Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 87

Search results for: copolymer

87 Crystallinity, Antimicrobial Activity and Dyeing Properties of Chitosan-G-Poly(N-Acryloyl Morpholine) Copolymer

Authors: Fakhreia A. Al Sagheer, Enas I. Ibrahim, Khaled D. Khalil


N-Acryloyl morpholine, NAM, was grafted onto chitosan utilizing homogeneous conditions with 1% acetic acid as the solvent, and potassium persulfate and sodium sulfite as the redox initiator. The effects of various reaction parameters, such as time, temperature, and monomer and initiator concentrations, on the percentage of grafting (G%) and the grafting efficiency (E%) were determined. The graft copolymer showed a remarkably improved crystallinity, as compared to the unmodified chitosan, based on the FESEM, XRD, and DSC results. Chitosan-g-poly(N-acryloyl morpholine) (Cs-PNAM), the copolymer obtained by using this procedure, was characterized by utilizing FTIR, FESEM, TGA, and XRD analysis. As expected, the results of an evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal activities show that the grafted chitosan copolymers exhibit stronger inhibitory effects against both types of microbes than does chitosan. Moreover, the size of the inhibition zone created by the graft copolymer was observed to be proportional to its G% corresponding to its morpholine content. Fortunately, the graft copolymer showed a marked growth inhibition against candidiasis (C.Albicans and C.Kefyr). We conclude that the graft copolymer may be highly effective in the prevention and treatment of candidiasis. In addition, the extent and pH dependence of uptake of different types of dyes (acidic: EBT, and MV; and basic: MB) by grafted chitosan in pH 6.5 aqueous solutions was determined. The results show that, the grafted copolymer exhibited a greater affinity to absorb the acid dyes more than the basic ones especially at relatively low temperature. Thus the modified chitosan can be used, in wastewater treatment, as efficient economic absorbent especially for anionic dyes from the industrial processing effluents.

Keywords: chitosan, N-Acryloyl morpholine, homogeneous grafting, antimicrobial activity, dye uptake

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86 Amino Acid Based Biodegradable Amphiphilic Polymers and Micelles as Drug Delivery Systems: Synthesis and Study

Authors: Sophio Kobauri, Vladimir P. Torchilin, David Tugushi, Ramaz Katsarava


Nanotherapy is an actual newest mode of treatment numerous diseases using nanoparticles (NPs) loading with different pharmaceuticals. NPs of biodegradable polymeric micelles (PMs) are gaining increased attention for their numerous and attractive abilities to be used in a variety of applications in the various fields of medicine. The present paper deals with the synthesis of a class of biodegradable micelle-forming polymers, namely ABA triblock-copolymer in which A-blocks represent amino-poly(ethylene glycol) (H2N-PEG) and B-block is biodegradable amino acid-based poly(ester amide) constituted of α-amino acid – L-phenylalanine. The obtained copolymer formed micelles of 70±4 nm size at 10 mg/mL concentration.

Keywords: amino acids, biodegradable poly (ester amide), amphiphilic triblock-copolymer, micelles

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85 Fabrication of Nanostructured Arrays Using Si-Containing Block Copolymer and Dually Responsive Photoresist

Authors: Kyoungok Jung, Chang Hong Bak, Gyeong Cheon Jo, Jin-Baek Kim


Nanostructured arrays have drawn extensive attention because of their unique properties resulting from nanoscale features. However, it is difficult to achieve uniform and freestanding 1D nanostrcutures over a large area. Here, a simple and novel method was developed for fabrication of universal nanoporous templates for high-density nanostructure arrays, by combining self-assembly of a Si-containing block copolymer with a bilayer lithography system. We introduced a dually responsive photoresist bottom layer into which the nanopatterns of block copolymer are transferred by oxygen reactive ion etching. Because the dually responsive layer becomes cross-linked by heating, it can be used as a hard template during the etching process. It becomes soluble again by chain scission upon exposure to light. Therefore, it can be easily removed by the lift-off process. The template was applicable to the various conducting substrates due to the compatibility of the photoresist with a wide range of substrates and was used in electrodeposition for well-aligned and high-density inorganic and organic nanoarrays. We successfully obtained vertically aligned and highly ordered gold nanorods and polypyrrole dots on the substrate without aggregation, and these arrays did not collapse after removing the dually responsive templates by the simple lift-off process.

Keywords: block copolymer, dually responsive, nanostructure, photoresist

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84 Nanoimprinted-Block Copolymer-Based Porous Nanocone Substrate for SERS Enhancement

Authors: Yunha Ryu, Kyoungsik Kim


Raman spectroscopy is one of the most powerful techniques for chemical detection, but the low sensitivity originated from the extremely small cross-section of the Raman scattering limits the practical use of Raman spectroscopy. To overcome this problem, Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) has been intensively studied for several decades. Because the SERS effect is mainly induced from strong electromagnetic near-field enhancement as a result of localized surface plasmon resonance of metallic nanostructures, it is important to design the plasmonic structures with high density of electromagnetic hot spots for SERS substrate. One of the useful fabrication methods is using porous nanomaterial as a template for metallic structure. Internal pores on a scale of tens of nanometers can be strong EM hotspots by confining the incident light. Also, porous structures can capture more target molecules than non-porous structures in a same detection spot thanks to the large surface area. Herein we report the facile fabrication method of porous SERS substrate by integrating solvent-assisted nanoimprint lithography and selective etching of block copolymer. We obtained nanostructures with high porosity via simple selective etching of the one microdomain of the diblock copolymer. Furthermore, we imprinted of the nanocone patterns into the spin-coated flat block copolymer film to make three-dimensional SERS substrate for the high density of SERS hot spots as well as large surface area. We used solvent-assisted nanoimprint lithography (SAIL) to reduce the fabrication time and cost for patterning BCP film by taking advantage of a solvent which dissolves both polystyrenre and poly(methyl methacrylate) domain of the block copolymer, and thus block copolymer film was molded under the low temperature and atmospheric pressure in a short time. After Ag deposition, we measured Raman intensity of dye molecules adsorbed on the fabricated structure. Compared to the Raman signals of Ag coated solid nanocone, porous nanocone showed 10 times higher Raman intensity at 1510 cm(-1) band. In conclusion, we fabricated porous metallic nanocone arrays with high density electromagnetic hotspots by templating nanoimprinted diblock copolymer with selective etching and demonstrated its capability as an effective SERS substrate.

