Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2022

Search results for: cyclic behaviour

2022 Behaviour of Rc Column under Biaxial Cyclic Loading-State of the Art

Authors: L. Pavithra, R. Sharmila, Shivani Sridhar


Columns severe structural damage needs proportioning a significant portion of earthquake energy can be dissipated yielding in the beams. Presence of axial load along with cyclic loading has a significant influence on column. The objective of this paper is to present the analytical results of columns subjected to biaxial cyclic loading.

Keywords: RC column, Seismic behaviour, cyclic behaviour, biaxial testing, ductile behaviour

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2021 Simulation of Low Cycle Fatigue Behaviour of Nickel-Based Alloy at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Harish Ramesh Babu, Marco Böcker, Mario Raddatz, Sebastian Henkel, Horst Biermann, Uwe Gampe


Thermal power machines are subjected to cyclic loading conditions under elevated temperatures. At these extreme conditions, the durability of the components has a significant influence. The material mechanical behaviour has to be known in detail for a failsafe construction. For this study a nickel-based alloy is considered, the deformation and fatigue behaviour of the material is analysed under cyclic loading. A viscoplastic model is used for calculating the deformation behaviour as well as to simulate the rate-dependent and cyclic plasticity effects. Finally, the cyclic deformation results of the finite element simulations are compared with low cycle fatigue (LCF) experiments.

Keywords: complex low cycle fatigue, elevated temperature, fe-simulation, viscoplastic

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
2020 Comparative Study of Isothermal and Cyclic Oxidation on Titanium Alloys

Authors: Poonam Yadav, Dong Bok Lee


Isothermal oxidation at 800°C for 50h and Cyclic oxidation at 600°C and 800°C for 40h of Pure Ti and Ti64 were performed in a muffle furnace. In Cyclic oxidation, massive scale spallation occurred, and the oxide scale cracks and peels off were observed at high temperature, it represents oxide scale that formed during cyclic oxidation was spalled out owing to stresses due to thermal shock generated during repetitive oxidation and subsequent cooling. The thickness of scale is larger in cyclic oxidation than the isothermal case. This is due to inward diffusion of oxygen through oxide scales and/or pores and cracks in cyclic oxidation.

Keywords: cyclic, diffusion, isothermal, cyclic

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2019 Skew Cyclic Codes over Fq+uFq+…+uk-1Fq

Authors: Jing Li, Xiuli Li


This paper studies a special class of linear codes, called skew cyclic codes, over the ring R= Fq+uFq+…+uk-1Fq, where q is a prime power. A Gray map ɸ from R to Fq and a Gray map ɸ' from Rn to Fnq are defined, as well as an automorphism Θ over R. It is proved that the images of skew cyclic codes over R under map ɸ' and Θ are cyclic codes over Fq, and they still keep the dual relation.

Keywords: skew cyclic code, gray map, automorphism, cyclic code

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
2018 Analysing the Permanent Deformation of Cohesive Subsoil Subject to Long Term Cyclic Train Loading

Authors: Natalie M. Wride, Xueyu Geng


Subgrade soils of railway infrastructure are subjected to a significant number of load applications over their design life. The use of slab track on existing and future proposed rail links requires a reduced maintenance and repair regime for the embankment subgrade, due to restricted access to the subgrade soils for remediation caused by cyclic deformation. It is, therefore, important to study the deformation behaviour of soft cohesive subsoils induced as a result of long term cyclic loading. In this study, a series of oedometer tests and cyclic triaxial tests (10,000 cycles) have been undertaken to investigate the undrained deformation behaviour of soft kaolin. X-ray Computer Tomography (CT) scanning of the samples has been performed to determine the change in porosity and soil structure density from the sample microstructure as a result of the laboratory testing regime undertaken. Combined with the examination of excess pore pressures and strains obtained from the cyclic triaxial tests, the results are compared with an existing analytical solution for long term settlement considering repeated low amplitude loading. Modifications to the analytical solution are presented based on the laboratory analysis that shows good agreement with further test data.

