Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: serotype distrbution

28 Serotype Distribution and Demographics of Dengue Patients in a Tertiary Hospital of Lahore, Pakistan During the 2011 Epidemic

Authors: Muhammad Munir, Riffat Mehboob, Samina Naeem, Muhammad Salman, Shehryar Ahmed, Irshad Hussain Qureshi, Tahira Murtaza Cheema, Ashraf Sultan, Akmal Laeeq, Nakhshab Choudhry, Asad Aslam Khan, Fridoon Jawad Ahmad

Abstract:

A dengue outbreak in Lahore, Pakistan during 2011 was unprecedented in terms of severity and magnitude. This research aims to determine the serotype distribution of dengue virus during this outbreak and classify the patients demographically. 5ml of venous blood was drawn aseptically from 166 patients with dengue-like signs to test for the virus between the months of August to November 2011. The samples were sent to the CDC, Atlanta, Georgia for the purpose of molecular assays to determine their serotype. RT-PCR protocol was performed targeting at the 4 dengue serotypes. Out of 166 cases, dengue infection was detected with RT-PCR in 95 cases, all infected with same serotype DEN-2. 75% of positive cases were males while 25% were females. Most positive patients were in the age range of 16-30 years. 33% positive cases had accompanying bleeding. This is first study during the 2011 dengue epidemic in Lahore that reports DEN-2 as the only prevalent serotype. It also indicates that more infected patients were males, adults, within age range of 16-30 years, peaked in the month of November, Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is manifested more in females, Ravi town was heavily hit by dengue virus infection.

Keywords: dengue, serotypes, Pakistan, DEN 2, Lahore, demography, serotype distrbution, 2011 epidemic

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27 Evolution of Reported Bluetongue Outbreaks inAlgeria: Epidemiological Situation

Authors: Amel Benatallah, Michel Marie, Faical Ghozlane

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Bluetongue (BT) is a major concern of veterinary services and a real threat to the sheep population. Epidemiological situation of blue tongue has revealed that in 2000, the serotype 2 (BTV2) was isolated and identified. The vector of BTV has affected 10 provinces out of 48 provinces in the country. As a result, 28 outbreaks were reported with 191 cases including 29 deaths. In 2006, the vector of the FCO has still hit Algeria, but this time with another serotype, the BTV 1. The latter was responsible for the resurgence of the disease in 11 provinces (29 outbreaks with 265 reported cases and 36 deaths).The same serotype (BTV1) was isolated and identified in 2008 in two provinces (2 outbreaks with 15 cases revealing 5 deaths) , in 2009 in 5 provinces (19 outbreaks with 78 reported cases and 20 deaths). In addition, 2010 and 2011 saw the resurgence of the same serotype (BTV1) respectively in 9 (46 outbreaks with 131 cases including and 25 deaths) and 7 provinces (16 outbreaks with 63 reported cases and 6 deaths). Serological and entomological surveys were conducted in Algeria during the period from 2000 to 2007 in order to identify the different BTV strains of existing FCO in Algeria in addition to vector Culicoides Imicola and to study the ecology of this vector to limit its movement in the country.

Keywords: blue tongue, serotype, vectors, culicoides imicola, BTV, FCO

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26 Molecular Epidemiology of Circulating Adenovirus Types in Acute Conjunctivitis Cases in Chandigarh, North India

Authors: Mini P. Singh, Jagat Ram, Archit Kumar, Tripti Rungta, Jasmine Khurana, Amit Gupta, R. K. Ratho

Abstract:

Introduction: Human adenovirus is the most common agent involved in viral conjunctivitis. The clinical manifestations vary with different serotypes. The identification of the circulating strains followed by phylogenetic analysis can be helpful in understanding the origin and transmission of the disease. The present study aimed to carry out molecular epidemiology of the adenovirus types in the patients with conjunctivitis presenting to the eye centre of a tertiary care hospital in North India. Materials and Methods: The conjunctival swabs were collected from 23 suspected adenoviral conjunctivitis patients between April-August, 2014 and transported in viral transport media. The samples were subjected to nested PCR targeting hexon gene of human adenovirus. The band size of 956bp was eluted and 8 representative positive samples were subjected to sequencing. The sequences were analyzed by using CLUSTALX2.1 and MEGA 5.1 software. Results: The male: female ratio was found to be 3.6:1. The mean age of presenting patients was 43.95 years (+17.2). Approximately 52.1% (12/23) of patients presented with bilateral involvement while 47.8% (11/23) with unilateral involvement of the eye. Human adenovirus DNA could be detected in 65.2% (15/23) of the patients. The phylogenetic analysis revealed presence of serotype 8 in 7 patients and serotype 4 in one patient. The serotype 8 sequences showed 99-100% identity with Tunisian, Indian and Japanese strains. The adenovirus serotype 4 strains had 100% identity with strains from Tunisia, China and USA. Conclusion: Human adenovirus was found be an important etiological agent for conjunctivitis in our set up. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the predominant circulating strains in our epidemic keratoconjunctivitis were serotypes 8 and 4.

Keywords: conjunctivitis, human adenovirus, molecular epidemiology, phylogenetics

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25 History and Epidemiology of Foot and Mouth Disease in Afghanistan: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Arash Osmani, Ian Robertson, Ihab Habib, Ahmad Aslami

Abstract:

Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is endemic in Afghanistan. A retrospective study of data collected through passive surveillance of outbreaks of FMD from 1995 to 2016 was undertaken. A total of 1471 outbreaks were reported between 1995 and 2008. Of 7776 samples originating from 34 provinces tested between 2009 and 2016 4845 (62.3%) tested positive. The prevalence varied significantly between years (2009 and 2016) (P < 0.001); however, the number of outbreaks did not differ significantly (P = 0.24) between 1995 and 2008. During this period, there was a strong correlation between the number of outbreaks reported and the number of districts with infected animals (r = 0.74, P = 0.002). Serotype O was the predominant serotype detected, although serotypes A and Asia1 were also detected. Cattle were involved in all outbreaks reported. Herat province in the north-west (bordering Iran), Nangarhar province in the east (bordering Pakistan) and Kabul province in the centre of the country had infections detected in all years of the study. The findings from this study provide valuable direction for further research to understand the epidemiology of FMD in Afghanistan.

