Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: Sharjeel Aslam

36 Parallel Querying of Distributed Ontologies with Shared Vocabulary

Authors: Sharjeel Aslam, Vassil Vassilev, Karim Ouazzane

Abstract:

Ontologies and various semantic repositories became a convenient approach for implementing model-driven architectures of distributed systems on the Web. SPARQL is the standard query language for querying such. However, although SPARQL is well-established standard for querying semantic repositories in RDF and OWL format and there are commonly used APIs which supports it, like Jena for Java, its parallel option is not incorporated in them. This article presents a complete framework consisting of an object algebra for parallel RDF and an index-based implementation of the parallel query engine capable of dealing with the distributed RDF ontologies which share common vocabulary. It has been implemented in Java, and for validation of the algorithms has been applied to the problem of organizing virtual exhibitions on the Web.

Keywords: distributed ontologies, parallel querying, semantic indexing, shared vocabulary, SPARQL

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35 Pakis and Whites: A Critical View of Nadeem Aslam’s Treatment of Racism in “Maps for Lost Lovers”

Authors: Humaira Tariq

Abstract:

An issue faced by a majority of immigrants, especially coming from the third world countries, is that of racism. The natives find it very hard to accept people of another race, origin and background amongst them. History is replete with incidents where immigrants have paid a heavy price for being the odd ones out. Being an integral part of the immigrant experience, this issue of racism, is an important theme in most of diaspora related fiction. The present paper will endeavor to expose and explore Nadeem Aslam’s handling of this theme in his novel, 'Maps for Lost Lovers'. The researcher has found Aslam to take an objective stance on this issue, as he shows that where the West is unwilling to accept the immigrants in their midst, there, majority of the immigrants, are also responsible for alienating themselves in the new environment. He shows a kind of persecution mania haunting the immigrants from the third world countries where they feel the condition for being much worse than it actually is. The paper presents a critical view of the handling of racism in Aslam’s novel where he is found to criticize not only the English for their mistreatment of Pakistani immigrants, but is also disapproving of the judgmental attitude of the immigrants.

Keywords: english, immigrants, natives, pakistani, racism

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34 Investigating the Glass Ceiling Phenomenon: An Empirical Study of Glass Ceiling's Effects on Selection, Promotion and Female Effectiveness

Authors: Sharjeel Saleem

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The glass ceiling has been a burning issue for many researchers. In this research, we examine gender of the BOD, training and development, workforce diversity, positive attitude towards women, and employee acts as antecedents of glass ceiling. Furthermore, we also look for effects of glass ceiling on likelihood of female selection and promotion and on female effectiveness. Multiple linear regression conducted on data drawn from different public and private sector organizations support our hypotheses. The research, however, is limited to Faisalabad city and only females from minority group are targeted here.

Keywords: glass ceiling, stereotype attitudes, female effectiveness

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33 Nephroprotective Activity of Aqueous Methanolic Extract of Aerva Lanata (Busehri Booti) against Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Mohd Aslam Aslam

Abstract:

Chronic renal failure is a debilitating condition responsible for high morbidity and mortality. Because of its costs and the complexity of its treatment, proper care is available to very few patients in India. According to researchers, the number of adults aged 30 or older who have chronic kidney disease is projected to increase from 13.2 percent currently, to 14.4 percent in 2020 and 16.7 percent in 2030. The aerial part of Aerva lanata (Busehri booti) have been used in kidney disorders by the Unani physicians. In the present study, the effect of extract of Aerva lanata was investigated on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The renal effects of this drug was evaluated by monitoring levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, serum uric acid in blood and histopathological examination of kidney. Aerva lanata was evaluated at two different doses (1400 mg/kg and 2800 mg/kg). The effect of higher dose was more pronounced in terms of inhibition in the rise of BUN, serum creatinine and uric acid. Higher dose show greater prevention in the rise of BUN, serum creatinine, and uric acid. The histopathological examination of the kidney tissue of the rats treated with aqueous methanolic extract of Aerva lanata (Higher dose-2800 mg/kg) showed marked inhibition of glomerular congestion, tubular casts, peritubular congestion, epithelial desquamation, blood vessel congestion, interstitial edema and inflammatory cells produced by the cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. This finding clearly indicates the protective role of Aerva lanata at higher dose. Present investigation validates the use of Aerva lanata in kidney disorders by Unani physicians.

Keywords: Aerva lanata, Busehri booti, nephroprotective, unani medicine

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32 EhfadHaya (SaveLife) / AateHayah (GiveLife) Blood Donor Website

Authors: Sameer Muhammad Aslam, Nura Said Mohsin Al-Saifi

Abstract:

This research shows the process of creating a blood donation website for Oman. Blood donation is a widespread, crucial, ongoing process, so it is important that this website is easy to use. Several automated blood management systems are available, but none provides an effective algorithm that takes into account variables such as frequency of donation, donation date, and gender. In Oman, the Ministry of Health maintains a blood bank and keeps donors informed about the need for blood through a website. They also inform donors and the wider public where and when is their next blood donation event. The website's main goals are to educate the community about the benefits of blood donation. It also manages donor and receiver documentation and encourages voluntary blood donation by providing easy access to information about blood types and blood distribution in various hospitals in Oman, based on hospital needs.

