Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 876

Search results for: solvent casting

876 Raman Line Mapping on Melt Spun Polycarbonate/MWNT Fiber-Based Nanocomposites

Authors: Poonam Yadav, Dong Bok Lee


Raman spectroscopy was used for characterization of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) and Polycarbonate/multi-wall carbon nanotube (PC/MWNT) based fibers with 0.55% and 0.75% of MWNT (PC/MWNT55 and PC/MWNT75). PC/MWNT55 and PC/MWNT75 fibers was prepared by melt spinning device using nanocomposites made by two different route, viz., solvent casting and melt extrusion. Fibers prepared from melt extruded nanocomposites showed smooth and uniform morphology as compared to solvent casting based nanocomposites. The Raman mapping confirmed that the melt extruded based nanocomposites had better dispersion of MWNT in Polycarbonate (PC) than solvent casting carbon nanotube.

Keywords: dispersion, melt extrusion, multi-wall carbon nanotube, mapping

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
875 Fundamental Research Dissension between Hot and Cold Chamber High Pressure Die Casting

Authors: Sahil Kumar, Surinder Pal, Rahul Kapoor


This paper is focused on to define the basic difference between hot and cold chamber high pressure die casting process which is not fully defined in a research before paper which we have studied. The pressure die casting is basically defined into two types (1) Hot chamber Die Casting (2) Cold chamber Die Casting. Cold chamber die casting is used for casting alloys that require high pressure and have a high melting temperature, such as brass, aluminum, magnesium, copper based alloys and other high melting point nonferrous alloys. Hot chamber die casting is suitable for casting zinc, tin, lead, and low melting point alloys. In hot chamber die casting machine, the molten metal is an integral pan of the machine. It mainly consists of hot chamber and gooseneck type metal container made of cast iron. This machine is mainly used for low melting alloys and alloys of metals like zinc, lead etc. Metals and alloys having a high melting point and those which are having an affinity for iron cannot be cast by this machine, which could otherwise attack the shot sleeve and damage the machine.

Keywords: hot chamber die casting, cold chamber die casting, metals and alloys, casting technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 527
874 Simulation of Die Casting Process in an Industrial Helical Gearbox Flange Die

Authors: Mehdi Modabberifar, Behrouz Raad, Bahman Mirzakhani


Flanges are widely used for connecting valves, pipes and other industrial devices such as gearboxes. Method of producing a flange has a considerable impact on the manner of their involvement with the industrial engines and gearboxes. By Using die casting instead of sand casting and machining for manufacturing flanges, production speed and dimensional accuracy of the parts increases. Also, in die casting, obtained dimensions are close to final dimensions and hence the need for machining flanges after die casting process decreases which makes a significant savings in raw materials and improves the mechanical properties of flanges. In this paper, a typical die of an industrial helical gearbox flange (size ISO 50) was designed and die casting process for producing this type of flange was simulated using ProCAST software. The results of simulation were used for optimizing die design. Finally, using the results of the analysis, optimized die was built.

Keywords: die casting, finite element, flange, helical gearbox

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
873 A Review on Parametric Optimization of Casting Processes Using Optimization Techniques

Authors: Bhrugesh Radadiya, Jaydeep Shah


In Indian foundry industry, there is a need of defect free casting with minimum production cost in short lead time. Casting defect is a very large issue in foundry shop which increases the rejection rate of casting and wastage of materials. The various parameters influences on casting process such as mold machine related parameters, green sand related parameters, cast metal related parameters, mold related parameters and shake out related parameters. The mold related parameters are most influences on casting defects in sand casting process. This paper review the casting produced by foundry with shrinkage and blow holes as a major defects was analyzed and identified that mold related parameters such as mold temperature, pouring temperature and runner size were not properly set in sand casting process. These parameters were optimized using different optimization techniques such as Taguchi method, Response surface methodology, Genetic algorithm and Teaching-learning based optimization algorithm. Finally, concluded that a Teaching-learning based optimization algorithm give better result than other optimization techniques.