Keywords: creep, cyclic loading, deformation, long term settlement, train loading

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2017 A Characterization of Skew Cyclic Code with Complementary Dual

Authors: Eusebio Jr. Lina, Ederlina Nocon


Cyclic codes are a fundamental subclass of linear codes that enjoy a very interesting algebraic structure. The class of skew cyclic codes (or θ-cyclic codes) is a generalization of the notion of cyclic codes. This a very large class of linear codes which can be used to systematically search for codes with good properties. A linear code with complementary dual (LCD code) is a linear code C satisfying C ∩ C^⊥ = {0}. This subclass of linear codes provides an optimum linear coding solution for a two-user binary adder channel and plays an important role in countermeasures to passive and active side-channel analyses on embedded cryptosystems. This paper aims to identify LCD codes from the class of skew cyclic codes. Let F_q be a finite field of order q, and θ be an automorphism of F_q. Some conditions for a skew cyclic code to be LCD were given. To this end, the properties of a noncommutative skew polynomial ring F_q[x, θ] of automorphism type were revisited, and the algebraic structure of skew cyclic code using its skew polynomial representation was examined. Using the result that skew cyclic codes are left ideals of the ring F_q[x, θ]/〈x^n-1〉, a characterization of a skew cyclic LCD code of length n was derived. A necessary condition for a skew cyclic code to be LCD was also given.

Keywords: LCD cyclic codes, skew cyclic LCD codes, skew cyclic complementary dual codes, theta-cyclic codes with complementary duals

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2016 A Discrete Element Method Centrifuge Model of Monopile under Cyclic Lateral Loads

Authors: Nuo Duan, Yi Pik Cheng


This paper presents the data of a series of two-dimensional Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations of a large-diameter rigid monopile subjected to cyclic loading under a high gravitational force. At present, monopile foundations are widely used to support the tall and heavy wind turbines, which are also subjected to significant from wind and wave actions. A safe design must address issues such as rotations and changes in soil stiffness subject to these loadings conditions. Design guidance on the issue is limited, so are the availability of laboratory and field test data. The interpretation of these results in sand, such as the relation between loading and displacement, relies mainly on empirical correlations to pile properties. Regarding numerical models, most data from Finite Element Method (FEM) can be found. They are not comprehensive, and most of the FEM results are sensitive to input parameters. The micro scale behaviour could change the mechanism of the soil-structure interaction. A DEM model was used in this paper to study the cyclic lateral loads behaviour. A non-dimensional framework is presented and applied to interpret the simulation results. The DEM data compares well with various set of published experimental centrifuge model test data in terms of lateral deflection. The accumulated permanent pile lateral displacements induced by the cyclic lateral loads were found to be dependent on the characteristics of the applied cyclic load, such as the extent of the loading magnitudes and directions.

Keywords: cyclic loading, DEM, numerical modelling, sands

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2015 The Small Strain Effects to the Shear Strength and Maximum Stiffness of Post-Cyclic Degradation of Hemic Peat Soil

Authors: Z. Adnan, M. M. Habib


The laboratory tests for measuring the effects of small strain to the shear strength and maximum stiffness development of post-cyclic degradation of hemic peat are reviewed in this paper. A series of laboratory testing has been conducted to fulfil the objective of this research to study the post-cyclic behaviour of peat soil and focuses on the small strain characteristics. For this purpose, a number of strain-controlled static, cyclic and post-cyclic triaxial tests were carried out in undrained condition on hemic peat soil. The shear strength and maximum stiffness of hemic peat are evaluated immediately after post-cyclic monotonic testing. There are two soil samples taken from West Johor and East Malaysia peat soil. Based on these laboratories and field testing data, it was found that the shear strength and maximum stiffness of peat soil decreased in post-cyclic monotonic loading than its initial shear strength and stiffness. In particular, degradation in shear strength and stiffness is more sensitive for peat soil due to fragile and uniform fibre structures. Shear strength of peat soil, τmax = 12.53 kPa (Beaufort peat, BFpt) and 36.61 kPa (Parit Nipah peat, PNpt) decreased than its initial 58.46 kPa and 91.67 kPa. The maximum stiffness, Gmax = 0.23 and 0.25 decreased markedly with post-cyclic, Gmax = 0.04 and 0.09. Simple correlations between the Gmax and the τmax effects due to small strain, ε = 0.1, the Gmax values for post-cyclic are relatively low compared to its initial Gmax. As a consequence, the reported values and patterns of both the West Johor and East Malaysia peat soil are generally the same.

