Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 655

Search results for: RC column

655 Mechanical Behavior of CFTR Column Joint under Pull out Testing

Authors: Nasruddin Junus


CFTR column is one of the improvements CFT columns by inserting reinforcing steel bars into infill concrete. The presence of inserting reinforcing steel bars is increasing the excellent structural performance of the CFT column, especially on the fire-resisting performance. Investigation on the mechanical behavior of CFTR column connection is summarized in the three parts; column to column joint, column to beam connection, and column base. Experiment that reported in this paper is concerned on the mechanical behavior of CFTR column joint under pull out testing, especially on its stress transfer mechanism. A number series of the pull out test on the CFT with inserting reinforcing steel bar are conducted. Ten test specimens are designed, constructed, and tested to examine experimentally the effect of the size of square steel tube, size of the bearing plate, length of embedment steel bars, kind of steel bars, and the numbers of rib plate.

Keywords: CFTR column, pull out, stress, transfer mechanism

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654 Comparative Study of Stone Column with and without Encasement Using Waste Aggregate

Authors: V. K. Stalin, V. Paneerselvam, M. Bharath, M. Kirithika


In developing countries like India due to the rapid urbanization, large amount of waste materials are produced every year. These waste materials can be utilized in the improvement of problematic soils. Stone column is one of the best methods to improve soft clay deposits. In this study, load tests were conducted to ensure the suitability of waste as column materials. The variable parameters studied are material, number of column and encasement. The materials used for the study are stone aggregate, copper slag, construction waste, for one, two and three number of columns with geotextile and geogrid encasement. It was found that the performance of waste as column material are comparable to that of conventional stone column with and without encasement. Hence, it is concluded that the copper slag and construction waste may be used as a column material in place of conventional stone aggregate to improve the soft clay advantage being utilization of waste.

Keywords: stone column, geocomposite, construction waste, copper slag

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
653 Entropy Analysis in a Bubble Column Based on Ultrafast X-Ray Tomography Data

Authors: Stoyan Nedeltchev, Markus Schubert


By means of the ultrafast X-ray tomography facility, data were obtained at different superficial gas velocities UG in a bubble column (0.1 m in ID) operated with an air-deionized water system at ambient conditions. Raw reconstructed images were treated by both the information entropy (IE) and the reconstruction entropy (RE) algorithms in order to identify the main transition velocities in a bubble column. The IE values exhibited two well-pronounced minima at UG=0.025 m/s and UG=0.085 m/s identifying the boundaries of the homogeneous, transition and heterogeneous regimes. The RE extracted from the central region of the column’s cross-section exhibited only one characteristic peak at UG=0.03 m/s, which was attributed to the transition from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous flow regime. This result implies that the transition regime is non-existent in the core of the column.

Keywords: bubble column, ultrafast X-ray tomography, information entropy, reconstruction entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
652 Numerical Investigation of the Jacketing Method of Reinforced Concrete Column

Authors: S. Boukais, A. Nekmouche, N. Khelil, A. Kezmane


The first intent of this study is to develop a finite element model that can predict correctly the behavior of the reinforced concrete column. Second aim is to use the finite element model to investigate and evaluate the effect of the strengthening method by jacketing of the reinforced concrete column, by considering different interface contact between the old and the new concrete. Four models were evaluated, one by considering perfect contact, the other three models by using friction coefficient of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5. The simulation was carried out by using Abaqus software. The obtained results show that the jacketing reinforcement led to significant increase of the global performance of the behavior of the simulated reinforced concrete column.

Keywords: strengthening, jacketing, rienforced concrete column, Abaqus, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
651 Effect of Tube Thickness on the Face Bending for Blind-Bolted Connection to Concrete Filled Tubular Structures

Authors: Mohammed Mahmood, Walid Tizani, Carlo Sansour


In this paper, experimental testing and numerical analysis were used to investigate the effect of tube thickness on the face bending for concrete filled hollow sections connected to other structural members using Extended Hollobolts. Six samples were tested experimentally by applying pull-out load on the bolts. These samples were designed to fail by column face bending. The main variable in all tests is the column face thickness. Finite element analyses were also performed using ABAQUS 6.11 to extend the experimental results and to quantify the effect of column face thickness. Results show that, the column face thickness has a clear impact on the connection strength and stiffness. However, the amount of improvement in the connection stiffness by changing the column face thickness from 5 mm to 6.3 mm seems to be higher than that when increasing it from 6.3 mm to 8 mm. The displacement at which the bolts start pulling-out from their holes increased with the use of thinner column face due to the high flexibility of the section. At the ultimate strength, the yielding of the column face propagated to the column corner and there was no yielding in its walls. After the ultimate resistance is reached, the propagation of the yielding was mainly in the column face with a miner yielding in the walls.