Keywords: foot and mouth disease, retrospective, epidemiology, Afghanistan

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24 Molecular Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes from Fresh Fish and Fish Products

Authors: Beata Lachtara, Renata Szewczyk, Katarzyna Bielinska, Kinga Wieczorek, Jacek Osek

Abstract:

Listeria monocytogenes is an important human and animal pathogen that causes foodborne outbreaks. The bacteria may be present in different types of food: cheese, raw vegetables, sliced meat products and vacuum-packed sausages, poultry, meat, fish. The most common method, which has been used for the investigation of genetic diversity of L. monocytogenes, is PFGE. This technique is reliable and reproducible and established as gold standard for typing of L. monocytogenes. The aim of the study was characterization by molecular serotyping and PFGE analysis of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from fresh fish and fish products in Poland. A total of 301 samples, including fresh fish (n = 129) and fish products (n = 172) were, collected between January 2014 and March 2016. The bacteria were detected using the ISO 11290-1 standard method. Molecular serotyping was performed with PCR. The isolates were tested with the PFGE method according to the protocol developed by the European Union Reference Laboratory for L. monocytogenes with some modifications. Based on the PFGE profiles, two dendrograms were generated for strains digested separately with two restriction enzymes: AscI and ApaI. Analysis of the fingerprint profiles was performed using Bionumerics software version 6.6 (Applied Maths, Belgium). The 95% of similarity was applied to differentiate the PFGE pulsotypes. The study revealed that 57 of 301 (18.9%) samples were positive for L. monocytogenes. The bacteria were identified in 29 (50.9%) ready-to-eat fish products and in 28 (49.1%) fresh fish. It was found that 40 (70.2%) strains were of serotype 1/2a, 14 (24.6%) 1/2b, two (4.3%) 4b and one (1.8%) 1/2c. Serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b were presented with the same frequency in both categories of food, whereas serotype 1/2c was detected only in fresh fish. The PFGE analysis with AscI demonstrated 43 different pulsotypes; among them 33 (76.7%) were represented by only one strain. The remaining 10 profiles contained more than one isolate. Among them 8 pulsotypes comprised of two L. monocytogenes isolates, one profile of three isolates and one restriction type of 5 strains. In case of ApaI typing, the PFGE analysis showed 27 different pulsotypes including 17 (63.0%) types represented by only one strain. Ten (37.0%) clusters contained more than one strain among which four profiles covered two strains; three had three isolates, one with five strains, one with eight strains and one with ten isolates. It was observed that the isolates assigned to the same PFGE type were usually of the same serotype (1/2a or 1/2b). The majority of the clusters had strains of both sources (fresh fish and fish products) isolated at different time. Most of the strains grouped in one cluster of the AscI restriction was assigned to the same groups in ApaI investigation. In conclusion, PFGE used in the study showed a high genetic diversity among L. monocytogenes. The strains were grouped into varied clonal clusters, which may suggest different sources of contamination. The results demonstrated that 1/2a serotype was the most common among isolates from fresh fish and fish products in Poland.

Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes, molecular characteristic, PFGE, serotyping

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23 Clinical, Demographic and Molecular Characterization of Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika Viruses Causing Hemorrhagic Fever in North India

Authors: Suruchi Shukla, Shantanu Prakash, Amita Jain

Abstract:

Introduction: Arboviral diseases are one of the most common causes of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF). Of which, Dengue and Chikungunya pose a significant health problem in India. Arbovirus has a tendency to cross the territories and emerge in the new region. Considering the above issues, in the current study active surveillance was conducted among viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) cases reported from Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. We studied the arboviral etiology of VHF; mainly Dengue, Chikungunya, and ZIKA. Methods: Clinical samples of 465 suspected VHF cases referred to tertiary care referral center of UP, India were enrolled in the study during a period from 15th May 2016 to 9th March 2018. Serum specimens were collected and analyzed for the presence of Dengue, Chikungunya, and ZIKA either by serology and/or by molecular assays. Results: Of all tested, 165 (35.4%) cases were positive for either Dengue or Chikungunya. Dengue (21.2%) was found to be the most prevalent, followed by Chikungunya, (6.6%). None of the cases tested positive for ZIKA virus. Serum samples of 35 (7.5%) cases were positive for both Dengue and Chikungunya. DEN-2 serotype was the most predominant serotype. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis of DEN-2 strains showed 100% clustering with the Cosmopolitan genotype strain. Bleeding from several sites, jaundice, abdominal pain, arthralgia, haemoconcentration, and thrombocytopenia were significantly higher in dengue hemorrhagic cases. However, the rash was significantly more common in Chikungunya patients. Most of the Dengue and Chikungunya positive cases (Age group 6-40 years) were seen in post monsoon season (September to November). Conclusion: Only one-third of total VHF cases are positive for either Dengue/Chikungunya or both. This necessitates the screening of other etiologies capable of causing hemorrhagic manifestations.

Keywords: viral hemorrhagic fever, dengue, chikungunya, zika, India

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22 Inactivation and Stress Response of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium lt21 upon Cold Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment

Authors: Zoran Herceg, Tomislava Vukušić, Anet Režek Jambrak, Višnja Stulić

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Today one of the greatest challenges are directed to the safety of food supply. If food pathogens are ingested they can cause human illnesses. Because of that new technologies that are effective in microbial reduction are developing to be used in food industries. One of such technology is cold gas phase plasma. Salmonella enterica was studied as one of the pathogenes that can be found in food. The aim of this work was to examine the inactivation rate and stress response of plasma treated cells of Salmonella enterica inoculated in apple juice. After the treatment cellular leakage, phenotypic changes in plasma treated cells-biofilm formation and degree of recovery were conducted. Sample volume was inoculated with 5 mL of pure culture of Salmonella enterica and 15 mL of apple juice. Statgraphics Centurion software (StatPoint Technologies, Inc., VA, USA) was used for experimental design and statistical analyses. Treatment time (1, 3, 5 min) and gas flow (40, 60, 80 L/min) were changed. Complete inactivation and 0 % of recovery after the 48 h was observed at these experimental treatments: 3 min; 40 L/min, 3 min; 80 L/min, 5 min; 40 L/min. Biofilm reduction was observed at all treated samples. Also, there was an increase in cellular leakage with a longer plasma treatment. Although there were a significant reduction and 0 % of recovery after the plasma treatments further investigation of the method is needed to clarify whether there are sensorial, physical and chemical changes in juices after the plasma treatment. Acknowledgments: The authors would like to acknowledge the support by Croatian Science Foundation and research project 'Application of electrical discharge plasma for the preservation of liquid foods'.

Keywords: salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium lt21, gas-phase plasma treatment, inactivation, stress response

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21 Genetic and Phenotypic Variability Among the Vibrio Cholerae O1 Isolates of India

Authors: Sreeja Shaw, Prosenjit Samanta, Asish Kumar Mukhopadhyay

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Cholera is still a global public health burden and is caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 serogroups. Evidence from recent outbreaks in Haiti and Yemen suggested that circulating V. cholerae O1 El Tor variant strains are continuously changing to cause more ruinous outbreaks worldwide, and most of them have emerged from the Indian subcontinents. Therefore, we studied the changing virulence characteristics along with the antibiotic resistance profile of V. cholerae O1strains isolated from seasonal outbreaks in three cholera endemic regions during 2018, Gujarat and Maharashtra in Western India (87 strains), and to compare those features with the isolates of West Bengal in Eastern India (48 strains) collected during the same period. All the strains from Western India were of Ogawa serotype, polymyxin B-sensitive, hemolytic, and contained a large fragment deletion in VSP-II genomic region similar with Yemen outbreak strains and carried more virulent Haitian genetic alleles of major virulence associated genes ctxB, tcpA, and rtxA. Conversely, 14.6% (7/48) of the strains from Eastern India were belong to the Inaba serotype, polymyxin B-resistant, non-hemolytic, harbored intact VSP-II region, classical ctxB, Haitian tcpA, and El Tor rtxA alleles. Interestingly, resistance to tetracycline and chloramphenicol was seen in isolates from both regions, which are not very common among V. cholerae O1 isolates in India. Therefore, this study indicated West Bengal as a diverse region where two different types of El Tor variant hypervirulent strains are co-existed, probably competing for their better environmental survival, which may result in severe irrepressible disease outcome in the future.

