Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 107

Search results for: Ehsan Pegah

107 Evaluation of Internal Friction Angle in Overconsolidated Granular Soil Deposits Using P- and S-Wave Seismic Velocities

Authors: Ehsan Pegah, Huabei Liu

Abstract:

Determination of the internal friction angle (φ) in natural soil deposits is an important issue in geotechnical engineering. The main objective of this study was to examine the evaluation of this parameter in overconsolidated granular soil deposits by using the P-wave velocity and the anisotropic components of S-wave velocity (i.e., both the vertical component (SV) and the horizontal component (SH) of S-wave). To this end, seventeen pairs of P-wave and S-wave seismic refraction profiles were carried out at three different granular sites in Iran using non-invasive seismic wave methods. The acquired shot gathers were processed, from which the P-wave, SV-wave and SH-wave velocities were derived. The reference values of φ and overconsolidation ratio (OCR) in the soil deposits were measured through laboratory tests. By assuming cross-anisotropy of the soils, the P-wave and S-wave velocities were utilized to develop an equation for calculating the coefficient of lateral earth pressure at-rest (K₀) based on the theory of elasticity for a cross-anisotropic medium. In addition, to develop an equation for OCR estimation in granular geomaterials in terms of SH/SV velocity ratios, a general regression analysis was performed on the resulting information from this research incorporated with the respective data published in the literature. The calculated K₀ values coupled with the estimated OCR values were finally employed in the Mayne and Kulhawy formula to evaluate φ in granular soil deposits. The results showed that reliable values of φ could be estimated based on the seismic wave velocities. The findings of this study may be used as the appropriate approaches for economic and non-invasive determination of in-situ φ in granular soil deposits using the surface seismic surveys.

Keywords: angle of internal friction, overconsolidation ratio, granular soils, P-wave velocity, SV-wave velocity, SH-wave velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
106 Evaluation of Duncan-Chang Deformation Parameters of Granular Fill Materials Using Non-Invasive Seismic Wave Methods

Authors: Ehsan Pegah, Huabei Liu

Abstract:

Characterizing the deformation properties of fill materials in a wide stress range always has been an important issue in geotechnical engineering. The hyperbolic Duncan-Chang model is a very popular model of stress-strain relationship that captures the nonlinear deformation of granular geomaterials in a very tractable manner. It consists of a particular set of the model parameters, which are generally measured from an extensive series of laboratory triaxial tests. This practice is both time-consuming and costly, especially in large projects. In addition, undesired effects caused by soil disturbance during the sampling procedure also may yield a large degree of uncertainty in the results. Accordingly, non-invasive geophysical seismic approaches may be utilized as the appropriate alternative surveys for measuring the model parameters based on the seismic wave velocities. To this end, the conventional seismic refraction profiles were carried out in the test sites with the granular fill materials to collect the seismic waves information. The acquired shot gathers are processed, from which the P- and S-wave velocities can be derived. The P-wave velocities are extracted from the Seismic Refraction Tomography (SRT) technique while S-wave velocities are obtained by the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method. The velocity values were then utilized with the equations resulting from the rigorous theories of elasticity and soil mechanics to evaluate the Duncan-Chang model parameters. The derived parameters were finally compared with those from laboratory tests to validate the reliability of the results. The findings of this study may confidently serve as the useful references for determination of nonlinear deformation parameters of granular fill geomaterials. Those are environmentally friendly and quite economic, which can yield accurate results under the actual in-situ conditions using the surface seismic methods.

Keywords: Duncan-Chang deformation parameters, granular fill materials, seismic waves velocity, multichannel analysis of surface waves, seismic refraction tomography

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
105 Preparation of MgO Nanoparticles by Green Methods

Authors: Maryam Sabbaghan, Pegah Sofalgar

Abstract:

Over the past few decades, a significant amount of research activities in the chemical community has been directed towards green synthesis. This area of chemistry has received extensive attention because of environmentally benign processes as well as economically viable. In this article, the MgO nanoparticles were prepared by different methods in the present of ionic liquids. A wide range of Magnesium oxide particle sizes within the nanometer scale is obtained by these methods. The structure of these MgO particles was studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the formation of nanoparticle could involve the role of performed 'nucleus' and used template to control the growth rate of nucleuses. The crystallite size of the MgO products was in a range from 31 to 77 nm.