Keywords: casting defects, genetic algorithm, parametric optimization, Taguchi method, TLBO algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 635
872 Olefin and Paraffin Separation Using Simulations on Extractive Distillation

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdulrahman A. Al-Rabiah


Technical mixture of C4 containing 1-butene and n-butane are very close to each other with respect to their boiling points i.e. -6.3°C for 1-butene and -1°C for n-butane. Extractive distillation process is used for the separation of 1-butene from the existing mixture of C4. The solvent is the essential of extractive distillation, and an appropriate solvent shows an important role in the process economy of extractive distillation. Aspen Plus has been applied for the separation of these hydrocarbons as a simulator; moreover NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the simulation. This model indicated that the material balances in this separation process were accurate for several solvent flow rates. Mixture of acetonitrile and water used as a solvent and 99 % pure 1-butene was separated. This simulation proposed the ratio of the feed to solvent as 1 : 7.9 and 15 plates for the solvent recovery column, previously feed to solvent ratio was more than this and the proposed plates were 30, which can economize the separation process.

Keywords: extractive distillation, 1-butene, Aspen Plus, ACN solvent

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
871 Processing Design of Miniature Casting Incorporating Stereolithography Technologies

Authors: Pei-Hsing Huang, Wei-Ju Huang


Investment casting is commonly used in the production of metallic components with complex shapes, due to its high dimensional precision, good surface finish, and low cost. However, the process is cumbersome, and the period between trial casting and final production can be very long, thereby limiting business opportunities and competitiveness. In this study, we replaced conventional wax injection with stereolithography (SLA) 3D printing to speed up the trial process and reduce costs. We also used silicone molds to further reduce costs to avoid the high costs imposed by photosensitive resin.

Keywords: investment casting, stereolithography, wax molding, 3D printing

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
870 Process Simulation of 1-Butene Separation from C4 Mixture by Extractive Distillation

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdulrahman A. Al-Rabiah, Wasif Mughees


Technical mixture of C4 containing 1-butene and n-butane are very close to each other with regard to their boiling points i.e. -6.3°C for 1-butene and -1°C for n-butane. Extractive distillation process is used for the separation of 1-butene from the existing mixture of C4. The solvent is the essential of extractive distillation, and an appropriate solvent plays an important role in the process economy of extractive distillation. Aspen Plus has been applied for the separation of these hydrocarbons as a simulator. Moreover, NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the simulation. This model indicated that the material balances in this separation process were accurate for several solvent flow rates. Mixture of acetonitrile and water used as a solvent and 99% pure 1-butene was separated. This simulation proposed the ratio of the feed to solvent as 1: 7.9 and 15 plates for the solvent recovery column. Previously feed to solvent ratio was more than this and the number of proposed plates were 30, which shows that the separation process can be economized.

Keywords: extractive distillation, 1-butene, aspen plus, ACN solvent

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
869 Fabricating Method for Complex 3D Microfluidic Channel Using Soluble Wax Mold

Authors: Kyunghun Kang, Sangwoo Oh, Yongha Hwang


PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane)-based microfluidic device has been recently applied to area of biomedical research, tissue engineering, and diagnostics because PDMS is low cost, nontoxic, optically transparent, gas-permeable, and especially biocompatible. Generally, PDMS microfluidic devices are fabricated by conventional soft lithography. Microfabrication requires expensive cleanroom facilities and a lot of time; however, only two-dimensional or simple three-dimensional structures can be fabricated. In this study, we introduce fabricating method for complex three-dimensional microfluidic channels using soluble wax mold. Using the 3D printing technique, we firstly fabricated three-dimensional mold which consists of soluble wax material. The PDMS pre-polymer is cast around, followed by PDMS casting and curing. The three-dimensional casting mold was removed from PDMS by chemically dissolved with methanol and acetone. In this work, two preliminary experiments were carried out. Firstly, the solubility of several waxes was tested using various solvents, such as acetone, methanol, hexane, and IPA. We found the combination between wax and solvent which dissolves the wax. Next, side effects of the solvent were investigated during the curing process of PDMS pre-polymer. While some solvents let PDMS drastically swell, methanol and acetone let PDMS swell only 2% and 6%, respectively. Thus, methanol and acetone can be used to dissolve wax in PDMS without any serious impact. Based on the preliminary tests, three-dimensional PDMS microfluidic channels was fabricated using the mold which was printed out using 3D printer. With the proposed fabricating technique, PDMS-based microfluidic devices have advantages of fast prototyping, low cost, optically transparence, as well as having complex three-dimensional geometry. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Supported by a Korea University Grant and Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF).

