and poor reproductive health of women and girls. Triggering tools are the one of the best ways to accelerate the awareness campaign in the VDCs. This study recommends that the local bodies should coordinate and lead the overall awareness campaign program to sustain the Chaupadi free VDCs.

Keywords: awareness campaign, chaupadi practice, gender discrimination, violence

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8 Quality of Life among Female Sex Workers of Selected Organization of Pokhara: A Methodological Triangulation

Authors: Sharmila Dahal Paudel

Abstract:

Background: There are around twenty-four thousand to twenty-eight thousand Female Sex Workers in Nepal. FSWs are the vulnerable groups for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections which directly and indirectly ease to reduce the quality of life of such groups. Due to their highly marginalized status, FSWs in Nepal have limited access to information about reproductive health and safe sex practices. The objectives of the study are to assess the quality of life of female sex workers and the factors affecting them. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study with methodological triangulation was conducted among 108 FSWs on the basis of service record of selected organization of Pokhara valley. The complete enumerative sampling was used to select FSWs. Structured interview schedule, WHOQOL-BREF and in-depth questionnaire were used to collect the data. The descriptive and inferential statistics were used to interpret the result. Results: The mean age of participants were 23.44 years and the mean quality of life score was 174.06 ranging from 56.54 to 370.78. Among the domain scores, the mean score is highest in social domain (55.89) followed by physical (45.42), psychological (39.27) and the environmental (34.23). Regarding the association of QOL with socio-demographic, occupation and health-related variables, the multi-linear regression suggests that the satisfaction with occupation was highly significant with the total QOL score (B=-50.50, SE=10.46; p= <0.001) and there is negative relation between QOL and feeling of exploitation and facing STI problems. This means those who feels exploited have significantly less QOL comparing with those who did not feel the same. In correlation analysis, all the domains are positively co-related with each domain which is found to be significant at 1% level of significance. Conclusion: The highest mean score was in social domain, and the lowest is in environmental domain which suggests that the items included in environmental domains could not be utilized or hindrance were there.

Keywords: FSWs, HIV, QOL, WHOQOL-BREF

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7 Preventive Effect of Three Kinds of Bacteriophages to Control Vibrio coralliilyticus Infection in Oyster Larvae

Authors: Hyoun Joong Kim, Jin Woo Jun, Sib Sankar Giri, Cheng Chi, Saekil Yun, Sang Guen Kim, Sang Wha Kim, Jeong Woo Kang, Se Jin Han, Se Chang Park

Abstract:

Vibrio corallilyticus is a well-known pathogen of coral. It is also infectious to a variety of shellfish species, including Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae. V. corallilyticus is remained to be a major constraint in marine bivalve aquaculture practice, especially in artificial seed production facility. Owing to the high mortality and contagious nature of the pathogen, large amount of antibiotics has been used for disease prevention and control. However, indiscriminate use of antibiotics may result in food and environmental pollution, and development of antibiotic resistant strains. Therefore, eco-friendly disease preventative measures are imperative for sustainable bivalve culture. The present investigation proposes the application of bacteriophage (phage) as an effective alternative method for controlling V. corallilyticus infection in marine bivalve hatcheries. Isolation of phages from sea water sample was carried out using drop or double layer agar methods. The host range, stability and morphology of the phage isolates were studied. In vivo phage efficacy to prevent V. corallilyticus infection in oyster larvae was also performed. The isolated phages, named pVco-5 and pVco-7 was classified as a podoviridae and pVco-14, was classified as a siphoviridae. Each phages were infective to four strains of seven V. corallilyticus strains tested. When oyster larvae were pre-treated with the phage before bacterial challenge, mortality of the treated oyster larvae was lower than that in the untreated control. This result suggests that each phages have the potential to be used as therapeutic agent for controlling V. corallilyticus infection in marine bivalve hatchery.

Keywords: bacteriophage, Vibrio coralliilyticus, Oyster larvae, mortality

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6 Evaluation of the Use of Proseal LMA in Patients Undergoing Elective Lower Segment Caesarean Section under General Anaesthesia: A Prospective Randomised Controlled Study

Authors: Shalini Saini, Sharmila Ahuja

Abstract:

Anaesthesia for caesarean section poses challenges unique to the obstetric patient due to changes in the airway and respiratory system. The choice of anaesthesia for caesarean section depends on various factors however general anaesthesia (GA) is necessary for certain situations. Supraglottic airway devices are an emerging method to secure airway, especially in difficult situations. Of these devices, proseal –LMA (PLMA) is designed to provide better protection of the airway. The use of PLMA has been reported successfully as a rescue device in difficult intubation situations and in patients undergoing elective caesarean section without any complications. The study was prospective and randomised and was designed to compare PLMA in patients undergoing elective lower segment caesarean section (LSCS) with the endotracheal tube (ETT). Patients undergoing LSCS under GA belonging to ASA grade 1 and 2 were included. Patients with the history of fewer than 6 hrs of fasting, known/predicted difficult airway, obesity, gastroesophageal reflux disease, hypertensive disorder were excluded. A standard anaesthesia protocol was followed. All patients received aspiration prophylaxis. The airway was secured with either PLMA or ETT. Parameters noted were- ease of insertion, adequacy of ventilation, hemodynamic changes at insertion and removal of device, incidence of regurgitation and aspiration. Data was analysed by unpaired t- test, Chi-square /Fisher’s test. The findings of our study indicated that PLMA was easy to insert (20.67±6.835 sec) with comparable insertion time to TT (18.33 ± 4.971, p 0.136) and adequate ventilation was achieved with very minimal hemodynamic changes seen with PLMA as compared to ETT at insertion and removal of devices (p 0.01). There was no incidence of regurgitation with the use of PLMA. The incidence of a postoperative sore throat was minimal (6.7%) with PLMA (p<0.05). PLMA appears to be a safe alternative to ETT for selected obstetric patients undergoing elective LSCS. Further study with a larger group of patients is required to establish the safety of PLMA in obstetric patients.

Keywords: caesarean section, general anaesthesia, proseal LMA, endotracheal tube

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5 Microencapsulation for Enhancing the Survival of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus during Spray Drying of Sweetened Yoghurt

Authors: Dibyakanta Seth, Hari Niwas Mishra, Sankar Chandra Deka

Abstract:

Microencapsulation is an established method of protecting bacteria from the adverse conditions. An improved extrusion spraying technique was used to encapsulate mixed bacteria culture of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus using sodium alginate as the coating material. The effect of nozzle air pressure (200, 300, 400 and 500 kPa), sodium alginate concentration (1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5% and 3% w/v), different concentration of calcium chloride (0.1, 0.2, 1 M) and initial cell loads (10⁷, 10⁸, 10⁹ cfu/ml) on the viability of encapsulated bacteria were investigated. With the increase in air pressure the size of microcapsules decreased, however the effect was non-significant. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the viability of encapsulated cells when the concentration of calcium chloride was increased. Increased level of sodium alginate significantly increased the survival ratio of encapsulated bacteria (P < 0.01). Encapsulation with 3% alginate was treated as optimum since a higher concentration of alginate increased the gel strength of the solution and thus was difficult to spray. Under optimal conditions 3% alginate, 10⁹ cfu/ml cell load, 20 min hardening time in 0.1 M CaCl2 and 400 kPa nozzle air pressure, the viability of bacteria cells was maximum compared to the free cells. The microcapsules made at the optimal condition when mixed with yoghurt and subjected to spray drying at 148°C, the survival ratio was 2.48×10⁻¹ for S. thermophilus and 7.26×10⁻¹ for L. bulgaricus. In contrast, the survival ratio of free cells of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus were 2.36×10⁻³ and 8.27×10⁻³, respectively. This study showed a decline in viable cells count of about 0.5 log over a period of 7 weeks while there was a decline of about 1 log in cultures which were incorporated as free cells in yoghurt. Microencapsulation provided better protection at higher acidity compared to free cells. This study demonstrated that microencapsulation of yoghurt culture in sodium alginate is an effective technique of protection against extreme drying conditions.

Keywords: extrusion, microencapsulation, spray drying, sweetened yoghurt

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4 Incidence and Risk Factors of Traumatic Lumbar Puncture in Newborns in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Authors: Heena Dabas, Anju Paul, Suman Chaurasia, Ramesh Agarwal, M. Jeeva Sankar, Anurag Bajpai, Manju Saksena

Abstract:

