Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: anodization

23 Effect of Constant and Variable Temperature on the Morphology of TiO₂ Nanotubes Prepared by Two-Step Anodization Method

Authors: Tayyaba Ghani, Mazhar Mehmood, Mohammad Mujahid


TiO₂ nanotubes are receiving immense attraction in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells due to their well-defined nanostructures, efficient electron transport and large surface area as compared to other one dimensional structures. In the present work, we have investigated the influence of temperature on the morphology of anodically produced self-organized Titanium oxide nanotubes (TiNTs). TiNTs are synthesized by two-step anodization method in an ethylene glycol based electrolytes containing ammonium fluoride. Experiments are performed at constant anodization voltage for two hours. An investigation by the SEM images reveals that if the temperature is kept constant during the anodizing experiment, variation in the average tube diameter is significantly reduced. However, if the temperature is not controlled then due to the exothermic nature of reactions for the formation of TiNTs, the temperature of electrolyte keep on increasing. This variation in electrolyte bath temperature introduced strong variations in tube diameter (20 nm to 160 nm) along the length of tubes. Current profiles, recorded during the anodization experiment, predict the effect of constant and varying experimental temperatures as well. In both cases, XRD results show the complete anatase crystal structure of nanotube upon annealing at 450 °C. Present work highlights the importance of constant temperature during the anodization experiments in order to develop an ordered array of nanotubes with a uniform tube diameter.

Keywords: anodization, ordering, temperature, TiO₂ nanotubes

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22 Self-Organized TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ Nanotubes on β-Ti Alloy by Anodization

Authors: Muhammad Qadir, Yuncang Li, Cuie Wen


Surface properties such as topography and physicochemistry of metallic implants determine the cell behavior. The surface of titanium (Ti)-based implant can be modified to enhance the bioactivity and biocompatibility. In this study, a self-organized titania–niobium pentoxide–zirconia (TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂) nanotubular layer on β phase Ti35Zr28Nb alloy was fabricated via electrochemical anodization. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurement techniques were used to investigate the nanotubes dimensions (i.e., the inner and outer diameters, and wall thicknesses), microstructural features and evolution of the hydrophilic properties. The in vitro biocompatibility of the TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ nanotubes (NTs) was assessed by using osteoblast cells (SaOS2). Influence of anodization parameters on the morphology of TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ NTs has been studied. The results indicated that the average inner diameter, outer diameter and the wall thickness of the TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ NTs were ranged from 25–70 nm, 45–90 nm and 5–13 nm, respectively, and were directly influenced by the applied voltage during anodization. The average inner and outer diameters of NTs increased with increasing applied voltage, and the length of NTs increased with increasing anodization time and water content of the electrolyte. In addition, the size distribution of the NTs noticeably affected the hydrophilic properties and enhanced the biocompatibility as compared with the uncoated substrate. The results of this study could be considered for developing nano-scale coatings for a wide range of biomedical applications.

Keywords: Titanium alloy, TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ nanotubes, anodization, surface wettability, biocompatibility

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21 Elaboration of Titania Nanotubes on Ti₆Al₄V Substrate by Electrochemical Anodization for Dental Application

Authors: Abdelghani Boucheham, Ahcene Karaali, Amar Manseri


Nanostructured Titania layers formed on the surface of titanium and titanium alloys by anodic oxidation play an important role in the enhancement of their biocompatibility and osseointegration in the human body. In the current work, highly ordered titania nanotube array films were elaborated on Ti₆Al₄V medical grade alloys in organic electrolyte containing ethylene glycol, 0.2 wt. % NH₄F and 4 vol. % H₂O at an applied potential of 60 V for different durations. The diameters, lengths and wall thicknesses of the obtained nanotubes were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM).