Keywords: microfluidic channel, polydimethylsiloxane, 3D printing, casting

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
868 Effect of the Mould Rotational Speed on the Quality of Centrifugal Castings

Authors: M. A. El-Sayed, S. A. Aziz


Centrifugal casting is a standard casting technique for the manufacture of hollow, intricate and sound castings without the use of cores. The molten metal or alloy poured into the rotating mold forms a hollow casting as the centrifugal forces lift the liquid along the mold inner surface. The rotational speed of the die was suggested to greatly affect the manner in which the molten metal flows within the mould and consequently the probability of the formation of a uniform cylinder. In this work the flow of the liquid metal at various speeds and its effect during casting were studied. The results suggested that there was a critical range for the speed, within which the produced castings exhibited best uniformity and maximum mechanical properties. When a mould was rotated at speeds below or beyond the critical range defects were found in the final castings, which affected the uniformity and significantly lowered the mechanical properties.

Keywords: centrifugal casting, rotational speed, critical speed range, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
867 Development of a Robot Assisted Centrifugal Casting Machine for Manufacturing Multi-Layer Journal Bearing and High-Tech Machine Components

Authors: Mohammad Syed Ali Molla, Mohammed Azim, Mohammad Esharuzzaman


Centrifugal-casting machine is used in manufacturing special machine components like multi-layer journal bearing used in all internal combustion engine, steam, gas turbine and air craft turboengine where isotropic properties and high precisions are desired. Moreover, this machine can be used in manufacturing thin wall hightech machine components like cylinder liners and piston rings of IC engine and other machine parts like sleeves, and bushes. Heavy-duty machine component like railway wheel can also be prepared by centrifugal casting. A lot of technological developments are required in casting process for production of good casted machine body and machine parts. Usually defects like blowholes, surface roughness, chilled surface etc. are found in sand casted machine parts. But these can be removed by centrifugal casting machine using rotating metallic die. Moreover, die rotation, its temperature control, and good pouring practice can contribute to the quality of casting because of the fact that the soundness of a casting in large part depends upon how the metal enters into the mold or dies and solidifies. Poor pouring practice leads to variety of casting defects such as temperature loss, low quality casting, excessive turbulence, over pouring etc. Besides these, handling of molten metal is very unsecured and dangerous for the workers. In order to get rid of all these problems, the need of an automatic pouring device arises. In this research work, a robot assisted pouring device and a centrifugal casting machine are designed, developed constructed and tested experimentally which are found to work satisfactorily. The robot assisted pouring device is further modified and developed for using it in actual metal casting process. Lot of settings and tests are required to control the system and ultimately it can be used in automation of centrifugal casting machine to produce high-tech machine parts with desired precision.

Keywords: bearing, centrifugal casting, cylinder liners, robot

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
866 Improvement of Egyptian Vacuum Distillates by Solvent Dewaxing

Authors: Ehssan M. R. Nassef


De-waxing of vacuum distillates by using solvent was investigated in the present study. The present work deals with studying solvent dewaxing system which have been developed to give better dewaxing performance with respect to the important factors in the choice of solvents which are good solubility of oil in the solvent and low solubility of wax in the solvent. In this study, solvent dewaxing process using Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) and toluene are used for Egyptian vacuum distillates using two types of distillates. The effect of varying the composition of(MEK to toluene) on the percent yield of the oil, percent of wax, pour point, refractive index at 20 and 70°C, viscosity at 40 and 100°C, viscosity index and specific gravity of the oil produced for the two types of distillates (I & II) were evaluated. In the present study, the operating conditions of solvent dewaxing using MEK toluene mixture achieved the best pour point at -15°C for distillate I at (1:1) solvent composition mixture. At the same ratio of MEK to toluene the best specific gravity of oil produced changed from 0.871 to 0.8802, with refractive index of 1.84. Percent yield of 65% for oil was obtained. The results for distillate II, of higher specific gravity, are comparatively higher than those for distillate I. The effect of temperature was also investigated and the best temperature was -20°C.

Keywords: dewaxing, solvent dewaxing, pour point, lubricating oil production, wax

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865 Investment Casting Conditions with Tourmaline In-Situ

Authors: Kageeporn Wongpreedee, Bongkot Phichaikamjornwut, Duangkhae Bootkul


The technique of stone in place casting had been established in jewelry production for two decades. However, the process were not widely used since it was limited to precious stones with high hardness and high stabililty at high temperature. This experiment were tested on tourmaline which is semi-precious gemstone having less hardness and less stability comparing to precious stones. The experiment were designed into two parts. The first part is to understand the phenomena of tourmaline under the heating conditions. Natural tourmaline stones were investigated and compared inclusions inside stones tested at temperature of 500 °C, 600 °C, and 700 °C. The second part is to cast the treated tourmaline with ion-implanation under the stones in place casting conditions. The results showed that stones were able to tolerate as much as at 700 °C showing the growths of inclusions inside the stones. The second part of this experiment were compared tourmaline with ion-implantation and natural tourmaline using on stones in place casting process at different stone setting types. The results showed that the cracks and inclustions of both treat and natural tourmaline with stones in place casting were propagate due to high stress of metal contractions. The stones with ion-implatation were more likely tolerate to cracks and inclusion propagations inside the stones.

