Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2931

Search results for: shear failure

2931 Calculating Shear Strength Parameter from Simple Shear Apparatus

Authors: G. Nitesh


The shear strength of soils is a crucial parameter instability analysis. Therefore, it is important to determine reliable values for the accuracy of stability analysis. Direct shear tests are mostly performed to determine the shear strength of cohesionless soils. The major limitation of the direct shear test is that the failure takes place through the pre-defined failure plane but the failure is not along pre-defined plane and is along the weakest plane in actual shearing mechanism that goes on in the field. This leads to overestimating the strength parameter; hence, a new apparatus called simple shear is developed and used in this study to determine the shear strength parameter that simulates the field conditions.

Keywords: direct shear, simple shear, angle of shear resistance, cohesionless soils

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
2930 Experimental Verification of Different Types of Shear Connectors on Composite Slab

Authors: A. Siva, R. Senthil, R. Banupriya, R. Saravanakumar


Cold-formed steel sheets are widely used as primary tension reinforcement in composite slabs. It also performs as formwork for concreting and better ceiling surface. The major type of failure occurring in composite slab is shear failure. When the composite slab is flexurally loaded, the longitudinal shear is generated and transferred to the steel sheet concrete interface. When the load increases, the interface slip occurs. The slip failure can be resisted by mechanical interface interlock by shear studs. In this paper, the slip failure has been resisted by shear connectors and geometry of the steel sheet alone. The geometry of the sheet is kept constant for all the specimens and the type of shear connectors has been varied. Totally, three types of shear connectors (viz., straight headed, U and J) are bolted to the trapezoidal profile sheet and the concrete is casted over it. After curing, the composite slab is subjected to flexure load and the test results are compared with the numerical results analysed by ABAQUS software. The test result shows that the U-shaped bolted stud has higher flexure strength than the other two types of shear connectors.

Keywords: cold formed steel sheet, headed studs, mechanical interlock, shear connectors, shear failure, slip failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 477
2929 Diagonal Crack Width of RC Members with High Strength Materials

Authors: J. Y. Lee, H. S. Lim, S. H. Yoon


This paper presents an analysis of the diagonal crack widths of RC members with various types of materials by simulating a compatibility-aided truss model. The analytical results indicated that the diagonal crack width was influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. The yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete decreased the diagonal shear crack width of RC members for the same shear force because of the change of shear failure modes. However, regarding the maximum shear crack width at shear failure, the shear crack width of the beam with high strength materials was greater than that of the beam with normal strength materials.

Keywords: diagonal crack width, high strength stirrups, high strength concrete, RC members, shear behavior

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2928 Evaluation of Applicability of High Strength Stirrup for Prestressed Concrete Members

Authors: J.-Y. Lee, H.-S. Lim, S.-E. Kim


Recently, the use of high-strength materials is increasing as the construction of large structures and high-rise structures increases. This paper presents an analysis of the shear behavior of prestressed concrete members with various types of materials by simulating a finite element (FE) analysis. The analytical results indicated that the shear strength and shear failure mode were strongly influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. Though the yield strength of shear reinforcement increased the shear strength of prestressed concrete members, there was a limit to the increase in strength because of the change of shear failure modes. According to the results of FE analysis on various parameters, the maximum yield strength of the steel stirrup that can be applied to prestressed concrete members was about 860 MPa.

Keywords: prestressed concrete members, high strength reinforcing bars, high strength concrete, shear behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
2927 Evaluation for Punching Shear Strength of Slab-Column Connections with Ultra High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Overlay

Authors: H. S. Youm, S. G. Hong


This paper presents the test results on 5 slab-column connection specimens with Ultra High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) overlay including 1 control specimen to investigate retrofitting effect of UHPFRC overlay on the punching shear capacity. The test parameters were the thickness of the UHPFRC overlay and the amount of steel re-bars in it. All specimens failed in punching shear mode with abrupt failure aspect. The test results showed that by adding a thin layer of UHPFRC over the Reinforced Concrete (RC) substrates, considerable increases in global punching shear resistance up to 82% and structural rigidity were achieved. Furthermore, based on the cracking patterns the composite systems appeared to be governed by two failure modes: 1) diagonal shear failure in RC section and 2) debonding failure at the interface.

