Search results for: acid mine drainage
3581 Acid Mine Drainage Remediation Using Silane and Phosphate Coatings
Authors: M. Chiliza, H. P. Mbukwane, P Masita, H. Rutto
Abstract:Acid mine drainage (AMD) one of the main pollutants of water in many countries that have mining activities. AMD results from the oxidation of pyrite and other metal sulfides. When these metals gets exposed to moisture and oxygen, leaching takes place releasing sulphate and Iron. Acid drainage is often noted by 'yellow boy,' an orange-yellow substance that occurs when the pH of acidic mine-influenced water raises above pH 3, so that the previously dissolved iron precipitates out. The possibility of using environmentally friendly silane and phosphate based coatings on pyrite to remediate acid mine drainage and prevention at source was investigated. The results showed that both coatings reduced chemical oxidation of pyrite based on Fe and sulphate release. Furthermore, it was found that silane based coating performs better when coating synthesis take place in a basic hydrolysis than in an acidic state.
Keywords: acid mine drainage, pyrite, silane, phosphateProcedia PDF Downloads 282
3580 Mitigation Measures for the Acid Mine Drainage Emanating from the Sabie Goldfield: Case Study of the Nestor Mine
Authors: Rudzani Lusunzi, Frans Waanders, Elvis Fosso-Kankeu, Robert Khashane Netshitungulwana
Abstract:The Sabie Goldfield has a history of gold mining dating back more than a century. Acid mine drainage (AMD) from the Nestor mine tailings storage facility (MTSF) poses a serious threat to the nearby ecosystem, specifically the Sabie River system. This study aims at developing mitigation measures for the AMD emanating from the Nestor MTSF using materials from the Glynns Lydenburg MTSF. The Nestor MTSF (NM) and the Glynns Lydenburg MTSF (GM) each provided about 20 kg of bulk composite samples. Using samples from the Nestor MTSF and the Glynns Lydenburg MTSF, two mixtures were created. MIX-A is a mixture that contains 25% weight percent (GM) and 75% weight percent (NM). MIX-B is the name given to the second mixture, which contains 50% AN and 50% AG. The same static test, i.e., acid–base accounting (ABA), net acid generation (NAG), and acid buffering characteristics curve (ABCC) was used to estimate the acid-generating probabilities of samples NM and GM for MIX-A and MIX-B. Furthermore, the mineralogy of the Nestor MTSF samples consists of the primary acid-producing mineral pyrite as well as the secondary minerals ferricopiapite and jarosite, which are common in acidic conditions. The Glynns Lydenburg MTSF samples, on the other hand, contain primary acid-neutralizing minerals calcite and dolomite. Based on the assessment conducted, materials from the Glynns Lydenburg are capable of neutralizing AMD from Nestor MTSF. Therefore, the alkaline tailings materials from the Glynns Lydenburg MTSF can be used to rehabilitate the acidic Nestor MTSF.
Keywords: Nestor Mine, acid mine drainage, mitigation, Sabie River systemProcedia PDF Downloads 14
3579 Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage with Metallurgical Slag
Authors: Sukla Saha, Alok Sinha
Abstract:Acid mine drainage (AMD) refers to the production of acidified water from abandoned mines and active mines as well. The reason behind the generation of this kind of acidified water is the oxidation of pyrites present in the rocks in and around mining areas. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, which is a sulfur oxidizing bacteria, helps in the oxidation process. AMD is extremely acidic in nature, (pH 2-3) with high concentration of several trace and heavy metals such as Fe, Al, Zn, Mn, Cu and Co and anions such as chloride and sulfate. AMD has several detrimental effect on aquatic organism and environment. It can directly or indirectly contaminate the ground water and surface water as well. The present study considered the treatment of AMD with metallurgical slag, which is a waste material. Slag helped to enhance the pH of AMD to 8.62 from 1.5 with 99% removal of trace metals such as Fe, Al, Mn, Cu and Co. Metallurgical slag was proven as efficient neutralizing material for the treatment of AMD.
Keywords: acid mine drainage, Heavy metals, metallurgical slag, NeutralizationProcedia PDF Downloads 85
3578 Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage with Modified Fly Ash
Authors: Sukla Saha, Alok Sinha
Abstract:Acid mine drainage (AMD) is the generation of acidic water from active as well as abandoned mines. AMD generates due to the oxidation of pyrites present in the rock in mining areas. Sulfur oxidizing bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans acts as a catalyst in this oxidation process. The characteristics of AMD is extreme low pH (2-3) with elevated concentration of different heavy metals such as Fe, Al, Zn, Mn, Cu and Co and anions such sulfate and chloride. AMD contaminate the ground water as well as surface water which leads to the degradation of water quality. Moreover, it carries detrimental effect for aquatic organism and degrade the environment. In the present study, AMD is treated with fly ash, modified with alkaline agent (NaOH). This modified fly ash (MFA) was experimentally proven as a very effective neutralizing agent for the treatment of AMD. It was observed that pH of treated AMD raised to 9.22 from 1.51 with 100g/L of MFA dose. Approximately, 99% removal of Fe, Al, Mn, Cu and Co took place with the same MFA dose. The treated water comply with the effluent discharge standard of (IS: 2490-1981).