Keywords: anchored bolted connection, Extended Hollobolt, column faces bending, concrete filled hollow sections

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650 Experiment and Analytical Study on Fire Resistance Performance of Slot Type Concrete-Filled Tube

Authors: Bum Yean Cho, Heung-Youl Kim, Ki-Seok Kwon, Kang-Su Kim


In this study, a full-scale test and analysis (numerical analysis) of fire resistance performance of bare CFT column on which slot was used instead of existing welding method to connect the steel pipe on the concrete-filled tube were conducted. Welded CFT column is known to be vulnerable to high or low temperature because of low brittleness of welding part. As a result of a fire resistance performance test of slot CFT column after removing the welding part and fixing it by a slot which was folded into the tube, slot type CFT column indicated the improved fire resistance performance than welded CFT column by 28% or more. And as a result of conducting finite element analysis of slot type column using ABAQUS, analysis result proved the reliability of the test result in predicting the fire behavior and fire resistance hour.

Keywords: CFT (concrete-filled tube) column, fire resistance performance, slot, weld

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
649 The Purification of Waste Printing Developer with the Fixed Bed Adsorption Column

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Ranogajec G. Jonjaua, Kecić S. Vesna, Oros B. Ivana


The present study investigates the effectiveness of newly designed clayey pellets (fired clay pellets diameter sizes of 5 and 8 mm, and unfired clay pellets with the diameter size of 15 mm) as the beds in the column adsorption process. The adsorption experiments in the batch mode were performed before the column experiment with the purpose to determine the order of adsorbent package in the column which was to be designed in the investigation. The column experiment was performed by using a known mass of the clayey beds and the volume of the waste printing developer, which was purified. The column was filled in the following order: fired clay pellets of the diameter size of 5 mm, fired clay pellets of the diameter size of 8 mm, and unfired clay pellets of the diameter size of 15 mm. The selected order of the adsorbents showed a high removal efficiency for zinc (97.8%) and copper (81.5%) ions. These efficiencies were better than those in the case of the already existing mode adsorption. The obtained experimental data present a good basis for the selection of an appropriate column fill, but further testing is necessary in order to obtain more accurate results.

Keywords: clay materials, fix bed adsorption column, metal ions, printing developer

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648 Investigation on an Innovative Way to Connect RC Beam and Steel Column

Authors: Ahmed H. El-Masry, Mohamed A. Dabaon, Tarek F. El-Shafiey, Abd El-Hakim A. Khalil


An experimental study was performed to investigate the behavior and strength of proposed technique to connect reinforced concrete (RC) beam to steel or composite columns. This approach can practically be used in several types of building construction. In this technique, the main beam of the frame consists of a transfer part (part of beam; Tr.P) and a common reinforcement concrete beam. The transfer part of the beam is connected to the column, whereas the rest of the beam is connected to the transfer part from each side. Four full-scale beam-column connections were tested under static loading. The test parameters were the length of the transfer part and the column properties. The test results show that using of the transfer part technique leads to modify the deformation capabilities for the RC beam and hence it increases its resistance against failure. Increase in length of the transfer part did not necessarily indicate an enhanced behavior. The test results contribute to the characterization of the connection behavior between RC beam - steel column and can be used to calibrate numerical models for the simulation of this type of connection.

Keywords: composite column, reinforced concrete beam, steel column, transfer part

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647 Hysteretic Behavior of the Precast Concrete Column with Head Splice Sleeve Connection

Authors: Seo Soo-Yeon, Kim Sang-Ku, Noh Sang-Hyun, Lee Ji-Eun, Kim Seol-Ki, Lim Jong-Wook


This paper presents a test result to find the structural capacity of Hollow-Precast Concrete (HPC) column with Head-Splice Sleeve (HSS) for the connection of bars under horizontal cyclic load. Two Half-scaled HPC column specimens were made with the consideration of construction process in site. The difference between the HPC specimens is the location of HSS for bar connection. The location of the first one is on the bottom slab or foundation while the other is above the bottom slab or foundation. Reinforced concrete (RC) column was also made for the comparison. In order to evaluate the hysteretic behavior of the specimens, horizontal cyclic load was applied to the top of specimen under constant axial load. From the test, it is confirmed that the HPC columns with HSS have enough structural capacity that can be emulated to RC column. This means that the HPC column with HSS can be used in the moment resisting frame system.

