Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 884

Search results for: solvent evaporation

884 Mixed Hydrotropic Zaleplon Oral Tablets: Formulation and Neuropharmacological Effect on Plasma GABA Level

Authors: Ghada A. Abdelbary, Maha M. Amin, Mostafa Abdelmoteleb


Zaleplon (ZP) is a non-benzodiazepine poorly soluble hypnotic drug indicated for the short term treatment of insomnia having a bioavailability of about 30%. The aim of the present study is to enhance the solubility and consequently the bioavailability of ZP using hydrotropic agents (HA). Phase solubility diagrams of ZP in presence of different molar concentrations of HA (Sodium benzoate, Urea, Ascorbic acid, Resorcinol, Nicotinamide, and Piperazine) were constructed. ZP/Sodium benzoate and Resorcinol microparticles were prepared adopting melt, solvent evaporation and melt-evaporation techniques followed by XRD. Directly compressed mixed hydrotropic ZP tablets of Sodium benzoate and Resorcinol in different weight ratios were prepared and evaluated compared to the commercially available tablets (Sleep aid® 5 mg). The effect of shelf and accelerated stability storage (40°C ± 2°C/75%RH ± 5%RH) on the optimum tablet formula (F5) for six months were studied. The enhancement of ZP solubility follows the order of: Resorcinol > Sodium benzoate > Ascorbic acid > Piperazine > Urea > Nicotinamide with about 350 and 2000 fold increase using 1M of Sodium benzoate and Resorcinol respectively. ZP/HA microparticles exhibit the order of: Solvent evaporation > melt-solvent evaporation > melt > physical mixture which was further confirmed by the complete conversion of ZP into amorphous form. Mixed hydrotropic tablet formula (F5) composed of ZP/(Resorcinol: Sodium benzoate 4:1w/w) microparticles prepared by solvent evaporation exhibits in-vitro dissolution of 31.7±0.11% after five minutes (Q5min) compared to 10.0±0.10% for Sleep aid® (5 mg) respectively. F5 showed significantly higher GABA concentration of 122.5±5.5mg/mL in plasma compared to 118±1.00 and 27.8±1.5 mg/mL in case of Sleep aid® (5 mg) and control taking only saline respectively suggesting a higher neuropharmacological effect of ZP following hydrotropic solubilization.

Keywords: zaleplon, hydrotropic solubilization, plasma GABA level, mixed hydrotropy

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883 Microencapsulation of Phenobarbital by Ethyl Cellulose Matrix

Authors: S. Bouameur, S. Chirani


The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of EthylCellulose in the preparation of microspheres as a Drug Delivery System for sustained release of phenobarbital. The microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation technique using ethylcellulose as polymer matrix with a ratio 1:2, dichloromethane as solvent and Polyvinyl alcohol 1% as processing medium to solidify the microspheres. Size, shape, drug loading capacity and entrapement efficiency were studied.

Keywords: phenobarbital, microspheres, ethylcellulose, polyvinylacohol

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882 Impact of Flavor on Food Product Quality, A Case Study of Vanillin Stability during Biscuit Preparation

Authors: N. Yang, R. Linforth, I. Fisk


The influence of food processing and choice of flavour solvent was investigated using biscuits prepared with vanillin flavour as an example. Powder vanillin either was added directly into the dough or dissolved into flavour solvent then mixed into the dough. The impact of two commonly used flavour solvents on food quality was compared: propylene glycol (PG) or triacetin (TA). The analytical approach for vanillin detection was developed by chromatography (HPLC-PDA), and the standard extraction method for vanillin was also established. The results indicated the impact of solvent choice on vanillin level during biscuit preparation. After baking, TA as a more heat resistant solvent retained more vanillin than PG, so TA is a better solvent for products that undergo a heating process. The results also illustrated the impact of mixing and baking on vanillin stability in the matrices. The average loss of vanillin was 33% during mixing and 13% during baking, which indicated that the binding of vanillin to fat or flour before baking might cause larger loss than evaporation loss during baking.

Keywords: biscuit, flavour stability, food quality, vanillin

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881 Development and In vitro Characterization of Diclofenac-Loaded Microparticles

Authors: Prakriti Diwan, S. Saraf


The present study involves preparation and evaluation of microparticles of diclofenac sodium. The microparticles were prepared by the emulsion solvent evaporation techniques using ethylcellulose polymer. Four different batches of microspheres were prepared by varying the concentration of polymer from 50% to 80% w/w. The microspheres were characterized for drug content, percentage yield and encapsulation efficiency, particle size analysis and surface morphology. Microsphere prepared with high drug content produces higher percentage yield and encapsulation efficiency values. It was observed the increase in concentration of the polymer, increases the mean particle size of the microspheres. The effect of polymer concentration on the in vitro release of diclofenac from the microspheres was also studied. The production microparticles yield showed 98.74%, mean particle size 956.32µm and loading efficiency 97.15%. The results were found that microparticles prepared had slower release than microparticles (p>0.05). Therefore, it may be concluded that drug loaded microparticles are suitable delivery systems for diclofenac sodium.