Keywords: Oman, blood bank, blood donors, donor website

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31 Impact of Work Experience and Gender on Decisional Conflict

Authors: Mohsin Aslam Khan

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Decision making tendency varies in people with different socio demographics. This study was conducted to identify the impact of work experience on decisional conflict and whether there is a gender differences in decisional conflict. Convenience sampling was more appropriate for this exploratory research. AM O’ Connor decisional conflict scale, (1995) with cronbach alpha 0.900 was administered on sample size of 109 participants (62males, 47females). The responses were scored according to the AM O’ Connor decisional conflict scale manual, (1995). The results of the study indicate that work experience has no significant impact on decisional conflict, whereas gender differences in decisional conflict illustrates significant mean score differences among male and female participants.

Keywords: decision making, decisional conflict, gender decision making, work experience

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30 Developing Variable Repetitive Group Sampling Control Chart Using Regression Estimator

Authors: Liaquat Ahmad, Muhammad Aslam, Muhammad Azam

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In this article, we propose a control chart based on repetitive group sampling scheme for the location parameter. This charting scheme is based on the regression estimator; an estimator that capitalize the relationship between the variables of interest to provide more sensitive control than the commonly used individual variables. The control limit coefficients have been estimated for different sample sizes for less and highly correlated variables. The monitoring of the production process is constructed by adopting the procedure of the Shewhart’s x-bar control chart. Its performance is verified by the average run length calculations when the shift occurs in the average value of the estimator. It has been observed that the less correlated variables have rapid false alarm rate.

Keywords: average run length, control charts, process shift, regression estimators, repetitive group sampling

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29 Multiscale Entropy Analysis of Electroencephalogram (EEG) of Alcoholic and Control Subjects

Authors: Lal Hussain, Wajid Aziz, Imtiaz Ahmed Awan, Sharjeel Saeed

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Multiscale entropy analysis (MSE) is a useful technique recently developed to quantify the dynamics of physiological signals at different time scales. This study is aimed at investigating the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to analyze the background activity of alcoholic and control subjects by inspecting various coarse-grained sequences formed at different time scales. EEG recordings of alcoholic and control subjects were taken from the publically available machine learning repository of University of California (UCI) acquired using 64 electrodes. The MSE analysis was performed on the EEG data acquired from all the electrodes of alcoholic and control subjects. Mann-Whitney rank test was used to find significant differences between the groups and result were considered statistically significant for p-values<0.05. The area under receiver operator curve was computed to find the degree separation between the groups. The mean ranks of MSE values at all the times scales for all electrodes were higher control subject as compared to alcoholic subjects. Higher mean ranks represent higher complexity and vice versa. The finding indicated that EEG signals acquired through electrodes C3, C4, F3, F7, F8, O1, O2, P3, T7 showed significant differences between alcoholic and control subjects at time scales 1 to 5. Moreover, all electrodes exhibit significance level at different time scales. Likewise, the highest accuracy and separation was obtained at the central region (C3 and C4), front polar regions (P3, O1, F3, F7, F8 and T8) while other electrodes such asFp1, Fp2, P4 and F4 shows no significant results.

Keywords: electroencephalogram (EEG), multiscale sample entropy (MSE), Mann-Whitney test (MMT), Receiver Operator Curve (ROC), complexity analysis

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28 Calendar Anomalies in Islamic Frontier Markets

Authors: Aslam Faheem, Hunjra Ahmed Imran, Tayachi Tahar, Verhoeven Peter, Tariq Yasir

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We investigate the evidence of three risk-adjusted calendar anomalies in eight frontier markets. Our sample consists of the daily closing prices of their stock indices for the period of January 2006 to September 2019. We categorize the data with respect to day-of-the-week, Lunar calendar and Islamic calendar. Using Morgan Stanley Capital International (MSCI) eight Markets Index as our proxy of the market portfolio, most of the frontier markets tested exhibit calendar seasonality. We confirm that systematic risk varies with respect to day-of-the-week, Lunar months and Islamic months. After consideration of time-varying risk and applying Bonferroni correction, few frontier markets exhibit profitable investment opportunities from calendar return anomalies for active investment managers.

Keywords: asset pricing, frontier markets, market efficiency, Islamic calendar effects, Islamic stock markets

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27 A Novel Probabilistic Spatial Locality of Reference Technique for Automatic Cleansing of Digital Maps

Authors: A. Abdullah, S. Abushalmat, A. Bakshwain, A. Basuhail, A. Aslam

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GIS (Geographic Information System) applications require geo-referenced data, this data could be available as databases or in the form of digital or hard-copy agro-meteorological maps. These parameter maps are color-coded with different regions corresponding to different parameter values, converting these maps into a database is not very difficult. However, text and different planimetric elements overlaid on these maps makes an accurate image to database conversion a challenging problem. The reason being, it is almost impossible to exactly replace what was underneath the text or icons; thus, pointing to the need for inpainting. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic inpainting approach that uses the probability of spatial locality of colors in the map for replacing overlaid elements with underlying color. We tested the limits of our proposed technique using non-textual simulated data and compared text removing results with a popular image editing tool using public domain data with promising results.