Keywords: stone in place casting, tourmaline, ion implantation, metal contraction

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864 The Effect of Increase in Aluminium Content on Fluidity of ZA Alloys Processed by Centrifugal Casting

Authors: P. N. Jyothi, A. Shailesh Rao, M. C. Jagath, K. Channakeshavalu


Uses of ZA alloys as bearing material have been increased due to their superior mechanical properties, wear characteristics and tribological properties. Among ZA alloys, ZA 27 alloy has higher strength, low density with excellent bearing and wear characteristics. From the past research work, it is observed that in continuous casting as Al content increases, the fluidity also increases. In present work, ZA 8, ZA 12 and ZA 27 alloys have been processed through centrifugal casting process at 600 rotational speed of the mould. Uniform full cylinder is casted with ZA 8 alloy. For ZA 12 and ZA 27 alloys where the Al content is higher, cast tubes were not complete and uniform. The reason is Al may be acting as a refiner and reduce the melt flow in the rotating mould. This is mainly due to macro-segregation of Al, which has occurred due to difference in densities of Al and Zn.

Keywords: centrifugal casting, metal flow, characterization, systems engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
863 Investigation of Solvent Effect on Viscosity of Lubricant in Disposable Medical Devices

Authors: Hamed Bagheri, Seyd Javid Shariati


The effects of type and amount of solvent on lubricant which is used in disposable medical devices are investigated in this article. Two kinds of common solvent, n-Hexane and n-Heptane, are used. The mechanical behavior of syringe has shown that n-Heptane has better mixing ratio and also more effective spray process in the barrel of syringe than n-Hexane because of similar solubility parameter to silicon oil. The results revealed that movement of plunger in the barrel increases when pure silicone is used because non-uniform film is created on the surface of barrel, and also, it seems that the form of silicon is converted from oil to gel due to sterilization process. The results showed that the convenient mixing ratio of solvent/lubricant oil is 80/20.

Keywords: disposal medical devices, lubricant oil, solvent effect, solubility parameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
862 First Approach on Lycopene Extraction Using Limonene

Authors: M. A. Ferhat, M. N. Boukhatem, F. Chemat


Lycopene extraction with petroleum derivatives as solvents has caused safety, health, and environmental concerns everywhere. Thus, finding a safe alternative solvent will have a strong and positive impact on environments and general health of the world population. d-limonene from the orange peel was extracted through a steam distillation procedure followed by a deterpenation process and combining this achievement by using it as a solvent for extracting lycopene from tomato fruit as a substitute of dichloromethane. Lycopene content of fresh tomatoes was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography after extraction. Yields obtained for both extractions showed that yields of d-limonene’s extracts were almost equivalent to those obtained using dichloromethane. The proposed approach using a green solvent to perform extraction is useful and can be considered as a nice alternative to conventional petroleum solvent where toxicity for both operator and environment is reduced.

Keywords: alternative solvent, d-limonene, extraction, lycopene

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861 Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Abu Ghalaga Ilmenite Ore

Authors: I. A. Ibrahim, T. A. Elbarbary, N. Abdelaty, A. T. Kandil, H. K. Farhan


The present work aims to study the leaching of Abu Ghalaga ilmenite ore by hydrochloric acid and simultaneous reduction by iron powder method to dissolve its titanium and iron contents. Iron content in the produced liquor is separated by solvent extraction using TBP as a solvent. All parameters affecting the efficiency of the dissolution process were separately studied including the acid concentration, solid/liquid ratio which controls the ilmenite/acid molar ratio, temperature, time and grain size. The optimum conditions at which maximum leaching occur are 30% HCl acid with a solid/liquid ratio of 1/30 at 80 °C for 4 h using ore ground to -350 mesh size. At the same time, all parameters affecting on solvent extraction and stripping of iron content from the produced liquor were studied. Results show that the best extraction is at solvent/solution 1/1 by shaking at 240 RPM for 45 minutes at 30 °C whereas best striping of iron at H₂O/solvent 2/1.