Keywords: diclofenac sodium, emulsion solvent evaporation, ethylcellulose, microparticles

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880 Preparation and Evaluation of Gelatin-Hyaluronic Acid-Polycaprolactone Membrane Containing 0.5 % Atorvastatin Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers as a Nanocomposite Scaffold for Skin Tissue Engineering

Authors: Mahsa Ahmadi, Mehdi Mehdikhani-Nahrkhalaji, Jaleh Varshosaz, Shadi Farsaei


Gelatin and hyaluronic acid are commonly used in skin tissue engineering scaffolds, but because of their low mechanical properties and high biodegradation rate, adding a synthetic polymer such as polycaprolactone could improve the scaffold properties. Therefore, we developed a gelatin-hyaluronic acid-polycaprolactone scaffold, containing 0.5 % atorvastatin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for skin tissue engineering. The atorvastatin loaded NLCs solution was prepared by solvent evaporation method and freeze drying process. Synthesized atorvastatin loaded NLCs was added to the gelatin and hyaluronic acid solution, and a membrane was fabricated with solvent evaporation method. Thereafter it was coated by a thin layer of polycaprolactone via spine coating set. The resulting scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Moreover, mechanical properties, in vitro degradation in 7 days period, and in vitro drug release of scaffolds were also evaluated. SEM images showed the uniform distributed NLCs with an average size of 100 nm in the scaffold structure. Mechanical test indicated that the scaffold had a 70.08 Mpa tensile modulus which was twofold of tensile modulus of normal human skin. A Franz-cell diffusion test was performed to investigate the scaffold drug release in phosphate buffered saline (pH=7.4) medium. Results showed that 72% of atorvastatin was released during 5 days. In vitro degradation test demonstrated that the membrane was degradated approximately 97%. In conclusion, suitable physicochemical and biological properties of membrane indicated that the developed gelatin-hyaluronic acid-polycaprolactone nanocomposite scaffold containing 0.5 % atorvastatin loaded NLCs could be used as a good candidate for skin tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: atorvastatin, gelatin, hyaluronic acid, nano lipid carriers (NLCs), polycaprolactone, skin tissue engineering, solvent casting, solvent evaporation

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
879 Wicking and Evaporation of Liquids in Knitted Fabrics: Analytic Solution of Capillary Rise Restrained by Gravity and Evaporation

Authors: N. S. Achour, M. Hamdaoui, S. Ben Nasrallah


Wicking and evaporation of water in porous knitted fabrics is investigated by combining experimental and analytical approaches: The standard wicking model from Lucas and Washburn is enhanced to account for evaporation and gravity effects. The goal is to model the effect of gravity and evaporation on wicking using simple analytical expressions and investigate the influence of fabrics geometrical parameters, such as porosity and thickness on evaporation impact on maximum reachable height values. The results show that fabric properties have a significant influence on evaporation effect. In this paper, an experimental study of determining water kinetics from different knitted fabrics were gravimetrically investigated permitting the measure of the mass and the height of liquid rising in fabrics in various atmospheric conditions. From these measurements, characteristic pore parameters (capillary radius and permeability) can be determined.

Keywords: evaporation, experimental study, geometrical parameters, model, porous knitted fabrics, wicking

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878 Investigation of Knitted Fabric Properties Effect on Evaporation Rate

Authors: N. S. Achour, M. Hamdaoui, S. Ben Nasrallah


Evaporation kinetics of water from porous knitted fabrics are studied: An experimental study of determining evaporated water mass (g) versus time (s) from different knitted fabrics was gravimetrically investigated in various atmospheric conditions. Then evaporation rates are calculated. The goal is to determine the effect of fabric composition, knit structure and yarns properties on evaporation rate. The results show that fabrics geometrical properties, such as porosity and thickness, have a significant influence on evaporated water quantities.

Keywords: evaporation rate, experimental study, geometrical properties, porous knitted fabrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
877 Structural Analysis of Polymer Thin Films at Single Macromolecule Level