Keywords: MgO, ionic liquid, nanoparticles, green chemistry

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
104 Spiritual Health in View of Islamic Mysticism

Authors: Maryam Bakhtyar-Pegah Akrami

Abstract:

The relationship between spiritual health and spirituality is one of the important is that in recent years, the research about it is expanding and due to the rich heritage of the in this field of study and research in this important field more than before and we will come to spiritual life and healthier than before. In this research, we provide the following and the basics of Islamic Mysticism in the realm of spiritual health thoughts. This research is based on a descriptive method and comparison with analytical-method to data collected. The findings show that human beings due to this pivotal topic of full Islamic slab, and mental and physical education with the sought to reach the human place are complete, we can provide the basics along with new discussions of spiritual health help human beings to spiritual education along with our faiths in the reconstruction of the spiritual foundations of spiritual health are extremely helpful

Keywords: spirituality, health, Islam, mysticism, perfect human

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
103 Disadvantages and Drawbacks of Concrete Blocks and Fix Their Defects

Authors: Ehsan Sadie

Abstract:

Today, the cost of repair and maintenance of structures is very important and by studying the behavior of reinforced concrete structures Will become specified several factors such as : Design and calculation errors, lack of proper implementation of structural changes, the damage caused by the introduction of random loads, concrete corrosion and environmental conditions reduce durability of the structures . Meanwhile building codes alteration also cause changes in the assessment and review of the design and structure rather if necessary will be improved and strengthened in the future.

Keywords: concrete building , expandable cement, honeycombed surface , reinforcement corrosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
102 Measurement of IMRT Dose Distribution in Rando Head and Neck Phantom using EBT3 Film

Authors: Pegah Safavi, Mehdi Zehtabian, Mohammad Amin Mosleh-Shirazi

Abstract:

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Radiation therapy is one of the main choices for cancer treatment. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy is a new type of radiation therapy technique available for vital structures such as the parathyroid glands. It is very important to check the accuracy of the delivered IMRT treatment because any mistake may lead to more complications for the patient. This paper describes an experiment to determine the accuracy of a dose measured by EBT3 film. To test this method, the EBT3 film on the head and neck of the Rando phantom was irradiated by an IMRT device and the irradiation was repeated twice. Finally, the dose designed by the irradiation system was compared with the dose measured by the EBT3 film. Using this criterion, the accuracy of the EBT3 film was evaluated. When using this criterion, a 95% agreement was reached between the planned treatment and the measured values.

Keywords: EBT3, phantom, accuracy, cancer, IMRT

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
101 Tram Track Deterioration Modeling

Authors: Mohammad Yousefikia, Sara Moridpour, Ehsan Mazloumi

Abstract:

Perceiving track geometry deterioration decisively influences the optimization of track maintenance operations. The effective management of this deterioration and increasingly utilized system with limited financial resources is a significant challenge. This paper provides a review of degradation models relevant for railroad tracks. Furthermore, due to the lack of long term information on the condition development of tram infrastructures, presents the methodology which will be used to derive degradation models from the data of Melbourne tram network.

Keywords: deterioration modeling, asset management, railway, tram

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
100 Investigation of Performance of Organic Acids on Carbonate Rocks (Experimental Study in Ahwaz Oilfield)

Authors: Azad Jarrahian, Ehsan Heidaryan

Abstract:

Matrix acidizing treatments can yield impressive production increase if properly applied. In this study, carbonate samples taken from Ahwaz Oilfield have undergone static solubility, sludge, emulsion, and core flooding tests. In each test interaction of acid and rock is reported and at the end it has been shown that how initial permeability and type of acid affects the overall treatment efficiency.

Keywords: carbonate acidizing, organic acids, spending rate, acid penetration, incomplete spending.

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
99 Adaptive Architecture: Reformulation of Socio-Ecological Systems

Authors: Pegah Zamani

Abstract:

This multidisciplinary study interrogates the reformulation of socio-ecological systems by bringing different disciplines together and incorporating ecological, social, and technological components to the sustainable design. The study seeks for a holistic sustainable system to understand the multidimensional impact of the evolving innovative technologies on responding to the variable socio-environmental conditions. Through a range of cases, from the vernacular built spaces to the sophisticated optimized systems, the research unfolds how far the environmental elements would impact the performance of a sustainable building, its micro-climatic ecological requirements, and its human inhabitation. As a product of the advancing technologies, an optimized and environmentally responsive building offers new identification, and realization of the built space through reformulating the connection to its internal and external environments (such as solar, thermal, and airflow), as well as its dwellers. The study inquires properties of optimized buildings, by bringing into the equation not only the environmental but also the socio-cultural, morphological, and phenomenal factors. Thus, the research underlines optimized built space as a product and practice which would not be meaningful without addressing and dynamically adjusting to the diversity and complexity of socio-ecological systems.