Keywords: ilmenite ore, leaching, titanium solvent extraction, Abu Ghalaga ilmenite ore

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
860 Environmentally Friendly Palm Oil-Based Polymeric Plasticiser for Poly (Vinyl Chloride)

Authors: Nur Zahidah Rozaki, Desmond Ang Teck Chye


Environment-friendly polymeric plasticisers for poly(vinyl chloride), PVC were synthesised using palm oil as the main raw material. The synthesis comprised of 2 steps: (i) transesterification of palm oil, followed by (ii) polycondensation between the products of transesterification with diacids. The synthesis involves four different formulations to produce plasticisers with different average molecular weight. Chemical structures of the plasticiser were studied using FTIR (Fourier-Transformed Infra-Red) and 1H-NMR (Proton-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance).The molecular weights of these palm oil-based polymers were obtained using GPC (Gel Permeation Chromatography). PVC was plasticised with the polymeric plasticisers through solvent casting technique using tetrahydrofuran, THF as the mutual solvent. Some of the tests conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the plasticiser in the PVC film including thermal stability test using thermogravimetric analyser (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis to determine the glass transition temperature, Tg, and mechanical test to determine tensile strength, modulus and elongation at break of plasticised PVC using standard test method ASTM D882.

Keywords: alkyd, palm oil, plasticiser, pvc

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
859 Ultrathin NaA Zeolite Membrane in Solvent Recovery: Preparation and Application

Authors: Eng Toon Saw, Kun Liang Ang, Wei He, Xuecheng Dong, Seeram Ramakrishna


Solvent recovery process is receiving utmost attention in recent year due to the scarcity of natural resource and consciousness of circular economy in chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Solvent dehydration process is one of the important process to recover and to purify the solvent for reuse. Due to the complexity of solvent waste or wastewater effluent produced in pharmaceutical industry resulting the wastewater treatment process become complicated, thus an alternative solution is to recover the valuable solvent in solvent waste. To treat solvent waste and to upgrade solvent purity, membrane pervaporation process is shown to be a promising technology due to the energy intensive and low footprint advantages. Ceramic membrane is adopted as solvent dehydration membrane owing to the chemical and thermal stability properties as compared to polymeric membrane. NaA zeolite membrane is generally used as solvent dehydration process because of its narrow and distinct pore size and high hydrophilicity. NaA zeolite membrane has been mainly applied in alcohol dehydration in fermentation process. At this stage, the membrane performance exhibits high separation factor with low flux using tubular ceramic membrane. Thus, defect free and ultrathin NaA membrane should be developed to increase water flux. Herein, we report a simple preparation protocol to prepare ultrathin NaA zeolite membrane supported on tubular ceramic membrane by controlling the seed size synthesis, seeding methods and conditions, ceramic substrate surface pore size selection and secondary growth conditions. The microstructure and morphology of NaA zeolite membrane will be examined and reported. Moreover, the membrane separation performance and stability will also be reported in isopropanol dehydration, ketone dehydration and ester dehydration particularly for the application in pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, NaA zeolite, pharmaceutical industry, solvent recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
858 The Mechanism Study of Degradative Solvent Extraction of Biomass by Liquid Membrane-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: W. Ketren, J. Wannapeera, Z. Heishun, A. Ryuichi, K. Toshiteru, M. Kouichi, O. Hideaki


Degradative solvent extraction is the method developed for biomass upgrading by dewatering and fractionation of biomass under the mild condition. However, the conversion mechanism of the degradative solvent extraction method has not been fully understood so far. The rice straw was treated in 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at a different solvent-treatment temperature varied from 250 to 350 oC with the residence time for 60 min. The liquid membrane-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) technique is applied to study the processing mechanism in-depth without separation of the solvent. It has been found that the strength of the oxygen-hydrogen stretching  (3600-3100 cm-1) decreased slightly with increasing temperature in the range of 300-350 oC. The decrease of the hydroxyl group in the solvent soluble suggested dehydration reaction taking place between 300 and 350 oC. FTIR spectra in the carbonyl stretching region (1800-1600 cm-1) revealed the presence of esters groups, carboxylic acid and ketonic groups in the solvent-soluble of biomass. The carboxylic acid increased in the range of 200 to 250 oC and then decreased. The prevailing of aromatic groups showed that the aromatization took place during extraction at above 250 oC. From 300 to 350 oC, the carbonyl functional groups in the solvent-soluble noticeably decreased. The removal of the carboxylic acid and the decrease of esters into the form of carbon dioxide indicated that the decarboxylation reaction occurred during the extraction process.