Keywords: cholera, vibrio cholerae, polymyxin B, Non-hemolytic, ctxB, tcpA, rtxA, VSP-II

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20 Fecal Prevalence, Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella in Dairy Cattle in Central Ethiopia

Authors: Tadesse Eguale, Ephrem Engdawork, Wondwossen Gebreyes, Dainel Asrat, Hile Alemayehu, John Gunn

Abstract:

Salmonella is one of the major zoonotic pathogens affecting wide range of vertebrates and humans worldwide. Consumption of contaminated dairy products and contact with dairy cattle represent the common sources of non-typhoidal Salmonella infection in humans. Fecal samples were collected from 132 dairy herds in central Ethiopia and cultured for Salmonella to determine the prevalence, serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility. Salmonella was recovered from the feces of at least one cattle in 10(7.6%) of the dairy farms. Out of 1193 fecal samples 30(2.5%) were positive for Salmonella. Large farm size, detection of diarrhea in one or more animals during sampling and keeping animals completely indoor compared to occasional grazing outside were associated with Salmonella positivity of the farms. Farm level prevalence of Salmonella was significantly higher in young animals below 6 months of age compared to other age groups(X2=10.24; p=0.04). Nine different serotypes were isolated. The four most frequently recovered serotypes were S. Typhimurium (23.3%),S. Saintpaul (20%) and S. Kentucky and S. Virchow (16.7%) each. All isolates were resistant or intermediately resistant to at least one of the 18 drugs tested. Twenty-six (86.7%), 20(66.7%), 18(60%), 16(53.3%) of the isolates were resistant to streptomycin, nitrofurantoin, sulfisoxazole and tetracycline respectively. Resistance to 2 drugs was detected in 93.3% of the isolates. Resistance to 3 or more drugs were detected in 21(70%) of the total isolates while multi-drug resistance (MDR) to 7 or more drugs were detected in 12 (40%) of the isolates. The rate of occurrence of MDR in Salmonella strains isolated from dairy farms in Addis Ababa was significantly higher than those isolated from farms outside of Addis Ababa((p= 0.009). The detection of high MDR in Salmonella isolates originating from dairy farms warrants the need for strict pathogen reduction strategy in dairy cattle and spread of these MDR strains to human population.

Keywords: salmonella, antimicrobial resistance, fecal prevalence

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19 Comparative Functional Analysis of Two Major Sterol-Biosynthesis Regulating Transcription Factors, Hob1 and Sre1, in Pathogenic Cryptococcus Species Complex

Authors: Dong-Gi Lee, Suyeon Cha, Yong-Sun Bahn

Abstract:

Sterol lipid is essential for cell membrane structure in eukaryotic cells. In mammalian cells, sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) act as principal regulators of cellular cholesterol which is essential for proper cell membrane fluidity and structure. SREBP and sterol regulation are related to levels of cellular oxygen because it is a major substrate for sterol synthesis. Upon cellular sterol and oxygen levels are depleted, SREBP is translocated to the Golgi where it undergoes proteolytic cleavage of N terminus, then it travels to the nucleus to play a role as transcription factor. In yeast cells, synthesis of ergosterol is also highly oxygen consumptive, and Sre1 is a transcription factor known to play a central role in adaptation to growth under low oxygen condition and sterol homeostasis in Cryptococcus neoformans. In this study, we observed phenotypes in other strains of Cryptococcus species by constructing hob1Δ and sre1Δ mutants to confirm whether the functions of both genes are conserved in most serotypes. As a result, hob1Δ showed no noticeable phenotype under treatment of antifungal drugs and most environmental stresses in R265 (C. gattii) and XL280 (C. neoformans), suggesting that Hob1 is related to sterol regulation only in H99 (serotype A). On the other hand, the function of Sre1 was found to be conserved in most serotypes. Furthermore, mating experiment of hob1Δ or sre1Δ showed dramatic defects in serotype A (H99) and D (XL280). It revealed that Hob1 and Sre1 related to mating ability in Cryptococcus species, especially cell fusion efficiency. In conclusion, HOB1 and SRE1 play crucial role in regulating sterol-homeostasis and differentiation in C. neoformans, moreover, Hob1 is specific gene in Cryptococcus neoformans. It suggests that Hob1 is considered as potent factor-targeted new safety antifungal drug.

Keywords: cryptococcus neoformans, Hob1, Sre1, sterol regulatory element binding proteins

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18 Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of Pasteurella multocida Subspecies multocida Serotype A Strain PMTB2.1

Authors: Shagufta Jabeen, Faez J. Firdaus Abdullah, Zunita Zakaria, Nurulfiza M. Isa, Yung C. Tan, Wai Y. Yee, Abdul R. Omar

Abstract:

Pasteurella multocida (PM) is an important veterinary opportunistic pathogen particularly associated with septicemic pasteurellosis, pneumonic pasteurellosis and hemorrhagic septicemia in cattle and buffaloes. P. multocida serotype A has been reported to cause fatal pneumonia and septicemia. Pasteurella multocida subspecies multocida of serotype A Malaysian isolate PMTB2.1 was first isolated from buffaloes died of septicemia. In this study, the genome of P. multocida strain PMTB2.1 was sequenced using third-generation sequencing technology, PacBio RS2 system and analyzed bioinformatically via de novo analysis followed by in-depth analysis based on comparative genomics. Bioinformatics analysis based on de novo assembly of PacBio raw reads generated 3 contigs followed by gap filling of aligned contigs with PCR sequencing, generated a single contiguous circular chromosome with a genomic size of 2,315,138 bp and a GC content of approximately 40.32% (Accession number CP007205). The PMTB2.1 genome comprised of 2,176 protein-coding sequences, 6 rRNA operons and 56 tRNA and 4 ncRNAs sequences. The comparative genome sequence analysis of PMTB2.1 with nine complete genomes which include Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis, Escherichia coli and five P. multocida complete genome sequences including, PM70, PM36950, PMHN06, PM3480, PMHB01 and PMTB2.1 was carried out based on OrthoMCL analysis and Venn diagram. The analysis showed that 282 CDs (13%) are unique to PMTB2.1and 1,125 CDs with orthologs in all. This reflects overall close relationship of these bacteria and supports the classification in the Gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria. In addition, genomic distance analysis among all nine genomes indicated that PMTB2.1 is closely related with other five Pasteurella species with genomic distance less than 0.13. Synteny analysis shows subtle differences in genetic structures among different P.multocida indicating the dynamics of frequent gene transfer events among different P. multocida strains. However, PM3480 and PM70 exhibited exceptionally large structural variation since they were swine and chicken isolates. Furthermore, genomic structure of PMTB2.1 is more resembling that of PM36950 with a genomic size difference of approximately 34,380 kb (smaller than PM36950) and strain-specific Integrative and Conjugative Elements (ICE) which was found only in PM36950 is absent in PMTB2.1. Meanwhile, two intact prophages sequences of approximately 62 kb were found to be present only in PMTB2.1. One of phage is similar to transposable phage SfMu. The phylogenomic tree was constructed and rooted with E. coli, A. pleuropneumoniae and H. parasuis based on OrthoMCL analysis. The genomes of P. multocida strain PMTB2.1 were clustered with bovine isolates of P. multocida strain PM36950 and PMHB01 and were separated from avian isolate PM70 and swine isolates PM3480 and PMHN06 and are distant from Actinobacillus and Haemophilus. Previous studies based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) unable to show a clear phylogenetic relatedness between Pasteurella multocida and the different host. In conclusion, this study has provided insight on the genomic structure of PMTB2.1 in terms of potential genes that can function as virulence factors for future study in elucidating the mechanisms behind the ability of the bacteria in causing diseases in susceptible animals.