Keywords: noise, image, GIS, digital map, inpainting

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26 Groundwater Potential Zone Identification in Unconsolidated Aquifer Using Geophysical Techniques around Tarbela Ghazi, District Haripur, Pakistan

Authors: Syed Muzyan Shahzad, Liu Jianxin, Asim Shahzad, Muhammad Sharjeel Raza, Sun Ya, Fanidi Meryem

Abstract:

Electrical resistivity investigation was conducted in vicinity of Tarbela Ghazi, in order to study the subsurface layer with a view of determining the depth to the aquifer and thickness of groundwater potential zones. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) using Schlumberger array was carried out at 16 VES stations. Well logging data at four tube wells have been used to mark the super saturated zones with great discharge rate. The present paper shows a geoelectrical identification of the lithology and an estimate of the relationship between the resistivity and Dar Zarrouk parameters (transverse unit resistance and longitudinal unit conductance). The VES results revealed both homogeneous and heterogeneous nature of the subsurface strata. Aquifer is unconfined to confine in nature, and at few locations though perched aquifer has been identified, groundwater potential zones are developed in unconsolidated deposits layers and more than seven geo-electric layers are observed at some VES locations. Saturated zones thickness ranges from 5 m to 150 m, whereas at few area aquifer is beyond 150 m thick. The average anisotropy, transvers resistance and longitudinal conductance values are 0.86 %, 35750.9821 Ω.m2, 0.729 Siemens, respectively. The transverse unit resistance values fluctuate all over the aquifer system, whereas below at particular depth high values are observed, that significantly associated with the high transmissivity zones. The groundwater quality in all analyzed samples is below permissible limit according to World Health Standard (WHO).

Keywords: aquifer, Dar Zarrouk parameters, geoelectric layers, Tarbela Ghazi

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25 Major Variables Influencing Marketed Surplus of Seed Cotton in District Khanewal, Pakistan

Authors: Manan Aslam, Shafqat Rasool

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This paper attempts to examine impact of major factors affecting marketed surplus of seed cotton in district Khanewal (Punjab) using primary source of data. A representative sample of 40 cotton farmers was selected using stratified random sampling technique. The impact of major factors on marketed surplus of seed cotton growers was estimated by employing double log form of regression analysis. The value of adjusted R2 was 0.64 whereas the F-value was 10.81. The findings of analysis revealed that experience of farmers, education of farmers, area under cotton crop and distance from wholesale market were the significant variables affecting marketed surplus of cotton whereas the variables (marketing cost and sale price) showed insignificant impact. The study suggests improving prevalent marketing practices to increase volume of marketed surplus of cotton in district Khanewal.

Keywords: seed cotton, marketed surplus, double log regression analysis

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24 Pain Management in Burn Wounds with Dual Drug Loaded Double Layered Nano-Fiber Based Dressing

Authors: Sharjeel Abid, Tanveer Hussain, Ahsan Nazir, Abdul Zahir, Nabyl Khenoussi

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Localized application of drug has various advantages and fewer side effects as compared with other methods. Burn patients suffer from swear pain and the major aspects that are considered for burn victims include pain and infection management. Nano-fibers (NFs) loaded with drug, applied on local wound area, can solve these problems. Therefore, this study dealt with the fabrication of drug loaded NFs for better pain management. Two layers of NFs were fabricated with different drugs. Contact layer was loaded with Gabapentin (a nerve painkiller) and the second layer with acetaminophen. The fabricated dressing was characterized using scanning electron microscope, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The double layered based NFs dressing was designed to have both initial burst release followed by slow release to cope with pain for two days. The fabricated nanofibers showed diameter < 300 nm. The liquid absorption capacity of the NFs was also checked to deal with the exudate. The fabricated double layered dressing with dual drug loading and release showed promising results that could be used for dealing pain in burn victims. It was observed that by the addition of drug, the size of nanofibers was reduced, on the other hand, the crystallinity %age was increased, and liquid absorption decreased. The combination of fast nerve pain killer release followed by slow release of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug could be a good tool to reduce pain in a more secure manner with fewer side effects.

Keywords: pain management, burn wounds, nano-fibers, controlled drug release

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23 Soft Robotic Exoskeletal Glove with Single Motor-Driven Tendon-Based Differential Drive

Authors: M. Naveed Akhter, Jawad Aslam, Omer Gillani

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To aid and rehabilitate increasing number of patients suffering from spinal cord injury (SCI) and stroke, a lightweight, wearable, and 3D printable exoskeletal glove has been developed. Unlike previously developed metal or fabric-based exoskeletons, this research presents the development of soft exoskeletal glove made of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). The drive mechanism consists of a single motor-driven antagonistic tendon to perform extension or flexion of middle and index finger. The tendon-based differential drive has been incorporated to allow for grasping of irregularly shaped objects. The design features easy 3D-printability with TPU without a need for supports. The overall weight of the glove and the actuation unit is approximately 500g. Performance of the glove was tested on a custom test-bench with integrated load cells, and the grip strength was tested to be around 30N per finger while grasping objects of irregular shape.