Keywords: biomass waste, degradative solvent extraction, mechanism, upgrading

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
857 Porosities Comparison between Production and Simulation in Motorcycle Fuel Caps of Aluminum High Pressure Die Casting

Authors: P. Meethum, C. Suvanjumrat


Many aluminum motorcycle parts produced by a high pressure die casting. Some parts such as fuel caps were a thin and complex shape. This part risked for porosities and blisters on surface if it only depended on an experience of mold makers for mold design. This research attempted to use CAST-DESIGNER software simulated the high pressure die casting process with the same process parameters of a motorcycle fuel cap production. The simulated results were compared with fuel cap products and expressed the same porosity and blister locations on cap surface. An average of absolute difference of simulated results was obtained 0.094 mm when compared the simulated porosity and blister defect sizes on the fuel cap surfaces with the experimental micro photography. This comparison confirmed an accuracy of software and will use the setting parameters to improve fuel cap molds in the further work.

Keywords: aluminum, die casting, fuel cap, motorcycle

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856 A Metallography Study of Secondary A226 Aluminium Alloy Used in Automotive Industries

Authors: Lenka Hurtalová, Eva Tillová, Mária Chalupová, Juraj Belan, Milan Uhríčik


The secondary alloy A226 is used for many automotive casting produced by mould casting and high pressure die-casting. This alloy has excellent castability, good mechanical properties and cost-effectiveness. Production of primary aluminium alloys belong to heavy source fouling of life environs. The European Union calls for the emission reduction and reduction in energy consumption, therefore, increase production of recycled (secondary) aluminium cast alloys. The contribution is deal with influence of recycling on the quality of the casting made from A226 in automotive industry. The properties of the casting made from secondary aluminium alloys were compared with the required properties of primary aluminium alloys. The effect of recycling on microstructure was observed using combination different analytical techniques (light microscopy upon black-white etching, scanning electron microscopy-SEM upon deep etching and energy dispersive X-ray analysis-EDX). These techniques were used for the identification of the various structure parameters, which was used to compare secondary alloy microstructure with primary alloy microstructure.

Keywords: A226 secondary aluminium alloy, deep etching, mechanical properties, recycling foundry aluminium alloy

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855 Layer by Layer Coating of Zinc Oxide/Metal Organic Framework Nanocomposite on Ceramic Support for Solvent/Solvent Separation Using Pervaporation Method

Authors: S. A. A. Nabeela Nasreen, S. Sundarrajan, S. A. Syed Nizar, Seeram Ramakrishna


Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted considerable interest due to its diverse pore size tunability, fascinating topologies and extensive uses in fields such as catalysis, membrane separation, chemical sensing, etc. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are a class of MOF with porous crystals containing extended three-dimensional structures of tetrahedral metal ions (e.g., Zn) bridged by Imidazolate (Im). Selected ZIFs are used to separate solvent/solvent mixtures. A layer by layer formation of the nanocomposite of Zinc oxide (ZnO) and ZIF on a ceramic support using a solvothermal method was engaged and tested for target solvent/solvent separation. Metal oxide layer was characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM to confirm the smooth and continuous coating for the separation process. The chemical composition of ZIF films was studied by using X-Ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The obtained ceramic tube with metal oxide and ZIF layer coating were tested for its packing density, thickness, distribution of seed layers and variation of permeation rate of solvent mixture (isopropyl alcohol (IPA)/methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Pervaporation technique was used for the separation to achieve a high permeation rate with separation ratio of > 99.5% of the solvent mixture.

Keywords: metal oxide, membrane, pervaporation, solvothermal, ZIF

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854 Development of Al-5%Cu/Si₃N₄, B₄C or BN Composites for Piston Applications

Authors: Ahmed Lotfy, Andrey V. Pozdniakov, Vadim C. Zolotorevskiy


The purpose of this research is to provide a competitive alternative to aluminum silicon alloys used in automotive applications. This alternative was created by developing three types of composites Al-5%Cu- (B₄C, BN or Si₃N₄) particulates with a low coefficient of thermal expansion. Stir casting was used to synthesis composites containing 2, 5 and 7 wt. % of B₄C, Si₃N₄ and 2, 5 of BN followed by squeeze casting. The squeeze casting process decreased the porosity of the final composites. The composites exhibited a fairly uniform particle distribution throughout the matrix alloy. The microstructure and XRD results of the composites suggested a significant reaction occurred at the interface between the particles and alloy. Increasing the aging temperature from 200 to 250°C decreased the hardness values of the matrix and the composites and decreased the time required to reach the peak. Turner model was used to calculate the expected values of thermal expansion coefficient CTE of matrix and its composites. Deviations between calculated and experimental values of CTE were not exceeded 10%. Al-5%Cu-B₄C composites experimentally showed the lowest values of CTE (17-19)·10-6 °С-1 and (19-20) ·10-6 °С-1 in the temperature range 20-100 °С and 20-200 °С respectively.

