Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4010

Search results for: medical devices

4010 Producer’s Liability for Defective Medical Devices in Light of Council Directive 85/374/EEC

Authors: Vera Lúcia Raposo

Abstract:

Medical devices are products used for medical purposes and aimed to operate in the human body, sometimes even inside the human body. Therefore, they can become particularly risky products, and some of the injuries caused by medical devices can have serious effects on the person’s health or body, even leading to death. Because they fit in the category of 'products' as described in Article 2 of Council Directive 85/374/EEC of 25 July 1985, concerning liability for defective products, the liability of the manufacturer of medical devices follows the rules of strict liability as long as one of the defects covered by the directive is at stake. The directive is not concerned with the product’s efficiency, but instead with the product’s safety, although in what regards medical devices (the same being valid for drugs) the two concepts frequently go together, and a lack of efficiency can result in a lack of safety. In the particular case of medical devices, the most debatable defects are the ones related with erroneous or non-existing information and the so-called development defects. This paper analyses how directive 85/374/EEC applies to medical devices, which defects are covered by its regulation, and which criteria can be used to evaluate the product’s safety. Some issues are still to be clarified, even though the decisions from the European Court of Justice and from national courts are valuable tools to understand the scope of directive 85/374/EEC in what regards medical devices.

Keywords: medical devices, producer’s liability, product safety, strict liability

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
4009 Analysis of Threats in Interoperability of Medical Devices

Authors: M. Sandhya, R. M. Madhumitha, Sharmila Sankar

Abstract:

Interoperable medical devices (IMDs) face threats due to the increased attack surface accessible by interoperability and the corresponding infrastructure. Initiating networking and coordination functionalities primarily modify medical systems' security properties. Understanding the threats is a vital first step in ultimately crafting security solutions for such systems. The key to this problem is coming up with some common types of threats or attacks with those of security and privacy, and providing this information as a roadmap. This paper analyses the security issues in interoperability of devices and presents the main types of threats that have to be considered to build a secured system.

Keywords: interoperability, threats, attacks, medical devices

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
4008 Leveraging Li-Fi to Enhance Security and Performance of Medical Devices

Authors: Trevor Kroeger, Hayden Williams, Edward Holzinger, David Coleman, Brian Haberman

Abstract:

The network connectivity of medical devices is increasing at a rapid rate. Many medical devices, such as vital sign monitors, share information via wireless or wired connections. However, these connectivity options suffer from a variety of well-known limitations. Wireless connectivity, especially in the unlicensed radio frequency bands, can be disrupted. Such disruption could be due to benign reasons, such as a crowded spectrum, or to malicious intent. While wired connections are less susceptible to interference, they inhibit the mobility of the medical devices, which could be critical in a variety of scenarios. This work explores the application of Light Fidelity (Li-Fi) communication to enhance the security, performance, and mobility of medical devices in connected healthcare scenarios. A simple bridge for connected devices serves as an avenue to connect traditional medical devices to the Li-Fi network. This bridge was utilized to conduct bandwidth tests on a small Li-Fi network installed into a Mock-ICU setting with a backend enterprise network similar to that of a hospital. Mobile and stationary tests were conducted to replicate various different situations that might occur within a hospital setting. Results show that in room Li-Fi connectivity provides reasonable bandwidth and latency within a hospital like setting.

Keywords: hospital, light fidelity, Li-Fi, medical devices, security

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
4007 Performance Comparison of Tablet Devices and Medical Diagnostic Display Devices Using Digital Object Patterns in PACS Environment

Authors: Yan-Lin Liu, Cheng-Ting Shih, Jay Wu

Abstract:

