Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Shadi Asadzandi

17 Scientometrics Analysis of Food Supply Chain Risk Assessment Literature: Based On Web of Science Record 1996-2014

Authors: Mohsen Shirani, Shadi Asadzandi, Micaela Demichela


This paper presents the results of a study to assess crucial aspects and the strength of the scientific basis of a typically interdisciplinary, applied field: food supply chain risk assessment research. Our approach is based on an advanced scientometrics analysis with novel elements to assess the influence and dissemination of research results and to measure interdisciplinary. This paper aims to describe the quantity and quality of the publication trends in food supply chain risk assessment. The population under study was composed of 266 articles from database web of science. The results were analyzed based on date of publication, type of document, language of the documents, source of publications, subject areas, authors and their affiliations, and the countries involved in developing the articles.

Keywords: food supply chain, risk assessment, scientometrics, web of science

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16 Static Relaxation of Glass Fiber Reinforced Pipes

Authors: Mohammed Y. Abdellah, Mohamed K. Hassan, A. F. Mohamed, Shadi M. Munshi, A. M. Hashem


Pips made from glass fiber reinforced polymer has competitive role in petroleum industry. The need of evaluating the mechanical behavior of (GRP) pipes is essential objects. Stress relaxation illustrates how polymers relieve stress under constant strain. Static relaxation test is carried out at room temperature. The material gives poor static relaxation strength, two loading cycles have been observed for the tested specimen.

Keywords: GRP, sandwich composite material, static relaxation, stress relief

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15 Mutual Authentication for Sensor-to-Sensor Communications in IoT Infrastructure

Authors: Shadi Janbabaei, Hossein Gharaee Garakani, Naser Mohammadzadeh


Internet of things is a new concept that its emergence has caused ubiquity of sensors in human life, so that at any time, all data are collected, processed and transmitted by these sensors. In order to establish a secure connection, the first challenge is authentication between sensors. However, this challenge also requires some features so that the authentication is done properly. Anonymity, untraceability, and being lightweight are among the issues that need to be considered. In this paper, we have evaluated the authentication protocols and have analyzed the security vulnerabilities found in them. Then an improved light weight authentication protocol for sensor-to-sensor communications is presented which uses the hash function and logical operators. The analysis of protocol shows that security requirements have been met and the protocol is resistant against various attacks. In the end, by decreasing the number of computational cost functions, it is argued that the protocol is lighter than before.

Keywords: anonymity, authentication, Internet of Things, lightweight, un-traceability

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14 Probabilistic Analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Infinite Slopes

Authors: Assile Abou Diab, Shadi Najjar


Fiber-reinforcement is an effective soil improvement technique for applications involving the prevention of shallow failures on the slope face and the repair of existing slope failures. A typical application is the stabilization of cohesionless infinite slopes. The objective of this paper is to present a probabilistic, reliability-based methodology (based on Monte Carlo simulations) for the design of a practical fiber-reinforced cohesionless infinite slope, taking into consideration the impact of various sources of uncertainty. Recommendations are made regarding the required factors of safety that need to be used to achieve a given target reliability level. These factors of safety could differ from the traditional deterministic factor of safety.

Keywords: factor of safety, fiber reinforcement, infinite slope, reliability-based design, uncertainty

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13 A Comparative Analysis of Green Buildings Rating Systems

Authors: Shadi Motamedighazvini, Roohollah Taherkhani, Mahdi Mahdikhani, Najme Hashempour


Nowadays, green building rating systems are an inevitable necessity for managing environmental considerations to achieve green buildings. The aim of this paper is to deliver a detailed recognition of what has been the focus of green building policymakers around the world; It is important to conduct this study in a way that can provide a context for researchers who intend to establish or upgrade existing rating systems. In this paper, fifteen rating systems including four worldwide well-known plus eleven local rating systems which have been selected based on the answers to the questionnaires were examined. Their similarities and differences in mandatory and prerequisite clauses, highest and lowest scores for each criterion, the most frequent criteria, and most frequent sub-criteria are determined. The research findings indicated that although the criteria of energy, water, indoor quality (except Homestar), site and materials (except GRIHA) were common core criteria for all rating systems, their sub-criteria were different. This research, as a roadmap, eliminates the lack of a comprehensive reference that encompasses the key criteria of different rating systems. It shows the local systems need to be revised to be more comprehensive and adaptable to their own country’s conditions such as climate.