Keywords: punching shear strength, retrofit, slab-column connection, UHPFRC, UHPFRC overlay

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
2926 Influence of the Reliability Index on the Safety Factor of the Concrete Contribution to Shear Strength of HSC Beams

Authors: Ali Sagiroglu, Sema Noyan Alacali, Guray Arslan


This paper presents a study on the influence of the safety factor in the concrete contribution to shear strength of high-strength concrete (HSC) beams according to TS500. In TS500, the contribution of concrete to shear strength is obtained by reducing diagonal cracking strength with a safety factor of 0.8. It was investigated that the coefficient of 0.8 considered in determining the contribution of concrete to the shear strength corresponds to which value of failure probability. Also, the changes in the reduction factor depending on different coefficients of variation of concrete were examined.

Keywords: reinforced concrete, beam, shear strength, failure probability, safety factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
2925 Shear Behavior of Steel-Fiber-Reinforced Precast/Prestressed Concrete Hollow Core Slabs

Authors: Thi Nguyet Hang Nguyen, Kang Hai Tan


Precast/prestressed concrete hollow core (PCHC) slabs, especially ones with depth more than 300 mm, are susceptible to web-shear failure. The reasons lie on the fact that the production process of PCHC slabs, i.e., the extrusion method (the most common method to cast PCHC slabs nowadays), does not allow them to contain any shear reinforcement. Moreover, due to the presence of the longitudinal voids, cross sections of PCHC slabs are reduced. Therefore, the shear capacity of the slabs depends solely on the tensile strength of concrete which is relatively low. Given that shear is a major concern in using hollow-core slabs, this paper investigates the possibility of adopting steel fibers in PCHC slabs produced by the extrusion method to enhance the shear capacity of the slabs. Three full-scale PCHC slabs with and without hooked-steel fibers were cast and tested until failure. Three different volumetric fiber contents of 0, 0.51 and 0.89% were investigated. The test results showed that there were substantial increases in shear capacity and ductility with the use of hooked-steel fibers. Ultimate shear strength increased with fiber content. In addition, while the specimen without steel fibers and the one with the steel-fiber volume fraction of 0.51% failed in web-shear mode, the specimen with the higher fiber content (0.89%) collapsed in flexural-shear mode. However, as the hooked-steel fibers with the fiber content of 0.89% were used, difficulties in concrete consolidation were observed while concrete was being cast. This could lead to a lower ultimate shear capacity due to a poorer bond between the concrete and the steel fibers.

Keywords: hollow-core slabs, shear strength, steel fibers, web-shear failure

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2924 Size Effect on Shear Strength of Slender Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Subhan Ahmad, Pradeep Bhargava, Ajay Chourasia


Shear failure in reinforced concrete beams without shear reinforcement leads to loss of property and life since a very little or no warning occurs before failure as in case of flexural failure. Shear strength of reinforced concrete beams decreases as its depth increases. This phenomenon is generally called as the size effect. In this paper, a comparative analysis is performed to estimate the performance of shear strength models in capturing the size effect of reinforced concrete beams made with conventional concrete, self-compacting concrete, and recycled aggregate concrete. Four shear strength models that account for the size effect in shear are selected from the literature and applied on the datasets of slender reinforced concrete beams. Beams prepared with conventional concrete, self-compacting concrete, and recycled aggregate concrete are considered for the analysis. Results showed that all the four models captured the size effect in shear effectively and produced conservative estimates of the shear strength for beams made with normal strength conventional concrete. These models yielded unconservative estimates for high strength conventional concrete beams with larger effective depths ( > 450 mm). Model of Bazant and Kim (1984) captured the size effect precisely and produced conservative estimates of shear strength of self-compacting concrete beams at all the effective depths. Also, shear strength models considered in this study produced unconservative estimates of shear strength for recycled aggregate concrete beams at all effective depths.