Keywords: comparative genomics, DNA sequencing, phage, phylogenomics

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17 Gene Expression Profiling of Iron-Related Genes of Pasteurella multocida Serotype A Strain PMTB2.1

Authors: Shagufta Jabeen, Faez Jesse Firdaus Abdullah, Zunita Zakaria, Nurulfiza Mat Isa, Yung Chie Tan, Wai Yan Yee, Abdul Rahman Omar

Abstract:

Pasteurella multocida is associated with acute, as well as, chronic infections in avian and bovine such as pasteurellosis and hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) in cattle and buffaloes. Iron is one of the most important nutrients for pathogenic bacteria including Pasteurella and acts as a cofactor or prosthetic group in several essential enzymes and is needed for amino acid, pyrimidine, and DNA biosynthesis. In our recent study, we showed that 2% of Pasteurella multocida serotype A strain PMTB2.1 encode for iron regulating genes (Accession number CP007205.1). Genome sequencing of other Pasteurella multocida serotypes namely PM70 and HB01 also indicated up to 2.5% of the respective genome encode for iron regulating genes, suggesting that Pasteurella multocida genome comprises of multiple systems for iron uptake. Since P. multocida PMTB2.1 has more than 40 CDs out of 2097 CDs (approximately 2%), encode for iron-regulated. The gene expression profiling of four iron-regulating genes namely fbpb, yfea, fece and fur were characterized under iron-restricted environment. The P. multocida strain PMTB2.1 was grown in broth with and without iron chelating agent and samples were collected at different time points. Relative mRNA expression profile of these genes was determined using Taqman probe based real-time PCR assay. The data analysis, normalization with two house-keeping genes and the quantification of fold changes were carried out using Bio-Rad CFX manager software version 3.1. Results of this study reflect that iron reduced environment has significant effect on expression profile of iron regulating genes (p < 0.05) when compared to control (normal broth) and all evaluated genes act differently with response to iron reduction in media. The highest relative fold change of fece gene was observed at early stage of treatment indicating that PMTB2.1 may utilize its periplasmic protein at early stage to acquire iron. Furthermore, down-regulation expression of fece with the elevated expression of other genes at later time points suggests that PMTB2.1 control their iron requirements in response to iron availability by down-regulating the expression of iron proteins. Moreover, significantly high relative fold change (p ≤ 0.05) of fbpb gene is probably associated with the ability of P. multocida to directly use host iron complex such as hem, hemoglobin. In addition, the significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in fbpb and yfea expressions also reflects the utilization of multiple iron systems in P. multocida strain PMTB2.1. The findings of this study are very much important as relative scarcity of free iron within hosts creates a major barrier to microbial growth inside host and utilization of outer-membrane proteins system in iron acquisition probably occurred at early stage of infection with P. multocida. In conclusion, the presence and utilization of multiple iron system in P. multocida strain PMTB2.1 revealed the importance of iron in the survival of P. multocida.

Keywords: iron-related genes, real-time PCR, gene expression profiling, fold changes

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16 Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Salmonella from Retail Dressed Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Wet Markets of Cavite, Philippines

Authors: Chester Joshua V. Saldana, Yolanda A. Ilagan

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This study determines the prevalence of Salmonella from retail dressed chickens using chicken wings as samples in five wet city markets of Cavite, Philippines, compares the prevalence among the markets' samples and determines the serotypes and antibiotic resistance pattern of Salmonella isolates. The overall prevalence of Salmonella in five wet markets in Cavite was 13.33 percent. Samples from Bacoor yielded the highest prevalence rate of 26.6 percent, followed by Imus (23.3%), Dasmarinas (11.6%), Trece Martires (3.3%) and Tagaytay (1.6%). Seven serotypes (serogroups B, C2, C3, D1 and E1) were isolated which include Salmonella weltevreden, S. derby, S. newport, S. albany, S. typhimurium, and S. enteritidis. Salmonella weltevreden was the predominant serotype while S. typhi and S. albany were the least common. Among the 15 antibiotics tested, resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, and cephalexin was exhibited by all the isolates while 5 percent showed resistance to gentamicin, 2.5 percent to streptomycin and 12.5 percent to nitrofurantoin. One isolate was resistant to four antibiotics whereas most isolates of S. enteritidis were resistant to 2 to 5 antibiotics. Four resistance patterns were recorded. This study revealed the emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serotypes from chicken meat in Cavite, Philippines.

Keywords: antibiotics, dressed chickens, resistance patterns, Salmonella serovars

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15 Monitoring of Humoral Immune Response of Monovalent and Combined PPR and FMD Serotype 'O' Virus Vaccines in Goats

Authors: Mudassar Hameed, Khushi Muhammad, Aamir Ghafoor, Masood Rabbani, Momena Habib, Jawad Nazir

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Comparative efficacy of three formulations (non-adjuvant, gel, and oil adjuvant) of monovalent and combined PPR and FMD virus vaccines was evaluated in goats. All kinds of monovalent PPRV vaccines elicited protective antibody titers at one-month post vaccination (PV) that remained so till six months PV. Monovalent non-adjuvant (NA) FMDV vaccine provoked non-protective antibody titers that declined to undetectable levels after three months. In case of combined vaccines, all of the formulations elicited protective antibody titers against PPRV in vaccinated animals which remained above that limit for six months. However, an exceptional immune response against FMDV was observed in combined NA vaccine group where antibody titers were extremely high and remained above protective level till 4 months PV in animals who received a single vaccine shot and till six months PV in booster group. Although, adjuvant or NA combined vaccines can induce protective antibody titers against both of the viruses within one month PV, but a booster vaccine shot is needed to retain protective antibody level for 6 months duration. Immune response elicited by combined vaccines is comparable or superior to the monovalent vaccines. Hence combined vaccine can be effectively used for the control and prevention of both of the diseases.