Keywords: post-cyclic, strain, maximum stiffness, shear strength

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2014 Material Parameter Identification of Modified AbdelKarim-Ohno Model

Authors: Martin Cermak, Tomas Karasek, Jaroslav Rojicek


The key role in phenomenological modelling of cyclic plasticity is good understanding of stress-strain behaviour of given material. There are many models describing behaviour of materials using numerous parameters and constants. Combination of individual parameters in those material models significantly determines whether observed and predicted results are in compliance. Parameter identification techniques such as random gradient, genetic algorithm, and sensitivity analysis are used for identification of parameters using numerical modelling and simulation. In this paper genetic algorithm and sensitivity analysis are used to study effect of 4 parameters of modified AbdelKarim-Ohno cyclic plasticity model. Results predicted by Finite Element (FE) simulation are compared with experimental data from biaxial ratcheting test with semi-elliptical loading path.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, sensitivity analysis, inverse approach, finite element method, cyclic plasticity, ratcheting

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
2013 Study of the Toughening by Crack Bridging in Mullite Alumina Zirconia Ceramics

Authors: F. Gheldane, S. Bouras


Crack propagation behaviour of alumina mullite zirconia ceramic is investigated under monotonic and cyclic loading by means SENB bending method. This material show R-curve effects, i.e. an increase in crack growth resistance with increasing crack depth. The morphological study showed that the resistance of the crack propagation is mainly connected to the crack bridging. The value of bridging stress is in good agreement with the literature. Furthermore, cyclic-loading fatigue is caused by a decrease in the stress-shielding effect, due to degradation of bridging sites under cyclic loading.

Keywords: alumina mullite zirconia, R-curve, bridging, toughening, crack

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2012 Study on High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC) Beams on Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: A. Siva, K. Bala Subramanian, Kinson Prabu


Concrete is widely used construction materials all over the world. Now a day’s fibers are used in this construction due to its advantages like increase in stiffness, energy absorption, ductility and load carrying capacity. The fiber used in the concrete to increases the structural integrity of the member. It is one of the emerging techniques used in the construction industry. In this paper, the effective utilization of high-performance fiber reinforced concrete (HPFRC) beams has been experimental investigated. The experimental investigation has been conducted on different steel fibers (Hooked, Crimpled, and Hybrid) under cyclic loading. The behaviour of HPFRC beams is compared with the conventional beams. Totally four numbers of specimens were cast with different content of fiber concrete and compared conventional concrete. The fibers are added to the concrete by base volume replacement of concrete. The silica fume and superplasticizers were used to modify the properties of concrete. Single point loading was carried out for all the specimens, and the beam specimens were subjected to cyclic loading. The load-deflection behaviour of fibers is compared with the conventional concrete. The ultimate load carrying capacity, energy absorption and ductility of hybrid fiber reinforced concrete is higher than the conventional concrete by 5% to 10%.

Keywords: cyclic loading, ductility, high performance fiber reinforced concrete, structural integrity

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
2011 Synthesis and Characterization of Cyclic PNC-28 Peptide, Residues 17–26 (ETFSDLWKLL), A Binding Domain of p53

Authors: Deepshikha Verma, V. N. Rajasekharan Pillai


The present study reports the synthesis of cyclic PNC-28 peptides with solid-phase peptide synthesis method. In the first step, we synthesize the linear PNC-28 Peptide and in the second step, we cyclize (N-to-C or head-to-tail cyclization) the linear PNC-28 peptide. The molecular formula of cyclic PNC-28 peptide is C64H88N12O16 and its m/z mass is ≈1233.64. Elemental analysis of cyclic PNC-28 is C, 59.99; H, 6.92; N, 13.12; O, 19.98. The characterization of LC-MS, CD, FT-IR, and 1HNMR has been done to confirm the successful synthesis and cyclization of linear PNC-28 peptides.

Keywords: CD, FTIR, 1HNMR, cyclic peptide

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2010 Cyclic Liquefaction Resistance of Reinforced Sand

Authors: S. A. Naeini, Z. Eftekhari


Liquefaction phenomenon in sand is nowadays a classical soil mechanics subject. Using a cyclic triaxial test apparatus, we use non-woven geotextile reinforcement to improve the liquefaction resistance of sand. The layer configurations used are zero, one, two and three horizontal reinforcing layers in a triaxial test sample. The influences of the number of geotextile layers, and cyclic stress ratio (CSR) were studied and described. The results illustrated that the geotextile inclusion increases liquefaction resistance.