Tablet devices have been introduced into the medical environment in recent years. The performance of display can be varied based on the use of different hardware specifications and types of display technologies. Therefore, the differences between tablet devices and medical diagnostic LCDs have to be verified to ensure that image quality is not jeopardized for clinical diagnosis in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). In this study, a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs) were developed, which included randomly located spheres in abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were asked to independently review the CT images on different generations of iPads and a diagnostic monochrome medical LCD monitor. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed by using a five-point rating scale, and the average area under curve (AUC) and average reading time (ART) were calculated. The AUC values for the second generation iPad, iPad mini, iPad Air, and monochrome medical monitor were 0.712, 0.717, 0.725, and 0.740, respectively. The differences between iPads were not significant. The ARTs were 177 min and 127 min for iPad mini and medical LCD monitor, respectively. A significant difference appeared (p = 0.04). The results show that the iPads were slightly inferior to the monochrome medical LCD monitor. However, tablet devices possess advantages in portability and versatility, which can improve the convenience of rapid diagnosis and teleradiology. With advances in display technology, the applicability of tablet devices and mobile devices may be more diversified in PACS.

Keywords: tablet devices, PACS, receiver operating characteristic, LCD monitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
4006 A Medical Vulnerability Scoring System Incorporating Health and Data Sensitivity Metrics

Authors: Nadir A. Carreon, Christa Sonderer, Aakarsh Rao, Roman Lysecky

Abstract:

With the advent of complex software and increased connectivity, the security of life-critical medical devices is becoming an increasing concern, particularly with their direct impact on human safety. Security is essential, but it is impossible to develop completely secure and impenetrable systems at design time. Therefore, it is important to assess the potential impact on the security and safety of exploiting a vulnerability in such critical medical systems. The common vulnerability scoring system (CVSS) calculates the severity of exploitable vulnerabilities. However, for medical devices it does not consider the unique challenges of impacts to human health and privacy. Thus, the scoring of a medical device on which human life depends (e.g., pacemakers, insulin pumps) can score very low, while a system on which human life does not depend (e.g., hospital archiving systems) might score very high. In this paper, we propose a medical vulnerability scoring system (MVSS) that extends CVSS to address the health and privacy concerns of medical devices. We propose incorporating two new parameters, namely health impact, and sensitivity impact. Sensitivity refers to the type of information that can be stolen from the device, and health represents the impact on the safety of the patient if the vulnerability is exploited (e.g., potential harm, life-threatening). We evaluate fifteen different known vulnerabilities in medical devices and compare MVSS against two state-of-the-art medical device-oriented vulnerability scoring systems and the foundational CVSS.

Keywords: common vulnerability system, medical devices, medical device security, vulnerabilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
4005 Improving Health Care and Patient Safety at the ICU by Using Innovative Medical Devices and ICT Tools: Examples from Bangladesh

Authors: Mannan Mridha, Mohammad S. Islam

Abstract:

Innovative medical technologies offer more effective medical care, with less risk to patient and healthcare personnel. Medical technology and devices when properly used provide better data, precise monitoring and less invasive treatments and can be more targeted and often less costly. The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) equipped with patient monitoring, respiratory and cardiac support, pain management, emergency resuscitation and life support devices is particularly prone to medical errors for various reasons. Many people in the developing countries now wonder whether their visit to hospital might harm rather than help them. This is because; clinicians in the developing countries are required to maintain an increasing workload with limited resources and absence of well-functioning safety system. A team of experts from the medical, biomedical and clinical engineering in Sweden and Bangladesh have worked together to study the incidents, adverse events at the ICU in Bangladesh. The study included both public and private hospitals to provide a better understanding for physical structure, organization and practice in operating processes of care, and the occurrence of adverse outcomes the errors, risks and accidents related to medical devices at the ICU, and to develop a ICT based support system in order to reduce hazards and errors and thus improve the quality of performance, care and cost effectiveness at the ICU. Concrete recommendations and guidelines have been made for preparing appropriate ICT related tools and methods for improving the routine for use of medical devices, reporting and analyzing of the incidents at the ICU in order to reduce the number of undetected and unsolved incidents and thus improve the patient safety.