Keywords: acid mine drainage, heavy metals, modified fly ash, neutralizationProcedia PDF Downloads 87
3577 Geochemical Controls of Salinity in a Typical Acid Mine Drainage Neutralized Groundwater System
Authors: Modreck Gomo
Abstract:Although the dolomite and calcite carbonates can neutralize Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) and prevent leaching of metals, salinity still remains a huge problem. The study presents a conceptual discussion of geochemical controls of salinity in a typical calcite and dolomite AMD neutralised groundwater systems. Thereafter field evidence is presented to support the conceptual discussions. 1020 field data sets of from a groundwater system reported to be under circumneutral conditions from the neutralization effect of calcite and dolomite is analysed using correlation analysis and bivariate plots. Field evidence indicates that sulphate, calcium and magnesium are strongly and positively correlated to Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) which is used as measure of salinity. In this, a hydrogeochemical system, the dissolution of sulphate, calcium and magnesium form AMD neutralization process contributed 50%, 10% and 5% of the salinity.
Keywords: acid mine drainage, carbonates, neutralization, salinityProcedia PDF Downloads 80
3576 Use of Acid Mine Drainage as a Source of Iron to Initiate the Solar Photo-Fenton Treatment of Municipal Wastewater: Circular Economy Effect
Authors: Tooba Aslam, Efthalia Chatzisymeon
Abstract:Untreated Municipal Wastewater (MWW) is renowned as the utmost harmful pollution caused to environmental water due to the high presence of nutrients and organic contaminants. Removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) from synthetic as well as municipal wastewater is investigated by using acid mine drainage as a source of iron to initiate the solar photo-Fenton treatment of municipal wastewater. In this study, Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) and different minerals enriched in iron, such as goethite, hematite, magnetite, and magnesite, have been used as the source of iron to initiate the photo-Fenton process. Co-treatment of real municipal wastewater and acid mine drainage /minerals is widely examined. The effects of different parameters such as minerals recovery from AMD, AMD as a source of iron, H₂O₂ concentration, and COD concentrations on the COD percentage removal of the process are studied. The results show that, out of all the four minerals, only hematite (1g/L) could remove 30% of the pollutants at about 100 minutes and 1000 ppm of H₂O₂. The addition of AMD as a source of iron is performed and compared with both synthetic as well as real wastewater from South Africa under the same conditions, i.e., 1000 ppm of H₂O₂, ambient temperature, 2.8 pH, and solar simulator. In the case of synthetic wastewater, the maximum removal (56%) is achieved with 50 ppm of iron (AMD source) at 160 minutes. On the other hand, in real wastewater, the removal efficiency is 99% with 30 ppm of iron at 90 minutes and 96% with 50 ppm of iron at 120 minutes. In conclusion, overall, the co-treatment of AMD and MWW by solar photo-Fenton treatment appears to be an effective and promising method to remove organic materials from Municipal wastewater.
Keywords: municipal wastewater treatment, acid mine drainage, co-treatment, COD removal, solar photo-Fenton, circular economyProcedia PDF Downloads 12
3575 Passive Neutralization of Acid Mine Drainage Using Locally Produced Limestone
Authors: Reneiloe Seodigeng, Malwandla Hanabe, Haleden Chiririwa, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng
Abstract:Neutralisation of acid-mine drainage (AMD) using limestone is cost effective, and good results can be obtained. However, this process has its limitations; it cannot be used for highly acidic water which consists of Fe(III). When Fe(III) reacts with CaCO3, it results in armoring. Armoring slows the reaction, and additional alkalinity can no longer be generated. Limestone is easily accessible, so this problem can be easily dealt with. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of PVC pipe length on ferric and ferrous ions. It was found that the shorter the pipe length the more these dissolved metals precipitate. The effect of the pipe length on the hydrogen ions was also studied, and it was found that these two have an inverse relationship. Experimental data were further compared with the model prediction data to see if they behave in a similar fashion. The model was able to predict the behaviour of 1.5m and 2 m pipes in ferric and ferrous ion precipitation.
Keywords: acid mine drainage, neutralisation, limestone, mathematical modellingProcedia PDF Downloads 307
3574 Improving the Ability of Constructed Wetlands to Treat Acid Mine Drainage
Authors: Chigbo Emmanuel Ikechukwu
Abstract:Constructed wetlands are seen as a potential means of ameliorating the poor quality water that derives from coal and gold mining operations. However, the processes whereby a wetland environment is able to improve water quality are not well understood and techniques for optimising their performance poorly developed. A parameter that may be manipulated in order to improve the treatment capacity of a wetland is the substrate in which the aquatic plants are rooted. This substrate can provide an environment wherein sulphate reducing bacteria, which contribute to the removal of contaminants from the water, are able to flourish. The bacteria require an energy source which is largely provided by carbon in the substrate. This paper discusses the form in which carbon is most suitable for the bacteria and describes the results of a series of experiments in which different materials were used as substrate. Synthetic acid mine drainage was passed through an anaerobic bioreactor that contained either compost or cow manure. The effluent water quality was monitored with respect to time and the effect of the substrate composition discussed.