Keywords: ecology, morphology, socio-ecological systems, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
98 Measurement of Viscosity and Moisture of Oil in Supradistribution Transformers Using Ultrasonic Waves

Authors: Ehsan Kadkhodaie, Shahin Parvar, Soroush Senemar, Mostafa Shriat, Abdolrasoul Malekpour

Abstract:

The role of oil in supra distribution transformers is so critical and, several standards in determining the quality of oil have been offered. So far, moisture, viscosity and insulation protection of the oil have been measured based on mechanical and chemical methods and systems such as kart fisher, falling ball and TDM 4000 that most of these techniques are destructive and have many problems such as pollution. In this study, due to the properties of oil and also physical behavior of ultrasound wave new method was designed to in the determination of oil indicators including viscosity and moisture. The results show the oil viscosity can be found from the relationship μ = 42.086/√EE and moisture from (PLUS+) = −15.65 (PPM) + 26040 relationship.

Keywords: oil, viscosity, moisture, ultrasonic waves

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
97 Integration of Microarray Data into a Genome-Scale Metabolic Model to Study Flux Distribution after Gene Knockout

Authors: Mona Heydari, Ehsan Motamedian, Seyed Abbas Shojaosadati

Abstract:

Prediction of perturbations after genetic manipulation (especially gene knockout) is one of the important challenges in systems biology. In this paper, a new algorithm is introduced that integrates microarray data into the metabolic model. The algorithm was used to study the change in the cell phenotype after knockout of Gss gene in Escherichia coli BW25113. Algorithm implementation indicated that gene deletion resulted in more activation of the metabolic network. Growth yield was more and less regulating gene were identified for mutant in comparison with the wild-type strain.

Keywords: metabolic network, gene knockout, flux balance analysis, microarray data, integration

Procedia PDF Downloads 479
96 Analysis of 3 dB Directional Coupler Based On Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) Large Cross-Section Rib Waveguide

Authors: Nurdiani Zamhari, Abang Annuar Ehsan

Abstract:

The 3 dB directional coupler is designed by using silicon-on-insulator (SOI) large cross-section and simulate by Beam Propagation Method at the communication wavelength of 1.55 µm and 1.48 µm. The geometry is shaped with rib height (H) of 6 µm and varied in step factor (r) which is 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8. The wave guide spacing is also fixed to 5 µm and the slab width is symmetrical. In general, the 3 dB coupling lengths for four different cross-sections are several millimetre long. The 1.48 of wavelength give the longer coupling length if compare to 1.55 at the same step factor (r). Besides, the low loss propagation is achieved with less than 2 % of propagation loss.

Keywords: 3 dB directional couplers, silicon-on-insulator, symmetrical rib waveguide, OptiBPM 9

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
95 Comparing Community Detection Algorithms in Bipartite Networks

Authors: Ehsan Khademi, Mahdi Jalili

Abstract:

Despite the special features of bipartite networks, they are common in many systems. Real-world bipartite networks may show community structure, similar to what one can find in one-mode networks. However, the interpretation of the community structure in bipartite networks is different as compared to one-mode networks. In this manuscript, we compare a number of available methods that are frequently used to discover community structure of bipartite networks. These networks are categorized into two broad classes. One class is the methods that, first, transfer the network into a one-mode network, and then apply community detection algorithms. The other class is the algorithms that have been developed specifically for bipartite networks. These algorithms are applied on a model network with prescribed community structure.

Keywords: community detection, bipartite networks, co-clustering, modularity, network projection, complex networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
94 Implementing Internet of Things through Building Information Modelling in Order to Assist with the Maintenance Stage of Commercial Buildings

Authors: Ushir Daya, Zenadene Lazarus, Dimelle Moodley, Ehsan Saghatforoush

Abstract:

It was found through literature that there is a lack of implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT) incorporated into Building Information Modelling (BIM) in South Africa. The research aims to find if the implementation of IoT into BIM will make BIM more useful during the maintenance stage of buildings and assist facility managers when doing their job. The research will look at the existing problematic areas with building information modelling, specifically BIM 7D. This paper will look at the capabilities of IoT and what issues IoT will be able to resolve in BIM software, as well as how IoT into BIM will assist facility managers and if such an implementation will make a facility manager's job more efficient.