Keywords: structural capacity, hollow-precast concrete column, head-splice sleeve, horizontal cyclic load

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
646 Numerical Analysis of Geosynthetic-Encased Stone Columns under Laterally Loads

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, M. Hossein Zade


Out of all methods for ground improvement, stone column became more popular these days due to its simple construction and economic consideration. Installation of stone column especially in loose fine graded soil causes increasing in load bearing capacity and settlement reduction. Encased granular stone columns (EGCs) are commonly subjected to vertical load. However, they may also be subjected to significant amount of shear loading. In this study, three-dimensional finite element (FE) analyses were conducted to estimate the shear load capacity of EGCs in sandy soil. Two types of different cases, stone column and geosynthetic encased stone column were studied at different normal pressures varying from 15 kPa to 75 kPa. Also, the effect of diameter in two cases was considered. A close agreement between the experimental and numerical curves of shear stress - horizontal displacement trend line is observed. The obtained result showed that, by increasing the normal pressure and diameter of stone column, higher shear strength is mobilized by soil; however, in the case of encased stone column, increasing the diameter had more dominated effect in mobilized shear strength.

Keywords: encased stone column, laterally load, ordinary stone column, validation

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645 Construction and Analysis of Partially Balanced Sudoku Design of Prime Order

Authors: Abubakar Danbaba


Sudoku squares have been widely used to design an experiment where each treatment occurs exactly once in each row, column or sub-block. For some experiments, the size of row (or column or sub-block) may be larger than the number of treatments. Since each treatment appears only once in each row (column or sub-block) with an additional empty cell such designs are partially balanced Sudoku designs (PBSD) with NP-complete structures. This paper proposed methods for constructing PBSD of prime order of treatments by a modified Kronecker product and swap of matrix row (or column) in cyclic order. In addition, linear model and procedure for the analysis of data for PBSD are proposed.

Keywords: sudoku design, partial sudoku, NP-complete, Kronecker product, row and column swap

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644 Nonlinear Finite Element Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Flat Plate-Inclined Column Connection

Authors: Rabab Allouzi, Amer Alkloub


As the complex shaped buildings become a popular trend for architects, this paper is presented to investigate the performance of reinforced concrete flat plate-inclined column connection. The studies on the inclined column and flat plate connections are not sufficient in comparison to those on the conventional structures. The effect of column angle of inclination on the punching shear strength is found significant and studied herein. This paper presents a non-linear finite element based modeling approach to estimate behavior of RC flat plate inclined column connection. Results from simulations of RC flat plate-straight column connection show good agreement with experimental response of specimens tested by other researchers. The model is further used to study the response of inclined columns to punching at various ranges of inclination angles. The inclination angle can be included in the punching shear strength provisions provided by ACI 318-14 to account for the effect of column inclination.

Keywords: punching shear, non-linear finite element, inclined columns, reinforced concrete connection

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643 A Simple Design Procedure for Calculating the Column Ultimate Load of Steel Frame Structures

Authors: Abdul Hakim Chikho


Calculating the ultimate load of a column in a sway framed structure involves, in the currently used design method, the calculation of the column effective length and utilizing the interaction formulas or tables. Therefore, no allowance is usually made for the effects of the presence of semi rigid connections or the presence of infill panels. In this paper, a new and simple design procedure is recommend to calculate the ultimate load of a framed Column allowing for the presence of rotational end restraints, semi rigid connections, the column end moments resulted from the applied vertical and horizontal loading and infill panels in real steel structure. In order to verify the accuracy of the recommended method to predict good and safe estimations of framed column ultimate loads, several examples have been solved utilizing the recommended procedure, and the results were compared to those obtained using a second order computer program, and good correlation had been obtained. Therefore, the accuracy of the proposed method to predict the Behaviour of practical steel columns in framed structures has been verified.