Authors: Hiroyuki Aoki, Toru Asada, Tomomi Tanii


The properties of a spin-cast film of a polymer material are different from those in the bulk material because the polymer chains are frozen in an un-equilibrium state due to the rapid evaporation of the solvent. However, there has been little information on the un-equilibrated conformation and dynamics in a spin-cast film at the single chain level. The real-space observation of individual chains would provide direct information to discuss the morphology and dynamics of single polymer chains. The recent development of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy methods allows the conformational analysis of single polymer chain. In the current study, the conformation of a polymer chain in a spin-cast film by the super-resolution microscopy. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with the molecular weight of 2.2 x 10^6 was spin-cast onto a glass substrate from toluene and chloroform. For the super-resolution fluorescence imaging, a small amount of the PMMA labeled by rhodamine spiroamide dye was added. The radius of gyration (Rg) was evaluated from the super-resolution fluorescence image of each PMMA chain. The mean-square-root of Rg was 48.7 and 54.0 nm in the spin-cast films prepared from the toluene and chloroform solutions, respectively. On the other hand, the chain dimension in a bulk state (a thermally annealed 10- μm-thick sample) was observed to be 43.1 nm. This indicates that the PMMA chain in the spin-cast film takes an expanded conformation compared to the unperturbed chain and that the chain dimension is dependent on the solvent quality. In a good solvent, the PMMA chain has an expanded conformation by the excluded volume effect. The polymer chain is frozen before the relaxation from an un-equilibrated expanded conformation to an unperturbed one by the rapid solvent evaporation.

Keywords: chain conformation, polymer thin film, spin-coating, super-resolution optical microscopy

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876 Olefin and Paraffin Separation Using Simulations on Extractive Distillation

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdulrahman A. Al-Rabiah


Technical mixture of C4 containing 1-butene and n-butane are very close to each other with respect to their boiling points i.e. -6.3°C for 1-butene and -1°C for n-butane. Extractive distillation process is used for the separation of 1-butene from the existing mixture of C4. The solvent is the essential of extractive distillation, and an appropriate solvent shows an important role in the process economy of extractive distillation. Aspen Plus has been applied for the separation of these hydrocarbons as a simulator; moreover NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the simulation. This model indicated that the material balances in this separation process were accurate for several solvent flow rates. Mixture of acetonitrile and water used as a solvent and 99 % pure 1-butene was separated. This simulation proposed the ratio of the feed to solvent as 1 : 7.9 and 15 plates for the solvent recovery column, previously feed to solvent ratio was more than this and the proposed plates were 30, which can economize the separation process.

Keywords: extractive distillation, 1-butene, Aspen Plus, ACN solvent

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875 Process Simulation of 1-Butene Separation from C4 Mixture by Extractive Distillation

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdulrahman A. Al-Rabiah, Wasif Mughees


Technical mixture of C4 containing 1-butene and n-butane are very close to each other with regard to their boiling points i.e. -6.3°C for 1-butene and -1°C for n-butane. Extractive distillation process is used for the separation of 1-butene from the existing mixture of C4. The solvent is the essential of extractive distillation, and an appropriate solvent plays an important role in the process economy of extractive distillation. Aspen Plus has been applied for the separation of these hydrocarbons as a simulator. Moreover, NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the simulation. This model indicated that the material balances in this separation process were accurate for several solvent flow rates. Mixture of acetonitrile and water used as a solvent and 99% pure 1-butene was separated. This simulation proposed the ratio of the feed to solvent as 1: 7.9 and 15 plates for the solvent recovery column. Previously feed to solvent ratio was more than this and the number of proposed plates were 30, which shows that the separation process can be economized.

Keywords: extractive distillation, 1-butene, aspen plus, ACN solvent

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874 Boundary Motion by Curvature: Accessible Modeling of Oil Spill Evaporation/Dissipation

Authors: Gary Miller, Andriy Didenko, David Allison


The boundary of a region in the plane shrinks according to its curvature. A simple algorithm based upon this motion by curvature performed by a spreadsheet simulates the evaporation/dissipation behavior of oil spill boundaries.

Keywords: mathematical modeling, oil, evaporation, dissipation, boundary

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873 Concentration of Waste Waters by Enzyme-Assisted Low-Temperature Evaporation

Authors: Ahokas Mikko, Taskila Sanna, Varrio Kalle, Tanskanen Juha


The present research aimed at the development of an energy efficient process for the concentration of starchy waste waters. The selected principle is mechanical vapor recompression evaporation (MVR) which leads to concentrated solid material and evaporated water phase. Evaporation removes water until a certain viscosity limit is reached. Materials with high viscosity cannot be concentrated using standard evaporators due to limitations of pumps and other constraints, such as wetting. Control of viscosity is thus essential for efficient evaporation. This applies especially to fluids in which due starch or other compounds the viscosity tends to increase via removal of water. In the present research, the effect of enzymes on evaporation of highly viscous starch industry waste waters was investigated. Wastewater samples were received from starch industry at pH of 4.8. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied for the investigation of factor effects on the behaviour of concentrate during evaporation. The RSM was prepared using quadratic face-centered central composite design (CCF). The evaporation performance was evaluated by monitoring the viscosity of fluid during processing. Based on viscosity curves, the addition of glucoamylase reduced the viscosity during evaporation. This assumption was confirmed by CCF, suggesting that the use of starch decomposing glucoamylase allowed evaporation of the starchy wastewater to a relatively high total solid concentration without a detrimental increase in the viscosity. The results suggest that use of enzymes for reduction of viscosity during the evaporation allows more effective concentration of the wastewater and thereby recovery of potable water.