Keywords: internet of things, building information modeling, facilities management, structural health monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
93 A New Method Presentation for Locating Fault in Power Distribution Feeders Considering DG

Authors: Rahman Dashti, Ehsan Gord

Abstract:

In this paper, an improved impedance based fault location method is proposed. In this method, online fault locating is performed using voltage and current information at the beginning of the feeder. Determining precise fault location in a short time increases reliability and efficiency of the system. The proposed method utilizes information about main component of voltage and current at the beginning of the feeder and distributed generation unit (DGU) in order to precisely locate different faults in acceptable time. To evaluate precision and accuracy of the proposed method, a 13-node is simulated and tested using MATLAB.

Keywords: distribution network, fault section determination, distributed generation units, distribution protection equipment

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
92 A Single Switch High Step-Up DC/DC Converter with Zero Current Switching Condition

Authors: Rahil Samani, Saeed Soleimani, Ehsan Adib, Majid Pahlevani

Abstract:

This paper presents an inverting high step-up DC/DC converter. Basically, this high step-up DC/DC converter is an appealing interface for solar applications. The proposed topology takes advantage of using coupled inductors. Due to the leakage inductances of these coupled inductors, the power MOSFET has the zero current switching (ZCS) condition, which results in decreased switching losses. This will substantially improve the overall efficiency of the power converter. Furthermore, employing coupled inductors has led to a higher voltage gain. Theoretical analysis and experimental results of a 100W 20V/220V prototype are presented to verify the superior performance of the proposed DC/DC converter.

Keywords: coupled inductors, high step-up DC/DC converter, zero-current switching, Cuk converter, SEPIC converter

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
91 Innate Immunity of Insects in Brief

Authors: Ehsan Soleymaninejadian

Abstract:

As the field of immunology is growing day by day, and its chaotic system amazes more people, greed of research in this area is growing; however dealing with human or mammalian cells such as mice make the research expensive. Although there are some differences between higher animals with insects, importance of innate immunity during evolution made it untouched. So, for understanding the innate immunity insects can be good models. They are cheap; reproduction is fast and in the case genetics, less complicated. In this review, we tried to briefly tackle with important factors in insects’ innate immunity such as melanization, encapsulation, JAK-STAT, IMD, and Toll pathways. At the end, we explained how hormones and nerve system also can impact on immune system and make it more beautiful. In concluding remarks, the possibility of taking help from insect immune system to fight against diseases such as cancer has been considered.

Keywords: insects, innate immunity, melanization, intracellular pathways, hormones

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
90 Buckling Analysis of 2D Frames Using the Modified Newmark Method

Authors: Seyed Amin Vakili, Sahar Sadat Vakili, Seyed Ehsan Vakili, Nader Abdoli Yazdi

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to present the Modified Newmark Method of buckling analysis frame considering the effect of the axial load. The discussion will be restricted to plane frameworks containing a constant cross-section for each element. In addition, it is assumed that the frames are prevented from out-of-plane deflection. In this method, stiffness matrix of the structure is considered to be constant. The most important advantage of such a method is that it obtains both upper and lower critical loads. The advanced of the present method is fast convergence, ability to use computer simulations, and ability to model structures with semi-rigid support conditions using linear and rotational spring.

Keywords: buckling, stability, frame, modified newmark method

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
89 Further Development in Predicting Post-Earthquake Fire Ignition Hazard

Authors: Pegah Farshadmanesh, Jamshid Mohammadi, Mehdi Modares

Abstract:

In nearly all earthquakes of the past century that resulted in moderate to significant damage, the occurrence of postearthquake fire ignition (PEFI) has imposed a serious hazard and caused severe damage, especially in urban areas. In order to reduce the loss of life and property caused by post-earthquake fires, there is a crucial need for predictive models to estimate the PEFI risk. The parameters affecting PEFI risk can be categorized as: 1) factors influencing fire ignition in normal (non-earthquake) condition, including floor area, building category, ignitability, type of appliance, and prevention devices, and 2) earthquake related factors contributing to the PEFI risk, including building vulnerability and earthquake characteristics such as intensity, peak ground acceleration, and peak ground velocity. State-of-the-art statistical PEFI risk models are solely based on limited available earthquake data, and therefore they cannot predict the PEFI risk for areas with insufficient earthquake records since such records are needed in estimating the PEFI model parameters. In this paper, the correlation between normal condition ignition risk, peak ground acceleration, and PEFI risk is examined in an effort to offer a means for predicting post-earthquake ignition events. An illustrative example is presented to demonstrate how such correlation can be employed in a seismic area to predict PEFI hazard.