Keywords: constructed wetland, bacteria, carbon, acid mine drainage, sulphateProcedia PDF Downloads 376
3573 Geochemistry of Natural Radionuclides Associated with Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) in a Coal Mining Area in Southern Brazil
Authors: Juliana A. Galhardi, Daniel M. Bonotto
Abstract:Coal is an important non-renewable energy source of and can be associated with radioactive elements. In Figueira city, Paraná state, Brazil, it was recorded high uranium activity near the coal mine that supplies a local thermoelectric power plant. In this context, the radon activity (Rn-222, produced by the Ra-226 decay in the U-238 natural series) was evaluated in groundwater, river water and effluents produced from the acid mine drainage in the coal reject dumps. The samples were collected in August 2013 and in February 2014 and analyzed at LABIDRO (Laboratory of Isotope and Hydrochemistry), UNESP, Rio Claro city, Brazil, using an alpha spectrometer (AlphaGuard) adjusted to evaluate the mean radon activity concentration in five cycles of 10 minutes. No radon activity concentration above 100 Bq.L-1, which was a previous critic value established by the World Health Organization. The average radon activity concentration in groundwater was higher than in surface water and in effluent samples, possibly due to the accumulation of uranium and radium in the aquifer layers that favors the radon trapping. The lower value in the river waters can indicate dilution and the intermediate value in the effluents may indicate radon absorption in the coal particles of the reject dumps. The results also indicate that the radon activities in the effluents increase with the sample acidification, possibly due to the higher radium leaching and the subsequent radon transport to the drainage flow. The water samples of Laranjinha River and Ribeirão das Pedras stream, which, respectively, supply Figueira city and receive the mining effluent, exhibited higher pH values upstream the mine, reflecting the acid mine drainage discharge. The radionuclides transport indicates the importance of monitoring their activity concentration in natural waters due to the risks that the radioactivity can represent to human health.
Keywords: radon, radium, acid mine drainage, coalProcedia PDF Downloads 368
3572 Evaluating Acid Buffering Capacity of Sewage Sludge Barrier for Inhibiting Remobilization of Heavy Metals in Tailing Impoundment
Authors: Huyuan Zhang, Yi Chen
Abstract:Compacted sewage sludge has been proved to be feasible as a barrier material for tailing impoundment because of its low permeability and retardation of heavy metals. The long-term penetration of acid mine drainage, however, would acidify the barrier system and result in remobilization of previously immobilized heavy metal pollutants. In this study, the effect of decreasing pH on the mobility of three typical heavy metals (Zn, Pb, and Cu) is investigated by acid titration test on sewage sludge under various conditions. The remobilization of heavy metals is discussed based on the acid buffering capacity of sewage sludge-leachate system. Test results indicate that heavy metals are dramatically released out when pH is decreased below 6.2, and their amounts take the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The acid buffering capacity of sewage sludge decreases with the solid-liquid ratio but increases with the anaerobic incubation time, and it is mainly governed by dissolution of contained carbonate and organics. These results reveal that the sewage sludge possesses enough acid buffering capacity to consume protons within the acid mine drainage. Thus, this study suggests that an explosive remobilization of heavy metals is not expected in a long-term perspective.
Keywords: acid buffering capacity, barrier, heavy metals, remobilization, sewage sludgeProcedia PDF Downloads 236
3571 Biosorption of Metal Ions from Sarcheshmeh Acid Mine Drainage by Immobilized Bacillus thuringiensis in a Fixed-Bed Column
Authors: V. Khosravi, F. D. Ardejani, A. Aryafar, M. Sedighi
Abstract:Heavy metals have a damaging impact for the environment, animals and humans due to their extreme toxicity and removing them from wastewaters is a very important and interesting task in the field of water pollution control. Biosorption is a relatively new method for treatment of wastewaters and recovery of heavy metals. In this study, a continuous fixed bed study was carried out by using Bacillus thuringiensis as a biosorbent for the removal of Cu and Mn ions from Sarcheshmeh Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). The effect of operating parameters such as flow rate and bed height on the sorption characteristics of B. thuringiensis was investigated at pH 6.0 for each metal ion. The experimental results showed that the breakthrough time decreased with increasing flow rate and decreasing bed height. The data also indicated that the equilibrium uptake of both metals increased with decreasing flow rate and increasing bed height. BDST, Thomas, and Yoon–Nelson models were applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves. All models were found suitable for describing the whole dynamic behavior of the column with respect to flow rate and bed height. In order to regenerate the adsorbent, an elution step was carried out with 1 M HCl and five adsorption-desorption cycles were carried out in continuous manner.
Keywords: acid mine drainage, bacillus thuringiensis, biosorption, cu and mn ions, fixed bedProcedia PDF Downloads 336
3570 Mitigating Acid Mine Drainage Pollution: A Case Study In the Witwatersrand Area of South Africa
Authors: Elkington Sibusiso Mnguni
Abstract:In South Africa, mining has been a key economic sector since the discovery of gold in 1886 in the Witwatersrand region, where the city of Johannesburg is located. However, some mines have since been decommissioned, and the continuous pumping of acid mine drainage (AMD) also stopped causing the AMD to rise towards the ground surface. This posed a serious environmental risk to the groundwater resources and river systems in the region. This paper documents the development and extent of the environmental damage as well as the measures implemented by the government to alleviate such damage. The study will add to the body of knowledge on the subject of AMD treatment to prevent environmental degradation. The method used to gather and collate relevant data and information was the desktop study. The key findings include the social and environmental impact of the AMD, which include the pollution of water sources for domestic use leading to skin and other health problems and the loss of biodiversity in some areas. It was also found that the technical intervention of constructing a plant to pump and treat the AMD using the high-density sludge technology was the most effective short-term solution available while a long-term solution was being explored. Some successes and challenges experienced during the implementation of the project are also highlighted. The study will be a useful record of the current status of the AMD treatment interventions in the region.