Background: Traumatic lumbar puncture (LP) is a common occurrence and causes substantial diagnostic ambiguity. There is paucity of data regarding its epidemiology. Objective: To assess the incidence and risk factors of traumatic LP in newborns. Design/Methods: In a prospective cohort study, all inborn neonates admitted in NICU and planned to undergo LP for a clinical indication of sepsis were included. Neonates with diagnosed intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of grade III and IV were excluded. The LP was done by operator - often a fellow or resident assisted by bedside nurse. The unit has policy of not routinely using any sedation/analgesia during the procedure. LP is done by 26 G and 0.5-inch-long hypodermic needle inserted in third or fourth lumbar space while the infant is in lateral position. The infants were monitored clinically and by continuous measurement of vital parameters using multipara monitor during the procedure. The occurrence of traumatic tap along with CSF parameters and other operator and assistant characteristics were recorded at the time of procedure. Traumatic tap was defined as presence of visible blood or more than 500 red blood cells on microscopic examination. Microscopic trauma was defined when CSF is not having visible blood but numerous RBCs. The institutional ethics committee approved the study protocol. A written informed consent from the parents and the health care providers involved was obtained. Neonates were followed up till discharge/death and final diagnosis was assigned along with treating team. Results: A total of 362 (21%) neonates out of 1726 born at the hospital were admitted during the study period (July 2016 to January, 2017). Among these neonates, 97 (26.7%) were suspected of sepsis. A total of 54 neonates were enrolled who met the eligibility criteria and parents consented to participate in the study. The mean (SD) birthweight was 1536 (732) grams and gestational age 32.0 (4.0) weeks. All LPs were indicated for late onset sepsis at the median (IQR) age of 12 (5-39) days. The traumatic LP occurred in 19 neonates (35.1%; 95% C.I 22.6% to 49.3%). Frank blood was observed in 7 (36.8%) and in the remaining, 12(63.1%) CSF was detected to have microscopic trauma. The preliminary risk factor analysis including birth weight, gestational age and operator/assistant and other characteristics did not demonstrate clinically relevant predictors. Conclusion: A significant number of neonates requiring lumbar puncture in our study had high incidence of traumatic tap. We were not able to identify modifiable risk factors. There is a need to understand the reasons and further reduce this issue for improving management in NICUs.

Keywords: incidence, newborn, traumatic, lumbar puncture

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3 Sustainable Production of Pharmaceutical Compounds Using Plant Cell Culture

Authors: David A. Ullisch, Yantree D. Sankar-Thomas, Stefan Wilke, Thomas Selge, Matthias Pump, Thomas Leibold, Kai Schütte, Gilbert Gorr

Abstract:

Plants have been considered as a source of natural substances for ages. Secondary metabolites from plants are utilized especially in medical applications but are more and more interesting as cosmetical ingredients and in the field of nutraceuticals. However, supply of compounds from natural harvest can be limited by numerous factors i.e. endangered species, low product content, climate impacts and cost intensive extraction. Especially in the pharmaceutical industry the ability to provide sufficient amounts of product and high quality are additional requirements which in some cases are difficult to fulfill by plant harvest. Whereas in many cases the complexity of secondary metabolites precludes chemical synthesis on a reasonable commercial basis, plant cells contain the biosynthetic pathway – a natural chemical factory – for a given compound. A promising approach for the sustainable production of natural products can be plant cell fermentation (PCF®). A thoroughly accomplished development process comprises the identification of a high producing cell line, optimization of growth and production conditions, the development of a robust and reliable production process and its scale-up. In order to address persistent, long lasting production, development of cryopreservation protocols and generation of working cell banks is another important requirement to be considered. So far the most prominent example using a PCF® process is the production of the anticancer compound paclitaxel. To demonstrate the power of plant suspension cultures here we present three case studies: 1) For more than 17 years Phyton produces paclitaxel at industrial scale i.e. up to 75,000 L in scale. With 60 g/kg dw this fully controlled process which is applied according to GMP results in outstanding high yields. 2) Thapsigargin is another anticancer compound which is currently isolated from seeds of Thapsia garganica. Thapsigargin is a powerful cytotoxin – a SERCA inhibitor – and the precursor for the derivative ADT, the key ingredient of the investigational prodrug Mipsagargin (G-202) which is in several clinical trials. Phyton successfully generated plant cell lines capable to express this compound. Here we present data about the screening for high producing cell lines. 3) The third case study covers ingenol-3-mebutate. This compound is found in the milky sap of the intact plants of the Euphorbiacae family at very low concentrations. Ingenol-3-mebutate is used in Picato® which is approved against actinic keratosis. Generation of cell lines expressing significant amounts of ingenol-3-mebutate is another example underlining the strength of plant cell culture. The authors gratefully acknowledge Inspyr Therapeutics for funding.