Keywords: aluminum matrix composites, coefficient of thermal expansion, X-ray diffraction, squeeze casting, electron microscopy,

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853 Impact of Flavor on Food Product Quality, A Case Study of Vanillin Stability during Biscuit Preparation

Authors: N. Yang, R. Linforth, I. Fisk


The influence of food processing and choice of flavour solvent was investigated using biscuits prepared with vanillin flavour as an example. Powder vanillin either was added directly into the dough or dissolved into flavour solvent then mixed into the dough. The impact of two commonly used flavour solvents on food quality was compared: propylene glycol (PG) or triacetin (TA). The analytical approach for vanillin detection was developed by chromatography (HPLC-PDA), and the standard extraction method for vanillin was also established. The results indicated the impact of solvent choice on vanillin level during biscuit preparation. After baking, TA as a more heat resistant solvent retained more vanillin than PG, so TA is a better solvent for products that undergo a heating process. The results also illustrated the impact of mixing and baking on vanillin stability in the matrices. The average loss of vanillin was 33% during mixing and 13% during baking, which indicated that the binding of vanillin to fat or flour before baking might cause larger loss than evaporation loss during baking.

Keywords: biscuit, flavour stability, food quality, vanillin

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
852 Performance Evaluation of Sand Casting Manufacturing Plant with WITNESS

Authors: Aniruddha Joshi


This paper discusses a simulation study of automated sand casting production system. Therefore, the first aims of this study is development of automated sand casting process model and analyze this model with a simulation software Witness. Production methodology aims to improve overall productivity through elimination of wastes and that leads to improve quality. Integration of automation with Simulation is beneficial to identify the obstacles in implementation and to take appropriate options to implement successfully. For this integration, there are different Simulation Software’s. To study this integration, with the help of “WITNESS” Simulation Software the model is created. This model is based on literature review. The input parameters are Setup Time, Number of machines, cycle time and output parameter is number of castings, avg, and time and percentage usage of machines. Obtained results are used for Statistical Analysis. This analysis concludes the optimal solution to get maximum output.

Keywords: automated sand casting production system, simulation, WITNESS software, performance evaluation

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851 Towards the Modeling of Lost Core Viability in High-Pressure Die Casting: A Fluid-Structure Interaction Model with 2-Phase Flow Fluid Model

Authors: Sebastian Kohlstädt, Michael Vynnycky, Stephan Goeke, Jan Jäckel, Andreas Gebauer-Teichmann


This paper summarizes the progress in the latest computational fluid dynamics research towards the modeling in of lost core viability in high-pressure die casting. High-pressure die casting is a process that is widely employed in the automotive and neighboring industries due to its advantages in casting quality and cost efficiency. The degrees of freedom are however somewhat limited as it has been so far difficult to use lost cores in the process. This is right now changing and the deployment of lost cores is considered a future growth potential for high-pressure die casting companies. The use of this technology itself is difficult though. The strength of the core material, as chiefly salt is used, is limited and experiments have shown that the cores will not hold under all circumstances and process designs. For this purpose, the publicly available CFD library foam-extend (OpenFOAM) is used, and two additional fluid models for incompressible and compressible two-phase flow are implemented as fluid solver models into the FSI library. For this purpose, the volume-of-fluid (VOF) methodology is used. The necessity for the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) approach is shown by a simple CFD model geometry. The model is benchmarked against analytical models and experimental data. Sufficient agreement is found with the analytical models and good agreement with the experimental data. An outlook on future developments concludes the paper.