Keywords: liquefaction resistance, geotextile, sand, cyclic triaxial test, cyclic stress ratio

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2009 Investigation of the Cyclic Response of Mudrock

Authors: Shaymaa Kennedy, Sam Clark, Paul Shaply


With the upcoming construction of high-speed rail HS2 in the UK, a number of issues surrounding the construction technology and track design need to be answered. In this paper performance of subsoil subjected to dynamic loads were studied. The material of study is Mudrock backfill, a weak prevalent rock which response under indicative loading of high-speed rail line is unknown. This paper aims to investigate the use of different track types and the influence they will have on the underlying soil, in order to evaluate the behaviour of it. Ballstless track is a well-established concept in Europe, and the investigation the benefit of the form of construction due to its known savings in maintenance costs. Physical test using a triaxial cyclic loading machine was conducted to assess the expected mechanical behaviour of mudrock under a range of dynamic loads which could be generated beneath different track constructions. Some further parameters are required to frame the problem including determining the stress change with depth and cyclic response are vital to determine the residual plastic strain which is a major concern. In addition, Stress level is discussed in this paper, which are applied to recreate conditions of soil in the laboratory. Results indicate that stress levels are highly influential on the performance of soil at shallower depth and become insignificant with increasing depth.

Keywords: stress level, dynamic load, residual plastic strain, high speed railway

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
2008 Full-Field Estimation of Cyclic Threshold Shear Strain

Authors: E. E. S. Uy, T. Noda, K. Nakai, J. R. Dungca


Cyclic threshold shear strain is the cyclic shear strain amplitude that serves as the indicator of the development of pore water pressure. The parameter can be obtained by performing either cyclic triaxial test, shaking table test, cyclic simple shear or resonant column. In a cyclic triaxial test, other researchers install measuring devices in close proximity of the soil to measure the parameter. In this study, an attempt was made to estimate the cyclic threshold shear strain parameter using full-field measurement technique. The technique uses a camera to monitor and measure the movement of the soil. For this study, the technique was incorporated in a strain-controlled consolidated undrained cyclic triaxial test. Calibration of the camera was first performed to ensure that the camera can properly measure the deformation under cyclic loading. Its capacity to measure deformation was also investigated using a cylindrical rubber dummy. Two-dimensional image processing was implemented. Lucas and Kanade optical flow algorithm was applied to track the movement of the soil particles. Results from the full-field measurement technique were compared with the results from the linear variable displacement transducer. A range of values was determined from the estimation. This was due to the nonhomogeneous deformation of the soil observed during the cyclic loading. The minimum values were in the order of 10-2% in some areas of the specimen.

Keywords: cyclic loading, cyclic threshold shear strain, full-field measurement, optical flow

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2007 Comparing the Behaviour of the FRP and Steel Reinforced Shear Walls under Cyclic Seismic Loading in Aspect of the Energy Dissipation

Authors: H. Rahman, T. Donchev, D. Petkova


Earthquakes claim thousands of lives around the world annually due to inadequate design of lateral load resisting systems particularly shear walls. Additionally, corrosion of the steel reinforcement in concrete structures is one of the main challenges in construction industry. Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) reinforcement can be used as an alternative to traditional steel reinforcement. FRP has several excellent mechanical properties than steel such as high resistance to corrosion, high tensile strength and light self-weight; additionally, it has electromagnetic neutrality advantageous to the structures where it is important such as hospitals, some laboratories and telecommunications. This paper is about results of experimental research and it is incorporating experimental testing of two medium-scale concrete shear wall samples; one reinforced with Basalt FRP (BFRP) bar and one reinforced with steel bars as a control sample. The samples are tested under quasi-static-cyclic loading following modified ATC-24 protocol standard seismic loading. The results of both samples are compared to allow a judgement about performance of BFRP reinforced against steel reinforced concrete shear walls. The results of the conducted researches show a promising momentum toward utilisation of the BFRP as an alternative to traditional steel reinforcement with the aim of improving durability with suitable energy dissipation in the reinforced concrete shear walls.  

Keywords: shear walls, internal fibre reinforced polymer reinforcement, cyclic loading, energy dissipation, seismic behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
2006 2D Structured Non-Cyclic Fuzzy Graphs

Authors: T. Pathinathan, M. Peter


Fuzzy graphs incorporate concepts from graph theory with fuzzy principles. In this paper, we make a study on the properties of fuzzy graphs which are non-cyclic and are of two-dimensional in structure. In particular, this paper presents 2D structure or the structure of double layer for a non-cyclic fuzzy graph whose underlying crisp graph is non-cyclic. In any graph structure, introducing 2D structure may lead to an inherent cycle. We propose relevant conditions for 2D structured non-cyclic fuzzy graphs. These conditions are extended even to fuzzy graphs of the 3D structure. General theoretical properties that are studied for any fuzzy graph are verified to 2D structured or double layered fuzzy graphs. Concepts like Order, Degree, Strong and Size for a fuzzy graph are studied for 2D structured or double layered non-cyclic fuzzy graphs. Using different types of fuzzy graphs, the proposed concepts relating to 2D structured fuzzy graphs are verified.