Keywords: fire risk, post-earthquake fire ignition (PEFI), risk management, seismicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
88 Child Rearing Styles and Family Communication Patterns among University Students

Authors: Pegah Farokhzad

Abstract:

Family is a basic unit of the society and the main source of human development. The initial aim of the family is psychological and social support of its members and has special developmental stages. Researches show the families who have less cohesion, have more conflicts and maladjustments and the members of such families are not able to communicate effectively. Family is a system in which any inter communication is related to child rearing patterns and can affect it. Even the child rearing styles in childhood can determine the family communications in adulthood. Therefore, the aim of the present research was to examine the relationship between child-rearing styles including authoritative, authoritarian and permissive with dimensions of family communication patterns including the conversation and conformity. The research design was a correlational and the population consisted of the psychology students of Roudehen Islamic Azad University who were studying in academic year 2013-2014. A sample of 324 students were selected randomly from the population. The research tools were the Baumrind Child-rearing Questionnaires and Family Communication Patterns Inventory, The Revised Scale of Koerner and Fitzpatrick. The results were: (a) There was a positive and significant relationship between conversation orientation and authoritative style. (b) There was no significant relationship between conversation orientation and other child-rearing styles. (c) There was a negative significant relationship between conformity orientation and authoritative style. (d) There was a positive significant relationship between conformity orientation with authoritarian and permissive styles. (e) There was a significant relationship between 3 dimensions of child-rearing and communication patterns.

Keywords: child-rearing styles, family relationship patterns, university students, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 431
87 Analytical Study on Threats to Wetland Ecosystems and Their Solutions in the Framework of the Ramsar Convention

Authors: Ehsan Daryadel, Farhad Talaie

Abstract:

Wetlands are one of the most important ecosystems on Earth. Nevertheless, various challenges threaten these ecosystems and disrupt their ecological character. Among these, the effects of human-based threats are more devastating. Following mass degradation of wetlands during 1970s, the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) was concluded to conserve wetlands of international importance and prevent destruction and degradation of such ecosystems through wise use of wetlands as a mean to achieve sustainable development in all over the world. Therefore, in this paper, efforts have been made to analyze threats to wetlands and then investigate solutions in the framework of the Ramsar Convention. Finally, in order to operate these mechanisms, this study concludes that all states should in turn make their best effort to improve and restore global wetlands through preservation of environmental standards and close contribution and also through taking joint measures with other states effectively.

Keywords: Ramsar Convention, threats, wetland wcosystems, wise use

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
86 Investigation of the Catalytic Role of Surfactants on Carbon Dioxide Hydrate Formation in Sediments

Authors: Ehsan Heidaryan

Abstract:

Gas hydrate sediments are ice like permafrost in deep see and oceans. Methane production in sequestration process and reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide, a main source of greenhouse gas, has been accentuated recently. One focus is capture, separation, and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide. As a hydrate former, carbon dioxide forms hydrates at moderate temperatures and pressures. This phenomenon could be utilized to capture and separate carbon dioxide from flue gases, and also has the potential to sequester carbon dioxide in the deep seabeds. This research investigated the effect of synthetic surfactants on carbon dioxide hydrate formation, catalysis and consequently, methane production from hydrate permafrosts in sediments. It investigated the sequestration potential of carbon dioxide hydrates in ocean sediments. Also, the catalytic effect of biosurfactants in these processes was investigated.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, hydrate, sequestration, surfactant

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
85 Application of Model Tree in the Prediction of TBM Rate of Penetration with Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique

Authors: Ehsan Mehryaar

Abstract:

The rate of penetration is (RoP) one of the vital factors in the cost and time of tunnel boring projects; therefore, predicting it can lead to a substantial increase in the efficiency of the project. RoP is heavily dependent geological properties of the project site and TBM properties. In this study, 151-point data from Queen’s water tunnel is collected, which includes unconfined compression strength, peak slope index, angle with weak planes, and distance between planes of weaknesses. Since the size of the data is small, it was observed that it is imbalanced. To solve that problem synthetic minority oversampling technique is utilized. The model based on the model tree is proposed, where each leaf consists of a support vector machine model. Proposed model performance is then compared to existing empirical equations in the literature.