Keywords: viscous, wastewater, treatment, evaporation, concentration

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872 Looking for a Connection between Oceanic Regions with Trends in Evaporation with Continental Ones with Trends in Precipitation through a Lagrangian Approach

Authors: Raquel Nieto, Marta Vázquez, Anita Drumond, Luis Gimeno


One of the hot spots of climate change is the increment of ocean evaporation. The best estimation of evaporation, OAFlux data, shows strong increasing trends in evaporation from the oceans since 1978, with peaks during the hemispheric winter and strongest along the paths of the global western boundary currents and any inner Seas. The transport of moisture from oceanic sources to the continents is the connection between evaporation from the ocean and precipitation over the continents. A key question is to try to relate evaporative source regions over the oceans where trends have occurred in the last decades with their sinks over the continents to check if there have been also any trends in the precipitation amount or its characteristics. A Lagrangian approach based on FLEXPART and ERA-interim data is used to establish this connection. The analyzed period was 1980 to 2012. Results show that there is not a general pattern, but a significant agreement was found in important areas of climate interest.

Keywords: ocean evaporation, Lagrangian approaches, contiental precipitation, Europe

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871 Chitin Crystalline Phase Transition Promoted by Deep Eutectic Solvent

Authors: Diana G. Ramirez-Wong, Marius Ramirez, Regina Sanchez-Leija, Adriana Rugerio, R. Araceli Mauricio-Sanchez, Martin A. Hernandez-Landaverde, Arturo Carranza, John A. Pojman, Josue D. Mota-Morales, Gabriel Luna-Barcenas


Chitin films were prepared using alpha-chitin from shrimp shells as raw material and a simple method of precipitation-evaporation. Choline chloride: urea Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) was used to disperse chitin and compared against hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP). A careful analysis of the chemical and crystalline structure was followed along the synthesis of the films, revealing crystalline-phase transitions. The full conversion of alpha- to beta-, or alpha- to gamma-chitin structure were detected by XRD and NMR on the films. The synthesis of highly crystalline monophasic gamma-chitin films was achieved using a DES; whereas HFIP helps to promote the beta-phase. These results are encouraging to continue in the study of DES as good processing media to control the final properties of chitin based materials.

Keywords: chitin, deep eutectic solvent, polymorph, phase transformation

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870 Formulation and Evaluation of Lisinopril Microspheres for Nasal Delivery

Authors: S. S. Patil, R. M. Mhetre, S. V. Patil


Lisinopril is an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor used in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure in prophylactic treatment after myocardial infarction and in diabetic nephropathy. However, it is very poorly absorbed from gastro-intestinal tract. Intranasal administration is an ideal alternative to the parenteral route for systemic drug delivery. Formulating multiparticulate system with mucoadhesive polymers provide a significant increase in the nasal residence time. The aim of the present approach was to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional dosage forms of lisinopril by formulating intranasal microspheres with Carbopol 974P NF and HPMC K4 M along with film forming polymer ethyl cellulose.The microspheres were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. The prepared microspheres were characterized for encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, particle size, and surface morphology, degree of swelling, ex vivo mucoadhesion, drug release, ex vivo diffusion studies. All formulations has shown entrapment efficiency between 80 to more than 95%, mucoadhesion was more than 80 % and drug release up to 90 %. Ex vivo studies revealed tht the improved bioavailability of drug compared to oral drug administration. Both in vitro and in vivo studies conclude that combination of Carbopol and HPMC based microspheres shown better results than single carbopol based microspheres for the delivery of lisinopril.

Keywords: microspheres, lisinopril, nasal delivery, solvent evaporation method

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869 Analysis of Evaporation of Liquid Ammonia in a Vertical Cylindrical Storage Tank

Authors: S. Chikh, S. Boulifa


The present study addresses the problem of ammonia evaporation during filling of a vertical cylindrical tank and the influence of various external factors on the stability of storage by determining the conditions for minimum evaporation. Numerical simulation is carried out by solving the governing equations namely, continuity, momentum, energy, and diffusion of species. The effect of temperature of surrounding air, the filling speed of the reservoir and the temperature of the filling liquid ammonia on the evaporation rate is investigated. Results show that the temperature of the filling liquid has little effect on the liquid ammonia for a short period, which, in fact, is function of the filling speed. The evaporation rate along the free surface of the liquid is non-uniform. The inlet temperature affects the vapor ammonia temperature because of pressure increase. The temperature of the surrounding air affects the temperature of the vapor phase rather than the liquid phase. The maximum of evaporation is reached at the final step of filling. In order to minimize loss of ammonia vapors automatically causing losses in quantity of the liquid stored, it is suggested to ensure the proper insulation for the walls and roof of the reservoir and to increase the filling speed.