Keywords: column ultimate load, semi rigid connections, steel column, infill panel, steel structure

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642 Comparison Study between Deep Mixed Columns and Encased Sand Column for Soft Clay Soil in Egypt

Authors: Walid El Kamash


Sand columns (or granular piles) can be employed as soil strengthening for flexible constructions such as road embankments, oil storage tanks in addition to multistory structures. The challenge of embedding the sand columns in soft soil is that the surrounding soft soil cannot avail the enough confinement stress in order to keep the form of the sand column. Therefore, the sand columns which were installed in such soil will lose their ability to perform needed load-bearing capacity. The encasement, besides increasing the strength and stiffness of the sand column, prevents the lateral squeezing of sands when the column is installed even in extremely soft soils, thus enabling quicker and more economical installation. This paper investigates the improvement in load capacity of the sand column by encasement through a comprehensive parametric study using the 3-D finite difference analysis for the soft clay of soil in Egypt. Moreover, the study was extended to include a comparison study between encased sand column and Deep Mixed columns (DM). The study showed that confining the sand by geosynthetic resulted in an increment of shear strength. That result paid the attention to use encased sand stone rather than deep mixed columns due to relative high permeability of the first material.

Keywords: encased sand column, Deep mixed column, numerical analysis, improving soft soil

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641 Ductility of Slab-Interior Column Connections Transferring Shear and Moment

Authors: Omar M. Ben-Sasi


Ductility of slab-column connections of flat slab structures is a desirable property that should be considered when designing such connections which are susceptible to punching failure around their columns. Tests to failure on six half-scale specimens were conducted for slab-interior column connections transferring shear force and unbalanced moment. The influences on connection ductility of four parameters; namely, the moment to shear force ratio, the ratio of column side length to slab effective depth, the aspect ratio of the column cross section, and the presence of four square openings located next to column corners were investigated. The study revealed marked effects of these parameters on connection ductility. Increasing the first and second parameters, were found to be in favor of increasing connection ductility, while the third and fourth parameters were found to have negative effects on the connection ductility. These findings should, hopefully, help in designing interior connections of flat slab structures.

Keywords: ductility, flat slab, failure, shear force, moment, unbalanced moment, punching failure, connection, interior-column connection

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640 Behaviour of Rc Column under Biaxial Cyclic Loading-State of the Art

Authors: L. Pavithra, R. Sharmila, Shivani Sridhar


Columns severe structural damage needs proportioning a significant portion of earthquake energy can be dissipated yielding in the beams. Presence of axial load along with cyclic loading has a significant influence on column. The objective of this paper is to present the analytical results of columns subjected to biaxial cyclic loading.

Keywords: RC column, Seismic behaviour, cyclic behaviour, biaxial testing, ductile behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
639 Settlement Performance of Granular Column Reinforced Soil

Authors: Muneerah Jeludin


The vibrated column has been widely used over the last three decades to improve the performance of soft ground and engineered compacted fill. The main reason for adopting this technique is that it is economically viable and environmental friendly. The performance of granular column with regards to bearing capacity has been well documented; however, information regarding the settlement behavior of granular columns is still limited. This paper aims to address the findings from a laboratory model study in terms of its settlement improvement. A 300 mm diameter and 400 mm high kaolin clay model was used in this investigation. Columns of various heights were installed in the clay bed using replacement method. The results in relation to load sharing mechanism between the column and surrounding clay just under the footing indicated that in short column, the available shaft resistance was not significant and introduces a potential for end braing failure as opposed to bulging failure in long columns. The settlement improvement factor corroborates well with field observations.

Keywords: ground improvement, model test, reinforced soil, foundation

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638 Reduction of Differential Column Shortening in Tall Buildings

Authors: Hansoo Kim, Seunghak Shin


The differential column shortening in tall buildings can be reduced by improving material and structural characteristics of the structural systems. This paper proposes structural methods to reduce differential column shortening in reinforced concrete tall buildings; connecting columns with rigidly jointed horizontal members, using outriggers, and placing additional reinforcement at the columns. The rigidly connected horizontal members including outriggers reduce the differential shortening between adjacent vertical members. The axial stiffness of columns with greater shortening can be effectively increased by placing additional reinforcement at the columns, thus the differential column shortening can be reduced in the design stage. The optimum distribution of additional reinforcement can be determined by applying a gradient based optimization technique.