Keywords: anodization, dental implants, titania nanotubes, titanium alloys, SEM

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20 Preparation of Catalyst-Doped TiO2 Nanotubes by Single Step Anodization and Potential Shock

Authors: Hyeonseok Yoo, Kiseok Oh, Jinsub Choi


Titanium oxide nanotubes have attracted great attention because of its photocatalytic activity and large surface area. For enhancing electrochemical properties, catalysts should be doped into the structure because titanium oxide nanotubes themselves have low electroconductivity and catalytic activity. It has been reported that Ru and Ir doped titanium oxide electrodes exhibit high efficiency and low overpotential in the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) for water splitting. In general, titanium oxide nanotubes with high aspect ratio cannot be easily doped by conventional complex methods. Herein, two types of facile routes, namely single step anodization and potential shock, for Ru doping into high aspect ratio titanium oxide nanotubes are introduced in detail. When single step anodization was carried out, stability of electrodes were increased. However, onset potential was shifted to anodic direction. On the other hand, when high potential shock voltage was applied, a large amount of ruthenium/ruthenium oxides were doped into titanium oxide nanotubes and thick barrier oxide layers were formed simultaneously. Regardless of doping routes, ruthenium/ ruthenium oxides were homogeneously doped into titanium oxide nanotubes. In spite of doping routes, doping in aqueous solution generally led to incorporate high amount of Ru in titanium oxide nanotubes, compared to that in non-aqueous solution. The amounts of doped catalyst were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optimum condition for water splitting was investigated in terms of the amount of doped Ru and thickness of barrier oxide layer.

Keywords: doping, potential shock, single step anodization, titanium oxide nanotubes

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19 A Simple Thermal Control Technique for the First Egyptian Pico Satellite

Authors: Maged Assem Soliman Mossallam


One of the main prospectives on the demand of space exploration is to reduce the costs and efforts for satellite design. Concerning this issue satellite down scaling attracts space scientists and engineers. Picosatellite is the smallest category of satellites. The overall mass is less than 1 kg and dimensions are 10x10x3 cm3. Thermal control target is to keep the Pico-satellite board temperature within the permissible limits of temperature. Thermal design is completely passive which relies mainly on the enhancement of the thermo-optical properties of aluminum using anodization. Transient analysis is given for two different orbits, ISS orbit and 600 km altitude orbit. Results show that board temperature lies within 3 oC to 22 oC using black anodization which is a permissible limit for the satellite internal electronic board.

Keywords: satellite thermal control, small satellites, thermooptical properties , transient orbit analysis

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18 Morphology Evolution in Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes Arrays Prepared by Electrochemical Anodization

Authors: J. Tirano, H. Zea, C. Luhrs


Photocatalysis has established as viable option in the development of processes for the treatment of pollutants and clean energy production. This option is based on the ability of semiconductors to generate an electron flow by means of the interaction with solar radiation. Owing to its electronic structure, TiO₂ is the most frequently used semiconductors in photocatalysis, although it has a high recombination of photogenerated charges and low solar energy absorption. An alternative to reduce these limitations is the use of nanostructured morphologies which can be produced during the synthesis of TiO₂ nanotubes (TNTs). Therefore, if possible to produce vertically oriented nanostructures it will be possible to generate a greater contact area with electrolyte and better charge transfer. At present, however, the development of these innovative structures still presents an important challenge for the development of competitive photoelectrochemical devices. This research focuses on established correlations between synthesis variables and 1D nanostructure morphology which has a direct effect on the photocatalytic performance. TNTs with controlled morphology were synthesized by two-step potentiostatic anodization of titanium foil. The anodization was carried out at room temperature in an electrolyte composed of ammonium fluoride, deionized water and ethylene glycol. Consequent thermal annealing of as-prepared TNTs was conducted in the air between 450 °C-550 °C. Morphology and crystalline phase of the TNTs were carried out by SEM, EDS and XRD analysis. As results, the synthesis conditions were established to produce nanostructures with specific morphological characteristics. Anatase was the predominant phase of TNTs after thermal treatment. Nanotubes with 10 μm in length, 40 nm in pore diameter and a surface-volume ratio of 50 are important in photoelectrochemical applications based on TiO₂ due to their 1D characteristics, high surface-volume ratio, reduced radial dimensions and high oxide/electrolyte interface. Finally, this knowledge can be used to improve the photocatalytic activity of TNTs by making additional surface modifications with dopants that improve their efficiency.

Keywords: electrochemical anodization, morphology, self-organized nanotubes, TiO₂ nanotubes

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17 Development of Hydrophobic Coatings on Aluminum Alloy 7075

Authors: Nauman A. Siddiqui


High performance requirement of aircrafts and marines industry demands to cater major industrial problems like wetting, high-speed efficiency, and corrosion resistance. These problems can be resolved by producing the hydrophobic surfaces on the metal substrate. By anodization process, the surface of AA 7075 has been modified and achieved a rough surface with a porous aluminum oxide (Al2O3) structure at nano-level. This surface modification process reduces the surface contact energy and increases the liquid contact angle which ultimately enhances the anti-icing properties. Later the Silane and Polyurethane (PU) coatings on the anodized surface have produced a contact angle of 130°. The results showed a good water repellency and self-cleaning properties. Using SEM analysis, micrographs revealed the round nano-porous oxide structure on the substrate. Therefore this technique can help in increasing the speed efficiency by reducing the friction with the outer interaction and can also be declared as a green technique since it is user-friendly.