Keywords: antibody titer, protective, combined vaccine, non adjuvant

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14 Dyeing of Wool and Silk with Soxhlet Water Extracted Natural Dye from Dacryodes macrophylla Fruits and Study of Antimicrobial Properties of Extract

Authors: Alvine Sandrine Ndinchout, D. P. Chattopadhyay, Moundipa Fewou Paul, Nyegue Maximilienne Ascension, Varinder Kaur, Sukhraj Kaur, B. H. Patel

Abstract:

Dacryodes macrophylla is a species of the Burseraceae family that is widespread in Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon. The only part of D. macrophylla known to use is the pulp contained in the fruit. This very juicy pulp is consumed directly and used in making juices. During consumption, these fruit leaves a dark blackish colour on fingers and garment. This observation means that D. macrophylla fruits must be a good source of natural dye with probably good fastness properties on textile materials. But D. macrophylla has not yet been investigated with reference as a potential source of natural dye to our best knowledge. Natural dye has been extracted using water as solvent by soxhlet extraction method. The extracted color was characterized by spectroscopic studies like UV/Visible and further tested for antimicrobial activity against gram-negative (Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, Shigella flexneri) and gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. It was observed that the water extract of D. macrophylla showed antimicrobial activities against S. enterica. The results of fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were fair to good. Taken together, these results indicate that D. macrophylla can be used as natural dye not only in textile but also in other domains like food coloring.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, natural dye, silk, wash fastness, wool

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13 Prevalence and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Dodonaea viscosa Extract and Antibacterial Agents against Salmonella spp. Isolated from Poultry

Authors: Shayma Munqith Al-Baker, Fadhl Ahmed Saeed Al-Gasha’a, Samira Hamid Hanash, Ahmed Ali Al-Hazmi

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A total of 200 samples (180 fecal materials and 20 organ samples) were collected from (5 different poultry farms, 10 local poultry shops, 5 houses poultry, 5 Eggs stores shops and 5 hand slaughters centers) in Ibb city, Yemen, 2014. According to morphological, cultural, as well as biochemical characterization and serological tests, 59 29.5% isolates were identified as Salmonella spp. and all Salmonella isolates were categorized by serotype, which comprised of, 37 62.71% Salmonella Typhimurium serovar, 21 35.59%. Salmonella Enteritidis serovar and 11.69% Salmonella Heidelberg serovar. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done for bacterial isolates and the results showed there were clear differences in antibiotic resistant. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates varies as follows: Ofloxacin 79.66%, Ciprofloxacin 67.80%, Colistin 59.32% and Gentamycin 52.54%. All of isolates were resistant to Erythromycin, Penicillin and Lincomycin. Antibacterial activity was done for both aqueous and ethanol extracts of Dodonaea viscosa plant by using well and disc diffusion assay. The results indicated that well diffusion assay had best results than disc diffusion assay, the highest inhibition zone was 22 mm for well diffusion and 15 mm for disc diffusion assay, the results observed that ethanol extract had best antibacterial effect than aqueous extract which the percentage of bacterial isolates affected with ethanol extract was 71.19% comparing with aqueous extract 28.81% by using disc diffusion assay, while the percentage of bacterial isolates affected with ethanol extract was 88.13% comparing with aqueous extract 52.54% by using will diffusion assay.

Keywords: Salmonella spp, Dodonaea viscosa, antimicrobial and salmonellosis

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12 Botulism Clinical Experience and Update

Authors: Kevin Yeo, Christine Hall, Babinchak Tim

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BAT® [Botulism Antitoxin Heptavalent (A,B,C,D,E,F,G)-(Equine)] anti-toxin is a mixture of equine immune globulin fragments indicated for the treatment of symptomatic botulism in adult and pediatric patients. The effectiveness of BAT anti-toxin is based on efficacy studies conducted in animal models. A general explanation of the pivotal animal studies, post market surveillance and outcomes of an observational patient registry for patients treated with BAT product distributed in the USA is briefly discussed. Overall it took 20 animal studies for two well-designed and appropriately powered pivotal efficacy studies – one in which the effectiveness of BAT was assessed against all 7 serotypes in the guinea pig, and the other where efficacy is confirmed in the Rhesus macaque using Serotype A. Clinical Experience for BAT to date involves approximately 600 adult and pediatric patients with suspected botulism. In pre-licensure, patient data was recorded under the US CDC expanded access program (259 adult and pediatric patients between 10 days to 88 years of age). In post licensure, greater than 350 patients to date have received BAT and been followed up by enhanced expanded access program. The analysis of the post market surveillance data provided a unique opportunity to demonstrate clinical benefit in the field study required by the animal rule. While the animal rule is applied because human efficacy studies are not ethical or feasible, a post-marketing requirement is to conduct a study to evaluate safety and clinical benefit when circumstances arise and demonstrate the favourable benefit-risk profile that supported licensure.

Keywords: botulism, threat, clinical benefit, observational patient registry

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11 Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Children under 5 Years of Age before Introduction of Pneumococcal Vaccine (PCV 10) in Urban and Rural Sindh

Authors: Muhammad Imran Nisar, Fyezah Jehan, Tauseef Akhund, Sadia Shakoor, Kanwal Nayani, Furqan Kabir, Asad Ali, Anita Zaidi

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Pneumococcal Vaccine -10 (PCV 10) was included in the Expanded Program of immunization (EPI) in Sindh, Pakistan in February 2013. This study was carried out immediately before the introduction of PCV 10 to establish baseline pneumococcal carriage and prevalent serotypes in naso-pharynx of children 3-11 months of age in an urban and rural community in Sindh, Pakistan. An additional sample of children aged 12 to 59 months was drawn from the urban community. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from a random sample of children. Samples were processed in a central laboratory in Karachi. Pneumococci were cultured on 5% Sheep Blood Agar and serotyping was performed using CDC standardized sequential multiplex PCR assay on bacterial colonies. Serotypes were then categorized into vaccine (PCV-10 and PCV-13) type and non-vaccine types. A total of 670 children were enrolled. Carriage rate for pneumococcus based on culture positivity was 74% and 79.5 % in the infant group in Karachi and Matiari respectively. Carriage rate was 78.2% for children aged 12 to 59 months in Karachi. Proportion of PCV 10 serotypes in infants was 38.8% and 33.5% in Karachi and Matiari respectively. In the older age group in Karachi, the proportion was 30.6%. Most common serotypes were 6A, 6B, 23F, 19A and 18C. This survey establishes vaccine and non-vaccine serotype carriage rate in a vaccine-naïve pediatric population among rural and urban communities in Sindh province. Annually planned surveys in the same communities will inform change in carriage rate after the introduction and uptake of PCV 10 in these communities.

Keywords: Naso-Pharyngeal carriage, Pakistan, PCV10, Pneumococcus

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10 Prevalence and Distribution of Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (Vtec) Non-O157 Serotypes in Cattle in Abuja, Nigeria

Authors: S. I. Enem, S. I. Oboegbulem

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Objective: The most frequently implicated E. coli serotype causing haemorrhagic colitis and haemorrhagic uraemic syndrome (HUS) is VTEC 0157. However, non-O157 VTEC is now known to be as prevalent as VETC O157 infection (or even more) in most parts of the world. The objective of the study was to establish the occurrence of non-O157 VTEC serotypes in cattle in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria. The level of significance of the infection with sex, age and season were also tested. Methods: The study was carried out in the FCT, Abuja, Nigeria which is located between latitude 8o and 90 25` North of the equator and longitude 60 45` and 7045` East of the Greenwich meridian. The cross sectional epidemiological method and multi-staged sampling technique were used in this study. Samples were collected from the freshly voided faeces of both apparently healthy and diarrhoeic cattle in selected abattoirs and cattle herds. Enriched samples were analyzed bacteriologically and biochemically after which they were characterised using commercially prepared latex agglutination test kits. Results: A total of 718 faecal samples from cattle were analyzed for the presence of VTEC non-O157. Thirty eight (5.23%) were positive for non-O157. There was no significant association (p > 0.05) between sex and infection with non-O157 VTEC in cattle. There was a significant association (P < 0.05) between age and infection with non-O157 VTEC in cattle. Calves were more associated than the adults. There was also a significant association (P < 0.05) between season and infection with non-O157 VTEC in cattle. The dry season was more associated than the wet season. Conclusion: The study established the occurrence and prevalence of non-O157 VTEC in cattle in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria. As a major food animal in Nigeria, infection in cattle provides an epidemiological causal association to the infection in humans. The result showed that warmer seasons (dry season) stimulate the presence of VTEC infection in animals and thus, as a consequence, increases the number of human cases. The prevalence was also higher in younger calves (< 6 months) probably as a result of undeveloped immune system.