Keywords: block copolymer, porous nanostructure, solvent-assisted nanoimprint, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

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83 Study of Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Ethylene/1-Octene Copolymer Based Nanocomposites

Authors: Sharmila Pradhan, Ralf Lach, George Michler, Jean Mark Saiter, Rameshwar Adhikari


Ethylene/1-octene copolymer was modified incorporating three types of nanofillers differed in their dimensionality in order to investigate the effect of filler dimensionality on mechanical properties, for instance, tensile strength, microhardness etc. The samples were prepared by melt mixing followed by compression moldings. The microstructure of the novel material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Other important properties such as melting, crystallizing and thermal stability were also investigated via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The FTIR and XRD results showed that the composites were formed by physical mixing. The TEM result supported the homogeneous dispersion of nanofillers in the matrix. The mechanical characterization performed by tensile testing showed that the composites with 1D nanofiller effectively reinforced the polymer. TGA results revealed that the thermal stability of pure EOC is marginally improved by the addition of nanofillers. Likewise, melting and crystallizing properties of the composites are not much different from that of pure.

Keywords: copolymer, differential scanning calorimetry, nanofiller, tensile strength

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82 Successful Immobilization of Alcohol Dehydrogenase on Natural and Synthetic Support and Its Reaction on Ethanol

Authors: Hiral D. Trivedi, Dinesh S. Patel, Sachin P. Shukla


We have immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase on k-carrageenan, which is a natural polysaccharide obtained from seaweeds by entrapment and on copolymer of acrylamide and 2-hydroxy ethylmethaacrylate by covalent coupling. We have optimized all the immobilization parameters and also carried the comparison studies of both. In case of copolymer of acrylamide and 2-hydroxy ethylmethaacrylate, we have activated both the amino and hydroxyl group individually and simultaneously using different activating agents and obtained some interesting results. We have found that covalently bound enzyme was found to be better under all tested conditions. The reaction on ethanol was carried out using these immobilized systems.

Keywords: alcohol dehydrogenase, acrylamide-co-2-hydroxy ethylmethaacrylate, ethanol, k-carrageenan

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81 Compatibility of Copolymer-Based Grinding Aids and Sulfonated Acetone-Formaldehyde Superplasticizer

Authors: Zhang Tailong


Compatibility between sulfonated acetone-formalehyde superplasticizer (SAF) and copolymer-based grinding aids (GA) were studied by fluidity, Zeta potential, setting time of cement pasts, initial slump and slump flow of concrete and compressive strength of concrete. ESEM, MIP, and XRD were used to investigate the changing of microstructure of interior concrete. The results indicated that GA could noticeably enhance the dispersion ability of SAF. It was found that better fluidity and slump-keeping ability of cement paste were obtained in the case of GA. In addition, GA and SAF together had a certain retardation effect on hydration of cement paste. With increasing of the GA dosage, the dispersion ability and retardation effect of admixture increased. The compressive strength of the sample made with SAF and GA after 28 days was higher than that of the control sample made only with SAF. The initial slump and slump flow of concrete increased by 10.0% and 22.9%, respectively, while 0.09 wt.% GA was used. XRD examination indicated that new products were not found in the case of GA. In addition, more dense arrangement of hydrates and lower porosity of the specimen were observed by ESEM and MIP, which contributed to higher compressive strength.

Keywords: copolymer-based grinding aids, superplasiticizer, compatibility, microstructure, cement, concrete

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80 Application of Synthetic Monomers Grafted Xanthan Gum for Rhodamine B Removal in Aqueous Solution

Authors: T. Moremedi, L. Katata-Seru, S. Sardar, A. Bandyopadhyay, E. Makhado, M. Joseph Hato


The rapid industrialisation and population growth have led to a steady fall in freshwater supplies worldwide. As a result, water systems are affected by modern methods upon use due to secondary contamination. The application of novel adsorbents derived from natural polymer holds a great promise in addressing challenges in water treatment. In this study, the UV irradiation technique was used to prepare acrylamide (AAm) monomer, and acrylic acid (AA) monomer grafted xanthan gum (XG) copolymer. Furthermore, the factors affecting rhodamine B (RhB) adsorption from aqueous media, such as pH, dosage, concentration, and time were also investigated. The FTIR results confirmed the formation of graft copolymer by the strong vibrational bands at 1709 cm-1 and 1612 cm-1 for AA and AAm, respectively. Additionally, more irregular, porous and wrinkled surface observed from SEM of XG-g-AAm/AA indicated copolymerization interaction of monomers. The optimum conditions for removing RhB dye with a maximum adsorption capacity of 313 mg/g at 25 0C from aqueous solution were pH approximately 5, initial dye concentration = 200 ppm, adsorbent dose = 30 mg. Also, the detailed investigation of the isothermal and adsorption kinetics of RhB from aqueous solution showed that the adsorption of the dye followed a Freundlich model (R2 = 0.96333) and pseudo-second-order kinetics. The results further indicated that this absorbent based on XG had the universality to remove dye through the mechanism of chemical adsorption. The outstanding adsorption potential of the grafted copolymer could be used to remove cationic dyes from aqueous solution as a low-cost product.

Keywords: xanthan gum, adsorbents, rhodamine B, Freundlich

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79 Recycled Waste Glass Powder as a Partial Cement Replacement in Polymer-Modified Mortars

Authors: Nikol Žižková


The aim of this study was to observe the behavior of polymer-modified cement mortars with regard to the use of a pozzolanic admixture. Polymer-modified mortars (PMMs) containing various types of waste glass (waste packing glass and fluorescent tube glass) were produced always with 20% of cement substituted with a pozzolanic-active material. Ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) was used for polymeric modification. The findings confirm the possibility of using the waste glass examined herein as a partial substitute for cement in the production of PMM, which contributes to the preservation of non-renewable raw material resources and to the efficiency of waste glass material reuse.

Keywords: recycled waste glass, polymer-modified mortars, pozzolanic admixture, ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer

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78 Upon Poly(2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate-Co-3, 9-Divinyl-2, 4, 8, 10-Tetraoxaspiro (5.5) Undecane) as Polymer Matrix Ensuring Intramolecular Strategies for Further Coupling Applications

Authors: Aurica P. Chiriac, Vera Balan, Mihai Asandulesa, Elena Butnaru, Nita Tudorachi, Elena Stoleru, Loredana E. Nita, Iordana Neamtu, Alina Diaconu, Liliana Mititelu-Tartau