Keywords: intensive care units, medical errors, medical devices, patient care and safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
4004 Study of Reporting System for Adverse Events Related to Common Medical Devices at a Tertiary Care Public Sector Hospital in India

Authors: S. Kurian, S. Satpathy, S. K. Gupta, S. Arya, D. K. Sharma

Abstract:

Advances in the use of health care technology have resulted in increased adverse events (AEs) related to the use of medical devices. The study focused on the existing reporting systems. This study was conducted in a tertiary care public sector hospital. Devices included Syringe infusion pumps, Cardiac monitors, Pulse oximeters, Ventilators and Defibrillators. A total of 211 respondents were recruited. Interviews were held with 30 key informants. Medical records were scrutinized. Relevant statistical tests were used. Resident doctors reported maximum frequency of AEs, followed by nurses; and least by consultants. A significant association was found between the cadre of health care personnel and awareness that the patients and bystanders have a risk of sustaining AE. Awareness regarding reporting of AEs was low, and it was generally done verbally. Other critical findings are discussed in the light of the barriers to reporting, reasons for non-compliance, recording system, and so on.

Keywords: adverse events, health care technology, medical devices, public sector hospital, reporting systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
4003 Packaging Processes for the Implantable Medical Microelectronics

Authors: Chung-Yu Wu, Chia-Chi Chang, Wei-Ming Chen, Pu-Wei Wu, Shih-Fan Chen, Po-Chun Chen

Abstract:

Electrostimulation medical devices for neural diseases require electroactive and biocompatible materials to transmit signals from electrodes to targeting tissues. Protection of surrounding tissues has become a great challenge for long-term implants. In this study, we designed back-end processes with compatible, efficient, and reliable advantages over the current state-of-the-art. We explored a hermetic packaging process with high quality of adhesion and uniformity as the biocompatible devices for long-term implantation. This approach is able to provide both excellent biocompatibility and protection to the biomedical electronic devices by performing conformal coating of biocompatible materials. We successfully developed a packaging process that is capable of exposing the stimulating electrode and cover all other faces of chip with high quality of protection to prevent leakage of devices and body fluid.

Keywords: biocompatible package, medical microelectronics, surface coating, long-term implantation

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
4002 Investigation of Solvent Effect on Viscosity of Lubricant in Disposable Medical Devices

Authors: Hamed Bagheri, Seyd Javid Shariati

Abstract:

The effects of type and amount of solvent on lubricant which is used in disposable medical devices are investigated in this article. Two kinds of common solvent, n-Hexane and n-Heptane, are used. The mechanical behavior of syringe has shown that n-Heptane has better mixing ratio and also more effective spray process in the barrel of syringe than n-Hexane because of similar solubility parameter to silicon oil. The results revealed that movement of plunger in the barrel increases when pure silicone is used because non-uniform film is created on the surface of barrel, and also, it seems that the form of silicon is converted from oil to gel due to sterilization process. The results showed that the convenient mixing ratio of solvent/lubricant oil is 80/20.

Keywords: disposal medical devices, lubricant oil, solvent effect, solubility parameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
4001 Exploring the Factors Affecting the Dependability of Mobile Devices in the Current World

Authors: Mayowa A. Sofowora, Seraphim D. Eyono Obono

Abstract:

In recent times the level of advancement in electronics and manufacturing technologies for portable electronic devices, especially for mobile devices such as cell phones, smartphones, personal digital assistants and tablet computers is unprecedented. Mobile devices have become indispensable to individuals, and businesses all over the world. The high level of manufacturing and production of mobile devices has led to the rapid release of newer and sleeker models with new features and capabilities. However, these newer models therefore render older models obsolete, and this pushes people to frequently replace their devices. The drawback of such frequent replacements is that a large number of devices are disposed and they end up as e-waste. The fact that e-waste constitutes a major hazard to human health and to the environment is the motivation behind this study whose aim is to develop a model of possible factors that affects the dependability of mobile devices which in turn leads to the obsolescence of these devices.

Keywords: dependability, mobile devices, obsolescence, e-waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
4000 Resistive Switching Characteristics of Resistive Random Access Memory Devices after Furnace Annealing Processes

Authors: Chi-Yan Chu, Kai-Chi Chuang, Huang-Chung Cheng

Abstract:

In this study, the RRAM devices with the TiN/Ti/HfOx/TiN structure were fabricated, then the electrical characteristics of the devices without annealing and after 400 °C and 500 °C of the furnace annealing (FA) temperature processes were compared. The RRAM devices after the FA’s 400 °C showed the lower forming, set and reset voltages than the other devices without annealing. However, the RRAM devices after the FA’s 500 °C did not show any electrical characteristics because the TiN/Ti/HfOx/TiN device was oxidized, as shown in the XPS analysis. From these results, the RRAM devices after the FA’s 400 °C showed the best electrical characteristics.