Keywords: 3D printable, differential drive, exoskeletal glove, rehabilitation, single motor driven

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22 Utilization of Municipal Solid Waste in Thermal Power Production: A Techno-Economic Study of Kasur City, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Hafiz Muhammad Umer Aslam, Mohammad Rafiq Khan

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This techno-economic study reports the feasibility of generating thermoelectric power from municipal solid waste (MSW) of Kasur City by incineration process. The data was gathered from different establishments of Kasur, through appropriate permission from their heads, and processed to design different alternative projects for installation of a thermal power plant in the city of Kasur. A technique of discounted cash flow was used to evaluate alternative projects so that their Benefit to Cost Ratio, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return and Payback Period can be determined. The study revealed that Kasur City currently consumes 18MWh electricity and generates 179 tons/day MSW. The generated waste has the ability to produce 2.1MWh electricity at the cost of USD 0.0581/unit with an expenditure of USD 3,907,692 as initial fixed investment of forming about 1/7th of consumption of Kasur. The cost from this source, when compared to current rate of electricity in Pakistan (USD 0.1346), is roughly half.

Keywords: Kasur City, resource recovery, thermoelectric power, waste management

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21 Efficacy of Chia Seed Oil Supplemented Ice-Cream against Hypercholesterolemia

Authors: Naureen Naeem, M. S. Aslam

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Chia seeds found to be a rich source of dietary fiber contain oil which is high in omega 6 and omega 3 fatty acids and helpful in the control of cardiovascular diseases. Owing to its spectacular significance, present research had been designed to explore its effect on cholesterol level of the individuals after consumption of chia seed oil supplemented ice cream. The project was designed in such a manner that fat of ice cream was replaced with chia seed oil in different proportions i.e., 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%. After physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of ice cream, best treatment was selected and used for efficacy trials. After baseline line study and thorough inclusion criteria 10 individuals were selected and divided into two groups. One group treated as control and the other was given chia seed oil supplemented l(50%) ice cream. Significant decrease in cholesterol level was observed in the treated group. 18% decrease in cholesterol level was observed at 40th day followed by 8% at 20th day. Similarly 20% decrease in LDL cholesterol with 14% increase in HDL cholesterol. It was recommended that further trials be conducted with sophisticated techniques to completely replace saturated fat in ice cream with unsaturated fats and to study its effect in hyperglycemia and oxidative stress.

Keywords: hypercholesterolemia, chia seed oil, HDL, triglycerides

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20 Extraction of Inulin from Cichorium Intybus and Its Application as Fat Replacer in Yoghurt

Authors: Hafiz Khuram Wasim Aslam, Muhammad Saeed, Azam Shakeel, Muhammad Inam Ur Raheem, Moazzam Rafiq Khan, Muhammad Atif Randhawa

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Inulin is significant ingredient used in food industry that functions technologically as a fat replacer often without compromising taste and texture. In this study inulin was extracted from the chicory roots and the effect of inulin addition as a fat replacer on the physiochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of non-fat yogurt was investigated. The supplementation of chicory inulin reduced the magnitude of firmness in comparison with non-inulin ¬supplemented non-fat yoghurt. Higher values of acidity were observed due to the more microbial fermentation in the inulin containing yogurt as compared to non-inulin yogurt and were in the range of 0.56 to 0.75 during storage days. Syneresis in control sample increased from 43.9% to 47.9% during the storage study. However inulin addition at different treatment enhanced syneresis from 44.5% to 47.6%. Inulin addition at various concentrations caused an increase in the TPC due to its probiotic effect. No effects of inuline addition on fat and protein contents were observed. Non-fat yoghurt supplemented with inulin demonstrated sensory behavior better than that of the control yoghurt. The most important effect of the addition of inulin to non-fat yoghurt is an increase in the sensory attributes appearance, body and texture, taste and mouth feel, overall acceptability. On an average, yoghurt supplemented with 1 to 2% inulin was better in overall acceptance as compared to control yoghurt.

Keywords: inulin, fat replacer, yoghurt, sensory evaluation, low fat

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19 Increasing Abundance of Jellyfish in the Shorelines of Bangladesh: Analyzing the Policy Framework for Facing the Challenges

Authors: Md Mizanur Rahman, M. Aslam Alam, Muhammad Abu Yusuf

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The abundance of Jellyfish across the coasts of the Bay of Bengal is increasing sharply due to marine pollution, increased sea acidification and climate change. Jellyfish draws our attention to address the local and global stressors. This also indicates that something wrong is happening in this bay behind the scenes. This study aimed to investigate how the policy framework governing the sea can be reformed. To do so, this study evaluated the existing policy, regulatory and institutional framework. Empirical data were collected from the middle coastal zone of Bangladesh. The secondary literature on policy, legal documents, and institutional arrangements were reviewed. The causes of poor coordination among different public sectors and non-compliance of laws were identified. The key findings show that despite the existing of Department of Environment, poor coordination with other departments, and lack of logistics and technical staffs have resulted in severe marine pollution and degradation of coastal and marine living resources. The existing policies had no monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. Non-compliance of the existing laws has been fueling the problems. This study provides an integrated policy and a guideline for updating the legal and institutional mechanism to manage coastal and marine living resources sustainably in Bangladesh to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 14.