Keywords: AA 7075, hydrophobicity, silanes, polyurethane, anodization

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16 Fabrication and Characteristics of Ni Doped Titania Nanotubes by Electrochemical Anodization

Authors: J. Tirano, H. Zea, C. Luhrs


It is well known that titanium dioxide is a semiconductor with several applications in photocatalytic process. Its band gap makes it very interesting in the photoelectrodes manufacturing used in photoelectrochemical cells for hydrogen production, a clean and environmentally friendly fuel. The synthesis of 1D titanium dioxide nanostructures, such as nanotubes, makes possible to produce more efficient photoelectrodes for solar energy to hydrogen conversion. In essence, this is because it increases the charge transport rate, decreasing recombination options. However, its principal constraint is to be mainly sensitive to UV range, which represents a very low percentage of solar radiation that reaches earth's surface. One of the alternatives to modifying the TiO2’s band gap and improving its photoactivity under visible light irradiation is to dope the nanotubes with transition metals. This option requires fabricating efficient nanostructured photoelectrodes with controlled morphology and specific properties able to offer a suitable surface area for metallic doping. Hence, currently one of the central challenges in photoelectrochemical cells is the construction of nanomaterials with a proper band position for driving the reaction while absorbing energy over the VIS spectrum. This research focuses on the synthesis and characterization of Nidoped TiO2 nanotubes for improving its photocatalytic activity in solar energy conversion applications. Initially, titanium dioxide nanotubes (TNTs) with controlled morphology were synthesized by two-step potentiostatic anodization of titanium foil. The anodization was carried out at room temperature in an electrolyte composed of ammonium fluoride, deionized water and ethylene glycol. Consequent thermal annealing of as-prepared TNTs was conducted in the air between 450 °C - 550 °C. Afterwards, the nanotubes were superficially modified by nickel deposition. Morphology and crystalline phase of the samples were carried out by SEM, EDS and XRD analysis before and after nickel deposition. Determining the photoelectrochemical performance of photoelectrodes is based on typical electrochemical characterization techniques. Also, the morphological characterization associated electrochemical behavior analysis were discussed to establish the effect of nickel nanoparticles modification on the TiO2 nanotubes. The methodology proposed in this research allows using other transition metal for nanotube surface modification.

Keywords: dimensionally stable electrode, nickel nanoparticles, photo-electrode, TiO₂ nanotubes

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15 Simultaneous Detection of Dopamine and Uric Acid in the Presence of Ascorbic Acid at Physiological Level Using Anodized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube–Poldimethylsiloxane Paste Electrode

Authors: Angelo Gabriel Buenaventura, Allan Christopher Yago


A carbon paste electrode (CPE) composed of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) conducting particle and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) binder was used for simultaneous detection of Dopamine (DA) and Uric Acid (UA) in the presence of Ascorbic Acid (AA) at physiological level. The MWCNT-PDMS CPE was initially activated via potentiodynamic cycling in a basic (NaOH) solution, which resulted in enhanced electrochemical properties. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy measurements revealed a significantly lower charge transfer resistance (Rct) for the OH--activated MWCNT-PDMS CPE (Rct = 5.08kΩ) as compared to buffer (pH 7)-activated MWCNT-PDMS CPE (Rct = 25.9kΩ). Reversibility analysis of Fe(CN)63-/4- redox couple of both Buffer-Activated CPE and OH--Activated CPE showed that the OH—Activated CPE have peak current ratio (Ia/Ic) of 1.11 at 100mV/s while 2.12 for the Buffer-Activated CPE; this showed an electrochemically reversible behavior for Fe(CN)63-/4- redox couple even at relatively fast scan rate using the OH--activated CPE. Enhanced voltammetric signal for DA and significant peak separation between DA and UA was obtained using the OH--activated MWCNT-PDMS CPE in the presence of 50 μM AA via Differential Pulse Voltammetry technique. The anodic peak currents which appeared at 0.263V and 0.414 V were linearly increasing with increasing concentrations of DA and UA, respectively. The linear ranges were obtained at 25 μM – 100 μM for both DA and UA. The detection limit was determined to be 3.86 μM for DA and 5.61 μM for UA. These results indicate a practical approach in the simultaneous detection of important bio-organic molecules using a simple CPE composed of MWCNT and PDMS with base anodization as activation technique.