Keywords: RRAM, furnace annealing (FA), forming, set and reset voltages, XPS

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
3999 A Method for Evaluating the Mechanical Stress on Mandibular Advancement Devices

Authors: Tsung-yin Lin, Yi-yu Lee, Ching-hua Hung

Abstract:

Snoring, the lay term for obstructive breathing during sleep, is one of the most prevalent of obnoxious human habits. Loud snoring usually makes others feel noisy and uncomfortable. Snoring also influences the sleep quality of snorers’ bed partners, because of the noise they do not get to sleep easily. Snoring causes the reduce of sleep quality leading to several medical problems, such as excessive daytime sleepiness, high blood pressure, increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cerebral vascular accident, and etc. There are many non-prescription devices offered for sale on the market, but very limited data are available to support a beneficial effect of these devices on snoring and use in treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Mandibular advancement devices (MADs), also termed as the Mandibular reposition devices (MRDs) are removable devices which are worn at night during sleep. Most devices require dental impression, bite registration, and fabrication by a dental laboratory. Those devices are fixed to upper and lower teeth and are adjusted to advance the mandible. The amount of protrusion is adjusted to meet the therapeutic requirements, comfort, and tolerance. Many devices have a fixed degree of advancement. Some are adjustable in a limited degree. This study focuses on the stress analysis of Mandibular Advancement Devices (MADs), which are considered as a standard treatment of snoring that promoted by American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). This paper proposes a new MAD design, and the finite element analysis (FEA) is introduced to precede the stress simulation for this MAD.

Keywords: finite element analysis, mandibular advancement devices, mechanical stress, snoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
3998 Improving Research Collaborations in Medical Device Development in Korea from an SMEs’ Perspective

Authors: Yoon Chung Kim

Abstract:

In this coming aging society, medical device industry is expected to become one of the major industries. Since developing medical devices usually requires technology convergence, research collaboration is important, especially for some small and medium enterprises (SMEs) that do not have enough R&D resources in each related field. Collaboration in medical device development has some unique properties. Since it requires convergence technology, collaboration with different fields, and different types of people are often required. Since it requires clinical test, the development process usually takes longer and collaboration with hospitals is also required. However, despite these importance and uniqueness, collaboration in medical device development has not yet been widely studied. Thus, our research focuses on investigating collaborations in medical device development. For our research, we conducted surveys and interviews, especially with SMEs’ perspective in Korea. The result and discussion will be presented with a major impact factors for collaboration result, as well as future strategies that will improve and strengthen collaboration process in medical devices.

Keywords: medical device, SME, research collaboration, development, clinical

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
3997 The Integration of Patient Health Record Generated from Wearable and Internet of Things Devices into Health Information Exchanges

Authors: Dalvin D. Hill, Hector M. Castro Garcia

Abstract:

A growing number of individuals utilize wearable devices on a daily basis. The usage and functionality of these wearable devices vary from user to user. One popular usage of said devices is to track health-related activities that are typically stored on a device’s memory or uploaded to an account in the cloud; based on the current trend, the data accumulated from the wearable device are stored in a standalone location. In many of these cases, this health related datum is not a factor when considering the holistic view of a user’s health lifestyle or record. This health-related data generated from wearable and Internet of Things (IoT) devices can serve as empirical information to a medical provider, as the standalone data can add value to the holistic health record of a patient. This paper proposes a solution to incorporate the data gathered from these wearable and IoT devices, with that a patient’s Personal Health Record (PHR) stored within the confines of a Health Information Exchange (HIE).