Keywords: reinforced concrete beams; shear strength; prediction models; size effect

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2923 Repair and Strengthening of Plain and FRC Shear Deficient Beams Using Externally Bonded CFRP Sheets

Authors: H. S. S. Abou El-Mal, H. E. M. Sallam


This paper presents experimental and analytical study on the behavior of repaired and strengthened shear critical RC beams using externally bonded CFRP bi-directional fabrics. The use of CFRP sheets to repair or strengthen RC beams has been repetitively studied and proven feasible. However, the use of combined repair techniques and applying that method to both plain and FRC beams can maximize the shear capacity of RC shear deficient beams. A total of twelve slender beams were tested under four-point bending. The test parameters included CFRP layout, number of layers and fiber direction, injecting cracks before applying repairing sheets, enhancing the flexural capacity to differentiate between shear repair and strengthening techniques, and concrete matrix types. The findings revealed that applying CFRP sheets increased the overall shear capacity, the amount and orientation of wrapping is of prime importance in both repairing and strengthening, CFRP wrapping could change the failure mode from shear to flexural shear, the use of crack injection combined to CFRP wrapping further improved the shear capacity while, applying the previous method to FRC beams enhanced both shear capacity and failure ductility. Acceptable agreement was found between predicted shear capacities using the Canadian code and the experimental results of the current study.

Keywords: CFRP, FRC, repair, shear strengthening

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2922 Cyclic Behaviour of Wide Beam-Column Joints with Shear Strength Ratios of 1.0 and 1.7

Authors: Roy Y. C. Huang, J. S. Kuang, Hamdolah Behnam


Beam-column connections play an important role in the reinforced concrete moment resisting frame (RCMRF), which is one of the most commonly used structural systems around the world. The premature failure of such connections would severely limit the seismic performance and increase the vulnerability of RCMRF. In the past decades, researchers primarily focused on investigating the structural behaviour and failure mechanisms of conventional beam-column joints, the beam width of which is either smaller than or equal to the column width, while studies in wide beam-column joints were scarce. This paper presents the preliminary experimental results of two full-scale exterior wide beam-column connections, which are mainly designed and detailed according to ACI 318-14 and ACI 352R-02, under reversed cyclic loading. The ratios of the design shear force to the nominal shear strength of these specimens are 1.0 and 1.7, respectively, so as to probe into differences of the joint shear strength between experimental results and predictions by design codes of practice. Flexural failure dominated in the specimen with ratio of 1.0 in which full-width plastic hinges were observed, while both beam hinges and post-peak joint shear failure occurred for the other specimen. No sign of premature joint shear failure was found which is inconsistent with ACI codes’ prediction. Finally, a modification of current codes of practice is provided to accurately predict the joint shear strength in wide beam-column joint.

Keywords: joint shear strength, reversed cyclic loading, seismic vulnerability, wide beam-column joints

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
2921 Experimental Research on Ductility of Regional Confined Concrete Beam

Authors: Qinggui Wu, Xinming Cao, Guyue Guo, Jiajun Ding


In efforts to study the shear ductility of regional confined concrete beam, 5 reinforced concrete beams were tested to examine its shear performance. These beams has the same shear span ratio, concrete strength, different ratios of tension reinforcement and shapes of stirrup. The purpose of the test is studying the effects of stirrup shape and tension reinforcement ratio on failure mode and shear ductility. The test shows that the regional confined part can be used as an independent part and the rest of the beam is good to work together so that the ductility of the beam is more one time higher than that of the normal confined concrete beam. The related laws of the effect of tension reinforcement ratio and stirrup shapes on beam’s shear ductility are founded.

Keywords: ratio of tension reinforcement, stirrup shapes, shear ductility, failure mode

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
2920 Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Flat Slabs Using Prestressing Bars