Keywords: acid mine drainage, groundwater resources, pollution, river systems, technical intervention, high density sludgeProcedia PDF Downloads 135
3569 Analyzing the Water Quality of Settling Pond after Revegetation at Ex-Mining Area
Authors: Iis Diatin, Yani Hadiroseyani, Muhammad Mujahid, Ahmad Teduh, Juang R. Matangaran
Abstract:One of silica quarry managed by a mining company is located at Sukabumi District of West Java Province Indonesia with an area of approximately 70 hectares. Since 2013 this company stopped the mining activities. The company tries to restore the ecosystem post-mining with rehabilitation activities such as reclamation and revegetation of their ex-mining area. After three years planting the area the trees grown well. Not only planting some tree species but also some cover crop has covered the soil surface. There are two settling ponds located in the middle of the ex-mining area. Those settling pond were built in order to prevent the effect of acid mine drainage. Acid mine drainage (AMD) or the acidic water is created when sulphide minerals are exposed to air and water and through a natural chemical reaction produce sulphuric acid. AMD is the main pollutant at the open pit mining. The objective of the research was to analyze the effect of revegetation on water quality change at the settling pond. The physical and chemical of water quality parameter were measured and analysed at site and at the laboratory. Physical parameter such as temperature, turbidity and total organic matter were analyse. Also heavy metal and some other chemical parameter such as dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, pH, total ammonia nitrogen, nitrate and nitrite were analysed. The result showed that the acidity of first settling pond was higher than that of the second settling pond. Both settling pond water’s contained heavy metal. The turbidity and total organic matter were the parameter of water quality which become better after revegetation.
Keywords: acid mine drainage, ex-mining area, revegetation, settling pond, water qualityProcedia PDF Downloads 234
3568 Treatment of Acid Mine Lake by Ultrasonically Modified Fly Ash at Different Frequencies
Authors: Burcu Ileri, Deniz Sanliyuksel Yucel, Onder Ayyildiz
Abstract:The oxidation of pyrite in water results in the formation of acid mine drainage, which typically forms extremely acid mine lake (AML) in the depression areas of abandoned Etili open-pit coal mine site, Northwest Turkey. Nine acid mine lakes of various sizes have been located in the Etili coal mine site. Hayirtepe AML is one of the oldest lake having a mean pH value of 2.9 and conductivity of 4550 μS/cm, and containing elevated concentrations of Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The water quality of the lake has been deteriorated due to its high chemical composition, in particular, increasing heavy metal pollution. In this study, fly ash (FA), a coal combustion by-product from fluidized bed thermal power plant in the northwestern part of Turkey, was used as an adsorbent for the treatment of Hayirtepe AML. The FA is a relatively abundant and cost effective material, but its use in adsorption processes usually require excessive adsorbent doses. To increase adsorption efficiency and lower the adsorbent dose, we modified the FA by means of ultrasonic treatment (20 kHz and 40 kHz). The images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have demonstrated that ultrasonic treatment not only decreased the size of ash particles but also created pits and cracks on their surfaces which in turn led to a significant increase in the BET surface area. Both FA and modified fly ash were later tested for the removal of heavy metals from the AML. The effect of various operating parameters such as ultrasonic power, pH, ash dose, and adsorption contact time were examined to obtain the optimum conditions for the treatment process. The results have demonstrated that removal of heavy metals by ultrasound-modified fly ash requires much shorter treatment times and lower adsorbent doses than those attained by the unmodified fly ash. This research was financially supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), (Project no: 116Y510).
Keywords: acid mine lake, heavy metal, modified fly ash, ultrasonic treatmentProcedia PDF Downloads 134
3567 Performance Evaluation of Using Genetic Programming Based Surrogate Models for Approximating Simulation Complex Geochemical Transport Processes
Authors: Hamed K. Esfahani, Bithin Datta
Abstract:Transport of reactive chemical contaminant species in groundwater aquifers is a complex and highly non-linear physical and geochemical process especially for real life scenarios. Simulating this transport process involves solving complex nonlinear equations and generally requires huge computational time for a given aquifer study area. Development of optimal remediation strategies in aquifers may require repeated solution of such complex numerical simulation models. To overcome this computational limitation and improve the computational feasibility of large number of repeated simulations, Genetic Programming based trained surrogate models are developed to approximately simulate such complex transport processes. Transport process of acid mine drainage, a hazardous pollutant is first simulated using a numerical simulated model: HYDROGEOCHEM 5.0 for a contaminated aquifer in a historic mine site. Simulation model solution results for an illustrative contaminated aquifer site is then approximated by training and testing a Genetic Programming (GP) based surrogate model. Performance evaluation of the ensemble GP models as surrogate models for the reactive species transport in groundwater demonstrates the feasibility of its use and the associated computational advantages. The results show the efficiency and feasibility of using ensemble GP surrogate models as approximate simulators of complex hydrogeologic and geochemical processes in a contaminated groundwater aquifer incorporating uncertainties in historic mine site.