Keywords: evaporation, liquid ammonia, storage tank, numerical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
868 Production of Energetic Nanomaterials by Spray Flash Evaporation

Authors: Martin Klaumünzer, Jakob Hübner, Denis Spitzer


Within this paper, latest results on processing of energetic nanomaterials by means of the Spray Flash Evaporation technique are presented. This technology constitutes a highly effective and continuous way to prepare fascinating materials on the nano- and micro-scale. Within the process, a solution is set under high pressure and sprayed into an evacuated atomization chamber. Subsequent ultrafast evaporation of the solvent leads to an aerosol stream, which is separated by cyclones or filters. No drying gas is required, so the present technique should not be confused with spray dying. Resulting nanothermites, insensitive explosives or propellants and compositions are foreseen to replace toxic (according to REACH) and very sensitive matter in military and civil applications. Diverse examples are given in detail: nano-RDX (n-Cyclotrimethylentrinitramin) and nano-aluminum based systems, mixtures (n-RDX/n-TNT - trinitrotoluene) or even cocrystalline matter like n-CL-20/HMX (Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane/ Cyclotetra-methylentetranitramin). These nanomaterials show reduced sensitivity by trend without losing effectiveness and performance. An analytical study for material characterization was performed by using Atomic Force Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and combined techniques as well as spectroscopic methods. As a matter of course, sensitivity tests regarding electrostatic discharge, impact, and friction are provided.

Keywords: continuous synthesis, energetic material, nanoscale, nanoexplosive, nanothermite

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867 Solar Pond: Some Issues in Their Management and Mathematical Description

Authors: A. A. Abdullah, K. A. Lindsay


The management of a salt-gradient is investigated with respect to the interaction between the solar pond and its associated evaporation pond. Issues considered are the impact of precipitation and the operation of the flushing system with particular reference to the case in which the flushing fluid is pure water. Results suggest that a management strategy based on a flushing system that simply replaces evaporation losses of water from the solar pond and evaporation pond will be optimally efficient. Such a management strategy will maintain the operational viability of a salt-gradient solar pond as a reservoir of cheap heat while simultaneously ensuring that the associated evaporation pond can feed the storage zone of the solar pond with sufficient saturated brine to balance the effect of salt diffusion. Other findings are, first, that once near saturation is achieved in the evaporation pond, the efficacy of the proposed management strategy is relatively insensitive to both the size of the evaporation pond or its depth, and second, small changes in the extraction of heat from the storage zone of a salt-gradient solar pond have an amplified effect on the temperature of that zone. The possibility of boiling of the storage zone cannot be ignored in a well-configured salt-gradient solar pond.

Keywords: aqueous sodium chloride, constitutive expression, solar pond, salt-gradient

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866 Template-less Self-Assembled Morphologically Cubic BiFeO₃ for Improved Electrical Properties

Authors: Jenna Metera, Olivia Graeve


Ceramic capacitor technologies using lead based materials is being phased out for its environmental and handling hazards. Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO₃) is the next best replacement for those lead-based technologies. Unfortunately, the electrical properties in bismuth systems are not as robust as the lead alternatives. The improvement of electrical properties such as charge density, charge anisotropy, relative permittivity, and dielectric loss are the parameters that will make BiFeO₃ a competitive alternative to lead-based ceramic materials. In order to maximize the utility of these properties, we propose the ordering and an evaporation-induced self-assembly of a cubic morphology powder. Evaporation-induced self-assembly is a template-less, bottom-up, self-assembly option. The capillary forces move the particles closer together when the solvent evaporates, promoting organized agglomeration at the particle faces. The assembly of particles into organized structures can lead to enhanced properties compared to unorganized structures or single particles themselves. The interactions between the particles can be controlled based on the long-range order in the organized structure. The cubic particle morphology is produced through a hydrothermal synthesis with changes in the concentration of potassium hydroxide, which changes the morphology of the powder. Once the assembly materializes, the powder is fabricated into workable substrates for electrical testing after consolidation.