Authors: Haifa Saleh, Kamiran Abduka, Robin Kalfat, Riadh Al-Mahaidi


The effectiveness of using pre-stressing steel bars for shear strengthening of high strength reinforced concrete (RC) slabs was assessed. Two large-scale RC slabs were tested, one without shear reinforcement and the second strengthened against punching shear failure using pre-stressing steel bars. The two slabs had the same dimensions, flexural reinforcement ratio, loading and support arrangements. The experimental program including the method of strengthening, set up and instrumentation are described in this paper. The experimental results are analyzed and discussed in terms of the structural behavior of the RC slabs, the performance of pre-stressing steel bolts and failure modes. The results confirmed that the shear strengthening technique increased the shear capacity, ductility and yield capacity of the slab by up to 15%, 44%, and 22%, respectively compared to the unstrengthened slab. The strengthening technique also successfully contributed to changing the failure mode from a brittle punching shear mode to ductile flexural failure mode. Vic3D digital image correlation system (photogrammetry) was also used in this research. This technique holds several advantages over traditional contact instrumentations including that it is inexpensive, it produces results that are simple to analyze and it is remote visualization technique. The displacement profile along the span of the slab and rotation has been found and compared with the results obtained from traditional sensors. The performance of the photogrammetry technique was very good and the results of both measurements were in very close agreement.

Keywords: flat slab, photogrammetry, punching shear, strengthening

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2919 Shear Strengthening of RC T-Beams by Means of CFRP Sheets

Authors: Omar A. Farghal


This research aimed to experimentally and analytically investigate the contribution of bonded web carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets to the shear strength of reinforced concrete (RC) T-beams. Two strengthening techniques using CFRP strips were applied along the shear-span zone: the first one is vertical U-jacket and the later is vertical strips bonded to the beam sides only. Fibers of both U-jacket and side sheets were vertically oriented (θ = 90°). Test results showed that the strengthening technique with U-jacket CFRP sheets improved the shear strength particularly. Three mechanisms of failure were recognized for the tested beams depending upon the end condition of the bonded CFRP sheet. Although the failure mode for the different beams was a brittle one, the strengthened beams provided with U-jacket CFRP sheets showed more or less a ductile behavior at a higher loading level up to a load level just before failure. As a consequence, these beams approved an acceptable enhancement in the structural ductility. Moreover, the obtained results concerning both the strains induced in the CFRP sheets and the maximum loads are used to study the applicability of the analytical models proposed in this study (ACI code) to predict: the nominal shear strength of the strengthened beams.

Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced polymer, wrapping, ductility, shear strengthening

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
2918 Ductility of Slab-Interior Column Connections Transferring Shear and Moment

Authors: Omar M. Ben-Sasi


Ductility of slab-column connections of flat slab structures is a desirable property that should be considered when designing such connections which are susceptible to punching failure around their columns. Tests to failure on six half-scale specimens were conducted for slab-interior column connections transferring shear force and unbalanced moment. The influences on connection ductility of four parameters; namely, the moment to shear force ratio, the ratio of column side length to slab effective depth, the aspect ratio of the column cross section, and the presence of four square openings located next to column corners were investigated. The study revealed marked effects of these parameters on connection ductility. Increasing the first and second parameters, were found to be in favor of increasing connection ductility, while the third and fourth parameters were found to have negative effects on the connection ductility. These findings should, hopefully, help in designing interior connections of flat slab structures.

Keywords: ductility, flat slab, failure, shear force, moment, unbalanced moment, punching failure, connection, interior-column connection

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
2917 Nonlinear Analysis with Failure Using the Boundary Element Method

Authors: Ernesto Pineda Leon, Dante Tolentino Lopez, Janis Zapata Lopez


The current paper shows the application of the boundary element method for the analysis of plates under shear stress causing plasticity. In this case, the shear deformation of a plate is considered by means of the Reissner’s theory. The probability of failure of a Reissner’s plate due to a proposed index plastic behavior is calculated taken into account the uncertainty in mechanical and geometrical properties. The problem is developed in two dimensions. The classic plasticity’s theory is applied and a formulation for initial stresses that lead to the boundary integral equations due to plasticity is also used. For the plasticity calculation, the Von Misses criteria is used. To solve the non-linear equations an incremental method is employed. The results show a relatively small failure probability for the ranges of loads between 0.6 and 1.0. However, for values between 1.0 and 2.5, the probability of failure increases significantly. Consequently, for load bigger than 2.5 the plate failure is a safe event. The results are compared to those that were found in the literature and the agreement is good.