The interest for studying ‘smart’ materials is entirely justified and in this context were realized investigations on poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-3, 9-divinyl-2, 4, 8, 10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane), which is a macromolecular compound with sensibility at pH and temperature, gel formation capacity, binding properties, amphilicity, good oxidative and thermal stability. Physico-chemical characteristics in terms of the molecular weight, temperature-sensitive abilities and thermal stability, as well rheological, dielectric and spectroscopic properties were evaluated in correlation with further coupling capabilities. Differential scanning calorimetry investigation indicated Tg at 36.6 °C and a melting point at Tm=72.8°C, for the studied copolymer, and up to 200oC two exothermic processes (at 99.7°C and 148.8°C) were registered with losing weight of about 4 %, respective 19.27%, which indicate just processes of thermal decomposition (and not phenomena of thermal transition) owing to scission of the functional groups and breakage of the macromolecular chains. At the same time, the rheological studies (rotational tests) confirmed the non-Newtonian shear-thinning fluid behavior of the copolymer solution. The dielectric properties of the copolymer have been evaluated in order to investigate the relaxation processes and two relaxation processes under Tg value were registered and attributed to localized motions of polar groups from side chain macromolecules, or parts of them, without disturbing the main chains. According to literature and confirmed as well by our investigations, β-relaxation is assigned with the rotation of the ester side group and the γ-relaxation corresponds to the rotation of hydroxy- methyl side groups. The fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed the copolymer structure, the spiroacetal moiety getting an axial conformation, more stable, with lower energy, able for specific interactions with molecules from environment, phenomena underlined by different shapes of the emission spectra of the copolymer. Also, the copolymer was used as template for indomethacin incorporation as model drug, and the biocompatible character of the complex was confirmed. The release behavior of the bioactive compound was dependent by the copolymer matrix composition, the increasing of 3, 9-divinyl-2, 4, 8, 10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane comonomer amount attenuating the drug release. At the same time, the in vivo studies did not show significant differences of leucocyte formula elements, GOT, GPT and LDH levels, nor immune parameters (OC, PC, and BC) between control mice group and groups treated just with copolymer samples, with or without drug, data attesting the biocompatibility of the polymer samples. The investigation of the physico-chemical characteristics of poly(2-hydrxyethyl methacrylate-co-3, 9-divinyl-2, 4, 8, 10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane) in terms of temperature-sensitive abilities, rheological and dielectrical properties, are bringing useful information for further specific use of this polymeric compound.

Keywords: bioapplications, dielectric and spectroscopic properties, dual sensitivity at pH and temperature, smart materials

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77 Supramolecular Approach towards Novel Applications: Battery, Band Gap and Gas Separation

Authors: Sudhakara Naidu Neppalli, Tejas S. Bhosale


It is well known that the block copolymer (BCP) can form a complex molecule, through non-covalent bonds such as hydrogen bond, ionic bond and co-ordination bond, with low molecular weight compound as well as with macromolecules, which provide vast applications, includes the alteration of morphology and properties of polymers. Hence we covered the research that, the importance of non-covalent bonds in increasing the non-favourable segmental interactions of the blocks was well examined by attaching and detaching the bonds between the BCP and additive. We also monitored the phase transition of block copolymer and effective interaction parameter (χeff) for Li-doped polymers using small angle x-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The effective interaction parameter (χeff) between two block components was evaluated using Leibler theory based on the incompressible random phase approximation (RPA) for ionized BCP in a disordered state. Furthermore, conductivity experiments demonstrate that the ionic conductivity in the samples quenched from the different structures is morphology-independent, while it increases with increasing ion salt concentration. Morphological transitions, interaction parameter, and thermal stability also examined in quarternized block copolymer. D-spacing was used to estimate effective interaction parameter (χeff) of block components in weak and strong segregation regimes of ordered phase. Metal-containing polymer has been the topic of great attention in recent years due to their wide range of potential application. Similarly, metal- ligand complex is used as a supramolecular linker between the polymers giving rise to a ‘Metallo-Supramolecule assembly. More precisely, functionalized polymer end capped with 2, 2’:6’, 2”- terpyridine ligand can be selectively complexed with wide range of transition metal ions and then subsequently attached to other terpyridine terminated polymer block. In compare to other supramolecular assembly, BCP involved metallo-supramolecule assembly offers vast applications such as optical activity, electrical conductivity, luminescence and photo refractivity.

Keywords: band gap, block copolymer, conductivity, interaction parameter, phase transition

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76 Development of Novel Amphiphilic Block Copolymer of Renewable ε-Decalactone for Drug Delivery Application

Authors: Deepak Kakde, Steve Howdle, Derek Irvine, Cameron Alexander


The poor aqueous solubility is one of the major obstacles in the formulation development of many drugs. Around 70% of drugs are poorly soluble in aqueous media. In the last few decades, micelles have emerged as one of the major tools for solubilization of hydrophobic drugs. Micelles are nanosized structures (10-100nm) obtained by self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules into the water. The hydrophobic part of the micelle forms core which is surrounded by a hydrophilic outer shell called corona. These core-shell structures have been used as a drug delivery vehicle for many years. Although, the utility of micelles have been reduced due to the lack of sustainable materials. In the present study, a novel methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-decalactone) (mPEG-b-PεDL) copolymer was synthesized by ring opening polymerization (ROP) of renewable ε-decalactone (ε-DL) monomers on methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) initiator using 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (TBD) as a organocatalyst. All the reactions were conducted in bulk to avoid the use of toxic organic solvents. The copolymer was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).The mPEG-b-PεDL block copolymeric micelles containing indomethacin (IND) were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and evaluated as drug delivery vehicle. The size of the micelles was less than 40nm with narrow polydispersity pattern. TEM image showed uniform distribution of spherical micelles defined by clear surface boundary. The indomethacin loading was 7.4% for copolymer with molecular weight of 13000 and drug/polymer weight ratio of 4/50. The higher drug/polymer ratio decreased the drug loading. The drug release study in PBS (pH7.4) showed a sustained release of drug over a period of 24hr. In conclusion, we have developed a new sustainable polymeric material for IND delivery by combining the green synthetic approach with the use of renewable monomer for sustainable development of polymeric nanomedicine.