Keywords: environmental assessment, green buildings, green building criteria, green building rating systems, sustainability, rating tools

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12 Organisational Effectiveness and Its Implications for Seaports

Authors: Shadi Alghaffari, Hong-Oanh Nguyen, Peggy Chen, Hossein Enshaei


The main purpose of this study was to explore the role of organisational effectiveness (OE) in seaports. OE is an important managerial concept, one that is necessary for leaders and directors in any organisation to understand the output of their work. OE has been applied in many organisations; however, it is a vital concept in the port business. This paper examines various approaches and applications of the OE concept to business management, and describes benefits that are important and applicable to seaport management. This research reviews and classifies articles published in relevant journals and books between 1950 and 2016; from the general literature on OE to the narrower field of OE in seaports. Based on the extensive literature review, this study identifies and discusses several issues relevant to both practices and theories of this concept. The review concludes by presenting a gap in the literature, as it found only a limited amount of research that endeavours to clarify OE in the seaport sector. As a result of this gap, seaports suffer from a lack of empirical study and are largely neglected in this subject area. The implementation of OE in this research has led to the maritime sector interfacing with different disciplines in order to acquire the advantage of enhancing managerial knowledge and competing successfully in the international marketplace.

Keywords: literature review, maritime, organisational effectiveness, seaport management

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11 Degree of Bending in Axially Loaded Tubular KT-Joints of Offshore Structures: Parametric Study and Formulation

Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Shadi Asoodeh


The fatigue life of tubular joints commonly found in offshore industry is not only dependent on the value of hot-spot stress (HSS), but is also significantly influenced by the through-the-thickness stress distribution characterized by the degree of bending (DoB). The determination of DoB values in a tubular joint is essential for improving the accuracy of fatigue life estimation using the stress-life (S–N) method and particularly for predicting the fatigue crack growth based on the fracture mechanics (FM) approach. In the present paper, data extracted from finite element (FE) analyses of tubular KT-joints, verified against experimental data and parametric equations, was used to investigate the effects of geometrical parameters on DoB values at the crown 0˚, saddle, and crown 180˚ positions along the weld toe of central brace in tubular KT-joints subjected to axial loading. Parametric study was followed by a set of nonlinear regression analyses to derive DoB parametric formulas for the fatigue analysis of KT-joints under axial loads. The tubular KT-joint is a quite common joint type found in steel offshore structures. However, despite the crucial role of the DoB in evaluating the fatigue performance of tubular joints, this paper is the first attempt to study and formulate the DoB values in KT-joints.

Keywords: tubular KT-joint, fatigue, degree of bending (DoB), axial loading, parametric formula

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10 Effects of Continuous and Periodic Aerobic Exercises on C Reactive Protein in Overweight Women

Authors: Maesoomeh Khorshidi Mehr, Mohammad Sajadian, Shadi Alipour


The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of eight weeks of continuous and periodic aerobic exercises on serum levels of CRP in overweight woman. 36 woman aged between 20 and 35 years from the city of Ahwaz were randomly selected as the sample of the study. This sample was further divided into three groups (n= 12) of continuous aerobic exercise, periodic aerobic exercise, and control. Subjects of the groups of continuous and periodic aerobic exercise participated in 8 weeks of specialized exercises while the control group subjects did not take part in any regular physical activity program. Blood samples were collected from subjects in 24 hours prior to and 48 hours past to the intervention period. Afterwards, the serum level of CRP was measured for each blood sample. Results showed that BMI and serum level of CRP both significantly reduced as a result of aerobic exercises. However, no statistically significant difference was recorded between the extent of effects of the former and latter aerobic exercise types. Eight weeks of aerobic exercise will probably result in reduced inflammation and cardiovascular diseases risk in overweight women. The reason for lack of difference between effects of continuous and periodic aerobic exercise may lie in the similarity of average intensity and length of physical administered activities.

Keywords: heart diseases, aerobic exercise, inflammation, CRP, overweight

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9 Climate Change: Affecting Basic Human Rights in Bangladesh

Authors: Shekh Shadi Rahaman


In Bangladesh, basic human rights more specifically right to food and right to shelter are being adversely affected by the consequences of climate change. Over the last two decades, a considerable number of environmental studies revealed that basic human rights, more specifically, the right to food and right to a shelter are going to be seriously affected by climate change. Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries and livestock, which are most sensitive to climate change, are key sources interconnected with food security and the security of shelter. Consequences of climate change affecting these key sources, and with the change of time, climate change is turning into a gigantic challenge towards ensuring basic human rights in Bangladesh. This study was carried out by employing a general review of literature on climate change, focusing on effects of climate change on basic two major human rights in Bangladesh. Upon analysis of existing researches, it is found very few researches focused on correlating climate change and right to food and right to shelter. This study shows how the consequences of climate change affects food production and abode of people of Bangladesh. This study recommends that tree plantation, floating agricultural practice, co-operation with international organization, developing environment friendly institutions, increased use of renewable energy, proper management of wetlands and forests, shelter for climate induced migrated people, encouraging research and public awareness are key issues to be followed for combating climate change and protecting basic human right to food and shelter.