Keywords: electronic health record, health information exchanges, internet of things, personal health records, wearable devices, wearables

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
3996 Impact of FACTS Devices on Power Networks Reliability

Authors: Alireza Alesaadi

Abstract:

Flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices have an important rule on expnded electrical transmission networks. In this paper, the effect of these diveces on reliability of electrical networks is studied and it is shown that using of FACTS devices can improve the relibiability of power networks, significantly.

Keywords: FACTS devices, power networks, reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
3995 Reconfigurable Ubiquitous Computing Infrastructure for Load Balancing

Authors: Khaled Sellami, Lynda Sellami, Pierre F. Tiako

Abstract:

Ubiquitous computing helps make data and services available to users anytime and anywhere. This makes the cooperation of devices a crucial need. In return, such cooperation causes an overload of the devices and/or networks, resulting in network malfunction and suspension of its activities. Our goal in this paper is to propose an approach of devices reconfiguration in order to help to reduce the energy consumption in ubiquitous environments. The idea is that when high-energy consumption is detected, we proceed to a change in component distribution on the devices to reduce and/or balance the energy consumption. We also investigate the possibility to detect high-energy consumption of devices/network based on devices abilities. As a result, our idea realizes a reconfiguration of devices aimed at reducing the consumption of energy and/or load balancing in ubiquitous environments.

Keywords: ubiquitous computing, load balancing, device energy consumption, reconfiguration

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
3994 Cyber-Med: Practical Detection Methodology of Cyber-Attacks Aimed at Medical Devices Eco-Systems

Authors: Nir Nissim, Erez Shalom, Tomer Lancewiki, Yuval Elovici, Yuval Shahar

Abstract:

Background: A Medical Device (MD) is an instrument, machine, implant, or similar device that includes a component intended for the purpose of the diagnosis, cure, treatment, or prevention of disease in humans or animals. Medical devices play increasingly important roles in health services eco-systems, including: (1) Patient Diagnostics and Monitoring; Medical Treatment and Surgery; and Patient Life Support Devices and Stabilizers. MDs are part of the medical device eco-system and are connected to the network, sending vital information to the internal medical information systems of medical centers that manage this data. Wireless components (e.g. Wi-Fi) are often embedded within medical devices, enabling doctors and technicians to control and configure them remotely. All these functionalities, roles, and uses of MDs make them attractive targets of cyber-attacks launched for many malicious goals; this trend is likely to significantly increase over the next several years, with increased awareness regarding MD vulnerabilities, the enhancement of potential attackers’ skills, and expanded use of medical devices. Significance: We propose to develop and implement Cyber-Med, a unique collaborative project of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev and the Clalit Health Services Health Maintenance Organization. Cyber-Med focuses on the development of a comprehensive detection framework that relies on a critical attack repository that we aim to create. Cyber-Med will allow researchers and companies to better understand the vulnerabilities and attacks associated with medical devices as well as providing a comprehensive platform for developing detection solutions. Methodology: The Cyber-Med detection framework will consist of two independent, but complementary detection approaches: one for known attacks, and the other for unknown attacks. These modules incorporate novel ideas and algorithms inspired by our team's domains of expertise, including cyber security, biomedical informatics, and advanced machine learning, and temporal data mining techniques. The establishment and maintenance of Cyber-Med’s up-to-date attack repository will strengthen the capabilities of Cyber-Med’s detection framework. Major Findings: Based on our initial survey, we have already found more than 15 types of vulnerabilities and possible attacks aimed at MDs and their eco-system. Many of these attacks target individual patients who use devices such pacemakers and insulin pumps. In addition, such attacks are also aimed at MDs that are widely used by medical centers such as MRIs, CTs, and dialysis engines; the information systems that store patient information; protocols such as DICOM; standards such as HL7; and medical information systems such as PACS. However, current detection tools, techniques, and solutions generally fail to detect both the known and unknown attacks launched against MDs. Very little research has been conducted in order to protect these devices from cyber-attacks, since most of the development and engineering efforts are aimed at the devices’ core medical functionality, the contribution to patients’ healthcare, and the business aspects associated with the medical device.