Keywords: dopolymer, ε-decalactone, indomethacin, micelles

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75 Poly(Trimethylene Carbonate)/Poly(ε-Caprolactone) Phase-Separated Triblock Copolymers with Advanced Properties

Authors: Nikola Toshikj, Michel Ramonda, Sylvain Catrouillet, Jean-Jacques Robin, Sebastien Blanquer


Biodegradable and biocompatible block copolymers have risen as the golden materials in both medical and environmental applications. Moreover, if their architecture is of controlled manner, higher applications can be foreseen. In the meantime, organocatalytic ROP has been promoted as more rapid and immaculate route, compared to the traditional organometallic catalysis, towards efficient synthesis of block copolymer architectures. Therefore, herein we report novel organocatalytic pathway with guanidine molecules (TBD) for supported synthesis of trimethylene carbonate initiated by poly(caprolactone) as pre-polymer. Pristine PTMC-b-PCL-b-PTMC block copolymer structure, without any residual products and clear desired block proportions, was achieved under 1.5 hours at room temperature and verified by NMR spectroscopies and size-exclusion chromatography. Besides, when elaborating block copolymer films, further stability and amelioration of mechanical properties can be achieved via additional reticulation step of precedently methacrylated block copolymers. Subsequently, stimulated by the insufficient studies on the phase-separation/crystallinity relationship in these semi-crystalline block copolymer systems, their intrinsic thermal and morphology properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and atomic force microscopy. Firstly, by DSC measurements, the block copolymers with χABN values superior to 20 presented two distinct glass transition temperatures, close to the ones of the respecting homopolymers, demonstrating an initial indication of a phase-separated system. In the interim, the existence of the crystalline phase was supported by the presence of melting temperature. As expected, the crystallinity driven phase-separated morphology predominated in the AFM analysis of the block copolymers. Neither crosslinking at melted state, hence creation of a dense polymer network, disturbed the crystallinity phenomena. However, the later revealed as sensible to rapid liquid nitrogen quenching directly from the melted state. Therefore, AFM analysis of liquid nitrogen quenched and crosslinked block copolymer films demonstrated a thermodynamically driven phase-separation clearly predominating over the originally crystalline one. These AFM films remained stable with their morphology unchanged even after 4 months at room temperature. However, as demonstrated by DSC analysis once rising the temperature above the melting temperature of the PCL block, neither the crosslinking nor the liquid nitrogen quenching shattered the semi-crystalline network, while the access to thermodynamical phase-separated structures was possible for temperatures under the poly (caprolactone) melting point. Precisely this coexistence of dual crosslinked/crystalline networks in the same copolymer structure allowed us to establish, for the first time, the shape-memory properties in such materials, as verified by thermomechanical analysis. Moreover, the response temperature to the material original shape depended on the block copolymer emplacement, hence PTMC or PCL as end-block. Therefore, it has been possible to reach a block copolymer with transition temperature around 40°C thus opening potential real-life medical applications. In conclusion, the initial study of phase-separation/crystallinity relationship in PTMC-b-PCL-b-PTMC block copolymers lead to the discovery of novel shape memory materials with superior properties, widely demanded in modern-life applications.

Keywords: biodegradable block copolymers, organocatalytic ROP, self-assembly, shape-memory

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74 Improvement of Thermal Stability in Ethylene Methyl Acrylate Composites for Gasket Application

Authors: Pemika Ketsuwan, Pitt Supaphol, Manit Nithitanakul


A typical used of ethylene methyl acrylate (EMA) gasket is in the manufacture of optical lens, and often, they are deteriorated rapidly due to high temperature during the process. The objective of this project is to improve the thermal stability of the EMA copolymer gasket by preparing EMA with cellulose and silica composites. Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and Carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) were used in preparing of EMA/cellulose composites and fumed silica (SiO2) was used in preparing EMA/silica composites with different amounts of filler (3, 5, 7, 10, 15 wt.%), using a twin screw extruder at 160 °C and the test specimens were prepared by the injection molding machine. The morphology and dispersion of fillers in the EMA matrix were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The thermal stability of the composite was determined by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile testing. The developed composites were found to enhance thermal and mechanical properties when compared to that of the EMA copolymer alone.

Keywords: ethylene methyl acrylate, HPMC, Silica, Thermal stability

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73 Low-Complex, High-Fidelity Two-Grades Cyclo-Olefin Copolymer (COC) Based Thermal Bonding Technique for Sealing a Thermoplastic Microfluidic Biosensor

Authors: Jorge Prada, Christina Cordes, Carsten Harms, Walter Lang


The development of microfluidic-based biosensors over the last years has shown an increasing employ of thermoplastic polymers as constitutive material. Their low-cost production, high replication fidelity, biocompatibility and optical-mechanical properties are sought after for the implementation of disposable albeit functional lab-on-chip solutions. Among the range of thermoplastic materials on use, the Cyclo-Olefin Copolymer (COC) stands out due to its optical transparency, which makes it a frequent choice as manufacturing material for fluorescence-based biosensors. Moreover, several processing techniques to complete a closed COC microfluidic biosensor have been discussed in the literature. The reported techniques differ however in their implementation, and therefore potentially add more or less complexity when using it in a mass production process. This work introduces and reports results on the application of a purely thermal bonding process between COC substrates, which were produced by the hot-embossing process, and COC foils containing screen-printed circuits. The proposed procedure takes advantage of the transition temperature difference between two COC grades foils to accomplish the sealing of the microfluidic channels. Patterned heat injection to the COC foil through the COC substrate is applied, resulting in consistent channel geometry uniformity. Measurements on bond strength and bursting pressure are shown, suggesting that this purely thermal bonding process potentially renders a technique which can be easily adapted into the thermoplastic microfluidic chip production workflow, while enables a low-cost as well as high-quality COC biosensor manufacturing process.

Keywords: biosensor, cyclo-olefin copolymer, hot embossing, thermal bonding, thermoplastics

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72 Bulk Modification of Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) for Biomedical Applications

Authors: A. Aslihan Gokaltun, Martin L. Yarmush, Ayse Asatekin, O. Berk Usta


In the last decade microfabrication processes including rapid prototyping techniques have advanced rapidly and achieved a fairly matured stage. These advances encouraged and enabled the use of microfluidic devices by a wider range of users with applications in biological separations, and cell and organoid cultures. Accordingly, a significant current challenge in the field is controlling biomolecular interactions at interfaces and the development of novel biomaterials to satisfy the unique needs of the biomedical applications. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is by far the most preferred material in the fabrication of microfluidic devices. This can be attributed its favorable properties, including: (1) simple fabrication by replica molding, (2) good mechanical properties, (3) excellent optical transparency from 240 to 1100 nm, (4) biocompatibility and non-toxicity, and (5) high gas permeability. However, high hydrophobicity (water contact angle ~108°±7°) of PDMS often limits its applications where solutions containing biological samples are concerned. In our study, we created a simple, easy method for modifying the surface chemistry of PDMS microfluidic devices through the addition of surface-segregating additives during manufacture. In this method, a surface segregating copolymer is added to precursors for silicone and the desired device is manufactured following the usual methods. When the device surface is in contact with an aqueous solution, the copolymer self-organizes to expose its hydrophilic segments to the surface, making the surface of the silicone device more hydrophilic. This can lead to several improved performance criteria including lower fouling, lower non-specific adsorption, and better wettability. Specifically, this approach is expected to be useful for the manufacture of microfluidic devices. It is also likely to be useful for manufacturing silicone tubing and other materials, biomaterial applications, and surface coatings.