Keywords: legal, institutional, framework, jellyfish

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18 The confluence of Societal Dogmas and Extremist (Religious) Ideologies: A Case Study of Male Youth Involved in Violent Extremism in Sargodha and Jhang, Punjab

Authors: Tehmina Aslam

Abstract:

South-Asian societies elicit a male-dominant hierarchy, socio-economically and politico-religiously. The aim of the study was to examine the contribution of gender to violent extremism in order to devise means for its control in Pakistan. A qualitative case study based on interviews was conducted of de-radicalized former militants who were affiliated to militant organizations such as Sipahe Sahaba Pakistan, Lashkare Jhangvi, Laskhare Taibah, and Jaishe Mohammad, and who resided in Sargodha and Jhang, cities of the Punjab. The study exuded three main findings: first, gender alone was insufficient to motivate a male youth to resort to violent extremism; second, gender segregation made a male youth more vulnerable to an extremist ideology; and third, male gender was more prone to the influence of an extremist misguided religious ideology that pandered to male chauvinistic (societal dogmas constructing a male identity) needs and offered a male youth an opportunity to reinforce male dominance in society. The conclusion drawn was that the confluence of societal dogmas and extremist (religious) ideologies offered the major resistance against preventing violent extremism and, without dealing with both of them simultaneously, the tendency in male youth to resorting to violent extremism could not be dissipated.

Keywords: violent extremism, countering violent extremism, preventing violent extremism, youth

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17 Serotype Distribution and Demographics of Dengue Patients in a Tertiary Hospital of Lahore, Pakistan During the 2011 Epidemic

Authors: Muhammad Munir, Riffat Mehboob, Samina Naeem, Muhammad Salman, Shehryar Ahmed, Irshad Hussain Qureshi, Tahira Murtaza Cheema, Ashraf Sultan, Akmal Laeeq, Nakhshab Choudhry, Asad Aslam Khan, Fridoon Jawad Ahmad

Abstract:

A dengue outbreak in Lahore, Pakistan during 2011 was unprecedented in terms of severity and magnitude. This research aims to determine the serotype distribution of dengue virus during this outbreak and classify the patients demographically. 5ml of venous blood was drawn aseptically from 166 patients with dengue-like signs to test for the virus between the months of August to November 2011. The samples were sent to the CDC, Atlanta, Georgia for the purpose of molecular assays to determine their serotype. RT-PCR protocol was performed targeting at the 4 dengue serotypes. Out of 166 cases, dengue infection was detected with RT-PCR in 95 cases, all infected with same serotype DEN-2. 75% of positive cases were males while 25% were females. Most positive patients were in the age range of 16-30 years. 33% positive cases had accompanying bleeding. This is first study during the 2011 dengue epidemic in Lahore that reports DEN-2 as the only prevalent serotype. It also indicates that more infected patients were males, adults, within age range of 16-30 years, peaked in the month of November, Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is manifested more in females, Ravi town was heavily hit by dengue virus infection.

Keywords: dengue, serotypes, Pakistan, DEN 2, Lahore, demography, serotype distrbution, 2011 epidemic

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16 Parabens, Paraben Metabolites and Triclocarban in Sediment Samples from the Trondheim Fjord, Norway

Authors: Kristine Vike-Jonas, Susana V. Gonzalez, Olav L. Bakkerud, Karoline S. Gjelstad, Shazia N. Aslam, Øyvind Mikkelsen, Alexandros Asimakopoulos

Abstract:

P-hydrobenzoic acid esters (parabens), paraben metabolites, and triclocarban (TCC) are a group of synthetic antimicrobials classified as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and emerging pollutants. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of these compounds in sediment near the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the Trondheim Fjord, Norway. Paraben, paraben metabolites, and TCC are high volume production chemicals that are found in a range of consumer products, especially pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PCPs). In this study, six parabens (methyl paraben; MeP, ethyl paraben; EtP, propyl paraben; PrP, butyl paraben; BuP, benzyl paraben; BezP, heptyl paraben; HeP), four paraben metabolites (4-hydroxybenzoic acid; 4-HB, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid; 3,4-DHB, methyl protocatechuic acid; OH-MeP, ethyl protocatechuic acid; OH-EtP) and TCC were determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) in 64 sediment samples from 10 different locations outside Trondheim, Norway. Of these 11 target analytes, four were detected in 40 % or more of the samples. The sum of six parabens (∑Parabens), four paraben metabolites (∑Metabolites) and TCC in sediment ranged from 4.88 to 11.56 (mean 6.81) ng/g, 52.16 to 368.28 (mean 93.89) ng/g and 0.53 to 3.65 (mean 1.50) ng/g dry sediment, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that TCC was positively correlated with OH-MeP, but negatively correlated with 4-HB. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first time parabens, paraben metabolites and TCC have been reported in the Trondheim Fjord.