Keywords: evaporation, lead-free, morphology, self-assembly

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
865 Improvement of Egyptian Vacuum Distillates by Solvent Dewaxing

Authors: Ehssan M. R. Nassef


De-waxing of vacuum distillates by using solvent was investigated in the present study. The present work deals with studying solvent dewaxing system which have been developed to give better dewaxing performance with respect to the important factors in the choice of solvents which are good solubility of oil in the solvent and low solubility of wax in the solvent. In this study, solvent dewaxing process using Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) and toluene are used for Egyptian vacuum distillates using two types of distillates. The effect of varying the composition of(MEK to toluene) on the percent yield of the oil, percent of wax, pour point, refractive index at 20 and 70°C, viscosity at 40 and 100°C, viscosity index and specific gravity of the oil produced for the two types of distillates (I & II) were evaluated. In the present study, the operating conditions of solvent dewaxing using MEK toluene mixture achieved the best pour point at -15°C for distillate I at (1:1) solvent composition mixture. At the same ratio of MEK to toluene the best specific gravity of oil produced changed from 0.871 to 0.8802, with refractive index of 1.84. Percent yield of 65% for oil was obtained. The results for distillate II, of higher specific gravity, are comparatively higher than those for distillate I. The effect of temperature was also investigated and the best temperature was -20°C.

Keywords: dewaxing, solvent dewaxing, pour point, lubricating oil production, wax

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864 Theoretical Prediction on the Lifetime of Sessile Evaporating Droplet in Blade Cooling

Authors: Yang Shen, Yongpan Cheng, Jinliang Xu


The effective blade cooling is of great significance for improving the performance of turbine. The mist cooling emerges as the promising way compared with the transitional single-phase cooling. In the mist cooling, the injected droplet will evaporate rapidly, and cool down the blade surface due to the absorbed latent heat, hence the lifetime for evaporating droplet becomes critical for design of cooling passages for the blade. So far there have been extensive studies on the droplet evaporation, but usually the isothermal model is applied for most of the studies. Actually the surface cooling effect can affect the droplet evaporation greatly, it can prolong the droplet evaporation lifetime significantly. In our study, a new theoretical model for sessile droplet evaporation with surface cooling effect is built up in toroidal coordinate. Three evaporation modes are analyzed during the evaporation lifetime, include “Constant Contact Radius”(CCR) mode、“Constant Contact Angle”(CCA) mode and “stick-slip”(SS) mode. The dimensionless number E0 is introduced to indicate the strength of the evaporative cooling, it is defined based on the thermal properties of the liquid and the atmosphere. Our model can predict accurately the lifetime of evaporation by validating with available experimental data. Then the temporal variation of droplet volume, contact angle and contact radius are presented under CCR, CCA and SS mode, the following conclusions are obtained. 1) The larger the dimensionless number E0, the longer the lifetime of three evaporation cases is; 2) The droplet volume over time still follows “2/3 power law” in the CCA mode, as in the isothermal model without the cooling effect; 3) In the “SS” mode, the large transition contact angle can reduce the evaporation time in CCR mode, and increase the time in CCA mode, the overall lifetime will be increased; 4) The correction factor for predicting instantaneous volume of the droplet is derived to predict the droplet life time accurately. These findings may be of great significance to explore the dynamics and heat transfer of sessile droplet evaporation.

Keywords: blade cooling, droplet evaporation, lifetime, theoretical analysis

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863 Investigation of Solvent Effect on Viscosity of Lubricant in Disposable Medical Devices

Authors: Hamed Bagheri, Seyd Javid Shariati


The effects of type and amount of solvent on lubricant which is used in disposable medical devices are investigated in this article. Two kinds of common solvent, n-Hexane and n-Heptane, are used. The mechanical behavior of syringe has shown that n-Heptane has better mixing ratio and also more effective spray process in the barrel of syringe than n-Hexane because of similar solubility parameter to silicon oil. The results revealed that movement of plunger in the barrel increases when pure silicone is used because non-uniform film is created on the surface of barrel, and also, it seems that the form of silicon is converted from oil to gel due to sterilization process. The results showed that the convenient mixing ratio of solvent/lubricant oil is 80/20.

Keywords: disposal medical devices, lubricant oil, solvent effect, solubility parameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
862 First Approach on Lycopene Extraction Using Limonene

Authors: M. A. Ferhat, M. N. Boukhatem, F. Chemat


Lycopene extraction with petroleum derivatives as solvents has caused safety, health, and environmental concerns everywhere. Thus, finding a safe alternative solvent will have a strong and positive impact on environments and general health of the world population. d-limonene from the orange peel was extracted through a steam distillation procedure followed by a deterpenation process and combining this achievement by using it as a solvent for extracting lycopene from tomato fruit as a substitute of dichloromethane. Lycopene content of fresh tomatoes was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography after extraction. Yields obtained for both extractions showed that yields of d-limonene’s extracts were almost equivalent to those obtained using dichloromethane. The proposed approach using a green solvent to perform extraction is useful and can be considered as a nice alternative to conventional petroleum solvent where toxicity for both operator and environment is reduced.