Keywords: boundary element method, failure, plasticity, probability

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
2916 Analytical Model for Columns in Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Authors: Chang Seok Lee, Sang Whan Han, Girbo Ko, Debbie Kim


Existing reinforced concrete structures are designed and built without considering seismic loads. The columns in such buildings generally exhibit widely spaced transverse reinforcements without using seismic hooks. Due to the insufficient reinforcement details in columns, brittle shear failure is expected in columns that may cause pre-mature building collapse mechanism during earthquakes. In order to retrofit those columns, the accurate seismic behavior of the columns needs to be predicted with proper analytical models. In this study, an analytical model is proposed for accurately simulating the cyclic behavior of shear critical columns. The parameters for pinching and cyclic deterioration in strength and stiffness are calibrated using test data of column specimens failed by shear.

Keywords: analytical model, cyclic deterioration, existing reinforced concrete columns, shear failure

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2915 Experimental Investigation of the Failure Behavior of a Retaining Wall Constructed with Soil Bags

Authors: Kewei Fan, Sihong Liu, Yi Pik Cheng


This paper aims to analyse the failure behaviour of the retaining wall constructed with soil bags that are formed by filling river sand into woven bags (geosynthetics). Model tests were conducted to obtain the failure mode of the wall, and shear tests on two-layers and five-layers of soil bags were designed to investigate the mechanical characteristics of the interface of soil bags. The test results show that the slip surface in the soil bags-constructed retaining wall is ladder-like due to the inter-layer insertion of soil bags, and the wall above the ladder-like surface undergoes a rigid body translation. The insertion strengthens the shear strength of two-layer staggered-stacked soil bags. Meanwhile, it affects the shape of the slip surface of the five-layer staggered-stacked soil bags. Finally, the interlayer resisting friction of soil bags is found to be related to the shape of the slip surface.

Keywords: geosynthetics, retaining wall, soil bag, failure mode, interface, shear strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
2914 Punching Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Flat Slabs Using Internal Square Patches of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer

Authors: Malik Assi


This research presents a strengthening technique for enhancing the punching shear resistance of concrete flat slabs. Internal square patches of CFRP were centrally installed inside 450*450mm concrete panels during casting at a chosen distance from the tension face to produce six simply supported samples. The dimensions of those patches ranged from 50*50mm to 360*360mm. All the examined slabs contained the same amount of tensile reinforcement, had identical dimensions, were designed according to the American Concrete Institute code (ACI) and tested to failure. Compared to the control unstrengthened spacemen, all the strengthened slabs have shown an enhancement in punching capacity and stiffness. This enhancement has been found to be proportional to the area of the installed CFRP patches. In addition to the reasonably enhanced stiffness and punching shear, this strengthening technique can change the slab failure mode from shear to flexural.

Keywords: CFRP patches, Flat slabs, Flexural, Stiffness, Punching shear

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
2913 Nonlinear Analysis of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Frames Considering Shear Behaviour of Members under Varying Axial Load

Authors: Habib Akbarzadeh Bengar, Mohammad Asadi Kiadehi, Ali Rameeh


The result of the past earthquakes has shown that insufficient amount of stirrups and brittle behavior of concrete lead to the shear and flexural failure in reinforced concrete (RC) members. In this paper, an analytical model proposed to predict the nonlinear behavior of RC and SFRC elements and frames. In this model, some important parameter such as shear effect, varying axial load, and longitudinal bar buckling are considered. The results of analytical model were verified with experimental tests. The results of verification have shown that the proposed analytical model can predict the nonlinear behavior of RC and SFRC members and also frames accurately. In addition, the results have shown that use of steel fibers increased bearing capacity and ductility of RC frame. Due to this enhancement in shear strength and ductility, insufficient amount of stirrups, which resulted in shear failure, can be offset with usage of the steel fibers. In addition to the steps taken, to analyze the effects of fibers percentages on the bearing capacity and ductility of frames parametric studies have been performed to investigate of these effects.