Keywords: column shortening, long-term behavior, optimization, tall building

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
637 Estimation of Slab Depth, Column Size and Rebar Location of Concrete Specimen Using Impact Echo Method

Authors: Y. T. Lee, J. H. Na, S. H. Kim, S. U. Hong


In this study, an experimental research for estimation of slab depth, column size and location of rebar of concrete specimen is conducted using the Impact Echo Method (IE) based on stress wave among non-destructive test methods. Estimation of slab depth had total length of 1800×300 and 6 different depths including 150 mm, 180 mm, 210 mm, 240 mm, 270 mm and 300 mm. The concrete column specimen was manufactured by differentiating the size into 300×300×300 mm, 400×400×400 mm and 500×500×500 mm. In case of the specimen for estimation of rebar, rebar of ∅22 mm was used in a specimen of 300×370×200 and arranged at 130 mm and 150 mm from the top to the rebar top. As a result of error rate of slab depth was overall mean of 3.1%. Error rate of column size was overall mean of 1.7%. Mean error rate of rebar location was 1.72% for top, 1.19% for bottom and 1.5% for overall mean showing relative accuracy.

Keywords: impact echo method, estimation, slab depth, column size, rebar location, concrete

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636 Chemical Fingerprinting of Complex Samples With the Aid of Parallel Outlet Flow Chromatography

Authors: Xavier A. Conlan


Speed of analysis is a significant limitation to current high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) and ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)/MS systems both of which are used in many forensic investigations. The flow rate limitations of MS detection require a compromise in the chromatographic flow rate, which in turn reduces throughput, and when using modern columns, a reduction in separation efficiency. Commonly, this restriction is combated through the post-column splitting of flow prior to entry into the mass spectrometer. However, this results in a loss of sensitivity and a loss in efficiency due to the post-extra column dead volume. A new chromatographic column format known as 'parallel segmented flow' involves the splitting of eluent flow within the column outlet end fitting, and in this study we present its application in order to interrogate the provenience of methamphetamine samples with mass spectrometry detection. Using parallel segmented flow, column flow rates as high as 3 mL/min were employed in the analysis of amino acids without post-column splitting to the mass spectrometer. Furthermore, when parallel segmented flow chromatography columns were employed, the sensitivity was more than twice that of conventional systems with post-column splitting when the same volume of mobile phase was passed through the detector. These finding suggest that this type of column technology will particularly enhance the capabilities of modern LC/MS enabling both high-throughput and sensitive mass spectral detection.

Keywords: chromatography, mass spectrometry methamphetamine, parallel segmented outlet flow column, forensic sciences

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635 Beam, Column Joints Concrete in Seismic Zone

Authors: Khalifa Kherafa


This east project consists in studying beam–column joints concrete subjected to seismic loads. A bibliographical study was introduced to clarify the work undertaken by the researchers in the field during the three last decades and especially the two last year’s results which were to study for the determination of the method of calculating of transverse reinforcement in the various nodes of a structure. For application, the efforts in the posts el the beams of a building in R+4 in zone 3 were calculate according to the finite element method through the software .

Keywords: beam–column joints, cyclic loading, shearing force, damaged joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
634 Column Studies on Chromium(VI) Adsorption onto Kala Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) Seed Powder

Authors: Sumi Deka, Krishna Gopal Bhattacharyya


This paper evaluate the industrial use of Kala Jamun (Syzygiumcumini L.) Seed powder (KSP) for the continuous adsorption of Cr(VI) in a column adsorption process. Adsorption of Cr(VI) onto Kala jamun (Syzygiumcumini L.) Seed Powder have been examined with the variation of (a) bed depth of the adsorbents, (b) flow rate of the adsorbents and (c) Cr(VI) concentration. The results showed that both the adsorption and the regeneration of the Cr(VI) onto Kala Jamun (Syzygiumcumini L.) seed Powder (KSP) can effectively occur in the column mode of adsorption. On increasing the bed depth, the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto KSP increases whereas on increasing the flow rate and the Cr(VI) concentration of KSP adsorption decreases. The results of the column studies were also fitted to Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model. The BDST model was appropriate for designing the column for industrial purpose.