Keywords: double layered fuzzy graph, double layered non–cyclic fuzzy graph, order, degree and size

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2005 Kinematic Behavior of Geogrid Reinforcements during Earthquakes

Authors: Ahmed Hosny Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Abdel-Moneim


Reinforced earth structures are generally subjected to cyclic loading generated from earthquakes. This paper presents a summary of the results and analyses of a testing program carried out in a large-scale multi-function geosynthetic testing apparatus that accommodates soil samples up to 1.0 m3. This apparatus performs different shear and pullout tests under both static and cyclic loading. The testing program was carried out to investigate the controlling factors affecting soil/geogrid interaction under cyclic loading. The extensibility of the geogrids, the applied normal stresses, the characteristics of the cyclic loading (frequency, and amplitude), and initial static load within the geogrid sheet were considered in the testing program. Based on the findings of the testing program, the effect of these parameters on the pullout resistance of geogrids, as well as the displacement mobility under cyclic loading were evaluated. Conclusions and recommendations for the design of reinforced earth walls under cyclic loading are presented.

Keywords: geogrid, soil, interface, cyclic loading, pullout, large scale testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 514
2004 Cyclic Behaviour of Wide Beam-Column Joints with Shear Strength Ratios of 1.0 and 1.7

Authors: Roy Y. C. Huang, J. S. Kuang, Hamdolah Behnam


Beam-column connections play an important role in the reinforced concrete moment resisting frame (RCMRF), which is one of the most commonly used structural systems around the world. The premature failure of such connections would severely limit the seismic performance and increase the vulnerability of RCMRF. In the past decades, researchers primarily focused on investigating the structural behaviour and failure mechanisms of conventional beam-column joints, the beam width of which is either smaller than or equal to the column width, while studies in wide beam-column joints were scarce. This paper presents the preliminary experimental results of two full-scale exterior wide beam-column connections, which are mainly designed and detailed according to ACI 318-14 and ACI 352R-02, under reversed cyclic loading. The ratios of the design shear force to the nominal shear strength of these specimens are 1.0 and 1.7, respectively, so as to probe into differences of the joint shear strength between experimental results and predictions by design codes of practice. Flexural failure dominated in the specimen with ratio of 1.0 in which full-width plastic hinges were observed, while both beam hinges and post-peak joint shear failure occurred for the other specimen. No sign of premature joint shear failure was found which is inconsistent with ACI codes’ prediction. Finally, a modification of current codes of practice is provided to accurately predict the joint shear strength in wide beam-column joint.

Keywords: joint shear strength, reversed cyclic loading, seismic vulnerability, wide beam-column joints

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
2003 Experimental Study on Single Bay RC Frame Designed Using EC8 under In-Plane Cyclic Loading

Authors: N. H. Hamid, M. S. Syaref, M. I. Adiyanto, M. Mohamed


A one-half scale of single-bay two-storey RC frame together with foundation beam and mass concrete block is investigated. Moment resisting RC frame was designed using EC8 by including the provision for seismic loading and detailing of its connection. The objective of the experimental work is to determine seismic behaviour RC frame under in-plane lateral cyclic loading using displacement control method. A double actuator is placed at centre of the mass concrete block at top of frame to represent the seismic load. The percentage drifts are starting from ±0.01% until ±2.25% with increment of ±0.25% drift. The ultimate lateral load of 158.48 kN was recorded at +2.25% drift in pushing and -126.09 kN in pulling direction. From the experimental hysteresis loops, the parameters such as lateral strength capacity, stiffness, ductility and equivalent viscous damping can be obtained. RC frame behaves in the elastic manner followed by inelastic behaviour after reaches the yield limit. The ductility value for this type frame is 4 which lies between the limit 3 and 6. Therefore, it is recommended to build this RC frame for moderate seismic regions under Ductility Class Medium (DCM) such as in Sabah, East Malaysia.