Keywords: nonlinear analysis, SFRC frame, shear failure, varying an axial load

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2912 Numerical Simulation of Punching Shear of Flat Plates with Low Reinforcement

Authors: Fatema-Tuz-Zahura, Raquib Ahsan


Punching shear failure is usually the governing failure mode of flat plate structures. Punching failure is brittle in nature which induces more vulnerability to this type of structure. In the present study, a 3D finite element model of a flat plate with low reinforcement ratio and without any transverse reinforcement has been developed. Punching shear stress and the deflection data were obtained on the surface of the flat plate as well as through the thickness of the model from numerical simulations. The obtained data were compared with the experimental results. Variation of punching stress with respect to deflection as obtained from numerical results is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results; the range of variation of punching stress is within 5%. The numerical simulation shows an early and gradual onset of nonlinearity, whereas the same is late and abrupt as observed in the experimental results. The range of variation of punching stress for different slab thicknesses between experimental and numerical results is less than 15%. The developed numerical model is useful to complement available punching test series performed in the past. The results obtained from the numerical model will be helpful for designing retrofitting schemes of flat plates.

Keywords: flat plate, finite element model, punching shear, reinforcement ratio

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2911 Failure Analysis of Laminated Veneer Bamboo Dowel Connections

Authors: Niloufar Khoshbakht, Peggi L. Clouston, Sanjay R. Arwade, Alexander C. Schreyer


Laminated veneer bamboo (LVB) is a structural engineered composite made from glued layers of bamboo. A relatively new building product, LVB is currently employed in similar sizes and applications as dimensional lumber. This study describes the results of a 3D elastic Finite Element model for halfhole specimens when loaded in compression parallel-to-grain per ASTM 5764. The model simulates LVB fracture initiation due to shear stresses in the dowel joint and predicts displacement at failure validated through comparison with experimental results. The material fails at 1mm displacement due to in-plane shear stresses. The paper clarifies the complex interactive state of in-plane shear, tension perpendicular-to-grain, and compression parallel-to-grain stresses that form different distributions in the critical zone beneath the bolt hole for half-hole specimens. These findings are instrumental in understanding key factors and fundamental failure mechanisms that occur in LVB dowel connections to help devise safe standards and further LVB product adoption and design.

Keywords: composite, dowel connection, embedment strength, failure behavior, finite element analysis, Moso bamboo

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2910 Landfill Failure Mobility Analysis: A Probabilistic Approach

Authors: Ali Jahanfar, Brajesh Dubey, Bahram Gharabaghi, Saber Bayat Movahed


Ever increasing population growth of major urban centers and environmental challenges in siting new landfills have resulted in a growing trend in design of mega-landfills some with extraordinary heights and dangerously steep slopes. Landfill failure mobility risk analysis is one of the most uncertain types of dynamic rheology models due to very large inherent variabilities in the heterogeneous solid waste material shear strength properties. The waste flow of three historic dumpsite and two landfill failures were back-analyzed using run-out modeling with DAN-W model. The travel distances of the waste flow during landfill failures were calculated approach by taking into account variability in material shear strength properties. The probability distribution function for shear strength properties of the waste material were grouped into four major classed based on waste material compaction (landfills versus dumpsites) and composition (high versus low quantity) of high shear strength waste materials such as wood, metal, plastic, paper and cardboard in the waste. This paper presents a probabilistic method for estimation of the spatial extent of waste avalanches, after a potential landfill failure, to create maps of vulnerability scores to inform property owners and residents of the level of the risk.

Keywords: landfill failure, waste flow, Voellmy rheology, friction coefficient, waste compaction and type

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2909 Numerical Modelling of Shear Zone and Its Implications on Slope Instability at Letšeng Diamond Open Pit Mine, Lesotho