Keywords: achievements, agriculture and forestry, fisheries and livestock, renewable energy

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8 Predicting Intentions of Physical Activity in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: Attitudes, Subjective Norms and Perceived Behavioral Control

Authors: Shadi Kanan, Ghada Shahrour, Barbara Broome, Donna Bernert, Muntaha Alibrahim, Dana Hansen


Coronary artery disease is responsible for over 7 million deaths a year worldwide. In developing countries, such as Jordan, the incidence of coronary artery disease exceeds that of developed countries. One contributing factor to this disparity is decreased physical activity among the population, for reasons related to specific cultural and religious values. Using the theory of planned behaviour, the purpose of this study was to investigate the intentions of Jordanian patients with coronary artery disease regarding physical activity. A total of 109 patients with coronary artery disease were recruited for this cross-sectional study from King Abdullah University Hospital in Jordan. A 15-item questionnaire based on the theory of planned behaviour was used to assess participants’ attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intentions towards engagement in physical activity. Perceived behavioural control was found to have the strongest significant relationship with participants’ intentions to engage in physical activity. Barriers to physical activity included lack of time, lack of support from family or friends, and feelings of exhaustion. Lifestyle interventions for patients with coronary artery disease should focus on fostering a sense of control over the environment to encourage patients to engage in physical activity.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, perceived behavioural control, subjective norms, theory of planned behaviour

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7 Identification of Membrane Foulants in Direct Contact Membrane Distillation for the Treatment of Reject Brine

Authors: Shefaa Mansour, Hassan Arafat, Shadi Hasan


Management of reverse osmosis (RO) brine has become a major area of research due to the environmental concerns associated with it. This study worked on studying the feasibility of the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) system in the treatment of this RO brine. The system displayed great potential in terms of its flux and salt rejection, where different operating conditions such as the feed temperature, feed salinity, feed and permeate flow rates were varied. The highest flux of 16.7 LMH was reported with a salt rejection of 99.5%. Although the DCMD has displayed potential of enhanced water recovery from highly saline solutions, one of the major drawbacks associated with the operation is the fouling of the membranes which impairs the system performance. An operational run of 77 hours for the treatment of RO brine of 56,500 ppm salinity was performed in order to investigate the impact of fouling of the membrane on the overall operation of the system over long time operations. Over this time period, the flux was observed to have reduced by four times its initial flux. The fouled membrane was characterized through different techniques for the identification of the organic and inorganic foulants that have deposited on the membrane surface. The Infrared Spectroscopy method (IR) was used to identify the organic foulants where SEM images displayed the surface characteristics of the membrane. As for the inorganic foulants, they were identified using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Ion Chromatography (IC) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The major foulants found on the surface of the membrane were inorganic salts such as sodium chloride and calcium sulfate.

Keywords: brine treatment, membrane distillation, fouling, characterization

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6 Reliability Based Analysis of Multi-Lane Reinforced Concrete Slab Bridges

Authors: Ali Mahmoud, Shadi Najjar, Mounir Mabsout, Kassim Tarhini


Empirical expressions for estimating the wheel load distribution and live-load bending moment are typically specified in highway bridge codes such as the AASHTO procedures. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the reliability levels that are inherent in reinforced concrete slab bridges that are designed based on the simplified empirical live load equations in the AASHTO LRFD procedures. To achieve this objective, bridges with multi-lanes (three and four lanes) and different spans are modeled using finite-element analysis (FEA) subjected to HS20 truck loading, tandem loading, and standard lane loading per AASHTO LRFD procedures. The FEA results are compared with the AASHTO LRFD moments in order to quantify the biases that might result from the simplifying assumptions adopted in AASHTO. A reliability analysis is conducted to quantify the reliability index for bridges designed using AASHTO procedures. To reach a consistent level of safety for three- and four-lane bridges, following a previous study restricted to one- and two-lane bridges, the live load factor in the design equation proposed by AASHTO LRFD will be assessed and revised if needed by alternating the live load factor for these lanes. The results will provide structural engineers with more consistent provisions to design concrete slab bridges or evaluate the load-carrying capacity of existing bridges.