Keywords: geochemical transport simulation, acid mine drainage, surrogate models, ensemble genetic programming, contaminated aquifers, mine sitesProcedia PDF Downloads 206
3566 Application of Acid Base Accounting to Predict Post-Mining Drainage Quality in Coalfields of the Main Karoo Basin and Selected Sub-Basins, South Africa
Authors: Lindani Ncube, Baojin Zhao, Ken Liu, Helen Johanna Van Niekerk
Abstract:Acid Base Accounting (ABA) is a tool used to assess the total amount of acidity or alkalinity contained in a specific rock sample, and is based on the total S concentration and the carbonate content of a sample. A preliminary ABA test was conducted on 14 sandstone and 5 coal samples taken from coalfields representing the Main Karoo Basin (Highveld, Vryheid and Molteno/Indwe Coalfields) and the Sub-basins (Witbank and Waterberg Coalfields). The results indicate that sandstone and coal from the Main Karoo Basin have the potential of generating Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) as they contain sufficient pyrite to generate acid, with the final pH of samples relatively low upon complete oxidation of pyrite. Sandstone from collieries representing the Main Karoo Basin are characterised by elevated contents of reactive S%. All the studied samples were characterised by an Acid Potential (AP) that is less than the Neutralizing Potential (NP) except for two samples. The results further indicate that the sandstone from the Main Karoo Basin is prone to acid generation as compared to the sandstone from the Sub-basins. However, the coal has a relatively low potential of generating any acid. The application of ABA in this study contributes to an understanding of the complexities governing water-rock interactions. In general, the coalfields from the Main Karoo Basin have much higher potential to produce AMD during mining processes than the coalfields in the Sub-basins.
Keywords: Main Karoo Basin, sub-basin, coal, sandstone, acid base accounting (ABA)Procedia PDF Downloads 362
3565 Hydro Geochemistry and Water Quality in a River Affected by Lead Mining in Southern Spain
Authors: Rosendo Mendoza, María Carmen Hidalgo, María José Campos-Suñol, Julián Martínez, Javier Rey
Abstract:The impact of mining environmental liabilities and mine drainage on surface water quality has been investigated in the hydrographic basin of the La Carolina mining district (southern Spain). This abandoned mining district is characterized by the existence of important mineralizations of sulfoantimonides of Pb - Ag, and sulfides of Cu - Fe. All surface waters reach the main river of this mining area, the Grande River, which ends its course in the Rumblar reservoir. This waterbody is intended to supply 89,000 inhabitants, as well as irrigation and livestock. Therefore, the analysis and control of the metal(loid) concentration that exists in these surface waters is an important issue because of the potential pollution derived from metallic mining. A hydrogeochemical campaign consisting of 20 water sampling points was carried out in the hydrographic network of the Grande River, as well as two sampling points in the Rumbler reservoir and at the main tailings impoundment draining to the river. Although acid mine drainage (pH below 4) is discharged into the Grande river from some mine adits, the pH values in the river water are always neutral or slightly alkaline. This is mainly the result of a dilution process of the small volumes of mine waters by net alkaline waters of the river. However, during the dry season, the surface waters present high mineralization due to a constant discharge from the abandoned flooded mines and a decrease in the contribution of surface runoff. The concentrations of dissolved Cd and Pb in the water reach values of 2 and 81 µg/l, respectively, exceeding the limit established by the Environmental Quality Standard for surface water. In addition, the concentrations of dissolved As, Cu, and Pb in the waters of the Rumblar reservoir reached values of 10, 20, and 11 µg/l, respectively. These values are higher than the maximum allowable concentration for human consumption, a circumstance that is especially alarming.
Keywords: environmental quality, hydrogeochemistry, metal mining, surface waterProcedia PDF Downloads 74
3564 Co-Disposal of Coal Ash with Mine Tailings in Surface Paste Disposal Practices: A Gold Mining Case Study
Authors: M. L. Dinis, M. C. Vila, A. Fiúza, A. Futuro, C. Nunes
Abstract:The present paper describes the study of paste tailings prepared in laboratory using gold tailings, produced in a Finnish gold mine with the incorporation of coal ash. Natural leaching tests were conducted with the original materials (tailings, fly and bottom ashes) and also with paste mixtures that were prepared with different percentages of tailings and ashes. After leaching, the solid wastes were physically and chemically characterized and the results were compared to those selected as blank – the unleached samples. The tailings and the coal ash, as well as the prepared mixtures, were characterized, in addition to the textural parameters, by the following measurements: grain size distribution, chemical composition and pH. Mixtures were also tested in order to characterize their mechanical behavior by measuring the flexural strength, the compressive strength and the consistency. The original tailing samples presented an alkaline pH because during their processing they were previously submitted to pressure oxidation with destruction of the sulfides. Therefore, it was not possible to ascertain the effect of the coal ashes in the acid mine drainage. However, it was possible to verify that the paste reactivity was affected mostly by the bottom ash and that the tailings blended with bottom ash present lower mechanical strength than when blended with a combination of fly and bottom ash. Surface paste disposal offer an attractive alternative to traditional methods in addition to the environmental benefits of incorporating large-volume wastes (e.g. bottom ash). However, a comprehensive characterization of the paste mixtures is crucial to optimize paste design in order to enhance engineer and environmental properties.