Keywords: microfluidics, non-specific protein adsorption, PDMS, PEG, copolymer

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71 Cationic Copolymer-Functionalized Nanodiamonds Stabilizes Silver Nanoparticles with Dual Antibacterial Activity and Lower Cytotoxicity

Authors: Weiwei Cao, Xiaodong Xing


In order to effectively resolve the microbial pollution and contamination, synthetic nano-antibacterial materials are widely used in daily life. Among them, nanodiamonds (NDs) have recently been demonstrated to hold promise as useful materials in biomedical applications due to their high specific surface area and biocompatibility. In this work, the copolymer, poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) was applied for the surface functionalization of NDs to produce the quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-functionalized NDs (QNDs). Then, QNDs were used as a substrate for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to produce a [email protected] hybrid. The composition and morphology of the resultant nanostructures were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The mass fraction of AgNPs in the nanocomposites was about 35.7%. The antibacterial performances of the prepared nanocomposites were evaluated with Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), inhibition zone testing and time-kill study. As a result, due to the synergistic antibacterial activity of QND and AgNPs, this hybrid showed substantially higher antibacterial activity than QND and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized AgNPs, and the AgNPs on [email protected] were more stable than the Ag NPs on PVP, resulting in long-term antibacterial effects. More importantly, this hybrid showed excellent water solubility and low cytotoxicity, suggesting the great potential application in biomedical applications. The present work provided a simple strategy that successfully turned NDs into nanosized antibiotics with simultaneous superior stability and biocompatibility, which would broaden the applications of NDs and advance the development of novel antibacterial agents.

Keywords: cationic copolymer, nanodiamonds, silver nanoparticles, dual antibacterial activity, lower cytotoxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
70 Self-Assembled Nano Aggregates Based On Polyaspartamide Graft Copolymers for pH-Controlled Release of Doxorubicin

Authors: Van Tran Thi Thuy, Cheol Won Lim, Dukjoon Kim


A series of biodegradable copolymers based on polyaspartamide (PASPAM) were synthesized by grafting hydrophilic O-(2-aminoethyl)-O'-methylpoly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG), hydrophobic cholic acid (CA), and pH-sensitive hydrazine (Hyd) segments on a PASPAM backbone. The hydrazine group was effectively cleaved to release doxorubicin (DOX) conjugated on PASPAM in an acidic environment. The chemical structure of the polymer and the degree of substitution of each graft segment were analyzed using FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The size of the MPEG/Hyd/CA-g-PASPAM copolymer self-aggregates was examined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The mean diameter of the self - aggregates increased from 125 to 200 nm at pH 7.4, as the degree of substitution of CA increased from 10 to 20 %. The release kinetics of DOX was strongly affected by the pH of the releasing medium. While less than 30% of the DOX-loaded was released in about 30 h at pH 7.4, more than 60% was released at pH 5.0 within the same time. The viability tests of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and human embryonic kidney cells (293T) show the potential application of MPEG/Hyd/CA-g-PASPAM copolymer self-aggregates in the controlled intracellular delivery for cancer treatments.

Keywords: pH-sensitive, drug delivery, polyaspartamide, self-assembly, nano-aggregates

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69 NR/PEO Block Copolymer: A Chelating Exchanger for Metal Ions

Authors: M. S. Mrudula, M. R. Gopinathan Nair


In order to utilize the natural rubber for developing new green polymeric materials for specialty applications, we have prepared natural rubber and polyethylene oxide based polymeric networks by two shot method. The polymeric networks thus formed have been used as chelating exchanger for metal ion binding. Chelating exchangers are, in general, coordinating copolymers containing one or more electron donor atoms such as N, S, O, and P that can form coordinate bonds with metals. Hydrogels are water- swollen network of hydrophilic homopolymer or copolymers. They acquire a great interest due to the facility of the incorporation of different chelating groups into the polymeric networks. Such polymeric hydrogels are promising materials in the field of hydrometallurgical applications and water purification due to their chemical stability. The current study discusses the swelling response of the polymeric networks as a function of time, temperature, pH and [NaCl] and sorption studies. Equilibrium swelling has been observed to depend on both structural aspects of the polymers and environmental factors. Metal ion sorption shows that these polymeric networks can be used for removal, separation, and enrichment of metal ions from aqueous solutions and can play an important role for environmental remediation of municipal and industrial wastewater.

Keywords: block copolymer, adsorption, chelating exchanger, swelling study, polymer, metal complexes

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68 Hybrid Nanostructures of Acrylonitrile Copolymers

Authors: A. Sezai Sarac


Acrylonitrile (AN) copolymers with typical comonomers of vinyl acetate (VAc) or methyl acrylate (MA) exhibit better mechanical behaviors than its homopolymer. To increase processability of conjugated polymer, and to obtain a hybrid nano-structure multi-stepped emulsion polymerization was applied. Such products could be used in, i.e., drug-delivery systems, biosensors, gas-sensors, electronic compounds, etc. Incorporation of a number of flexible comonomers weakens the dipolar interactions among CN and thereby decreases melting point or increases decomposition temperatures of the PAN based copolymers. Hence, it is important to consider the effect of comonomer on the properties of PAN-based copolymers. Acrylonitrile vinylacetate (AN–VAc ) copolymers have the significant effect to their thermal behavior and are also of interest as precursors in the production of high strength carbon fibers. AN is copolymerized with one or two comonomers, particularly with vinyl acetate The copolymer of AN and VAc can be used either as a plastic (VAc > 15 wt %) or as microfibers (VAc < 15 wt %). AN provides the copolymer with good processability, electrochemical and thermal stability; VAc provides the mechanical stability. The free radical copolymerization of AN and VAc copolymer and core Shell structure of polyprrole composites,and nanofibers of poly(m-anthranilic acid)/polyacrylonitrile blends were recently studied. Free radical copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) – with different comonomers, i.e. acrylates, and styrene was realized using ammonium persulfate (APS) in the presence of a surfactant and in-situ polymerization of conjugated polymers was performed in this reaction medium to obtain core-shell nano particles. Nanofibers of such nanoparticles were obtained by electrospinning. Morphological properties of nanofibers are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force spectroscopy (AFM). Nanofibers are characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared - Attenuated Total Reflectance spectrometer (FTIR-ATR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-NMR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. The electrochemical Impedance results of the nanofibers were fitted to an equivalent curcuit by modelling (ECM).