Keywords: reliability analysis of concrete bridges, finite element modeling, reliability analysis, reinforced concrete bridge design, load carrying capacity

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5 Impact of Drainage Defect on the Railway Track Surface Deflections; A Numerical Investigation

Authors: Shadi Fathi, Moura Mehravar, Mujib Rahman


The railwaytransportation network in the UK is over 100 years old and is known as one of the oldest mass transit systems in the world. This aged track network requires frequent closure for maintenance. One of the main reasons for closure is inadequate drainage due to the leakage in the buried drainage pipes. The leaking water can cause localised subgrade weakness, which subsequently can lead to major ground/substructure failure.Different condition assessment methods are available to assess the railway substructure. However, the existing condition assessment methods are not able to detect any local ground weakness/damageand provide details of the damage (e.g. size and location). To tackle this issue, a hybrid back-analysis technique based on artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm (GA) has been developed to predict the substructurelayers’ moduli and identify any soil weaknesses. At first, afinite element (FE) model of a railway track section under Falling Weight Deflection (FWD) testing was developed and validated against field trial. Then a drainage pipe and various scenarios of the local defect/ soil weakness around the buried pipe with various geometriesand physical properties were modelled. The impact of the soil local weaknesson the track surface deflection wasalso studied. The FE simulations results were used to generate a database for ANN training, and then a GA wasemployed as an optimisation tool to optimise and back-calculate layers’ moduli and soil weakness moduli (ANN’s input). The hybrid ANN-GA back-analysis technique is a computationally efficient method with no dependency on seed modulus values. The modelcan estimate substructures’ layer moduli and the presence of any localised foundation weakness.

Keywords: finite element (FE) model, drainage defect, falling weight deflectometer (FWD), hybrid ANN-GA

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4 Thorium Extraction with Cyanex272 Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles

Authors: Afshin Shahbazi, Hadi Shadi Naghadeh, Ahmad Khodadadi Darban


In the Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process, tiny ferromagnetic particles coated with solvent extractant are used to selectively separate radionuclides and hazardous metals from aqueous waste streams. The contaminant-loaded particles are then recovered from the waste solutions using a magnetic field. In the present study, Cyanex272 or C272 (bis (2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid) coated magnetic particles are being evaluated for the possible application in the extraction of Thorium (IV) from nuclear waste streams. The uptake behaviour of Th(IV) from nitric acid solutions was investigated by batch studies. Adsorption of Thorium (IV) from aqueous solution onto adsorbent was investigated in a batch system. Adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetic studies of Thorium (IV) onto nanoparticles coated Cyanex272 were carried out in a batch system. The factors influencing Thorium (IV) adsorption were investigated and described in detail, as a function of the parameters such as initial pH value, contact time, adsorbent mass, and initial Thorium (IV) concentration. Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process adsorbent showed best results for the fast adsorption of Th (IV) from aqueous solution at aqueous phase acidity value of 0.5 molar. In addition, more than 80% of Th (IV) was removed within the first 2 hours, and the time required to achieve the adsorption equilibrium was only 140 minutes. Langmuir and Frendlich adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the adsorption equilibrium. Equilibrium data agreed very well with the Langmuir model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 48 mg.g-1. Adsorption kinetics data were tested using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating that the chemical adsorption was the rate-limiting step.

Keywords: Thorium (IV) adsorption, MACS process, magnetic nanoparticles, Cyanex272

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3 Preparation and Evaluation of Gelatin-Hyaluronic Acid-Polycaprolactone Membrane Containing 0.5 % Atorvastatin Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers as a Nanocomposite Scaffold for Skin Tissue Engineering

Authors: Mahsa Ahmadi, Mehdi Mehdikhani-Nahrkhalaji, Jaleh Varshosaz, Shadi Farsaei


Gelatin and hyaluronic acid are commonly used in skin tissue engineering scaffolds, but because of their low mechanical properties and high biodegradation rate, adding a synthetic polymer such as polycaprolactone could improve the scaffold properties. Therefore, we developed a gelatin-hyaluronic acid-polycaprolactone scaffold, containing 0.5 % atorvastatin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for skin tissue engineering. The atorvastatin loaded NLCs solution was prepared by solvent evaporation method and freeze drying process. Synthesized atorvastatin loaded NLCs was added to the gelatin and hyaluronic acid solution, and a membrane was fabricated with solvent evaporation method. Thereafter it was coated by a thin layer of polycaprolactone via spine coating set. The resulting scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Moreover, mechanical properties, in vitro degradation in 7 days period, and in vitro drug release of scaffolds were also evaluated. SEM images showed the uniform distributed NLCs with an average size of 100 nm in the scaffold structure. Mechanical test indicated that the scaffold had a 70.08 Mpa tensile modulus which was twofold of tensile modulus of normal human skin. A Franz-cell diffusion test was performed to investigate the scaffold drug release in phosphate buffered saline (pH=7.4) medium. Results showed that 72% of atorvastatin was released during 5 days. In vitro degradation test demonstrated that the membrane was degradated approximately 97%. In conclusion, suitable physicochemical and biological properties of membrane indicated that the developed gelatin-hyaluronic acid-polycaprolactone nanocomposite scaffold containing 0.5 % atorvastatin loaded NLCs could be used as a good candidate for skin tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: atorvastatin, gelatin, hyaluronic acid, nano lipid carriers (NLCs), polycaprolactone, skin tissue engineering, solvent casting, solvent evaporation