Keywords: single bay, moment resisting RC frame, ductility class medium, inelastic behavior, seismic load

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2002 Fe-BTC Based Electrochemical Sensor for Anti-Psychotic and Anti-Migraine Drugs: Aripiprazole and Rizatriptan

Authors: Sachin Saxena, Manju Srivastava


The present study describes a stable, highly sensitive and selective analytical sensor. Fe-BTC was synthesized at room temperature using the noble Iron-trimesate system. The high surface area of as synthesized Fe-BTC proved MOFs as ideal modifiers for glassy carbon electrode. The characterization techniques such as TGA, XRD, FT-IR, BET (BET surface area= 1125 m2/gm) analysis explained the electrocatalytic behaviour of Fe-BTC towards these two drugs. The material formed is cost effective and exhibit higher catalytic behaviour towards analyte systems. The synergism between synthesized Fe-BTC and electroanalytical techniques helped in developing a highly sensitive analytical method for studying the redox fate of ARP and RZ, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry of ferricyanide system proved Fe-BTC/GCE with an increase in 132% enhancement in peak current value as compared to that of GCE. The response characteristics of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) revealed that the ARP and RZ could be effectively accumulated at Fe-BTC/GCE. On the basis of the electrochemical measurements, electrode dynamics parameters have been evaluated. Present study opens up new field of applications of MOFs modified GCE for drug sensing.

Keywords: MOFs, anti-psychotic, electrochemical sensor, anti-migraine drugs

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2001 Finite Element Assessment on Bond Behaviour of FRP-to-Concrete Joints under Cyclic Loading

Authors: F. Atheer, Al-Saoudi, Robin Kalfat, Riadh Al-Mahaidi


Over the last two decades, externally bonded fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites bonded to concrete substrates has become a popular method for strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) highway and railway bridges. Such structures are exposed to severe cyclic loading throughout their lifetime often resulting in fatigue damage to structural components and a reduction in the service life of the structure. Since experimental and numerical results on the fatigue performance of FRP-to-concrete joints are still limited, the current research focuses on assessing the fatigue performance of externally bonded FRP-to-concrete joints using a direct shear test. Some early results indicate that the stress ratio and the applied cyclic stress level have a direct influence on the fatigue life of the externally bonded FRP. In addition, a calibrated finite element model is developed to provide further insight into the influence of certain parameters such as: concrete strength, FRP thickness, number of cycles, frequency and stiffness on the fatigue life of the FRP-to-concrete joints.

Keywords: FRP, concrete bond, control, fatigue, finite element model

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2000 Simulation Study of Asphaltene Deposition and Solubility of CO2 in the Brine during Cyclic CO2 Injection Process in Unconventional Tight Reservoirs

Authors: Rashid S. Mohammad, Shicheng Zhang, Sun Lu, Syed Jamal-Ud-Din, Xinzhe Zhao


A compositional reservoir simulation model (CMG-GEM) was used for cyclic CO2 injection process in unconventional tight reservoir. Cyclic CO2 injection is an enhanced oil recovery process consisting of injection, shut-in, and production. The study of cyclic CO2 injection and hydrocarbon recovery in ultra-low permeability reservoirs is mainly a function of rock, fluid, and operational parameters. CMG-GEM was used to study several design parameters of cyclic CO2 injection process to distinguish the parameters with maximum effect on the oil recovery and to comprehend the behavior of cyclic CO2 injection in tight reservoir. On the other hand, permeability reduction induced by asphaltene precipitation is one of the major issues in the oil industry due to its plugging onto the porous media which reduces the oil productivity. In addition to asphaltene deposition, solubility of CO2 in the aquifer is one of the safest and permanent trapping techniques when considering CO2 storage mechanisms in geological formations. However, the effects of the above uncertain parameters on the process of CO2 enhanced oil recovery have not been understood systematically. Hence, it is absolutely necessary to study the most significant parameters which dominate the process. The main objective of this study is to improve techniques for designing cyclic CO2 injection process while considering the effects of asphaltene deposition and solubility of CO2 in the brine in order to prevent asphaltene precipitation, minimize CO2 emission, optimize cyclic CO2 injection, and maximize oil production.