Keywords: medical device, cyber security, attack, detection, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
3993 Federated Learning in Healthcare

Authors: Ananya Gangavarapu

Abstract:

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) based models are providing diagnostic capabilities on par with the medical specialists in many specialty areas. However, collecting the medical data for training purposes is very challenging because of the increased regulations around data collections and privacy concerns around personal health data. The gathering of the data becomes even more difficult if the capture devices are edge-based mobile devices (like smartphones) with feeble wireless connectivity in rural/remote areas. In this paper, I would like to highlight Federated Learning approach to mitigate data privacy and security issues.

Keywords: deep learning in healthcare, data privacy, federated learning, training in distributed environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
3992 Improve of Power Quality in Electrical Network Using STATCOM

Authors: A. R. Alesaadi

Abstract:

Flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices have an important rule on expended electrical transmission networks. These devices can provide control of one or more AC transmission system parameters to enhance controllability and increase power transfer capability. In this paper the effect of these devices on reliability of electrical networks is studied and it is shown that using of FACTS devices can improve the reliability of power networks and power quality in electrical networks, significantly.

Keywords: FACTS devices, power networks, power quality, STATCOM

Procedia PDF Downloads 548
3991 Evaluation of the Sterilization Practice in Liberal Dental Surgeons at Sidi Bel Abbes- Algeria

Authors: A. Chenafa, S. Boulenouar, M. Zitouni, M. Boukouria

Abstract:

The sterilization of medical devices constitutes for all the medical professions, an inescapable obligation. It has for objective to prevent the infectious risk, both for the patient and for the medical team. The Dental surgeon as every healthcare professional has to master perfectly this subject and to train his staff to the various techniques of sterilization. It is the only way to assure the patients all the security for which they are entitled to wait when they undergo a dental care. It’s for it, that we undertook to lead an investigation aiming at estimating the sterilization practice at the dental surgeon of Sidi bel Abbes. The survey result showed a youth marked with the profession with a majority use of autoclave with cycle B and an almost total absence of the sterilization controls (test of Bowie and Dick). However, the majority of the dentists control and validate their sterilizers. Finally, our survey allowed us to describe some practices which must be improved regarding control, regarding qualification and regarding staff training. And suggestions were made in this sense.

Keywords: dental surgeon, medical devices, sterilization, survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
3990 Usage and Benefits of Handheld Devices as Educational Tools in Higher Institutions of Learning in Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors: Abiola A. Sokoya

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Handheld devices are now in use as educational tools for learning in most of the higher institutions, because of the features and functions which can be used in an academic environment. This study examined the usage and the benefits of handheld devices as learning tools. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data, while the data collected was analyzed using simple percentage. It was, however, observed that handheld devices offer numerous functions and application for learning, which could improve academic performance of students. Students are now highly interested in using handheld devices for mobile learning apart from making and receiving calls. The researchers recommended that seminars be organized for students on functions of some common handheld devices that can aid learning for academic purposes. It is also recommended that management of each higher institution should make appropriate policies in-line with the usage of handheld technologies to enhance mobile learning. Government should ensure that appropriate policies and regulations are put in place for the importation of high quality handheld devices into the country, Nigeria being a market place for the technologies. By this, using handheld devices for mobile learning will be enhanced.

Keywords: handheld devices, educational tools, mobile e- learning, usage, benefits

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
3989 Fog Computing- Network Based Computing

Authors: Navaneeth Krishnan, Chandan N. Bhagwat, Aparajit P. Utpat

Abstract:

Cloud Computing provides us a means to upload data and use applications over the internet. As the number of devices connecting to the cloud grows, there is undue pressure on the cloud infrastructure. Fog computing or Network Based Computing or Edge Computing allows to move a part of the processing in the cloud to the network devices present along the node to the cloud. Therefore the nodes connected to the cloud have a better response time. This paper proposes a method of moving the computation from the cloud to the network by introducing an android like appstore on the networking devices.