Keywords: core shell nanoparticles, nanofibers, ascrylonitile copolymers, hybrid nanostructures

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67 Novel IPN Hydrogel Beads as pH Sensitive Drug Delivery System for an Anti-Ulcer Drug

Authors: Vishal Kumar Gupta


Purpose: This study has been undertaken to develop novel pH sensitive interpenetrating network hydrogel beads. Methods: The pH sensitive PAAM-g-Guar gum copolymer was synthesized by free radical polymerization followed by alkaline hydrolysis. Beads of guar gum-grafted-polyacrylamide and sodium Carboxy methyl cellulose (Na CMC) loaded with Pantoprazole sodium were prepared and evaluated for pH sensitivity, swelling properties, drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release characteristics. Seven formulations were prepared for the drug with varying polymer and cross linker concentrations. Results: The grafting and alkaline hydrolysis reactions were confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry was carried out to know the compatibility of encapsulated drug with the polymers. Scanning electron microscopic study revealed that the IPN beads were spherical. The entrapment efficiency was found to be in the range of 85-92%. Particle size analysis was carried out by optical microscopy. As the pH of the medium was changed from 1.2 to 7.4, a considerable increase in swelling was observed for all beads. Increase in the copolymer concentration showed sustained the drug release up to 12 hrs. Drug release from the beads followed super case II transport mechanism. Conclusion: It was concluded that guar gum-acrylamide beads, cross-linked with aluminum chloride offer an opportunity for controlled drug release of pantoprazole sodium.

Keywords: IPN, hydrogels, DSC, SEM

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66 An Evaluation of Solubility of Wax and Asphaltene in Crude Oil for Improved Flow Properties Using a Copolymer Solubilized in Organic Solvent with an Aromatic Hydrocarbon

Authors: S. M. Anisuzzaman, Sariah Abang, Awang Bono, D. Krishnaiah, N. M. Ismail, G. B. Sandrison


Wax and asphaltene are high molecular weighted compounds that contribute to the stability of crude oil at a dispersed state. Transportation of crude oil along pipelines from the oil rig to the refineries causes fluctuation of temperature which will lead to the coagulation of wax and flocculation of asphaltenes. This paper focuses on the prevention of wax and asphaltene precipitate deposition on the inner surface of the pipelines by using a wax inhibitor and an asphaltene dispersant. The novelty of this prevention method is the combination of three substances; a wax inhibitor dissolved in a wax inhibitor solvent and an asphaltene solvent, namely, ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer dissolved in methylcyclohexane (MCH) and toluene (TOL) to inhibit the precipitation and deposition of wax and asphaltene. The objective of this paper was to optimize the percentage composition of each component in this inhibitor which can maximize the viscosity reduction of crude oil. The optimization was divided into two stages which are the laboratory experimental stage in which the viscosity of crude oil samples containing inhibitor of different component compositions is tested at decreasing temperatures and the data optimization stage using response surface methodology (RSM) to design an optimizing model. The results of experiment proved that the combination of 50% EVA + 25% MCH + 25% TOL gave a maximum viscosity reduction of 67% while the RSM model proved that the combination of 57% EVA + 20.5% MCH + 22.5% TOL gave a maximum viscosity reduction of up to 61%.

Keywords: asphaltene, ethylene-vinyl acetate, methylcyclohexane, toluene, wax

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65 Influence of Synergistic/Antagonistic Mixtures of Oligomeric Stabilizers on the Biodegradation of γ-Sterilized Polyolefins

Authors: Sameh A. S. Thabit Alariqi


Our previous studies aimed to investigate the biodegradation of γ-sterilized polyolefins in composting and microbial culture environments at different doses and γ-dose rates. It was concluded from the previous studies that the pretreatment of γ-irradiation can accelerate the biodegradation of neat polymer matrix in biotic conditions significantly. A similar work was carried out to study the stabilization of γ-sterilized polyolefins using different mixtures of stabilizers which are approved for food-contact applications. Ethylene-propylene (EP) copolymer has been melt-mixed with hindered amine stabilizers (HAS), phenolic antioxidants and hydroperoxide decomposers. Results were discussed by comparing the stabilizing efficiency, combination and consumption of stabilizers and the synergistic and antagonistic effects was explained through the interaction between the stabilizers. In this attempt, we have aimed to study the influence of the synergistic and antagonistic mixtures of oligomeric stabilizers on the biodegradation of the γ-irradiated polyolefins in composting and microbial culture. Neat and stabilized films of EP copolymer irradiated under γ-radiation and incubated in compost and fungal culture environments. The changes in functional groups, surface morphology, mechanical properties and intrinsic viscosity in polymer chains were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM, instron, and viscometric measurements respectively. Results were discussed by comparing the effect of different stabilizers, stabilizers mixtures on the biodegradation of the γ-irradiated polyolefins. It was found that the biodegradation significantly depends on the components of stabilization system, mobility, interaction, and consumption of stabilizers.

Keywords: biodegradation, γ-irradiation, polyolefins, stabilization

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64 Effects of Auxetic Antibacterial Zwitterion Carboxylate and Sulfate Copolymer Hydrogels for Diabetic Wound Healing Application

Authors: Udayakumar Vee, Franck Quero


Zwitterionic polymers generally have been viewed as a new class of antimicrobial and non-fouling materials. They offer a broad versatility for chemical modification and hence great freedom for accurate molecular design, which bear an equimolar number of homogenously distributed anionic and cationic groups along their polymer chains. This study explores the effectiveness of the auxetic zwitterion carboxylate/sulfonate hydrogel in the diabetic-induced mouse model. A series of silver metal-doped auxetic zwitterion carboxylate/sulfonate/vinylaniline copolymer hydrogels is designed via a 3D printer. Zwitterion monomers have been characterized by FT-IR and NMR techniques. The effect of changing the monomers and different loading ratios of Ag over zwitterion on the final hydrogel materials' antimicrobial properties and biocompatibility will be investigated in detail. The synthesized auxetic hydrogel has been characterized using a wide range of techniques to help establish the relationship between molecular level and macroscopic properties of these materials, including mechanical and antibacterial and biocompatibility and wound healing ability. This work's comparative studies and results provide new insights and guide us in choosing a better auxetic structured material for a broad spectrum of wound healing applications in the animal model. We expect this approach to provide a versatile and robust platform for biomaterial design that could lead to promising treatments for wound healing applications.