Keywords: tight reservoirs, cyclic O₂ injection, asphaltene, solubility, reservoir simulation

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1999 Nitrite Sensor Platform Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide with Thionine Dye Based

Authors: Nurulasma Zainudin, Mashitah Mohd Yusoff, Kwok Feng Chong


Functionalized reduced graphene oxide is essential importance for their end applications. Chemical functionalization of reduced graphene oxide with strange atoms is a leading strategy to modify the properties of the materials moreover maintains the inherent properties of reduced graphene oxide. A thionine functionalized reduce graphene oxide electrode was fabricated and was used to electrochemically determine nitrite. The electrochemical behaviour of thionine functionalized reduced graphene oxide towards oxidation of nitrite via cyclic voltammetry was studied and the proposed method exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic behaviour.

Keywords: nitrite, sensor, thionine, reduced graphene oxide

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1998 Cyclic Stress and Masing Behaviour of Modified 9Cr-1Mo at RT and 300 °C

Authors: Preeti Verma, P. Chellapandi, N.C. Santhi Srinivas, Vakil Singh


Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is widely used for structural components like heat exchangers, pressure vessels and steam generator in the nuclear reactors. It is also found to be a candidate material for future metallic fuel sodium cooled fast breeder reactor because of its high thermal conductivity, lower thermal expansion coefficient, micro structural stability, high irradiation void swelling resistance and higher resistance to stress corrosion cracking in water-steam systems compared to austenitic stainless steels. The components of steam generators that operate at elevated temperatures are often subjected to repeated thermal stresses as a result of temperature gradients which occur on heating and cooling during start-ups and shutdowns or during variations in operating conditions of a reactor. These transient thermal stresses give rise to LCF damage. In the present investigation strain controlled low cycle fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature and 300 °C in normalized and tempered condition using total strain amplitudes in the range from ±0.25% to ±0.5% at strain rate of 10-2 s-1. Cyclic Stress response at high strain amplitudes (±0.31% to ±0.5%) showed initial softening followed by hardening upto a few cycles and subsequent softening till failure. The extent of softening increased with increase in strain amplitude and temperature. Depends on the strain amplitude of the test the stress strain hysteresis loops displayed Masing behaviour at higher strain amplitudes and non-Masing at lower strain amplitudes at both the temperatures. It is quite opposite to the usual Masing and Non-Masing behaviour reported earlier for different materials. Low cycle fatigue damage was evaluated in terms of plastic strain and plastic strain energy approach at room temperature and 300 °C. It was observed that the plastic strain energy approach was found to be more closely matches with the experimental fatigue lives particularly, at 300 °C where dynamic strain aging was observed.

Keywords: Modified 9Cr-mo steel, low cycle fatigue, Masing behavior, cyclic softening

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1997 Shopping Behaviour of Ethnic Groups in Indian Culture

Authors: Hari Govindmishra, Sarabjot Singh


The study offers an approach to understand different determinants of shopping behaviour, and the effect of ethnicity on shopping behaviour. The results reveal that the Indian culture is composite in nature and because of which there is no difference between different ethnic groups in their preference for three shopping behaviour determinants, viz., status consciousness, need for touch and companion opinion. The research model investigates the relevant relationship between these constructs by using a structural equation modelling approach, which reveals that status consciousness, need for touch and companion opinion are significant determinants of shopping behaviour. Consequently, the shopping behaviour managers have to understand the collective nature of Indian ethnic consumers in their shopping behaviour.

Keywords: ethnic groups, status consciousness, companion opinion, need for touch, shopping behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
1996 Personal Characteristics Related to Hasty Behaviour in Korea

Authors: Sun Jin Park, Kyung-Ja Cho


This study focused on characteristics related to hasty behaviour. To investigate the relation between personal characteristics and hasty behaviour, 601 data were collected, 335 males and 256 females answered their own 'social avoidance and distress’, ‘anxiety’, ‘sensation seeking', 'hope', and ' hasty behaviour. And then 591 data were used for the analysis. The factor analysis resulted hasty behaviour consisted of 5 factors, time pressure, isolation, uncomfortable situation, boring condition, and expectation of reward. The result showed anxiety, sensation seeking, and hope related to hasty behaviour. Specifically, anxiety was involved in every hasty behaviour. This result means that psychological tension and worry are related to hasty behaviour in common. 'Social avoidance and distress', 'sensation seeking' and 'hope' influenced on hasty behaviour under time pressure, in isolation, in expectation of rewards respectively. This means that each factor of hasty behaviour has anxiety as its basis, expressed through a varied nature.