Keywords: cloud computing, fog computing, network devices, appstore

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
3988 Computational Model of Human Cardiopulmonary System

Authors: Julian Thrash, Douglas Folk, Michael Ciracy, Audrey C. Tseng, Kristen M. Stromsodt, Amber Younggren, Christopher Maciolek

Abstract:

The cardiopulmonary system is comprised of the heart, lungs, and many dynamic feedback mechanisms that control its function based on a multitude of variables. The next generation of cardiopulmonary medical devices will involve adaptive control and smart pacing techniques. However, testing these smart devices on living systems may be unethical and exceedingly expensive. As a solution, a comprehensive computational model of the cardiopulmonary system was implemented in Simulink. The model contains over 240 state variables and over 100 equations previously described in a series of published articles. Simulink was chosen because of its ease of introducing machine learning elements. Initial results indicate that physiologically correct waveforms of pressures and volumes were obtained in the simulation. With the development of a comprehensive computational model, we hope to pioneer the future of predictive medicine by applying our research towards the initial stages of smart devices. After validation, we will introduce and train reinforcement learning agents using the cardiopulmonary model to assist in adaptive control system design. With our cardiopulmonary model, we will accelerate the design and testing of smart and adaptive medical devices to better serve those with cardiovascular disease.

Keywords: adaptive control, cardiopulmonary, computational model, machine learning, predictive medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
3987 The Complexity of Testing Cryptographic Devices on Input Faults

Authors: Alisher Ikramov, Gayrat Juraev

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The production of logic devices faces the occurrence of faults during manufacturing. This work analyses the complexity of testing a special type of logic device on inverse, adhesion, and constant input faults. The focus of this work is on devices that implement cryptographic functions. The complexity values for the general case faults and for some frequently occurring subsets were determined and proved in this work. For a special case, when the length of the text block is equal to the length of the key block, the complexity of testing is proven to be asymptotically half the complexity of testing all logic devices on the same types of input faults.

Keywords: complexity, cryptographic devices, input faults, testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
3986 Digital Control Techniques for Power Electronic Devices

Authors: Rakesh Krishna, Abhishek Poddar

Abstract:

The paper discusses the work carried out on the implementation of control techniques like Digital Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and Digital Pulse Fired control(PFC). These techniques are often used in devices like inverters, battery chargers, DC-to-DC converters can also be implemented on household devices like heaters. The advantage being the control and improved life span of device. In case of batteries using these techniques are known to increase the life span of battery in mobiles and other hand-held devices. 8051 microcontroller is used to implement these methods.Thyristors are used for switching operations.

Keywords: PWM, SVM, PFC, bidirectional inverters, snubber

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
3985 Graphene Based Electronic Device

Authors: Ali Safari, Pejman Hosseiniun, Iman Rahbari, MohamadReza Kalhor

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The semiconductor industry is placing an increased emphasis on emerging materials and devices that may provide improved performance, or provide novel functionality for devices. Recently, graphene, as a true two-dimensional carbon material, has shown fascinating applications in electronics. In this paper detailed discussions are introduced for possible applications of grapheme Transistor in RF and digital devices.

Keywords: graphene, GFET, RF, digital

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
3984 A Review on the Re-Usage of Single-Use Medical Devices

Authors: Lucas B. Naves, Maria José Abreu

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Reprocessing single-use device has attracted interesting on the medical environment over the last decades. The reprocessing technique was sought in order to reduce the cost of purchasing the new medical device, which can achieve almost double of the price of the reprocessed product. In this manuscript, we have done a literature review, aiming the reuse of medical device that was firstly designed for single use only, but has become, more and more, effective on its reprocessing procedure. We also show the regulation, the countries which allows this procedure, the classification of these device and also the most important issue concerning the re-utilization of medical device, how to minimizing the risk of gram positive and negative bacteria, avoid cross-contamination, hepatitis B (HBV), and C (HCV) virus, and also human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Keywords: reusing, reprocessing, single-use medical device, HIV, hepatitis B and C

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
3983 Examining How Youth Use Mobile Devices for Health Information: Preliminary Findings of a Survey Study with High School Students in Croatia