Authors: M. Ntšolo, D. Kalumba, N. Lefu, G. Letlatsa


Rock mass damage due to shear tectonic activity has been investigated largely in geoscience where fluid transport is of major interest. However, little has been studied on the effect of shear zones on rock mass behavior and its impact on stability of rock slopes. At Letšeng Diamonds open pit mine in Lesotho, the shear zone composed of sheared kimberlite material, calcite and altered basalt is forming part of the haul ramp into the main pit cut 3. The alarming rate at which the shear zone is deteriorating has triggered concerns about both local and global stability of pit the walls. This study presents the numerical modelling of the open pit slope affected by shear zone at Letšeng Diamond Mine (LDM). Analysis of the slope involved development of the slope model by using a two-dimensional finite element code RS2. Interfaces between shear zone and host rock were represented by special joint elements incorporated in the finite element code. The analysis of structural geological mapping data provided a good platform to understand the joint network. Major joints including shear zone were incorporated into the model for simulation. This approach proved successful by demonstrating that continuum modelling can be used to evaluate evolution of stresses, strain, plastic yielding and failure mechanisms that are consistent with field observations. Structural control due to geological shear zone structure proved to be important in its location, size and orientation. Furthermore, the model analyzed slope deformation and sliding possibility along shear zone interfaces. This type of approach can predict shear zone deformation and failure mechanism, hence mitigation strategies can be deployed for safety of human lives and property within mine pits.

Keywords: numerical modeling, open pit mine, shear zone, slope stability

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2908 Comparative Analysis of Residual Shear Depiction and Grain Distribution Characteristics of Slide Soil Profile Sections

Authors: Ephrem Getahun, Shengwen Qi, Songfeng Guo, Yu Zou, Melesse Alemayehu


Residual shear characteristics of slide soil profile sections (SSPS) were examined using ring shear tests to know the relative residual shear behaviors among the sections of slide soil. The multistage-multiphase shearing techniques were employed to perform the experiment for each soil specimen continuously towards large displacements. The grain distribution analysis of SSPS samples was characterized by coarsening upward from bottom slip to the top sections; however, the slip surface was considered as a sheared zone that endorses their low shear resistance for failure. There is an average range of 1-2.5 mm axial displacement on each stage of loadings and phases of shearing that depicts the significant effect of dilation and compression of soil specimen. The middle section has the largest consolidation percentage (10-29%), and vertical displacement compared to other sections and showed high shear strengthening behavior having maximum shear stress of 189kPa at 240kPa loading compared to basal and top sections. It is found that the middle section of SSPS has relatively high shear resistance behavior for large displacement shearing. The residual shear assessment indicates that there is a significant influence of large displacement and rate on the friction coefficient behaviors; it resulted in shear weakening effect to attain their residual condition.

Keywords: comparison, displacements, residual shear stress, shear behavior, slide soils

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2907 A Hybrid Model Tree and Logistic Regression Model for Prediction of Soil Shear Strength in Clay

Authors: Ehsan Mehryaar, Seyed Armin Motahari Tabari


Without a doubt, soil shear strength is the most important property of the soil. The majority of fatal and catastrophic geological accidents are related to shear strength failure of the soil. Therefore, its prediction is a matter of high importance. However, acquiring the shear strength is usually a cumbersome task that might need complicated laboratory testing. Therefore, prediction of it based on common and easy to get soil properties can simplify the projects substantially. In this paper, A hybrid model based on the classification and regression tree algorithm and logistic regression is proposed where each leaf of the tree is an independent regression model. A database of 189 points for clay soil, including Moisture content, liquid limit, plastic limit, clay content, and shear strength, is collected. The performance of the developed model compared to the existing models and equations using root mean squared error and coefficient of correlation.

Keywords: model tree, CART, logistic regression, soil shear strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
2906 Studying the Structural Behaviour of RC Beams with Circular Openings of Different Sizes and Locations Using FE Method

Authors: Ali Shubbar, Hasanain Alwan, Ee Yu Phur, John McLoughlin, Ameer Al-khaykan


This paper aims to investigate the structural behaviour of RC beams with circular openings of different sizes and locations modelled using ABAQUS FEM software. Seven RC beams with the dimensions of 1200 mm×150 mm×150 mm were tested under three-point loading. Group A consists of three RC beams incorporating circular openings with diameters of 40 mm, 55 mm and 65 mm in the shear zone. However, Group B consists of three RC beams incorporating circular openings with diameters of 40 mm, 55 mm and 65 mm in the flexural zone. The final RC beam did not have any openings, to provide a control beam for comparison. The results show that increasing the diameter of the openings increases the maximum deflection and the ultimate failure load decreases relative to the control beam. In the shear zone, the presence of the openings caused an increase in the maximum deflection ranging between 4% and 22% and a decrease in the ultimate failure load of between 26% and 36% compared to the control beam. However, the presence of the openings in the flexural zone caused an increase in the maximum deflection of between 1.5% and 19.7% and a decrease in the ultimate failure load of between 6% and 13% relative to the control beam. In this study, the optimum location for placing circular openings was found to be in the flexural zone of the beam with a diameter of less than 30% of the depth of the beam.