Keywords: parabens, liquid chromatography, sediment, tandem mass spectrometry

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15 Investigation of Effects of Geomagnetic Storms Produced by Different Solar Sources on the Total Electron Content (TEC)

Authors: P. K. Purohit, Azad A. Mansoori, Parvaiz A. Khan, Purushottam Bhawre, Sharad C. Tripathi, A. M. Aslam, Malik A. Waheed, Shivangi Bhardwaj, A. K. Gwal

Abstract:

The geomagnetic storm represents the most outstanding example of solar wind-magnetospheric interaction, which causes global disturbances in the geomagnetic field as well as the trigger ionospheric disturbances. We study the behaviour of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) during the geomagnetic storms. For the present investigation we have selected 47 intense geomagnetic storms (Dst ≤ -100nT) that were observed during the solar cycle 23 i.e. during 1998-2006. We then categorized these storms into four categories depending upon their solar sources like Magnetic Cloud (MC), Co-rotating Interaction Region (CIR), SH+ICME and SH+MC. We then studied the behaviour of ionospheric TEC at a mid latitude station Usuda (36.13N, 138.36E), Japan during these storm events produced by four different solar sources. During our study we found that the smooth variations in TEC are replaced by rapid fluctuations and the value of TEC is strongly enhanced during the time of these storms belonging to all the four categories. However, the greatest enhancements in TEC are produced during those geomagnetic storms which are either caused by sheath driven magnetic cloud (SH+MC) or sheath driven ICME (SH+ICME). We also derived the correlation between the TEC enhancements produced during storms of each category with the minimum Dst. We found the strongest correlation exists for the SH+ICME category followed by SH+MC, MC and finally CIR. Since the most intense storms were either caused by SH+ICME or SH+MC while the least intense storms were caused by CIR, consequently the correlation was the strongest with SH+ICME and SH+MC and least with CIR.

Keywords: GPS, TEC, geomagnetic storm, sheath driven magnetic cloud

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14 Implementation of Risk Management System to Improve the Quality of Higher Education Institutes

Authors: Muhammad Wasif, Asif Ahmed Shaikh, Sarosh Hashmat Lodi, Muhammad Aslam Bhutto, Riazuddin

Abstract:

Risk Management System is quite popular in profit- based organizations, health and safety and project management fields since the last few decades. But due to rapidly changing environment and requirement of ISO 9001:2015 standards, public-sector institution, especially higher education institutes are also performing risk assessment to monitor the performance of the institution and aligning it with the latest benchmark. In this context, NED University of Engineering and Technology performed research and developed a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for the risk assessment, its monitoring and control. In this research, risks are broken into the four sources, namely; Internal Academics Risks, External Academics Risks, Internal Non-academic Risks, External Non-academic Risks. Risks are identified by the management at all levels. Severity and likelihood of the risks are assigned based on the previous audit results and the customer complains. Risk Ratings are calculated to orderly arrange the risk according to the Risk Rating, and controls for the risks are designed, which are assigned to the responsible person. At the end of the article, result and analysis on the different sources of risk are discussed in details and the conclusion is drawn. Discussion on few sample risks are presented in this article. Hence it is presented in the research that the Risk Management System can be applied in a Higher Education Institute to effectively control the risks which might affect the scope and Quality Management System of an organization.

Keywords: higher education, quality management system, risk assessment, risk management

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13 Biodiesel Fuel Properties of Mixed Culture Microalgae under Different CO₂ Concentration from Coal Fired Flue Gas

Authors: Ambreen Aslam, Tahira Aziz Mughal, Skye R. Thomas-Hall, Peer M. Schenk

Abstract:

Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-derived fuel mainly composed of fatty acid from oleaginous microalgae feedstock. Microalgae produced fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as they can store high levels of lipids without competing for food productivity. After lipid extraction and esterification, fatty acid profile from algae feedstock possessed the abundance of fatty acids with carbon chain length specifically C16 and C18. The qualitative analysis of FAME was done by cultivating mix microalgae consortia under three different CO₂ concentrations (1%, 3%, and 5.5%) from a coal fired flue gas. FAME content (280.3 µg/mL) and productivity (18.69 µg/mL/D) was higher under 1% CO₂ (flue gas) as compare to other treatments. Whereas, Mixed C. (F) supplemented with 5.5% CO₂ (50% flue gas) had higher SFA (36.28%) and UFA (63.72%) which improve the oxidative stability of biodiesel. Subsequently, low Iodine value (136.3 gI₂/100g) and higher Cetane number (52) of Mixed C.+P (F) were found to be in accordance with European (EN 14214) standard under 5.5% CO₂ along with 50mM phosphate buffer. Experimental results revealed that sufficient phosphate reduced FAME productivity but significantly enhance biodiesel quality. This research aimed to develop an integrated approach of utilizing flue gas (as CO₂ source) for significant improvement in biodiesel quality under surplus phosphorus. CO₂ sequestration from industrial flue gas not only reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions but also ensure sustainability and eco-friendliness of the biodiesel production process through microalgae.