Keywords: alternative solvent, d-limonene, extraction, lycopene

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861 Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Abu Ghalaga Ilmenite Ore

Authors: I. A. Ibrahim, T. A. Elbarbary, N. Abdelaty, A. T. Kandil, H. K. Farhan


The present work aims to study the leaching of Abu Ghalaga ilmenite ore by hydrochloric acid and simultaneous reduction by iron powder method to dissolve its titanium and iron contents. Iron content in the produced liquor is separated by solvent extraction using TBP as a solvent. All parameters affecting the efficiency of the dissolution process were separately studied including the acid concentration, solid/liquid ratio which controls the ilmenite/acid molar ratio, temperature, time and grain size. The optimum conditions at which maximum leaching occur are 30% HCl acid with a solid/liquid ratio of 1/30 at 80 °C for 4 h using ore ground to -350 mesh size. At the same time, all parameters affecting on solvent extraction and stripping of iron content from the produced liquor were studied. Results show that the best extraction is at solvent/solution 1/1 by shaking at 240 RPM for 45 minutes at 30 °C whereas best striping of iron at H₂O/solvent 2/1.

Keywords: ilmenite ore, leaching, titanium solvent extraction, Abu Ghalaga ilmenite ore

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
860 Ultrathin NaA Zeolite Membrane in Solvent Recovery: Preparation and Application

Authors: Eng Toon Saw, Kun Liang Ang, Wei He, Xuecheng Dong, Seeram Ramakrishna


Solvent recovery process is receiving utmost attention in recent year due to the scarcity of natural resource and consciousness of circular economy in chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Solvent dehydration process is one of the important process to recover and to purify the solvent for reuse. Due to the complexity of solvent waste or wastewater effluent produced in pharmaceutical industry resulting the wastewater treatment process become complicated, thus an alternative solution is to recover the valuable solvent in solvent waste. To treat solvent waste and to upgrade solvent purity, membrane pervaporation process is shown to be a promising technology due to the energy intensive and low footprint advantages. Ceramic membrane is adopted as solvent dehydration membrane owing to the chemical and thermal stability properties as compared to polymeric membrane. NaA zeolite membrane is generally used as solvent dehydration process because of its narrow and distinct pore size and high hydrophilicity. NaA zeolite membrane has been mainly applied in alcohol dehydration in fermentation process. At this stage, the membrane performance exhibits high separation factor with low flux using tubular ceramic membrane. Thus, defect free and ultrathin NaA membrane should be developed to increase water flux. Herein, we report a simple preparation protocol to prepare ultrathin NaA zeolite membrane supported on tubular ceramic membrane by controlling the seed size synthesis, seeding methods and conditions, ceramic substrate surface pore size selection and secondary growth conditions. The microstructure and morphology of NaA zeolite membrane will be examined and reported. Moreover, the membrane separation performance and stability will also be reported in isopropanol dehydration, ketone dehydration and ester dehydration particularly for the application in pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, NaA zeolite, pharmaceutical industry, solvent recovery

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859 The Mechanism Study of Degradative Solvent Extraction of Biomass by Liquid Membrane-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: W. Ketren, J. Wannapeera, Z. Heishun, A. Ryuichi, K. Toshiteru, M. Kouichi, O. Hideaki


Degradative solvent extraction is the method developed for biomass upgrading by dewatering and fractionation of biomass under the mild condition. However, the conversion mechanism of the degradative solvent extraction method has not been fully understood so far. The rice straw was treated in 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at a different solvent-treatment temperature varied from 250 to 350 oC with the residence time for 60 min. The liquid membrane-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) technique is applied to study the processing mechanism in-depth without separation of the solvent. It has been found that the strength of the oxygen-hydrogen stretching  (3600-3100 cm-1) decreased slightly with increasing temperature in the range of 300-350 oC. The decrease of the hydroxyl group in the solvent soluble suggested dehydration reaction taking place between 300 and 350 oC. FTIR spectra in the carbonyl stretching region (1800-1600 cm-1) revealed the presence of esters groups, carboxylic acid and ketonic groups in the solvent-soluble of biomass. The carboxylic acid increased in the range of 200 to 250 oC and then decreased. The prevailing of aromatic groups showed that the aromatization took place during extraction at above 250 oC. From 300 to 350 oC, the carbonyl functional groups in the solvent-soluble noticeably decreased. The removal of the carboxylic acid and the decrease of esters into the form of carbon dioxide indicated that the decarboxylation reaction occurred during the extraction process.