Keywords: coal ash, mine tailings, paste blends, surface disposalProcedia PDF Downloads 236
3563 Pervious Concrete for Road Intersection Drainage
Authors: Ivana Barišić, Ivanka Netinger Grubeša, Ines Barjaktarić
Abstract:Road performance and traffic safety are highly influenced by improper water drainage system performance, particularly within intersection areas. So, the aim of the presented paper is the evaluation of pervious concrete made with two types and two aggregate fractions for potential utilization in intersection drainage areas. Although the studied pervious concrete mixtures achieved proper drainage but lower strength characteristics, this pervious concrete has a good potential for enhancing pavement drainage systems if it is embedded on limited intersection areas.
Keywords: drainage, intersection, pervious concrete, roadProcedia PDF Downloads 308
3562 Neutralization of Sulphurous Waste (AMD) Using Recycled Waste Concrete
Authors: Ercument Koc, Banu Yaylali, Gulsen Tozsin, Haci Deveci
Abstract:Re-using of concrete waste materials for the neutralization of acid mine drainage (AMD) can protect the environment and contribute the national economy. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevention of AMD formation and heavy metal release using concrete wastes which are alkaline and generated by demolition of buildings within the urban renewal process. Shake flask test was conducted to determine the neutralization effects. Concrete wastes are rich in CaCO3 and they are used as a pH regulator for AMD neutralization. The results showed that pH of the AMD increased from 3.33 to 6.84 with the application of concrete waste materials.
Keywords: AMD, neutralization, sulphurous waste, urban renewalProcedia PDF Downloads 237
3561 PM10 Concentration Emitted from Blasting and Crushing Processes of Limestone Mines in Saraburi Province, Thailand
Authors: Kanokrat Makkwao, Tassanee Prueksasit
Abstract:This study aimed to investigate PM10 emitted from different limestone mines in Saraburi province, Thailand. The blasting and crushing were the main processes selected for PM10 sampling. PM10 was collected in two mines including, a limestone mine for cement manufacturing (mine A) and a limestone mine for construction (mine B). The IMPACT samplers were used to collect PM10. At blasting, the points aligning with the upwind and downwind direction were assigned for the sampling. The ranges of PM10 concentrations at mine A and B were 0.267-5.592 and 0.130-0.325 mg/m³, respectively, and the concentration at blasting from mine A was significantly higher than mine B (p < 0.05). During crushing at mine A, the PM10 concentration with the range of 1.153-3.716 and 0.085-1.724 mg/m³ at crusher and piles in respectively were observed whereas the PM10 concentration measured at four sampling points in mine B, including secondary crusher, tertiary crusher, screening point, and piles, were ranged 1.032-16.529, 10.957-74.057, 0.655-4.956, and 0.169-1.699 mg/m³, respectively. The emission of PM10 concentration at the crushing units was different in the ranges depending on types of machine, its operation, dust collection and control system, and environmental conditions.
Keywords: PM₁₀ concentration, limestone mines, blasting, crushingProcedia PDF Downloads 86
3560 The Effect of Additive Acid on the Phytoremediation Efficiency
Authors: G. Hosseini, A. Sadighzadeh, M. Rahimnejad, N. Hosseini, Z. Jamalzadeh
Abstract:Metal pollutants, especially heavy metals from anthropogenic sources such as metallurgical industries’ waste including mining, smelting, casting or production of nuclear fuel, including mining, concentrate production and uranium processing ends in the environment contamination (water and soil) and risk to human health around the facilities of this type of industrial activity. There are different methods that can be used to remove these contaminants from water and soil. These are very expensive and time-consuming. In this case, the people have been forced to leave the area and the decontamination is not done. For example, in the case of Chernobyl accident, an area of 30 km around the plant was emptied of human life. A very efficient and cost-effective method for decontamination of the soil and the water is phytoremediation. In this method, the plants preferentially native plants which are more adaptive to the regional climate are well used. In this study, three types of plants including Alfalfa, Sunflower and wheat were used to Barium decontamination. Alfalfa and Sunflower were not grown good enough in Saghand mine’s soil sample. This can be due to non-native origin of these plants. But, Wheat rise in Saghand Uranium Mine soil sample was satisfactory. In this study, we have investigated the effect of 4 types of acids inclusive nitric acid, oxalic acid, acetic acid and citric acid on the removal efficiency of Barium by Wheat. Our results indicate the increase of Barium absorption in the presence of citric acid in the soil. In this paper, we will present our research and laboratory results.
Keywords: phytoremediation, heavy metal, wheat, soilProcedia PDF Downloads 253
3559 Coal Mining Safety Monitoring Using Wsn
Authors: Somdatta Saha
Abstract:The main purpose was to provide an implementable design scenario for underground coal mines using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The main reason being that given the intricacies in the physical structure of a coal mine, only low power WSN nodes can produce accurate surveillance and accident detection data. The work mainly concentrated on designing and simulating various alternate scenarios for a typical mine and comparing them based on the obtained results to arrive at a final design. In the Era of embedded technology, the Zigbee protocols are used in more and more applications. Because of the rapid development of sensors, microcontrollers, and network technology, a reliable technological condition has been provided for our automatic real-time monitoring of coal mine. The underground system collects temperature, humidity and methane values of coal mine through sensor nodes in the mine; it also collects the number of personnel inside the mine with the help of an IR sensor, and then transmits the data to information processing terminal based on ARM.