Keywords: auxetic, zwitterion, carboxylate, sulfonate, polymer, wound healing

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63 Antibacterial Zwitterion Carboxylate and Sulfonate Copolymer Auxetic Hydrogels for Diabetic Wound Healing Application

Authors: Udayakumar Veerabagu, Franck Quero


Zwitterion carboxylate and sulfonate polymers generally have been viewed as a new class of antimicrobial and non-fouling materials. They offer a broad versatility for chemical modification and hence great freedom for accurate molecular design, which bear an equimolar number of homogenously distributed anionic and cationic groups along their polymer chains. This study explores the effectiveness of the auxetic zwitterion carboxylate/sulfonate hydrogel in the diabetic-induced mouse model. A series of silver metal-doped auxetic zwitterion carboxylate/sulfonate/vinylaniline copolymer hydrogels is designed via a 3D printer. Zwitterion monomers have been characterized by FT-IR and NMR techniques. The effect of changing the monomers and different loading ratios of Ag over zwitterion on the final hydrogel materials' antimicrobial properties and biocompatibility will be investigated in detail. The synthesized auxetic hydrogel has been characterized using a wide range of techniques to help establish the relationship between molecular level and macroscopic properties of these materials, including mechanical and antibacterial and biocompatibility and wound healing ability. This work's comparative studies and results provide new insights and guide us in choosing a better auxetic structured material for a broad spectrum of wound healing applications in the animal model. We expect this approach to provide a versatile and robust platform for biomaterial design that could lead to promising treatments for wound healing applications.

Keywords: auxetic, zwitterion, carboxylate, sulfonate, polymer, wound healing

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62 Preparation and Evaluation of Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-B-Poly(Caprolactone) Diblock Copolymers with Zwitterionic End Group for Thermo-Responsive Properties

Authors: Bo Keun Lee, Doo Yeon Kwon, Ji Hoon Park, Gun Hee Lee, Ji Hye Baek, Heung Jae Chun, Young Joo Koh, Moon Suk Kim


Thermo-responsive materials are viscoelastic materials that undergo a sol-to-gel phase transition at a specific temperature and many materials have been developed. MPEG-b-PCL (MPC) as a thermo-responsive material contained hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments and it formed an ordered crystalline structure of hydrophobic PCL segments in aqueous solutions. The ordered crystalline structure packed tightly or aggregated and finally induced an aggregated gel through intra- and inter-molecular interactions as a function of temperature. Thus, we introduced anionic and cationic groups into the end positions of the PCL chain to alter the hydrophobicity of the PCL segment. Introducing anionic and cationic groups into the PCL end position altered their solubility by changing the crystallinity and hydrophobicity of the PCL block domains. These results indicated that the properties of the end group in the hydrophobic PCL blockand the balance between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity affect thermo-responsivebehavior of the copolymers in aqueous solutions. Thus, we concluded that determinant of the temperature-dependent thermo-responsive behavior of MPC depend on the ionic end group in the PCL block. So, we introduced zwitterionic end groups to investigate the thermo-responsive behavior of MPC. Methoxypoly(ethylene oxide) and ε-caprolactone (CL) were randomly copolymerized that introduced varying hydrophobic PCL lengths and an MPC featuring a zwitterionic sulfobetaine (MPC-ZW) at the chain end of the PCL segment. The MPC and MPC-ZW copolymers were obtained formed sol-state at room temperature when prepared as 20-wt% aqueous solutions. The solubility of MPC decreased when the PCL block was increased from molecular weight. The solubilization time of MPC-2.4k was around 20 min and MPC-2.8k, MPC-3.0k increased to 30 min and 1 h, respectively. MPC-3.6k was not solubilized. In case of MPC-ZW 3.6k, However, the zwitterion-modified MPC copolymers were solubilized in 3–5 min. This result indicates that the zwitterionic end group of the MPC-ZW diblock copolymer increased the aqueous solubility of the diblock copolymer even when the length of the hydrophobic PCL segment was increased. MPC and MPC-ZW diblock copolymers that featuring zwitterionic end groups were synthesized successfully. The sol-to-gel phase-transition was formed that specific temperature depend on the length of the PCL hydrophobic segments introduced and on the zwitterion groups attached to the MPC chain end. This result indicated that the zwitterionic end groups reduced the hydrophobicity in the PCL block and changed the solubilization. The MPC-ZW diblock copolymer can be utilized as a potential injectable drug and cell carrier.

Keywords: thermo-responsive material, zwitterionic, hydrophobic, crystallization, phase transition

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61 Preparation of Magnetothermally Responsive Polymer Multilayer Films for Controlled Release Applications from Surfaces

Authors: Eda Cagli, Irem Erel Goktepe


Externally triggered and effective release of therapeutics from polymer nanoplatforms is one of the key issues in cancer treatment. In this study, we aim to prepare polymer multilayer films which are stable at physiological conditions (little or no drug release) but release drug molecules at acidic pH and via application of AC magnetic field. First, novel stimuli responsive diblock copolymers composed of pH- and temperature-responsive blocks were synthesized. Then, block copolymer micelles with pH-responsive core and temperature responsive coronae will be obtained via pH-induced self-assembly of these block copolymers in aqueous environment. A model anticancer drug, e.g. Doxorubicin will be loaded in the micellar cores. Second, superparamagnetic nanoparticles will be synthesized. Magnetic nanoparticles and drug loaded block copolymer micelles will be used as building blocks to construct the multilayers. To mimic the acidic nature of the tumor tissues, Doxorubicin release from the micellar cores will be induced at acidic conditions. Moreover, Doxorubicin release from the multilayers will be facilitated via magnetothermal trigger. Application of AC magnetic field will induce the heating of magnetic nanoparticles resulting in an increase in the temperature of the polymer platform. This increase in temperature is expected to trigger conformational changes on the temperature-responsive micelle coronae and facilitate the release of Doxorubicin from the surface. Such polymer platform may find use in biomedical applications.

Keywords: layer-by-layer films, magnetothermal trigger, smart polymers, stimuli responsive

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60 Diselenide-Linked Redox Stimuli-Responsive Methoxy Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-b-Poly(Lactide-Co-Glycolide) Micelles for the Delivery of Doxorubicin in Cancer Cells