Keywords: biodiesel analysis, carbon dioxide, coal fired flue gas, FAME productivity, fatty acid profile, fuel properties, lipid content, mixed culture microalgae

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12 Investigating the Morphological Patterns of Lip Prints and Their Effectiveness in Individualization and Gender Determination in Pakistani Population

Authors: Makhdoom Saad Wasim Ghouri, Muneeba Butt, Mohammad Ashraf Tahir, Rashid Bhatti, Akbar Ali, Abdul Rehman, Abdul Basit, Muzzamel Rehman, Shahbaz Aslam, Farakh Mansoor, Ahmad Fayyaz, Hadia Siddiqui

Abstract:

Lip print analysis (Cheiloscopy) is the new emerging technique that might be the guardian angel in establishing the personal identity. Cheiloscopy is basically the study of elevations and depressions present on the external surface of the lips. In our study, 600 lip prints samples were taken (300 males and 300 females). Lip prints of each individual were divided into four quadrants and the upper middle portion. For general classification, middle part of the lower lip almost 10 mm wide would be taken into consideration. After analysis of lip-prints, our results show that lip prints are the unique and permanent character of every individual. No two lip print was matched with each other even of the identical twins. Our study reveals that there is equal distribution of lip print patterns among all the four quadrants of lips and the upper middle portion; these distributions were statistically analyzed by applying chi-square test which shows the significant results. In general classification, 5 lip print types/patterns were studied, Type 1 (Vertical lines), Type 2 (Branched pattern), Type 3 (Intersected pattern), Type 4 (Reticular pattern) and Type 5 (Undetermined). Type 1 and Type 2 were found to be the most frequent patterns in female population, while Type 3 and Type 4 most commonly found in male population. These results were also analyzed by applying Chi-square test, and the results show significance statistically. Thus, establishing sex determination on the basis of lip print types among the gender. Type 5 was the least common pattern among genders.

Keywords: cheiloscopy, distribution, quadrants, sex determination

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
11 Investigating the Significance of Ground Covers and Partial Root Zone Drying Irrigation for Water Conservation Weed Suppression and Quality Traits of Wheat

Authors: Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza, Salman Ahmad, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Muhammad Saqlain Zaheer, Rashid Iqbal, Imran Haider, Muhammad Usman Aslam, Muhammad Adnan Nazar

Abstract:

One of the main negative effects of climate change is the increasing scarcity of water worldwide, especially for irrigation purpose. In order to ensure food security with less available water, there is a need to adopt easy and economic techniques. Two of the effective techniques are; use of ground covers and partial root zone drying (PRD). A field experiment was arranged to find out the most suitable mulch for PRD irrigation system in wheat. The experiment was comprised of two irrigation methods (I0 = irrigation on both sides of roots and I1= irrigation to only one side of the root as alternate irrigation) and four ground covers (M0= open ground without any cover, M1= black plastic cover, M2= wheat straw cover and M4= cotton sticks cover). More plant height, spike length, number of spikelets and number of grains were found in full irrigation treatment. While water use efficiency and grain nutrient (NPK) contents were more in PRD irrigation. All soil covers suppress the weeds and significantly influenced the yield attributes, final yield as well as the grain nutrient contents. However black plastic cover performed the best. It was concluded that joint use of both techniques was more effective for water conservation and increasing grain yield than their sole application and combination of PRD with black plastic mulch performed the best than other ground covers combination used in the experiment.

Keywords: ground covers, partial root zone drying, grain yield, quality traits, WUE, weed control efficiency

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10 Nesting Habitat Preference of Indigenous Bumblebee, Bombus haemorrhoidalis in Himalayan Range of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

Authors: Umer Ayyaz Aslam Sheikh

Abstract:

Non Apis bee like the bumblebees are important due to their utilization of diverse floral plants and belong to the richest and most conspicuous flower visitors in alpine, temperate and arctic environments for pollination in both natural and managed cropping systems. These bees generally construct underground nests and habitat devastation and crumbling are major causes for their decline in nature. The present study was conducted in the Himalayan range of Azad Jammu, and Kashmir, Pakistan, surveys were conducted during the early spring season to observe maximum Bombus haemorrhoidalis queens (emerged after winter diapauses) searching for a nesting place. Whole study area was grouped into four types of landscape (open field, relatively open , relatively wooded and wooded), five habitat types (field, field boundary, pasture forest boundary and forest) and these habitat further grouped into four different patch types including withered grass, new grass, tussocks and stones and moss. Maximum nest seeking bumblebee queens preferred relatively open field landscape followed by open fields and forest boundaries. Field boundaries were recorded as most proffered habitat along with withered grasses for nesting sites of B. haemorrhoidalis queens. A wooded landscape with stone and moss type of patches were found least preferred nesting sites. This study will be helpful in the future for conservation program this for declining bumblebee species in this region. It will also provide the baseline for the conservation of other bumblebee species of the world.