Keywords: bed-depth-service-time, continuous adsorption, Cr(VI), KSP

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633 Comparison of Seismic Response for Two RC Curved Bridges with Different Column Shapes

Authors: Nina N. Serdar, Jelena R. Pejović


This paper presents seismic risk assessment of two bridge structure, based on the probabilistic performance-based seismic assessment methodology. Both investigated bridges are tree span continuous RC curved bridges with the difference in column shapes. First bridge (type A) has a wall-type pier and second (type B) has a two-column bent with circular columns. Bridges are designed according to European standards: EN 1991-2, EN1992-1-1 and EN 1998-2. Aim of the performed analysis is to compare seismic behavior of these two structures and to detect the influence of column shapes on the seismic response. Seismic risk assessment is carried out by obtaining demand fragility curves. Non-linear model was constructed and time-history analysis was performed using thirty five pairs of horizontal ground motions selected to match site specific hazard. In performance based analysis, peak column drift ratio (CDR) was selected as engineering demand parameter (EDP). For seismic intensity measure (IM) spectral displacement was selected. Demand fragility curves that give probability of exceedance of certain value for chosen EDP were constructed and based on them conclusions were made.

Keywords: RC curved bridge, demand fragility curve, wall type column, nonlinear time-history analysis, circular column

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
632 Continuous Fixed Bed Reactor Application for Decolourization of Textile Effluent by Adsorption on NaOH Treated Eggshell

Authors: M. Chafi, S. Akazdam, C. Asrir, L. Sebbahi, B. Gourich, N. Barka, M. Essahli


Fixed bed adsorption has become a frequently used industrial application in wastewater treatment processes. Various low cost adsorbents have been studied for their applicability in treatment of different types of effluents. In this work, the intention of the study was to explore the efficacy and feasibility for azo dye, Acid Orange 7 (AO7) adsorption onto fixed bed column of NaOH Treated eggshell (TES). The effect of various parameters like flow rate, initial dye concentration, and bed height were exploited in this study. The studies confirmed that the breakthrough curves were dependent on flow rate, initial dye concentration solution of AO7 and bed depth. The Thomas, Yoon–Nelson, and Adams and Bohart models were analysed to evaluate the column adsorption performance. The adsorption capacity, rate constant and correlation coefficient associated to each model for column adsorption was calculated and mentioned. The column experimental data were fitted well with Thomas model with coefficients of correlation R2 ≥0.93 at different conditions but the Yoon–Nelson, BDST and Bohart–Adams model (R2=0.911), predicted poor performance of fixed-bed column. The (TES) was shown to be suitable adsorbent for adsorption of AO7 using fixed-bed adsorption column.

Keywords: adsorption models, acid orange 7, bed depth, breakthrough, dye adsorption, fixed-bed column, treated eggshell

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631 Identification of the Main Transition Velocities in a Bubble Column Based on a Modified Shannon Entropy

Authors: Stoyan Nedeltchev, Markus Schubert


The gas holdup fluctuations in a bubble column (0.15 m in ID) have been recorded by means of a conductivity wire-mesh sensor in order to extract information about the main transition velocities. These parameters are very important for bubble column design, operation and scale-up. For this purpose, the classical definition of the Shannon entropy was modified and used to identify both the onset (at UG=0.034 m/s) of the transition flow regime and the beginning (at UG=0.089 m/s) of the churn-turbulent flow regime. The results were compared with the Kolmogorov entropy (KE) results. A slight discrepancy was found, namely the transition velocities identified by means of the KE were shifted to somewhat higher (0.045 and 0.101 m/s) superficial gas velocities UG.

Keywords: bubble column, gas holdup fluctuations, modified Shannon entropy, Kolmogorov entropy

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630 Research of Strong-Column-Weak-Beam Criteria of Reinforced Concrete Frames Subjected to Biaxial Seismic Excitation

Authors: Chong Zhang, Mu-Xuan Tao


In several earthquakes, numerous reinforced concrete (RC) frames subjected to seismic excitation demonstrated a collapse pattern characterized by column hinges, though designed according to the Strong-Column-Weak-Beam (S-C-W-B) criteria. The effect of biaxial seismic excitation on the disparity between design and actual performance is carefully investigated in this article. First, a modified load contour method is proposed to derive a closed-form equation of biaxial bending moment strength, which is verified by numerical and experimental tests. Afterwards, a group of time history analyses of a simple frame modeled by fiber beam-column elements subjected to biaxial seismic excitation are conducted to verify that the current S-C-W-B criteria are not adequate to prevent the occurrence of column hinges. A biaxial over-strength factor is developed based on the proposed equation, and the reinforcement of columns is appropriately amplified with this factor to prevent the occurrence of column hinges under biaxial excitation, which is proved to be effective by another group of time history analyses.