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2 Evaluation of Commercial Back-analysis Package in Condition Assessment of Railways

Authors: Shadi Fathi, Moura Mehravar, Mujib Rahman


Over the years,increased demands on railways, the emergence of high-speed trains and heavy axle loads, ageing, and deterioration of the existing tracks, is imposing costly maintenance actions on the railway sector. The need for developing a fast andcost-efficient non-destructive assessment method for the structural evaluation of railway tracksis therefore critically important. The layer modulus is the main parameter used in the structural design and evaluation of the railway track substructure (foundation). Among many recently developed NDTs, Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test, widely used in pavement evaluation, has shown promising results for railway track substructure monitoring. The surface deflection data collected by FWD are used to estimate the modulus of substructure layers through the back-analysis technique. Although there are different commerciallyavailableback-analysis programs are used for pavement applications, there are onlya limited number of research-based techniques have been so far developed for railway track evaluation. In this paper, the suitability, accuracy, and reliability of the BAKFAAsoftware are investigated. The main rationale for selecting BAKFAA as it has a relatively straightforward user interfacethat is freely available and widely used in highway and airport pavement evaluation. As part of the study, a finite element (FE) model of a railway track section near Leominsterstation, Herefordshire, UK subjected to the FWD test, was developed and validated against available field data. Then, a virtual experimental database (including 218 sets of FWD testing data) was generated using theFE model and employed as the measured database for the BAKFAA software. This database was generated considering various layers’ moduli for each layer of track substructure over a predefined range. The BAKFAA predictions were compared against the cone penetration test (CPT) data (available from literature; conducted near to Leominster station same section as the FWD was performed). The results reveal that BAKFAA overestimatesthe layers’ moduli of each substructure layer. To adjust the BAKFA with the CPT data, this study introduces a correlation model to make the BAKFAA applicable in railway applications.

Keywords: back-analysis, bakfaa, railway track substructure, falling weight deflectometer (FWD), cone penetration test (CPT)

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1 Rebuilding Health Post-Conflict: Case Studies from Afghanistan, Cambodia, and Mozambique

Authors: Spencer Rutherford, Shadi Saleh


War and conflict negatively impact all facets of a health system; services cease to function, resources become depleted, and any semblance of governance is lost. Following cessation of conflict, the rebuilding process includes a wide array of international and local actors. During this period, stakeholders must contend with various trade-offs, including balancing sustainable outcomes with immediate health needs, introducing health reform measures while also increasing local capacity, and reconciling external assistance with local legitimacy. Compounding these factors are additional challenges, including coordination amongst stakeholders, the re-occurrence of conflict, and ulterior motives from donors and governments, to name a few. Therefore, the present paper evaluated health system development in three post-conflict countries over a 12-year timeline. Specifically, health policies, health inputs (such infrastructure and human resources), and measures of governance, from the post-conflict periods of Afghanistan, Cambodia, and Mozambique, were assessed against health outputs and other measures. All post-conflict countries experienced similar challenges when rebuilding the health sector, including; division and competition between donors, NGOs, and local institutions; urban and rural health inequalities; and the re-occurrence of conflict. However, countries also employed unique and effective mechanisms for reconstructing their health systems, including; government engagement of the NGO and private sector; integration of competing factions into the same workforce; and collaborative planning for health policy. Based on these findings, best-practice development strategies were determined and compiled into a 12-year framework. Briefly, during the initial stage of the post-conflict period, primary stakeholders should work quickly to draft a national health strategy in collaboration with the government, and focus on managing and coordinating NGOs through performance-based partnership agreements. With this scaffolding in place, the development community can then prioritize the reconstruction of primary health care centers, increasing and retaining health workers, and horizontal integration of immunization services. The final stages should then concentrate on transferring ownership of the health system national institutions, implementing sustainable financing mechanisms, and phasing-out NGO services. Overall, these findings contribute post-conflict health system development by evaluating the process holistically and along a timeline and can be of further use by healthcare managers, policy-makers, and other health professionals.

Keywords: Afghanistan, Cambodia, health system development, health system reconstruction, Mozambique, post-conflict, state-building

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