Keywords: anodization, ascorbic acid, carbon paste electrodes, dopamine, uric acid

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14 Nanowire by Ac Electrodeposition Into Nanoporous Alumina Fabrication of High Aspect Ratio Metalic

Authors: M. Beyzaiea, S. Mohammadia


High aspect ratio metallic (silver, cobalt) nanowire arrays were fabricated using ac electrodeposition techniques into the nanoporous alumina template. The template with long pore dept fabricated by hard anodization (HA) and thinned for ac electrodeposition. Template preparation was done in short time by using HA technique and high speed thing process. The TEM and XRD investigation confirm the three dimensional nucleation growth mechanism of metallic nanowire inside the nanoporous alumina that fabricated by HA process.

Keywords: metallic, nanowire, nanoporous alumina, ac electrodeposition

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13 TiO₂ Nanotube Array Based Selective Vapor Sensors for Breath Analysis

Authors: Arnab Hazra


Breath analysis is a quick, noninvasive and inexpensive technique for disease diagnosis can be used on people of all ages without any risk. Only a limited number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can be associated with the occurrence of specific diseases. These VOCs can be considered as disease markers or breath markers. Selective detection with specific concentration of breath marker in exhaled human breath is required to detect a particular disease. For example, acetone (C₃H₆O), ethanol (C₂H₅OH), ethane (C₂H₆) etc. are the breath markers and abnormal concentrations of these VOCs in exhaled human breath indicates the diseases like diabetes mellitus, renal failure, breast cancer respectively. Nanomaterial-based vapor sensors are inexpensive, small and potential candidate for the detection of breath markers. In practical measurement, selectivity is the most crucial issue where trace detection of breath marker is needed to identify accurately in the presence of several interfering vapors and gases. Current article concerns a novel technique for selective and lower ppb level detection of breath markers at very low temperature based on TiO₂ nanotube array based vapor sensor devices. Highly ordered and oriented TiO₂ nanotube array was synthesized by electrochemical anodization of high purity tatinium (Ti) foil. 0.5 wt% NH₄F, ethylene glycol and 10 vol% H₂O was used as the electrolyte and anodization was carried out for 90 min with 40 V DC potential. Au/TiO₂ Nanotube/Ti, sandwich type sensor device was fabricated for the selective detection of VOCs in low concentration range. Initially, sensor was characterized where resistive and capacitive change of the sensor was recorded within the valid concentration range for individual breath markers (or organic vapors). Sensor resistance was decreased and sensor capacitance was increased with the increase of vapor concentration. Now, the ratio of resistive slope (mR) and capacitive slope (mC) provided a concentration independent constant term (M) for a particular vapor. For the detection of unknown vapor, ratio of resistive change and capacitive change at any concentration was same to the previously calculated constant term (M). After successful identification of the target vapor, concentration was calculated from the straight line behavior of resistance as a function of concentration. Current technique is suitable for the detection of particular vapor from a mixture of other interfering vapors.

Keywords: breath marker, vapor sensors, selective detection, TiO₂ nanotube array

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12 Study on Hydrophilicity of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates with TiO2-NTs

Authors: Yu-Wei Chang, Hsuan-Yu Ku, Jo-Shan Chiu, Shao-Fu Chang, Chien-Chon Chen


This paper aims to discuss the hydrophilicity about the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template with titania nanotubes (NTs). The AAO templates with pore size diameters of 20-250 nm were generated by anodizing 6061 aluminum alloy substrates in acid solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), oxalic acid (COOH)2, and phosphoric acid (H3PO4), respectively. TiO2-NTs were grown on AAO templates by the sol-gel deposition process successfully. The water contact angle on AAO/TiO2-NTs surface was lower compared to the water contact angle on AAO surface. So, the characteristic of hydrophilicity was significantly associated with the AAO pore size and what kinds of materials were immersed variables.