Keywords: ultimate failure load, maximum deflection, shear zone and flexural zone

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2905 Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers

Authors: Hana' Al-Ghanim, Mu'tasim Abdel-Jaber, Maha Alqam


This experimental investigation deals with shear strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams using the externally bonded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. The current study, therefore, evaluates the effectiveness of four various configurations for shear strengthening of deep beams with two different types of CFRP materials including sheets and laminates. For this purpose, a total of 10 specimens of deep beams were cast and tested. The shear performance of the strengthened beams is assessed with respect to the cracks’ formation, modes of failure, ultimate strength and the overall stiffness. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of using the CFRP technique on enhancing the shear capacity of deep beams; however, the efficiency varies depending on the material used and the strengthening scheme adopted. Among the four investigated schemes, the highest increase in the ultimate strength is recorded by using the continuous wrap of two layers of CFRP sheets, exceeding a value of 86%, whereas an enhancement of about 36% is achieved by the inclined CFRP laminates.

Keywords: deep beams, laminates, shear strengthening, sheets

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2904 Particle Size Effect on Shear Strength of Granular Materials in Direct Shear Test

Authors: R. Alias, A. Kasa, M. R. Taha


The effect of particle size on shear strength of granular materials are investigated using direct shear tests. Small direct shear test (60 mm by 60 mm by 24 mm deep) were conducted for particles passing the sieves with opening size of 2.36 mm. Meanwhile, particles passing the standard 20 mm sieves were tested using large direct shear test (300 mm by 300 mm by 200 mm deep). The large direct shear tests and the small direct shear tests carried out using the same shearing rate of 0.09 mm/min and similar normal stresses of 100, 200, and 300 kPa. The results show that the peak and residual shear strength decreases as particle size increases.

Keywords: particle size, shear strength, granular material, direct shear test

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2903 Study on Seismic Assessment of Earthquake-Damaged Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Authors: Fu-Pei Hsiao, Fung-Chung Tu, Chien-Kuo Chiu


In this work, to develop a method for detailed assesses of post-earthquake seismic performance for RC buildings in Taiwan, experimental data for several column specimens with various failure modes (flexural failure, flexural-shear failure, and shear failure) are used to derive reduction factors of seismic capacity for specified damage states. According to the damage states of RC columns and their corresponding seismic reduction factors suggested by experimental data, this work applies the detailed seismic performance assessment method to identify the seismic capacity of earthquake-damaged RC buildings. Additionally, a post-earthquake emergent assessment procedure is proposed that can provide the data needed for decision about earthquake-damaged buildings in a region with high seismic hazard. Finally, three actual earthquake-damaged school buildings in Taiwan are used as a case study to demonstrate application of the proposed assessment method.

Keywords: seismic assessment, seismic reduction factor, residual seismic ratio, post-earthquake, reinforced concrete, building

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2902 Bending and Shear Characteristics of Hollowcore Slab with Polystyrene Forms

Authors: Kang Kun Lee


New I-slab system with polystyrene forms and precast concrete deck is proposed to reduce the construction period and the self-weight of the slab. This paper presents experimental works on the bending and shear of the I-slabs. Five specimens were tested. The main parameters of experiments are diameters of the holes made by polystyrene form and the thickness of slab. Structural performance of I-slab is evaluated on the basis of failure mode, load-displacement curve, and ultimate strengths. Based on the test results, it is found that the critical punching shear sections are changed as the test variables are different, hence resulting in the varied punching shear strengths. Test results indicate that the developed I-slab is very effective to increase the strength due to self-weight reduction.

Keywords: hollowcore slab, section force-deformation response, precast concrete deck

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