Keywords: bumblebee, Bombus haemorrhoidalis, habitat, nest seeking preference, Pakistan

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9 Physiological and Biochemical Based Analysis to Assess the Efficacy of Mulch under Partial Root Zone Drying in Wheat

Authors: Salman Ahmad, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Rashid Iqbal, Muhammad Saqlain Zaheer, Muhammad Usman Aslam, Imran Haider, Muhammad Adnan Nazar, Muhammad Ali

Abstract:

Among the various abiotic stresses, drought stress is one of the most challenging for field crops. Wheat is one of the major staple food of the world, which is highly affected by water deficit stress in the current scenario of climate change. In order to ensure food security by depleting water resources, there is an urgent need to adopt technologies which result in sufficient crop yield with less water consumption. Mulching and partial rootzone drying (PRD) are two important management techniques used for water conservation and to mitigate the negative impacts of drought. The experiment was conducted to screen out the best-suited mulch for wheat under PRD system. Two water application techniques (I1= full irrigation I2= PRD irrigation) and four mulch treatments (M0= un-mulched, M1= black plastic mulch, M2= wheat straw mulch and M4= cotton sticks mulch) were conducted in completely randomized design with four replications. The treatment, black plastic mulch was performed the best than other mulch treatments. For irrigation levels, higher values of growth, physiological and water-related parameters were recorded in control treatment while, quality traits and enzymatic activities were higher under partial root zone drying. The current study concluded that adverse effects of drought on wheat can be significantly mitigated by using mulches but black plastic mulch was best suited for partial rootzone drying irrigation system in wheat.

Keywords: antioxidants, leaf water relations, Mulches, osmolytes, partial root zone drying, photosynthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
8 Seroprevalence and Potential Risk Factors of Bovine Brucellosis under Diverse Production Systems in Central Punjab, Paksitan

Authors: A. Khan, I. Khan, M. Younus, S. E. Haque, U. Waheed, H. Neubauer, A. A. Anjum, S. A. Muhammad, A. Idrees T. Abbas, S. Raza, M. A. Ali, M. Farooq, M. Mahmood, A. Hussain, H. Danish, U. Tayyab, M. Zafar, M. Aslam.

Abstract:

Brucellosis is one of the major problems of milk producing animals in our country which deteriorate the health of livestock. It is a disease of zoonotic significance which is capable of producing disease in humans leading to infertility, orchitis, abortions, and synovitis. In this particular study, milk and serum samples of cattle and buffalo (n=402) were collected from different districts of Punjab including Narowal, Gujranwala and Gujrat. Milk samples were analyzed by Milk Ring Test (MRT), while serum samples were tested through Rose Bengal Plate agglutination Test (RBPT) and Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (i-ELISA). The sample tested with MRT were 9.5% positive, including cattle 9.6% and buffalo 9.3%. While using the RBPT test for the detection of serum samples and for screening purpose it was observed that 16.4% animals were seropositive, cattle were 18.8% and buffalo were 13.9% seropositive. The higher prevalence of brucellosis indicates the danger of the disease to human population. The serum samples positive by RBPT were further confirmed by the use of most specific and sensitive serological test known as i-ELISA. 11.4% animals were confirmed as seropositive by i-ELISA including cattle 13.5% seropositive and buffalo 9.3%. The results indicated high seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle as compared to buffalos. Different risk factors were also studied to know the association between disease and their spread. Advanced age, larger herds, history of abortion and pregnancy of the animals is considered to be the important factors for the prevalence and spread of the hazardous zoonotic disease. It is a core issue of developing countries like Pakistan and has major public health impact.

Keywords: humans, bovines, infertility, orchitis, abortions, seroprevalence, brucellosis

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7 Impure Water, a Future Disaster: A Case Study of Lahore Ground Water Quality with GIS Techniques

Authors: Rana Waqar Aslam, Urooj Saeed, Hammad Mehmood, Hameed Ullah, Imtiaz Younas

Abstract:

This research has been conducted to assess the water quality in and around Lahore Metropolitan area on the basis of three different land uses, i.e. residential, commercial, and industrial land uses. For this, 29 sample sites have been selected on the basis of simple random sampling technique. Samples were collected at the source (WASA tube wells). The criteria for selecting sample sites are to have a maximum concentration of population in the selected land uses. The results showed that in the residential land use the proportion of nitrate and turbidity is at their highest level in the areas of Allama Iqbal Town and Samanabad Town. Commercial land use of Gulberg and Data Gunj Bakhsh Town have highest level of proportion of chlorides, calcium, TDS, pH, Mg, total hardness, arsenic and alkalinity. Whereas in industrial type of land use in Ravi and Wahga Town have the proportion of arsenic, Mg, nitrate, pH, and turbidity are at their highest level. The high rate of concentration of these parameters in these areas is basically due to the old and fractured pipelines that allow bacterial as well as physiochemical contaminants to contaminate the portable water at the sources. Furthermore, it is seen in most areas that waste water from domestic, industrial, as well as municipal sources may get easy discharge into open spaces and water bodies, like, cannels, rivers, lakes that seeps and become a part of ground water. In addition, huge dumps located in Lahore are becoming the cause of ground water contamination as when the rain falls, the water gets seep into the ground and impures the ground water quality. On the basis of the derived results with the help of Geo-spatial technology ACRGIS 9.3 Interpolation (IDW), it is recommended that water filtration plants must be installed with specific parameter control. A separate team for proper inspection has to be made for water quality check at the source. Old water pipelines must be replaced with the new pipelines, and safe water depth must be ensured at the source end.

Keywords: GIS, remote sensing, pH, nitrate, disaster, IDW

Procedia PDF Downloads 135