Authors: Sung Un Kim, Ivana Martinović, Snježana Stanarević Katavić

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As more and more youth use mobile devices, such as tablets and smartphones, for information seeking in their everyday lives, the purpose of this study is to understand the behaviors of youth seeking health information on mobile devices. The specific objective of this study is to examine 1) for what health issues youth use mobile devices, 2) for what reasons youth use mobile devices to obtain health information, 3) in what ways youth use mobile devices for health information, and 4) the features of health applications that youth find useful. The researchers devised a questionnaire for this study. Four hundred eight students from two high schools, located in Osijek, Croatia, participated by answering the questionnaire (281 girls and 127 boys). The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. The results show that among all participants, about 85 percent (n = 344) reported having used mobile devices for health information. The most frequent health topic for which they had been using mobile devices is physical activity (n = 273), followed by eating issues and nutrition (n = 224), mental health (n = 160), sexual health (n = 157), alcohol, drugs, and tobacco (n = 125), safety (n = 96) and particular diseases (n = 62). They use mobile devices to obtain health information due to the ease of use (n = 342), the ease of sharing health information (n = 281), portability (n = 215), timeliness (n = 162), and the ease of tracking/recording/monitoring health status (n = 147). Of those who have used mobile devices for health information, three-quarters (n = 261) use mobile devices to search health information, while 32.8% (n =113) use applications and 31.7% (n =109) browse information. Those who have used applications for health information (n = 113) consider the alert feature (n=107) as the most useful, followed by the tracking/recording/monitoring feature (n =92), the customized information feature (n = 86), the video feature (n = 58), and the sharing feature (n =39). It is notable that although health applications have been actively developed and studied, a majority of the participants search for or browse information on mobile devices, instead of using applications. The researchers will discuss reasons that some of them did not use mobile devices to obtain health information, students’ concerns about using health applications, and features that they wish to have in health applications.

Keywords: Croatia, health information, information seeking behaviors, mobile devices, youth

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
3982 Ubiquitous Life People Informatics Engine (U-Life PIE): Wearable Health Promotion System

Authors: Yi-Ping Lo, Shi-Yao Wei, Chih-Chun Ma

Abstract:

Since Google launched Google Glass in 2012, numbers of commercial wearable devices were released, such as smart belt, smart band, smart shoes, smart clothes ... etc. However, most of these devices perform as sensors to show the readings of measurements and few of them provide the interactive feedback to the user. Furthermore, these devices are single task devices which are not able to communicate with each other. In this paper a new health promotion system, Ubiquitous Life People Informatics Engine (U-Life PIE), will be presented. This engine consists of People Informatics Engine (PIE) and the interactive user interface. PIE collects all the data from the compatible devices, analyzes this data comprehensively and communicates between devices via various application programming interfaces. All the data and informations are stored on the PIE unit, therefore, the user is able to view the instant and historical data on their mobile devices any time. It also provides the real-time hands-free feedback and instructions through the user interface visually, acoustically and tactilely. These feedback and instructions suggest the user to adjust their posture or habits in order to avoid the physical injuries and prevent illness.

Keywords: machine learning, wearable devices, user interface, user experience, internet of things

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
3981 Modeling and Design of Rectenna for Low Power Medical Implants

Authors: Madhav Pant, Khem N. Poudel

Abstract:

Wireless power transfer is continuously becoming more powerful and compact in medical implantable devices and the wide range of applications. A rectenna is designed for wireless power transfer technique that can be applied to medical implant devices. The experiment is performed using ANSYS HFSS, a full wave electromagnetic simulation. The dipole antenna combinations operating at 2.4 GHz are used for wireless power transfer and the maximum DC voltage reception by the implant considering International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) regulation. The power receiving dipole antenna is placed inside the cylindrical geometry having the similar properties of the human body at the frequency of 2.4 GHz. Our design can provide the power at the depth of 5 mm skin and 5mm of bone for the implant. The voltage doubler/quadrupler rectifier in ANSYS Simplorer is used to calculate the exact DC current utilized by implant inside the human body. The qualitative design and analysis of this wireless power transfer method could also be used for other biomedical implants systems such as cardiac pacemaker, insulin pump, and retinal implants.

Keywords: dipole antenna, medical implants, wireless power transfer, rectifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 71