Keywords: hasty behaviour, social avoidance and distress, anxiety, sensation seeking, hope

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1995 Performance Analysis of Ferrocement Retrofitted Masonry Wall Units under Cyclic Loading

Authors: Raquib Ahsan, Md. Mahir Asif, Md. Zahidul Alam


A huge portion of old masonry buildings in Bangladesh are vulnerable to earthquake. In most of the cases these buildings contain unreinforced masonry wall which are most likely to be subjected to earthquake damages. Due to deterioration of mortar joint and aging, shear resistance of these unreinforced masonry walls dwindle. So, retrofitting of these old buildings has become an important issue. Among many researched and experimented techniques, ferrocement retrofitting can be a low cost technique in context of the economic condition of Bangladesh. This study aims at investigating the behavior of ferrocement retrofitted unconfined URM walls under different types of cyclic loading. Four 725 mm × 725 mm masonry wall units were prepared with bricks jointed by stretcher bond with 12.5 mm mortar between two adjacent layers of bricks. To compare the effectiveness of ferrocement retrofitting a particular type wire mesh was used in this experiment which is 20 gauge woven wire mesh with 12.5 mm × 12.5 mm square opening. After retrofitting with ferrocement these wall units were tested by applying cyclic deformation along the diagonals of the specimens. Then a comparative study was performed between the retrofitted specimens and control specimens for both partially reversed cyclic load condition and cyclic compression load condition. The experiment results show that ultimate load carrying capacities of ferrocement retrofitted specimens are 35% and 27% greater than the control specimen under partially reversed cyclic loading and cyclic compression respectively. And before failure the deformations of ferrocement retrofitted specimens are 43% and 33% greater than the control specimen under reversed cyclic loading and cyclic compression respectively. Therefore, the test results show that the ultimate load carrying capacity and ductility of ferrocement retrofitted specimens have improved.

Keywords: cyclic compression, cyclic loading, ferrocement, masonry wall, partially reversed cyclic load, retrofitting

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
1994 A Unified Constitutive Model for the Thermoplastic/Elastomeric-Like Cyclic Response of Polyethylene with Different Crystal Contents

Authors: A. Baqqal, O. Abduhamid, H. Abdul-Hameed, T. Messager, G. Ayoub


In this contribution, the effect of crystal content on the cyclic response of semi-crystalline polyethylene is studied over a large strain range. Experimental observations on a high-density polyethylene with 72% crystal content and an ultralow density polyethylene with 15% crystal content are reported. The cyclic stretching does appear a thermoplastic-like response for high crystallinity and an elastomeric-like response for low crystallinity, both characterized by a stress-softening, a hysteresis and a residual strain, whose amount depends on the crystallinity and the applied strain. Based on the experimental observations, a unified viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model capturing the polyethylene cyclic response features is proposed. A two-phase representation of the polyethylene microstructure allows taking into consideration the effective contribution of the crystalline and amorphous phases to the intermolecular resistance to deformation which is coupled, to capture the strain hardening, to a resistance to molecular orientation. The polyethylene cyclic response features are captured by introducing evolution laws for the model parameters affected by the microstructure alteration due to the cyclic stretching.

Keywords: cyclic loading unloading, polyethylene, semi-crystalline polymer, viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model

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1993 Study on Effect of Reverse Cyclic Loading on Fracture Resistance Curve of Equivalent Stress Gradient (ESG) Specimen

Authors: Jaegu Choi, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok, Byungwoo Moon


Since massive earthquakes in the world have been reported recently, the safety of nuclear power plants for seismic loading has become a significant issue. Seismic loading is the reverse cyclic loading, consisting of repeated tensile and compression by longitudinal and transverse wave. Up to this time, the study on characteristics of fracture toughness under reverse cyclic loading has been unsatisfactory. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the fracture toughness under reverse cyclic load for the integrity estimation of nuclear power plants under seismic load. Fracture resistance (J-R) curves, which are used for determination of fracture toughness or integrity estimation in terms of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, can be derived by the fracture resistance test using single specimen technique. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of reverse cyclic loading on a fracture resistance curve of ESG specimen, having a similar stress gradient compared to the crack surface of the real pipe. For this, we carried out the fracture toughness test under the reverse cyclic loading, while changing incremental plastic displacement. Test results showed that the J-R curves were decreased with a decrease of the incremental plastic displacement.

Keywords: reverse cyclic loading, j-r curve, ESG specimen, incremental plastic displacement

Procedia PDF Downloads 266