Keywords: ARM, embedded board, wireless sensor network (Zigbee)Procedia PDF Downloads 276
3558 Strategic Mine Planning: A SWOT Analysis Applied to KOV Open Pit Mine in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Authors: Patrick May Mukonki
Abstract:KOV pit (Kamoto Oliveira Virgule) is located 10 km from Kolwezi town, one of the mineral rich town in the Lualaba province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The KOV pit is currently operating under the Katanga Mining Limited (KML), a Glencore-Gecamines (a State Owned Company) join venture. Recently, the mine optimization process provided a life of mine of approximately 10 years withnice pushbacks using the Datamine NPV Scheduler software. In previous KOV pit studies, we recently outlined the impact of the accuracy of the geological information on a long-term mine plan for a big copper mine such as KOV pit. The approach taken, discussed three main scenarios and outlined some weaknesses on the geological information side, and now, in this paper that we are going to develop here, we are going to highlight, as an overview, those weaknesses, strengths and opportunities, in a global SWOT analysis. The approach we are taking here is essentially descriptive in terms of steps taken to optimize KOV pit and, at every step, we categorized the challenges we faced to have a better tradeoff between what we called strengths and what we called weaknesses. The same logic is applied in terms of the opportunities and threats. The SWOT analysis conducted in this paper demonstrates that, despite a general poor ore body definition, and very rude ground water conditions, there is room for improvement for such high grade ore body.
Keywords: mine planning, mine optimization, mine scheduling, SWOT analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 162
3557 Feasibility Study of Mine Tailing’s Treatment by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans DSM 26636
Authors: M. Gómez-Ramírez, A. Rivas-Castillo, I. Rodríguez-Pozos, R. A. Avalos-Zuñiga, N. G. Rojas-Avelizapa
Abstract:Among the diverse types of pollutants produced by anthropogenic activities, metals represent a serious threat, due to their accumulation in ecosystems and their elevated toxicity. The mine tailings of abandoned mines contain high levels of metals such as arsenic (As), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb), which do not suffer any degradation process, they are accumulated in environment. Abandoned mine tailings potentially could contaminate rivers and aquifers representing a risk for human health due to their high metal content. In an attempt to remove the metals and thereby mitigate the environmental pollution, an environmentally friendly and economical method of bioremediation has been introduced. Bioleaching has been actively studied over the last several years, and it is one of the bioremediation solutions used to treat heavy metals contained in sewage sludge, sediment and contaminated soil. Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, an extremely acidophilic, chemolithoautotrophic, gram-negative, rod shaped microorganism, which is typically related to Cu mining operations (bioleaching), has been well studied for industrial applications. The sulfuric acid produced plays a major role in bioleaching. Specifically, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans strain DSM 26636 has been able to leach Al, Ni, V, Fe, Mg, Si, and Ni contained in slags from coal combustion wastes. The present study reports the ability of A. thiooxidans DSM 26636 for the bioleaching of metals contained in two different mine tailing samples (MT1 and MT2). It was observed that Al, Fe, and Mn were removed in 36.3±1.7, 191.2±1.6, and 4.5±0.2 mg/kg for MT1, and in 74.5±0.3, 208.3±0.5, and 20.9±0.1 for MT2. Besides, < 1.5 mg/kg of Au and Ru were also bioleached from MT1; in MT2, bioleaching of Zn was observed at 55.7±1.3 mg/kg, besides removal of < 1.5 mg/kg was observed for As, Ir, Li, and 0.6 for Os in this residue. These results show the potential of strain DSM 26636 for the bioleaching of metals that came from different mine tailings.
Keywords: A. thiooxidans, bioleaching, metals, mine tailingsProcedia PDF Downloads 193
3556 Research and Application of the Three-Dimensional Visualization Geological Modeling of Mine
Authors: Bin Wang, Yong Xu, Honggang Qu, Rongmei Liu, Zhenji Gao
Abstract:Today's mining industry is advancing gradually toward digital and visual direction. The three dimensional visualization geological modeling of mine is the digital characterization of mineral deposit, and is one of the key technology of digital mine. The three-dimensional geological modeling is a technology that combines the geological spatial information management, geological interpretation, geological spatial analysis and prediction, geostatistical analysis, entity content analysis and graphic visualization in three-dimensional environment with computer technology, and is used in geological analysis. In this paper, the three-dimensional geological modeling of an iron mine through the use of Surpac is constructed, and the weight difference of the estimation methods between distance power inverse ratio method and ordinary kriging is studied, and the ore body volume and reserves are simulated and calculated by using these two methods. Compared with the actual mine reserves, its result is relatively accurate, so it provided scientific bases for mine resource assessment, reserve calculation, mining design and so on.