Keywords: prevalence, distribution, Verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli (VTEC), non-O157 serotypes, cattle

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9 Probiotic Potential and Antimicrobial Activity of Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Chicken Caecal and Fecal Samples

Authors: Salma H. Abu Hafsa, A. Mendonca, B. Brehm-Stecher, A. A. Hassan, S. A. Ibrahim

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Enterococci are important inhabitants of the animal intestine and are widely used in probiotic products. A probiotic strain is expected to possess several desirable properties in order to exert beneficial effects. Therefore, the objective of this study was to isolate and characterize strains of Enterococcus sp. from chicken cecal and fecal samples to determine potential probiotic properties. Enterococci were isolated from thirty one chicken cecal and fecal samples collected from a local farm. In vitro studies were performed to assess antibacterial activity (using agar well diffusion and cell free supernatant broth technique against Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis), susceptibility to antibiotics (amoxycillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid), survival in acidic conditions, resistance to bile salts, and their survival during simulated gastric juice conditions at pH 2.5. Isolates were identified using biochemical and molecular assays (API 50 CHL, and API ZYM kits followed by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis). Two strains were identified, of which, Enteroccocus faecium was capable of inhibiting the growth of S. enteritidis and was susceptible to a wide range of antibiotics. In addition, the isolated strain exhibited significant resistance under highly acidic conditions (pH=2.5) for 8 hours and survived well in bile salt at 0.2% for 24 hours and showing ability to survive in the presence of simulated gastric juice at pH 2.5. Based on these results, the E. faecium isolate fulfills some of the criteria to be considered as a probiotic strain and therefore, could be used as a feed additive with good potential for controlling S. enteritidis in chickens. However, in vivo studies are needed to determine the safety of the strain.

Keywords: acid tolerance, antimicrobial activity, Enterococcus faecium, probiotic

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8 Attenuation of Endotoxin Induced Hepatotoxicity by Dexamethasone, Melatonin and Pentoxifylline in White Albino Mice: A Comparative Study

Authors: Ammara Khan

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Sepsis is characterized by an overwhelming surge of cytokines and oxidative stress to one of many factors, gram-negative bacteria commonly implicated. Despite major expansion and elaboration of sepsis pathophysiology and therapeutic approach; death rate remains very high in septic patients due to multiple organ damages including hepatotoxicity.The present study was aimed to ascertain the adequacy of three different drugs delivered separately and collectively- low dose steroid-dexamethasone (3mg/kg i.p) ,antioxidant-melatonin(10 mg/kg i.p) ,and phosphodiesterases inhibitor - pentoxifylline (75 mg/kg i.p)in endotoxin-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Endotoxin/lipopolysaccharides induced hepatotoxicity was reproduced in mice by giving lipopolysaccharide of serotype E.Coli intraperitoneally. The preventive role was questioned by giving the experimental agent half an hour prior to LPS injection whereas the therapeutic potential of the experimental agent was searched out via post-LPS delivering. The extent of liver damage was adjudged via serum alanine aminotransferases (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) estimation along with a histopathological examination of liver tissue. Dexamethasone is given before (Group 3) and after LPS (group 4) significantly attenuated LPS generated liver injury.Pentoxifylline generated similar results and serum ALT; AST histological alteration abated considerably (p≤ 0.05) both in animals subjected to pentoxifylline pre (Group 5) and post-treatment(Group 6). Melatonin was also prosperous in aversion (Group 7) and curation (Group 8) of LPS invoked hepatotoxicity as evident by lessening of augmented ALT (≤0.01) and AST (≤0.01) along with restoration of pathological changes in liver sections (p≤0.05). Combination therapies with dexamethasone in conjunction with melatonin (Group 9), dexamethasone together with pentoxifylline (Group 10), and pentoxifylline along with melatonin (Group 11) after LPS administration tapered LPS evoked hepatic dysfunction statistically considerably. In conclusion, both melatonin and pentoxifylline set up promising results in endotoxin-induced hepatotoxicity and can be used therapeutic adjuncts to conventional treatment strategies in sepsis-induced liver failure.

Keywords: endotoxin/lipopolysacchride, dexamethasone, hepatotoxicity, melatonin, pentoxifylline

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7 Health Outcomes from Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella in High-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Andrea Parisi, Samantha Vilkins, Luis Furuya-Kanamori, John A. Crump, Benjamin P. Howden, Darren Gray, Kathryn Glass, Martyn Kirk

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Objectives: Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne enterocolitis worldwide. Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections that are Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) (non-susceptible to ≥1 agent in ≥3 antimicrobial categories) may result in more severe outcomes, although these effects have not been systematically examined. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine impacts of MDR NTS on health in high-income settings. Methods: We systematically reviewed the literature from scientific databases, including PubMed, Scopus and grey literature sources, using PRISMA guidelines. We searched for data from case-control studies, cohorts, outbreaks, reports and theses, imposing no language restriction. We included only publications from January 1990 to September 2016 from high income countries as classified by World Bank. We extracted data from papers on duration of illness, hospitalisation rates, morbidity and mortality for MDR and non-MDR NTS strains. Results: After removing duplicates, the initial search revealed 4258 articles. After further screening, we identified 16 eligible studies for the systematic review, and 9 of these were included in meta-analysis. NTS serotypes differed among the reported studies but serotype Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Newport and Heidelberg were among the most often reported as MDR pathogens. Salmonella infections that were MDR were associated with excess bloodstream infections (OR 1.63; 95%CI 1.18-2.26), excess hospitalisations (OR 2.77; 95%CI 1.47-5.21) and higher mortality (OR 3.54; 95%CI 1.10-11.40). Conclusions: MDR NTS infections are a serious public health concern. With the emergence of MDR Salmonella strains in the high-income countries, it is crucial to restrict the use of antimicrobials both in animals and humans, and intervene to prevent foodborne infections.

Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance, Bloodstream Infection, Health Outcomes, Hospitalisation, Invasive Disease, Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR), Mortality, Nontyphoidal Salmonella

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6 Protection and Immune Responses of DNA Vaccines Targeting Virulence Factors of Streptococcus iniae in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Authors: Pattanapon Kayansamruaj, Ha Thanh Dong, Nopadon Pirarat, Channarong Rodkhum

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Streptococcus iniae (SI) is a devastating pathogenic bacteria causing heavy mortality in farmed fish. The application of commercialized bacterin vaccine has been reported failures as the outbreaks of the new serotype of SI were emerged in farms after vaccination and subsequently caused severe losses. In the present study, we attempted to develop effective DNA vaccines against SI infection using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as an animal model. Two monovalent DNA vaccines were constructed by the insertion of coding sequences of cell wall-associated virulence factors-encoding genes, comprised of eno (α-enolase) and mtsB (hydrophobic membrane protein), into cytomegalovirus expression vector (pCI-neo). In the animal trial, 30-g Nile tilapia were injected intramuscularly with 15 µg of each vaccine (mock vaccine group was injected by naked pCI-neo) and maintained for 35 days prior challenging with pathogenic SI at the dosage of 107 CFU/fish. At 13 days post-challenge, the relative percent survival of pEno, pMtsB and mock vaccine were 57%, 45% and 27%, respectively. The expression levels of immune responses-associated genes, namely, IL1β, TNF-α, TGF-β, COX2, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-13, were investigated from the spleen of experimental animal at 7 days post-vaccination (PV) and 7 days post-challenge (PC) using quantitative RT-PCR technique. Generally, at 7 days PV, the pEno vaccinated group exhibited highest level of up-regulation (1.7 to 2.9 folds) of every gene, but TGF-β, comparing to pMtsB and mock vaccine groups. However, at 7 days PC, pEno group showed significant up-regulation (1.4 to 8.5 folds) of immune-related genes as similar as mock vaccine group, while pMtsB group had lowest level of up-regulation (0.7 to 3.3 folds). Summarily, this study indicated that the pEno and pMtsB vaccines could elicit the immune responses of the fish and the magnitude of gene expression at 7 days PV was also consistent with the protection level conferred by the vaccine.

Keywords: gene expression, DNA vaccine, Nile tilapia, Streptococcus iniae

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5 Clinical Risk Score for Mortality and Predictors of Severe Disease in Adult Patients with Dengue

Authors: Siddharth Jain, Abhenil Mittal, Surendra Kumar Sharma

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Background: With its recent emergence and re-emergence, dengue has become a major international public health concern, imposing significant financial burden especially in developing countries. Despite aggressive control measures in place, India experienced one of its largest outbreaks in 2015 with Delhi being most severely affected. There is a lack of reliable predictors of disease severity and mortality in dengue. The present study was carried out to identify these predictors during the 2015 outbreak. Methods: This prospective observational study conducted at an apex tertiary care center in Delhi, India included confirmed adult dengue patients admitted between August-November 2015. Patient demographics, clinical details, and laboratory findings were recorded in a predesigned proforma. Appropriate statistical tests were used to summarize and compare the clinical and laboratory characteristics and derive predictors of mortality and severe disease, while developing a clinical risk score for mortality. Serotype analysis was also done for 75 representative samples to identify the dominant serotypes. Results: Data of 369 patients were analyzed (mean age 30.9 years; 67% males). Of these, 198 (54%) patients had dengue fever, 125 (34%) had dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF Grade 1,2)and 46 (12%) developed dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Twenty two (6%) patients died. Late presentation to the hospital (≥5 days after onset) and dyspnoea at rest were identified as independent predictors of severe disease. Age ≥ 24 years, dyspnoea at rest and altered sensorium were identified as independent predictors of mortality. A clinical risk score was developed (12*age + 14*sensorium + 10*dyspnoea) which, if ≥ 22, predicted mortality with a high sensitivity (81.8%) and specificity (79.2%). The predominant serotypes in Delhi (2015) were DENV-2 and DENV-4. Conclusion: Age ≥ 24 years, dyspnoea at rest and altered sensorium were identified as independent predictors of mortality. Platelet counts did not determine the outcome in dengue patients. Timely referral/access to health care is important. Development and use of validated predictors of disease severity and simple clinical risk scores, which can be applied in all healthcare settings, can help minimize mortality and morbidity, especially in resource limited settings.

Keywords: dengue, mortality, predictors, severity

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4 Morphological and Molecular Evaluation of Dengue Virus Serotype 3 Infection in BALB/c Mice Lungs

Authors: Gabriela C. Caldas, Fernanda C. Jacome, Arthur da C. Rasinhas, Ortrud M. Barth, Flavia B. dos Santos, Priscila C. G. Nunes, Yuli R. M. de Souza, Pedro Paulo de A. Manso, Marcelo P. Machado, Debora F. Barreto-Vieira

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The establishment of animal models for studies of DENV infections has been challenging, since circulating epidemic viruses do not naturally infect nonhuman species. Such studies are of great relevance to the various areas of dengue research, including immunopathogenesis, drug development and vaccines. In this scenario, the main objective of this study is to verify possible morphological changes, as well as the presence of antigens and viral RNA in lung samples from BALB/c mice experimentally infected with an epidemic and non-neuroadapted DENV-3 strain. Male BALB/c mice, 2 months old, were inoculated with DENV-3 by intravenous route. After 72 hours of infection, the animals were euthanized and the lungs were collected. Part of the samples was processed by standard technique for analysis by light and transmission electronic microscopies and another part was processed for real-time PCR analysis. Morphological analyzes of lungs from uninfected mice showed preserved tissue areas. In mice infected with DENV-3, the analyzes revealed interalveolar septum thickening with presence of inflammatory infiltrate, foci of alveolar atelectasis and hyperventilation, bleeding foci in the interalveolar septum and bronchioles, peripheral capillary congestion, accumulation of fluid in the blood capillary, signs of interstitial cell necrosis presence of platelets and mononuclear inflammatory cells circulating in the capillaries and/or adhered to the endothelium. In addition, activation of endothelial cells, platelets, mononuclear inflammatory cell and neutrophil-type polymorphonuclear inflammatory cell evidenced by the emission of cytoplasmic membrane prolongation was observed. DEN-like particles were seen in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells. The viral genome was recovered from 3 in 12 lung samples. These results demonstrate that the BALB / c mouse represents a suitable model for the study of the histopathological changes induced by DENV infection in the lung, with tissue alterations similar to those observed in human cases of DEN.

Keywords: BALB/c mice, dengue, histopathology, lung, ultrastructure

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3 Salmonella Emerging Serotypes in Northwestern Italy: Genetic Characterization by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

Authors: Clara Tramuta, Floris Irene, Daniela Manila Bianchi, Monica Pitti, Giulia Federica Cazzaniga, Lucia Decastelli

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This work presents the results obtained by the Regional Reference Centre for Salmonella Typing (CeRTiS) in a retrospective study aimed to investigate, through Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, the genetic relatedness of emerging Salmonella serotypes of human origin circulating in North-West of Italy. Furthermore, the goal of this work was to create a Regional database to facilitate foodborne outbreak investigation and to monitor them at an earlier stage. A total of 112 strains, isolated from 2016 to 2018 in hospital laboratories, were included in this study. The isolates were previously identified as Salmonella according to standard microbiological techniques and serotyping was performed according to ISO 6579-3 and the Kaufmann-White scheme using O and H antisera (Statens Serum Institut®). All strains were characterized by PFGE: analysis was conducted according to a standardized PulseNet protocol. The restriction enzyme XbaI was used to generate several distinguishable genomic fragments on the agarose gel. PFGE was performed on a CHEF Mapper system, separating large fragments and generating comparable genetic patterns. The agarose gel was then stained with GelRed® and photographed under ultraviolet transillumination. The PFGE patterns obtained from the 112 strains were compared using Bionumerics version 7.6 software with the Dice coefficient with 2% band tolerance and 2% optimization. For each serotype, the data obtained with the PFGE were compared according to the geographical origin and the year in which they were isolated. Salmonella strains were identified as follow: S. Derby n. 34; S. Infantis n. 38; S. Napoli n. 40. All the isolates had appreciable restricted digestion patterns ranging from approximately 40 to 1100 kb. In general, a fairly heterogeneous distribution of pulsotypes has emerged in the different provinces. Cluster analysis indicated high genetic similarity (≥ 83%) among strains of S. Derby (n. 30; 88%), S. Infantis (n. 36; 95%) and S. Napoli (n. 38; 95%) circulating in north-western Italy. The study underlines the genomic similarities shared by the emerging Salmonella strains in Northwest Italy and allowed to create a database to detect outbreaks in an early stage. Therefore, the results confirmed that PFGE is a powerful and discriminatory tool to investigate the genetic relationships among strains in order to monitoring and control Salmonellosis outbreak spread. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) still represents one of the most suitable approaches to characterize strains, in particular for the laboratories for which NGS techniques are not available.