Keywords: Ingenol-3-mebutate, plant cell culture, sustainability, thapsigargin

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2 Coastal Modelling Studies for Jumeirah First Beach Stabilization

Authors: Zongyan Yang, Gagan K. Jena, Sankar B. Karanam, Noora M. A. Hokal

Abstract:

Jumeirah First beach, a segment of coastline of length 1.5 km, is one of the popular public beaches in Dubai, UAE. The stability of the beach has been affected by several coastal developmental projects, including The World, Island 2 and La Mer. A comprehensive stabilization scheme comprising of two composite groynes (of lengths 90 m and 125m), modification to the northern breakwater of Jumeirah Fishing Harbour and beach re-nourishment was implemented by Dubai Municipality in 2012. However, the performance of the implemented stabilization scheme has been compromised by La Mer project (built in 2016), which modified the wave climate at the Jumeirah First beach. The objective of the coastal modelling studies is to establish design basis for further beach stabilization scheme(s). Comprehensive coastal modelling studies had been conducted to establish the nearshore wave climate, equilibrium beach orientations and stable beach plan forms. Based on the outcomes of the modeling studies, recommendation had been made to extend the composite groynes to stabilize the Jumeirah First beach. Wave transformation was performed following an interpolation approach with wave transformation matrixes derived from simulations of a possible range of wave conditions in the region. The Dubai coastal wave model is developed with MIKE21 SW. The offshore wave conditions were determined from PERGOS wave data at 4 offshore locations with consideration of the spatial variation. The lateral boundary conditions corresponding to the offshore conditions, at Dubai/Abu Dhabi and Dubai Sharjah borders, were derived with application of LitDrift 1D wave transformation module. The Dubai coastal wave model was calibrated with wave records at monitoring stations operated by Dubai Municipality. The wave transformation matrix approach was validated with nearshore wave measurement at a Dubai Municipality monitoring station in the vicinity of the Jumeirah First beach. One typical year wave time series was transformed to 7 locations in front of the beach to count for the variation of wave conditions which are affected by adjacent and offshore developments. Equilibrium beach orientations were estimated with application of LitDrift by finding the beach orientations with null annual littoral transport at the 7 selected locations. The littoral transport calculation results were compared with beach erosion/accretion quantities estimated from the beach monitoring program (twice a year including bathymetric and topographical surveys). An innovative integral method was developed to outline the stable beach plan forms from the estimated equilibrium beach orientations, with predetermined minimum beach width. The optimal lengths for the composite groyne extensions were recommended based on the stable beach plan forms.

Keywords: composite groyne, equilibrium beach orientation, stable beach plan form, wave transformation matrix

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1 Innocent Victims and Immoral Women: Sex Workers in the Philippines through the Lens of Mainstream Media

Authors: Sharmila Parmanand

Abstract:

This paper examines dominant media representations of prostitution in the Philippines and interrogates sex workers’ interactions with the media establishment. This analysis of how sex workers are constituted in media, often as both innocent victims and immoral actors, contributes to an understanding of public discourse on sex work in the Philippines, where decriminalisation has recently been proposed and sex workers are currently classified as potential victims under anti-trafficking laws but also as criminals under the penal code. The first part is an analysis of media coverage of two prominent themes on prostitution: first, raid and rescue operations conducted by law enforcement; and second, prostitution on military bases and tourism hotspots. As a result of pressure from activists and international donors, these two themes often define the policy conversations on sex work in the Philippines. The discourses in written and televised news reports and documentaries from established local and international media sources that address these themes are explored through content analysis. Conclusions are drawn based on specific terms commonly used to refer to sex workers, how sex workers are seen as performing their cultural roles as mothers and wives, how sex work is depicted, associations made between sex work and public health, representations of clients and managers and ‘rescuers’ such as the police, anti-trafficking organisations, and faith-based groups, and which actors are presumed to be issue experts. Images of how prostitution is used as a metaphor for relations between the Philippines and foreign nations are also deconstructed, along with common tropes about developing world female subjects. In general, sex workers are simultaneously portrayed as bad mothers who endanger their family’s morality but also as long-suffering victims who endure exploitation for the sake of their children. They are also depicted as unclean, drug-addicted threats to public health. Their managers and clients are portrayed as cold, abusive, and sometimes violent, and their rescuers as moral and altruistic agents who are essential for sex workers’ rehabilitation and restoration as virtuous citizens. The second part explores sex workers’ own perceptions of their interactions with media, through interviews with members of the Philippine Sex Workers Collective, a loose organisation of sex workers around the Philippines. They reveal that they are often excluded by media practitioners and that they do not feel that they have space for meaningful self-revelation about their work when they do engage with journalists, who seem to have an overt agenda of depicting them as either victims or women of loose morals. In their assessment, media narratives do not necessarily reflect their lived experiences, and in some cases, coverage of rescues and raid operations endangers their privacy and instrumentalises their suffering. Media representations of sex workers may produce subject positions such as ‘victims’ or ‘criminals’ and legitimize specific interventions while foreclosing other ways of thinking. Further, in light of media’s power to reflect and shape public consciousness, it is a valuable academic and political project to examine whether sex workers are able to assert agency in determining how they are represented.

Keywords: discourse analysis, news media, sex work, trafficking

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