Authors: Yihenew Simegniew Birhan, Hsieh Chih Tsai


The recent advancements in synthetic chemistry and nanotechnology fostered the development of different nanocarriers for enhanced intracellular delivery of pharmaceutical agents to tumor cells. Polymeric micelles (PMs), characterized by small size, appreciable drug loading capacity (DLC), better accumulation in tumor tissue via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, and the ability to avoid detection and subsequent clearance by the mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) system, are convenient to improve the poor solubility, slow absorption and non-selective biodistribution of payloads embedded in their hydrophobic cores and hence, enhance the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. Recently, redox-responsive polymeric micelles have gained significant attention for the delivery and controlled release of anticancer drugs in tumor cells. In this study, we synthesized redox-responsive diselenide bond containing amphiphilic polymer, Bi(mPEG-PLGA)-Se₂ from mPEG-PLGA, and 3,3'-diselanediyldipropanoic acid (DSeDPA) using DCC/DMAP as coupling agents. The successful synthesis of the copolymers was verified by different spectroscopic techniques. Above the critical micelle concentration, the amphiphilic copolymer, Bi(mPEG-PLGA)-Se₂, self-assembled into stable micelles. The DLS data indicated that the hydrodynamic diameter of the micelles (123.9 ± 0.85 nm) was suitable for extravasation into the tumor cells through the EPR effect. The drug loading content (DLC) and encapsulation efficiency (EE) of DOX-loaded micelles were found to be 6.61 wt% and 54.9%, respectively. The DOX-loaded micelles showed initial burst release accompanied by sustained release trend where 73.94% and 69.54% of encapsulated DOX was released upon treatment with 6mM GSH and 0.1% H₂O₂, respectively. The biocompatible nature of Bi(mPEG-PLGA)-Se₂ copolymer was confirmed by the cell viability study. In addition, the DOX-loaded micelles exhibited significant inhibition against HeLa cells (44.46%), at a maximum dose of 7.5 µg/mL. The fluorescent microscope images of HeLa cells treated with 3 µg/mL (equivalent DOX concentration) revealed efficient internalization and accumulation of DOX-loaded Bi(mPEG-PLGA)-Se₂ micelles in the cytosol of cancer cells. In conclusion, the intelligent, biocompatible, and the redox stimuli-responsive behavior of Bi(mPEG-PLGA)-Se₂ copolymer marked the potential applications of diselenide-linked mPEG-PLGA micelles for the delivery and on-demand release of chemotherapeutic agents in cancer cells.

Keywords: anticancer drug delivery, diselenide bond, polymeric micelles, redox-responsive

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59 Ecofriendly Multi-Layer Polymer Treatment for Hydrophobic and Water Repellent Porous Cotton Fabrics

Authors: Muhammad Zahid, Ilker S. Bayer, Athanassia Athanassiou


Fluorinated polymers having C8 chemistry (chemicals with 8 fluorinated carbon atoms) are well renowned for their excellent low surface tension and water repelling properties. However, these polymers degrade into highly toxic heavy perfluoro acids in the environment. When the C8 chemistry is reduced to C6 chemistry, this environmental concern is eliminated at the expense of reduced liquid repellent performance. In order to circumvent this, in this study, we demonstrate pre-treatment of woven cotton fabrics with a fluorinated acrylic copolymer with C6 chemistry and subsequently with a silicone polymer to render them hydrophobic. A commercial fluorinated acrylic copolymer was blended with silica nanoparticles to form hydrophobic nano-roughness on cotton fibers and a second coating layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was applied on the fabric. A static water contact angle (for 5µl) and rolling angle (for 12.5µl) of 147°±2° and 31° were observed, respectively. Hydrostatic head measurements were also performed to better understand the performance with 26±1 cm and 2.56kPa column height and static pressure respectively. Fabrication methods (with rod coater etc.) were kept simple, reproducible, and scalable and cost efficient. Moreover, the robustness of applied coatings was also evaluated by sonication cleaning and abrasion methods. Water contact angle (WCA), water shedding angle (WSA), hydrostatic head, droplet bouncing-rolling off and prolonged staining tests were used to characterize hydrophobicity of materials. For chemical and morphological analysis, various characterization methods were used such as attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Keywords: fluorinated polymer, hydrophobic, polydimethylsiloxane, water contact angle

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58 Sensing Study through Resonance Energy and Electron Transfer between Föster Resonance Energy Transfer Pair of Fluorescent Copolymers and Nitro-Compounds

Authors: Vishal Kumar, Soumitra Satapathi


Föster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is a powerful technique used to probe close-range molecular interactions. Physically, the FRET phenomenon manifests as a dipole–dipole interaction between closely juxtaposed fluorescent molecules (10–100 Å). Our effort is to employ this FRET technique to make a prototype device for highly sensitive detection of environment pollutant. Among the most common environmental pollutants, nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) are of particular interest because of their durability and toxicity. That’s why, sensitive and selective detection of small amounts of nitroaromatic explosives, in particular, 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been a critical challenge due to the increasing threat of explosive-based terrorism and the need of environmental monitoring of drinking and waste water. In addition, the excessive utilization of TNP in several other areas such as burn ointment, pesticides, glass and the leather industry resulted in environmental accumulation, and is eventually contaminating the soil and aquatic systems. To the date, high number of elegant methods, including fluorimetry, gas chromatography, mass, ion-mobility and Raman spectrometry have been successfully applied for explosive detection. Among these efforts, fluorescence-quenching methods based on the mechanism of FRET show good assembly flexibility, high selectivity and sensitivity. Here, we report a FRET-based sensor system for the highly selective detection of NACs, such as TNP, DNT and TNT. The sensor system is composed of a copolymer Poly [(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)-co-(Boc-Trp-EMA)] (RP) bearing tryptophan derivative in the side chain as donor and dansyl tagged copolymer P(MMA-co-Dansyl-Ala-HEMA) (DCP) as an acceptor. Initially, the inherent fluorescence of RP copolymer is quenched by non-radiative energy transfer to DCP which only happens once the two molecules are within Förster critical distance (R0). The excellent spectral overlap (Jλ= 6.08×10¹⁴ nm⁴M⁻¹cm⁻¹) between donors’ (RP) emission profile and acceptors’ (DCP) absorption profile makes them an exciting and efficient FRET pair i.e. further confirmed by the high rate of energy transfer from RP to DCP i.e. 0.87 ns⁻¹ and lifetime measurement by time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) to validate the 64% FRET efficiency. This FRET pair exhibited a specific fluorescence response to NACs such as DNT, TNT and TNP with 5.4, 2.3 and 0.4 µM LODs, respectively. The detection of NACs occurs with high sensitivity by photoluminescence quenching of FRET signal induced by photo-induced electron transfer (PET) from electron-rich FRET pair to electron-deficient NAC molecules. The estimated stern-volmer constant (KSV) values for DNT, TNT and TNP are 6.9 × 10³, 7.0 × 10³ and 1.6 × 104 M⁻¹, respectively. The mechanistic details of molecular interactions are established by time-resolved fluorescence, steady-state fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed that the sensing process is of mixed type, i.e. both dynamic and static quenching as lifetime of FRET system (0.73 ns) is reduced to 0.55, 0.57 and 0.61 ns DNT, TNT and TNP, respectively. In summary, the simplicity and sensitivity of this novel FRET sensor opens up the possibility of designing optical sensor of various NACs in one single platform for developing multimodal sensor for environmental monitoring and future field based study.

Keywords: FRET, nitroaromatic, stern-Volmer constant, tryptophan and dansyl tagged copolymer

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