Keywords: emerging Salmonella serotypes, genetic characterization, human strains, PFGE

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2 Evolution of Antimicrobial Resistance in Shigella since the Turn of 21st Century, India

Authors: Neelam Taneja, Abhishek Mewara, Ajay Kumar

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Multidrug resistant shigellae have emerged as a therapeutic challenge in India. At our 2000 bed tertiary care referral centre in Chandigarh, North India, which caters to a large population of 7 neighboring states, antibiotic resistance in Shigella is being constantly monitored. Shigellae are isolated from 3 to 5% of all stool samples. In 1990 nalidixic acid was the drug of choice as 82%, and 63% of shigellae were resistant to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole respectively. Nalidixic acid resistance emerged in 1992 and rapidly increased from 6% during 1994-98 to 86% by the turn of 21st century. In the 1990s, the WHO recommended ciprofloxacin as the drug of choice for empiric treatment of shigellosis in view of the existing high level resistance to agents like chloramphenicol, ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and nalidixic acid. First resistance to ciprofloxacin in S. flexneri at our centre appeared in 2000 and rapidly rose to 46% in 2007 (MIC>4mg/L). In between we had an outbreak of ciprofloxacin resistant S.dysenteriae serotype 1 in 2003. Therapeutic failures with ciprofloxacin occurred with both ciprofloxacin-resistant S. dysenteriae and ciprofloxacin-resistant S. flexneri. The severity of illness was more with ciprofloxacin-resistant strains. Till 2000, elsewhere in the world ciprofloxacin resistance in S. flexneri was sporadic and uncommon, though resistance to co-trimoxazole and ampicillin was common and in some areas resistance to nalidixic acid had also emerged. Fluoroquinolones due to extensive use and misuse for many other illnesses in our region are thus no longer the preferred group of drugs for managing shigellosis in India. WHO presently recommends ceftriaxone and azithromycin as alternative drugs to fluoroquinolone-resistant shigellae, however, overreliance on this group of drugs also seems to soon become questionable considering the emerging cephalosporin-resistant shigellae. We found 15.1% of S. flexneri isolates collected over a period of 9 years (2000-2009) resistant to at least one of the third-generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone/cefotaxime). The first isolate showing ceftriaxone resistance was obtained in 2001, and we have observed an increase in number of isolates resistant to third generation cephalosporins in S. flexneri 2005 onwards. This situation has now become a therapeutic challenge in our region. The MIC values for Shigella isolates revealed a worrisome rise for ceftriaxone (MIC90:12 mg/L) and cefepime (MIC90:8 mg/L). MIC values for S. dysenteriae remained below 1 mg/L for ceftriaxone, however for cefepime, the MIC90 has raised to 4 mg/L. These infections caused by ceftriaxone-resistant S. flexneri isolates were successfully treated by azithromycin at our center. Most worrisome development in the present has been the emergence of DSA(Decreased susceptibility to azithromycin) which surfaced in 2001 and has increased from 4.3% till 2011 to 34% thereafter. We suspect plasmid-mediated resistance as we detected qnrS1-positive Shigella for the first time from the Indian subcontinent in 2 strains from 2010, indicating a relatively new appearance of this PMQR determinant among Shigella in India. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country. The prevention of shigellosis by developing cost-effective vaccines is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country

Keywords: Shigella, antimicrobial, resistance, India

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1 Development of Peptide Inhibitors against Dengue Virus Infection by in Silico Design

Authors: Aussara Panya, Nunghathai Sawasdee, Mutita Junking, Chatchawan Srisawat, Kiattawee Choowongkomon, Pa-Thai Yenchitsomanus

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Dengue virus (DENV) infection is a global public health problem with approximately 100 million infected cases a year. Presently, there is no approved vaccine or effective drug available; therefore, the development of anti-DENV drug is urgently needed. The clinical reports revealing the positive association between the disease severity and viral titer has been reported previously suggesting that the anti-DENV drug therapy can possibly ameliorate the disease severity. Although several anti-DENV agents showed inhibitory activities against DENV infection, to date none of them accomplishes clinical use in the patients. The surface envelope (E) protein of DENV is critical for the viral entry step, which includes attachment and membrane fusion; thus, the blocking of envelope protein is an attractive strategy for anti-DENV drug development. To search the safe anti-DENV agent, this study aimed to search for novel peptide inhibitors to counter DENV infection through the targeting of E protein using a structure-based in silico design. Two selected strategies has been used including to identify the peptide inhibitor which interfere the membrane fusion process whereby the hydrophobic pocket on the E protein was the target, the destabilization of virion structure organization through the disruption of the interaction between the envelope and membrane proteins, respectively. The molecular docking technique has been used in the first strategy to search for the peptide inhibitors that specifically bind to the hydrophobic pocket. The second strategy, the peptide inhibitor has been designed to mimic the ectodomain portion of membrane protein to disrupt the protein-protein interaction. The designed peptides were tested for the effects on cell viability to measure the toxic to peptide to the cells and their inhibitory assay to inhibit the DENV infection in Vero cells. Furthermore, their antiviral effects on viral replication, intracellular protein level and viral production have been observed by using the qPCR, cell-based flavivirus immunodetection and immunofluorescence assay. None of tested peptides showed the significant effect on cell viability. The small peptide inhibitors achieved from molecular docking, Glu-Phe (EF), effectively inhibited DENV infection in cell culture system. Its most potential effect was observed for DENV2 with a half maximal inhibition concentration (IC50) of 96 μM, but it partially inhibited other serotypes. Treatment of EF at 200 µM on infected cells also significantly reduced the viral genome and protein to 83.47% and 84.15%, respectively, corresponding to the reduction of infected cell numbers. An additional approach was carried out by using peptide mimicking membrane (M) protein, namely MLH40. Treatment of MLH40 caused the reduction of foci formation in four individual DENV serotype (DENV1-4) with IC50 of 24-31 μM. Further characterization suggested that the MLH40 specifically blocked viral attachment to host membrane, and treatment with 100 μM could diminish 80% of viral attachment. In summary, targeting the hydrophobic pocket and M-binding site on the E protein by using the peptide inhibitors could inhibit DENV infection. The results provide proof of-concept for the development of antiviral therapeutic peptide inhibitors to counter DENV infection through the use of a structure-based design targeting conserved viral protein.

Keywords: dengue virus, dengue virus infection, drug design, peptide inhibitor

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