Keywords: three-dimensional geological modeling, geological database, geostatistics, block modelProcedia PDF Downloads 3
3555 Characterization and Optimization of Culture Conditions for Sulphur Oxidizing Bacteria after Isolation from Rhizospheric Mustard Soil, Decomposing Sites and Pit House
Authors: Suman Chaudhary, Rinku Dhanker, Tanvi, Sneh Goyal
Abstract:Sulphur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) have marked their significant role in perspectives of maintaining healthy environment as researchers from all over the world tested and apply these in waste water treatment plants, bioleaching of heavy metals, deterioration of bridge structures, concrete and for bioremediation purposes, etc. Also, these SOB are well adapted in all kinds of environment ranging from normal soil, water habitats to extreme natural sources like geothermal areas, volcanic eruptions, black shale and acid rock drainage (ARD). SOB have been isolated from low pH environment of anthropogenic origin like acid mine drainage (AMD) and bioleaching heaps, hence these can work efficiently in different environmental conditions. Besides having many applications in field of environment science, they may be proven to be very beneficial in area of agriculture as sulphur is the fourth major macronutrients required for the growth of plants. More amount of sulphur is needed by pulses and oilseed crops with respect to the cereal grains. Due to continuous use of land for overproduction of more demanding sulphur utilizing crops and without application of sulphur fertilizers, its concentration is decreasing day by day, and thus, sulphur deficiency is becoming a great problem as it affects the crop productivity and quality. Sulphur is generally found in soils in many forms which are unavailable for plants (cannot be use by plants) like elemental sulphur, thiosulphate which can be taken up by bacteria and converted into simpler forms usable by plants by undergoing a series of transformations. So, keeping the importance of sulphur in view for various soil types, oilseed crops and role of microorganisms in making them available to plants, we made an effort to isolate, optimize, and characterize SOB. Three potential strains of bacteria were isolated, namely SSF7, SSA21, and SSS6, showing sulphate production of concentration, i.e. 2.268, 3.102, and 2.785 mM, respectively. Also, these were optimized for various culture conditions like carbon, nitrogen source, pH, temperature, and incubation time, and characterization was also done.
Keywords: sulphur oxidizing bacteria, isolation, optimization, characterization, sulphate productionProcedia PDF Downloads 281
3554 Methods for Mitigating Corrosion Caused by Biogenic Sulfuric Acid in Sewerage Systems: State of the Art Review
Authors: M. Cortés, E. Vera, M. Avella
Abstract:Corrosion is an imminent process in nature, which affects all types of materials. In sewerage systems, the corrosion process caused by microorganisms, also known as biogenic sulfuric acid attack, has been studied. This affects the structural integrity of the concrete drainage pipes and the sewage treatment plants. This article is a review of research which focuses on the study of how to reduce the production of hydrogen sulfide, how to improve the resistance of concrete through the use of additives and the implementation of antimicrobial techniques to reduce bacterial growth.
Keywords: bactericides, biogenic sulfuric acid, corrosion, concrete, hydrogen sulphide, nano materials, zeolitesProcedia PDF Downloads 376
3553 The Effect of Proper Drainage on the Cost of Building and Repairing Roads
Authors: Seyed Abbas Tabatabaei, Saeid Amini, Hamid Reza Ghafouri
Abstract:One of the most important factors in flexible pavement failure is the lack of proper drainage along the roads. Water on the Paving Systems is one of the main parameters of pavement failure. Though, if water is discharged without delay and prior to discharge in order to prevent damaging the pavement the lifetime of the pavement will be considerably increased. In this study, duration of water stay and materials properties in pavement systems and the effects of aggregate gradation, and hydraulic conductivity of the drainage rate and Effects of subsurface drainage systems, drainage and reduction in the lifetime of the pavement have been studied. The study conducted in accordance with the terms offered can be concluded as under. The more hydraulic conductivity the less drainage time and the use of sub-surface drainage system causes two to three times of the pavement lifetime. In this research it has been tried by study and calculate the drained and undrained pavements lifetime by considering the effectiveness of water and drainage coefficient on flexible materials modulus and by using KENLAYER software to compare the present value cost of these pavements has been paid for a 20 year lifetime design. In this study, 14 pavement sections have been considered, of which 7 sections have been drained and 7 other not. Results show that drained pavements have more initial costs but the failure severity is so little in them and have longer lifetime for a 20 year lifetime design, the drained pavements seem so economic.
Keywords: drainage, base and sub-base, elasticity modulus, aggregationProcedia PDF Downloads 259
3552 Application of Remote Sensing Technique on the Monitoring of Mine Eco-Environment
Authors: Haidong Li, Weishou Shen, Guoping Lv, Tao Wang
Abstract:Aiming to overcome the limitation of the application of traditional remote sensing (RS) technique in the mine eco-environmental monitoring, in this paper, we first classified the eco-environmental damages caused by mining activities and then introduced the principle, classification and characteristics of the Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technique. The potentiality of LiDAR technique in the mine eco-environmental monitoring was analyzed, particularly in extracting vertical structure parameters of vegetation, through comparing the feasibility and applicability of traditional RS method and LiDAR technique in monitoring different types of indicators. The application situation of LiDAR technique in extracting typical mine indicators, such as land destruction in mining areas, damage of ecological integrity and natural soil erosion. The result showed that the LiDAR technique has the ability to monitor most of the mine eco-environmental indicators, and exhibited higher accuracy comparing with traditional RS technique, specifically speaking, the applicability of LiDAR technique on each indicator depends on the accuracy requirement of mine eco-environmental monitoring. In the item of large mine, LiDAR three-dimensional point cloud data not only could be used as the complementary data source of optical RS, Airborne/Satellite LiDAR could also fulfill the demand of extracting vertical structure parameters of vegetation in large areas.
Keywords: LiDAR, mine, ecological damage, monitoring, traditional remote sensing techniqueProcedia PDF Downloads 324