Keywords: biomass waste, degradative solvent extraction, mechanism, upgrading

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858 Layer by Layer Coating of Zinc Oxide/Metal Organic Framework Nanocomposite on Ceramic Support for Solvent/Solvent Separation Using Pervaporation Method

Authors: S. A. A. Nabeela Nasreen, S. Sundarrajan, S. A. Syed Nizar, Seeram Ramakrishna


Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted considerable interest due to its diverse pore size tunability, fascinating topologies and extensive uses in fields such as catalysis, membrane separation, chemical sensing, etc. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are a class of MOF with porous crystals containing extended three-dimensional structures of tetrahedral metal ions (e.g., Zn) bridged by Imidazolate (Im). Selected ZIFs are used to separate solvent/solvent mixtures. A layer by layer formation of the nanocomposite of Zinc oxide (ZnO) and ZIF on a ceramic support using a solvothermal method was engaged and tested for target solvent/solvent separation. Metal oxide layer was characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM to confirm the smooth and continuous coating for the separation process. The chemical composition of ZIF films was studied by using X-Ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The obtained ceramic tube with metal oxide and ZIF layer coating were tested for its packing density, thickness, distribution of seed layers and variation of permeation rate of solvent mixture (isopropyl alcohol (IPA)/methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Pervaporation technique was used for the separation to achieve a high permeation rate with separation ratio of > 99.5% of the solvent mixture.

Keywords: metal oxide, membrane, pervaporation, solvothermal, ZIF

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857 Formulation and Evaluation of TDDS for Sustained Release Ondansetron HCL Patches

Authors: Baljinder Singh, Navneet Sharma


The skin can be used as the site for drug administration for continuous transdermal drug infusion into the systemic circulation. For the continuous diffusion/penetration of the drugs through the intact skin surface membrane-moderated systems, matrix dispersion type systems, adhesive diffusion controlled systems and micro reservoir systems have been developed. Various penetration enhancers are used for the drug diffusion through skin. In matrix dispersion type systems, the drug is dispersed in the solvent along with the polymers and solvent allowed to evaporate forming a homogeneous drug-polymer matrix. Matrix type systems were developed in the present study. In the present work, an attempt has been made to develop a matrix-type transdermal therapeutic system comprising of ondansetron-HCl with different ratios of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymeric combinations using solvent evaporation technique. The physicochemical compatibility of the drug and the polymers was studied by infrared spectroscopy. The results obtained showed no physical-chemical incompatibility between the drug and the polymers. The patches were further subjected to various physical evaluations along with the in-vitro permeation studies using rat skin. On the basis of results obtained form the in vitro study and physical evaluation, the patches containing hydrophilic polymers i.e. polyvinyl alcohol and poly vinyl pyrrolidone with oleic acid as the penetration enhancer(5%) were considered as suitable for large scale manufacturing with a backing layer and a suitable adhesive membrane.

Keywords: transdermal drug delivery, penetration enhancers, hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers, ondansetron HCl

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856 Solvent Extraction of Rb and Cs from Jarosite Slag Using t-BAMBP

Authors: Zhang Haiyan, Su Zujun, Zhao Fengqi


Lepidolite after extraction of Lithium by sulfate produced many jarosite slag which contains a lot of Rb and Cs.The separation and recovery of Rubidium(Rb) and Cesium(Cs) can make full of use of Lithium mica. XRF analysis showed that the slag mainly including K Rb Cs Al and etc. Fractional solvent extraction tests were carried out; the results show that using20% t-BAMBP plus 80% sulfonated kerosene, the separation of Rb and Cs can be achieved by adjusting the alkalinity. Extraction is the order of Cs Rb, ratio of Cs to Rb and ratio of Rb to K can reach above 1500 and 2500 respectively.

Keywords: cesium, jarosite slag, rubidium, solvent extraction, t-BAMBP

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855 Salting Effect in Partially Miscible Systems of Water/Acétic Acid/1-Butanol at 298.15k: Experimental Study and Estimation of New Solvent-Solvent and Salt-Solvent Binary Interaction Parameters for NRTL Model

Authors: N. Bourayou, A. -H. Meniai, A. Gouaoura


The presence of salt can either raise or lower the distribution coefficient of a solute acetic acid in liquid- liquid equilibria. The coefficient of solute is defined as the ratio of the composition of solute in solvent rich phase to the composition of solute in diluents (water) rich phase. The phenomena are known as salting–out or salting-in, respectively. The effect of monovalent salt, sodium chloride and the bivalent salt, sodium sulfate on the distribution of acetic acid between 1-butanol and water at 298.15K were experimentally shown to be effective in modifying the liquid-liquid equilibrium of water/acetic acid/1-butanol system in favour of the solvent extraction of acetic acid from an aqueous solution with 1-butanol, particularly at high salt concentrations of both salts. All the two salts studied are found to have to salt out effect for acetic acid in varying degrees. The experimentally measured data were well correlated by Eisen-Joffe equation. NRTL model for solvent mixtures containing salts was able to provide good correlation of the present liquid-liquid equilibrium data. Using the regressed salt concentration coefficients for the salt-solvent interaction parameters and the solvent-solvent interaction parameters obtained from the same system without salt. The calculated phase equilibrium was in a quite good agreement with the experimental data, showing the ability of NRTL model to correlate salt effect on the liquid-liquid equilibrium.

Keywords: activity coefficient, Eisen-Joffe, NRTL model, sodium chloride

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