Keywords: biaxial bending moment capacity, biaxial seismic excitation, fiber beam model, load contour method, strong-column-weak-beam

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629 Experimental and Analytical Investigation of Seismic Behavior of Concrete Beam-Column Joints Strengthened by Fiber-Reinforced Polymers Jacketing

Authors: Ebrahim Zamani Beydokhti, Hashem Shariatmadar


This paper presents an experimental and analytical investigation on the behavior of retrofitted beam-column joints subjected to reversed cyclic loading. The experimental program comprises 8 external beam–column joint connection subassemblages tested in 2 phases; one was the damaging phase and second was the repairing phase. The beam-column joints were no seismically designed, i.e. the joint, beam and column critical zones had no special transverse stirrups. The joins were tested under cyclic loading in previous research. The experiment had two phases named damage phase and retrofit phase. Then the experimental results compared with analytical results achieved from modeling in OpenSees software. The presence of lateral slab and the axial load amount were analytically investigated. The results showed that increasing the axial load and presence of lateral slab increased the joint capacity. The presence of lateral slab increased the dissipated energy, while the axial load had no significant effect on it.

Keywords: concrete beam-column joints, CFRP sheets, lateral slab, axial load

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628 Laboratory Model Tests on Encased Group Columns

Authors: Kausar Ali


There are several ground treatment techniques which may meet the twin objectives of increasing the bearing capacity with simultaneous reduction of settlements, but the use of stone columns is one of the most suited techniques for flexible structures such as embankments, oil storage tanks etc. that can tolerate some settlement and used worldwide. However, when the stone columns in very soft soils are loaded; stone columns undergo excessive settlement due to low lateral confinement provided by the soft soil, leading to the failure of the structure. The poor performance of stone columns under these conditions can be improved by encasing the columns with a suitable geosynthetic. In this study, the effect of reinforcement on bearing capacity of composite soil has been investigated by conducting laboratory model tests on floating and end bearing long stone columns with l/d ratio of 12. The columns were reinforced by providing geosynthetic encasement over varying column length (upper 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% column length). In this study, a group of columns has been used instead of single column, because in the field, columns used for the purpose always remain in groups. The tests indicate that the encasement over the full column length gives higher failure stress as compared to the encasement over the partial column length for both floating and end bearing long columns. The performance of end-bearing columns was found much better than the floating columns.

Keywords: geosynthetic, ground improvement, soft clay, stone column

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
627 Modification of Underwood's Equation to Calculate Minimum Reflux Ratio for Column with One Side Stream Upper Than Feed

Authors: S. Mousavian, A. Abedianpour, A. Khanmohammadi, S. Hematian, Gh. Eidi Veisi


Distillation is one of the most important and utilized separation methods in the industrial practice. There are different ways to design of distillation column. One of these ways is short cut method. In short cut method, material balance and equilibrium are employed to calculate number of tray in distillation column. There are different methods that are classified in short cut method. One of these methods is Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland method. In this method, minimum reflux ratio should be calculated by underwood equation. Underwood proposed an equation that is useful for simple distillation column with one feed and one top and bottom product. In this study, underwood method is developed to predict minimum reflux ratio for column with one side stream upper than feed. The result of this model compared with McCabe-Thiele method. The result shows that proposed method able to calculate minimum reflux ratio with very small error.

Keywords: minimum reflux ratio, side stream, distillation, Underwood’s method

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626 Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joint by Reversible Mixed Technologies of FRP

Authors: Nasser-Eddine Attari


After the earthquake many structures were classified as slightly damaged and, being uneconomic to replace them, at least in the short term, suitable means of repairs of the beam column joint area are being studied. Furthermore there exist a large number of buildings that need retrofitting of the joints before the next earthquake. The paper reports the results of the experimental programme, constituted of three beam-column reinforced concrete joints at a scale of one to three (1/3) tested under the effect of a pre-stressed axial load acting over the column. The beams were subjected at their ends to an alternate cyclic loading under displacement control to simulate a seismic action. Strain and cracking fields were monitored with the help a digital recording camera. Following the analysis of the results, a comparison can be made between the performances in terms of ductility, strength and mode of failure of the different strengthening solution considered.

Keywords: fibrereinforced polymers, joints, reinforced concrete, beam columns

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