Keywords: Model tree, SMOTE, rate of penetration, TBM(tunnel boring machine), SVM

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
84 Study of the Effect of Soil Compaction and Height on Pipe Ovality for Buried Steel Pipe

Authors: Ali Ghodsbin Jahromi, Ehsan Moradi

Abstract:

In this paper, the numerical study of buried steel pipe in soil is investigated. Buried pipeline under soil weight, after embankment on the pipe leads to ovality of pipe. In this paper also it is considered the percentage of soil compaction, the soil height on the steel pipe and the external load of a mechanical excavator on the steel pipe and finally, the effect of these on the rate of pipe ovality investigated. Furthermore, the effect of the pipes’ thickness on ovality has been investigated. The results show that increasing the percentage of soil compaction has more effect on reducing percentage of ovality, and if the percentage of soil compaction increases, we can use the pipe with less thickness. Finally, ovality rate of the pipe and acceptance criteria of pipe diameter up to yield stress is investigated.

Keywords: pipe ovality, soil compaction, finite element, pipe thickness

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
83 A Supervised Face Parts Labeling Framework

Authors: Khalil Khan, Ikram Syed, Muhammad Ehsan Mazhar, Iran Uddin, Nasir Ahmad

Abstract:

Face parts labeling is the process of assigning class labels to each face part. A face parts labeling method (FPL) which divides a given image into its constitutes parts is proposed in this paper. A database FaceD consisting of 564 images is labeled with hand and make publically available. A supervised learning model is built through extraction of features from the training data. The testing phase is performed with two semantic segmentation methods, i.e., pixel and super-pixel based segmentation. In pixel-based segmentation class label is provided to each pixel individually. In super-pixel based method class label is assigned to super-pixel only – as a result, the same class label is given to all pixels inside a super-pixel. Pixel labeling accuracy reported with pixel and super-pixel based methods is 97.68 % and 93.45% respectively.

Keywords: face labeling, semantic segmentation, classification, face segmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
82 The Comparison of Parental Childrearing Styles and Anxiety in Children with Stuttering and Normal Population

Authors: Pegah Farokhzad

Abstract:

Family has a crucial role in maintaining the physical, social and mental health of the children. Most of the mental and anxiety problems of children reflects the complex interpersonal situations among family members, especially parents. In other words, anxiety problems of the children is correlated with deficit relationships of family members and improper child rearing styles. The parental child rearing styles leads to positive and negative consequences which affect the children’s mental health. Therefore, the present research was aimed to compare the parental child rearing styles and anxiety of children with stuttering and normal population. It was also aimed to study the relationship between parental child rearing styles and anxiety of children. The research sample included 54 boys with stuttering and 54 normal boys who were selected from the children (boys) of Tehran, Iran in the age range of 5 to 8 years in 2013. In order to collect data, Baumrind Child rearing Styles Inventory and Spence Parental Anxiety Inventory were used. Appropriate descriptive statistical methods and multivariate variance analysis and t test for independent groups were used to test the study hypotheses. Statistical data analyses demonstrated that there was a significant difference between stuttering boys and normal boys in anxiety (t = 7.601, p< 0.01); But there was no significant difference between stuttering boys and normal boys in parental child rearing styles (F = 0.129). There was also not found significant relationship between parental child rearing styles and children anxiety (F = 0.135, p< 0.05). It can be concluded that the influential factors of children’s society are parents, school, teachers, peers and media. So, parental child rearing styles are not the only influential factors on anxiety of children, and other factors including genetic, environment and child experiences are effective in anxiety as well. Details are discussed.