Keywords: CFD, fluid-structure interaction, high-pressure die casting, multiphase flow

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850 Ethics in the Production of Chinese Reality TV

Authors: Tianyu Zhang


China has become one of the markets with the biggest potential for UK exporters, but it remains difficult for outsiders to explore Chinese media’s inner workings due to a lack of access. Having worked in Chinese media, the author conducted six month’s participant-observation in China Central Television (CCTV) and three independent production companies. This paper mainly explores how TV production ethics were implemented in the casting process of three Chinese reality shows that are well-known within the country. The three production teams had issues in common: unorganised management, subjective casting standards and lack of production ethics. Casting directors, who were multitasking, could only rely on their professional experience and ad-hoc demands from the management. More concerning phenomena such as borderline corruption, passive-aggressiveness, and blame cultures were prevalent during the entire production, especially during casting. The casting process also often involved the celebrity status of the many ‘ordinary’ participants who were not that ‘ordinary’ as they claimed. Many of these participants were professional talents who were not famous enough but worked as many other well-known celebrities who had their own employees. On the other hand, as comprehensive production and ethics guidelines were missing, junior television practitioners struggled between their ideal professional standards and real-life events that fell into grey areas – telling white lies, bribery, shifting blame, and lack of employee training. Although facing challenges, many practitioners came up with self-management solutions and worked with positivity.

Keywords: production studies, ethics, television production, ethnography, reality TV, Chinese TV

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849 Processes and Application of Casting Simulation and Its Software’s

Authors: Surinder Pal, Ajay Gupta, Johny Khajuria


Casting simulation helps visualize mold filling and casting solidification; predict related defects like cold shut, shrinkage porosity and hard spots; and optimize the casting design to achieve the desired quality with high yield. Flow and solidification of molten metals are, however, a very complex phenomenon that is difficult to simulate correctly by conventional computational techniques, especially when the part geometry is intricate and the required inputs (like thermo-physical properties and heat transfer coefficients) are not available. Simulation software is based on the process of modeling a real phenomenon with a set of mathematical formulas. It is, essentially, a program that allows the user to observe an operation through simulation without actually performing that operation. Simulation software is used widely to design equipment so that the final product will be as close to design specs as possible without expensive in process modification. Simulation software with real-time response is often used in gaming, but it also has important industrial applications. When the penalty for improper operation is costly, such as airplane pilots, nuclear power plant operators, or chemical plant operators, a mockup of the actual control panel is connected to a real-time simulation of the physical response, giving valuable training experience without fear of a disastrous outcome. The all casting simulation software has own requirements, like magma cast has only best for crack simulation. The latest generation software Auto CAST developed at IIT Bombay provides a host of functions to support method engineers, including part thickness visualization, core design, multi-cavity mold design with common gating and feeding, application of various feed aids (feeder sleeves, chills, padding, etc.), simulation of mold filling and casting solidification, automatic optimization of feeders and gating driven by the desired quality level, and what-if cost analysis. IIT Bombay has developed a set of applications for the foundry industry to improve casting yield and quality. Casting simulation is a fast and efficient solution for process for advanced tool which is the result of more than 20 years of collaboration with major industrial partners and academic institutions around the world. In this paper the process of casting simulation is studied.

Keywords: casting simulation software’s, simulation technique’s, casting simulation, processes

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848 Solvent Extraction of Rb and Cs from Jarosite Slag Using t-BAMBP

Authors: Zhang Haiyan, Su Zujun, Zhao Fengqi


Lepidolite after extraction of Lithium by sulfate produced many jarosite slag which contains a lot of Rb and Cs.The separation and recovery of Rubidium(Rb) and Cesium(Cs) can make full of use of Lithium mica. XRF analysis showed that the slag mainly including K Rb Cs Al and etc. Fractional solvent extraction tests were carried out; the results show that using20% t-BAMBP plus 80% sulfonated kerosene, the separation of Rb and Cs can be achieved by adjusting the alkalinity. Extraction is the order of Cs Rb, ratio of Cs to Rb and ratio of Rb to K can reach above 1500 and 2500 respectively.

Keywords: cesium, jarosite slag, rubidium, solvent extraction, t-BAMBP

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847 Melt Conditioned-Twin Roll Casting of Magnesium Alloy

Authors: Sanjeev Das


In the present investigation, magnesium strips were produced by twin roll casting (TRC) and melt conditioned twin roll casting (MC-TRC) processes. The microstructures showed uniform fine equiaxed grain morphology in the case of MC-TRC cast samples. In the case of TRC samples elongated grains with centerline segregation was observed. Further investigation showed both the process has different solidification mechanism. Tensile tests were performed at 250–400ºC for both TRC and MCTRC samples. At 250ºC, MC-TRC sample showed significant improvement in strength and ductility. However, at higher temperatures the tensile properties were almost comparable, despite of TRC samples having larger grains compared to MC-TRC samples. It was observed that homogenized MC-TRC samples were easily hot stamped compared to TRC samples.

Keywords: MC-TRC, magnesium alloy, solidification, nucleation

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