Keywords: child rearing styles, anxiety, stuttering, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
81 Patient-Specific Design Optimization of Cardiovascular Grafts

Authors: Pegah Ebrahimi, Farshad Oveissi, Iman Manavi-Tehrani, Sina Naficy, David F. Fletcher, Fariba Dehghani, David S. Winlaw

Abstract:

Despite advances in modern surgery, congenital heart disease remains a medical challenge and a major cause of infant mortality. Cardiovascular prostheses are routinely used in surgical procedures to address congenital malformations, for example establishing a pathway from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries in pulmonary valvar atresia. Current off-the-shelf options including human and adult products have limited biocompatibility and durability, and their fixed size necessitates multiple subsequent operations to upsize the conduit to match with patients’ growth over their lifetime. Non-physiological blood flow is another major problem, reducing the longevity of these prostheses. These limitations call for better designs that take into account the hemodynamical and anatomical characteristics of different patients. We have integrated tissue engineering techniques with modern medical imaging and image processing tools along with mathematical modeling to optimize the design of cardiovascular grafts in a patient-specific manner. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis is done according to models constructed from each individual patient’s data. This allows for improved geometrical design and achieving better hemodynamic performance. Tissue engineering strives to provide a material that grows with the patient and mimic the durability and elasticity of the native tissue. Simulations also give insight on the performance of the tissues produced in our lab and reduce the need for costly and time-consuming methods of evaluation of the grafts. We are also developing a methodology for the fabrication of the optimized designs.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, cardiovascular grafts, design optimization, tissue engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
80 Effect of Variable Fluxes on Optimal Flux Distribution in a Metabolic Network

Authors: Ehsan Motamedian

Abstract:

Finding all optimal flux distributions of a metabolic model is an important challenge in systems biology. In this paper, a new algorithm is introduced to identify all alternate optimal solutions of a large scale metabolic network. The algorithm reduces the model to decrease computations for finding optimal solutions. The algorithm was implemented on the Escherichia coli metabolic model to find all optimal solutions for lactate and acetate production. There were more optimal flux distributions when acetate production was optimized. The model was reduced from 1076 to 80 variable fluxes for lactate while it was reduced to 91 variable fluxes for acetate. These 11 more variable fluxes resulted in about three times more optimal flux distributions. Variable fluxes were from 12 various metabolic pathways and most of them belonged to nucleotide salvage and extra cellular transport pathways.

Keywords: flux variability, metabolic network, mixed-integer linear programming, multiple optimal solutions

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
79 The Association of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Xbai Gg Genotype and Severe Preeclampsia

Authors: Saeedeh Salimi, Farzaneh Farajian- Mashhadi, Ehsan Tabatabaei, Mahnaz Shahrakipoor, Minoo Yaghmaei, Mojgan Mokhtari

Abstract:

Purpose: Estrogen receptor-α (ERα) plays an essential role in the adaptation of increased uterine blood flow during gestation. Therefore ERα gene could be a possible candidate for preeclampsia(PE) susceptibility. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the association of the ERα gene polymorphisms and PE in an Iranian population. Methods: One hundred ninety-two pregnant women with PE and 186 normotensive women were genotyped for ERα gene (PvuII and XbaI) polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP method. Results: The frequency of alleles and genotypes of ERα PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms were not different between PE and normotensive control women. However, higher frequency of GG genotype was observed in women with severe PE compared to mild PE (OR, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.1 to 3]; P = 0.02) and in severe PE compared to normotensive women [OR= 1.8(1.1-3), P=0.02] after adjusting for age, ethnicity and primiparity. Conclusions: The GG genotype of ERα XbaI polymorphism could be a genetic risk factor for PE predisposition.

Keywords: estrogen receptor-α, polymorphism, gene, preeclampsia

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
78 Molding Properties of Cobalt-Chrome-Based Feedstocks Used in Low-Pressure Powder Injection Molding

Authors: Ehsan Gholami, Vincent Demers

Abstract:

Low-pressure powder injection molding is an emerging technology for cost-effectively producing complex shape metallic parts with the proper dimensional tolerances, either in high or in low production volumes. In this study, the molding properties of cobalt-chrome-based feedstocks were evaluated for use in a low-pressure powder injection molding process. The rheological properties of feedstock formulations were obtained by mixing metallic powder with a proprietary wax-based binder system. Rheological parameters such as reference viscosity, shear rate sensitivity index, and activation energy for viscous flow, were extracted from the viscosity profiles and introduced into the Weir model to calculate the moldability index. Feedstocks were experimentally injected into a spiral mold cavity to validate the injection performance calculated with the model.

Keywords: binder, feedstock, moldability, powder injection molding, viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 187