Keywords: AAO, nanotube, sol-gel, anodization, hydrophilicity

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11 Various Modification of Electrochemical Barrier Layer Thinning of Anodic Aluminum Oxide

Authors: W. J. Stępniowski, W. Florkiewicz, M. Norek, M. Michalska-Domańska, E. Kościuczyk, T. Czujko


In this paper, two options of anodic alumina barrier layer thinning have been demonstrated. The approaches varied with the duration of the voltage step. It was found that too long step of the barrier layer thinning process leads to chemical etching of the nanopores on their top. At the bottoms pores are not fully opened what is disadvantageous for further applications in nanofabrication. On the other hand, while the duration of the voltage step is controlled by the current density (value of the current density cannot exceed 75% of the value recorded during previous voltage step) the pores are fully opened. However, pores at the bottom obtained with this procedure have smaller diameter, nevertheless this procedure provides electric contact between the bare aluminum (substrate) and electrolyte, what is suitable for template assisted electrodeposition, one of the most cost-efficient synthesis method in nanotechnology.

Keywords: anodic aluminum oxide, anodization, barrier layer thinning, nanopores

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10 Fabrication and Characterization of Cadmium Sulfide Nanowires on Aluminum Oxide Template

Authors: Malik Imran Afzal


Cadmium supplied nanowires have unique electrical and optical properties and applications. To obtain cadmium supplied nanowires with regular and good aspect ratio, they can be synthesized by template synthesis method. Porous anodized aluminum oxide is the most promising template with regular hexagonal shapes. Their aspect ratio can be controlled by controlling the pores’ depth and diameter which greatly depend on anodization voltage and temperature of the electrolyte. In this research, high purity aluminium was used to prepare nanotemplates at 5-6°C in 1M phosphoric acid and cadmium supplied was deposited electrochemically using a co-solution of thiourea, cadmium acetate and ammonium acetate. pH was maintained at 11 in a heat bath at 75°C with the help of aqueous ammonia solution. Both porous anodized alumina and cadmium supplied nanowires were characterized suing SEM. A good quality Nanowires were obtained in bunches with reasonably high aspect ratio.

Keywords: bunches, electrodeposition, hexagonal, thiourea

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9 Microsatellite Passive Thermal Design Using Anodized Titanium

Authors: Maged Assem Soliman Mossallam


Microsatellites' low available power limits the usage of active thermal control techniques in these categories of satellites. Passive thermal control techniques are preferred due to their high reliability and power saving which increase the satellite's survivability in orbit. Steady-state and transient simulations are applied to the microsatellite design in order to define severe conditions in orbit. Satellite thermal orbital three-dimensional simulation is performed using thermal orbit propagator coupled with Comsol Multiphysics finite element solver. Sensitivity study shows the dependence of the satellite temperatures on the internal heat dissipation and the thermooptical properties of anodization coatings. The critical case is defined as low power orbiting mode at the eclipse zone. Using black anodized aluminum drops the internal temperatures to severe values which exceed the permissible cold limits. Replacement with anodized titanium returns the internal subsystems' temperatures back to adequate temperature fluctuations limits.

Keywords: passive thermal control, thermooptical, anodized titanium, emissivity, absorbtiviy

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8 Controlling Dimensions and Shape of Carbon Nanotubes Using Nanoporous Anodic Alumina under Different Conditions

Authors: Amine Mezni, Merfat Algethami, Ali Aldalbahi, Arwa Alrooqi, Abel Santos, Dusan Losic, Sarah Alharthi, Tariq Altalhi


In situ synthesis of carbon nanotubes featuring different diameters (10-200 nm), lengths (1 to 100 µm) and periodically nanostructured shape was performed in a custom designed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system using nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) under different conditions. The morphology of the resulting CNTs/NAA composites and free-standing CNTs were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results confirm that highly ordered arrays of CNTs with precise control of nanotube dimensions in the range 20-200 nm with tube length in the range < 1 µm to > 100 μm and with periodically shaped morphology can be fabricated using nanostructured NAA templates prepared by anodization. This technique allows us to obtain tubes open at one / both ends with a uniform diameter along the pore length without using any metal catalyst. Our finding suggests that this fabrication strategy for designing new CNTs membranes and structures can be significant for emerging applications as molecular separation/transport, optical biosensing, and drug delivery.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, CVD approach, composites membrane, nanoporous anodic alumina

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7 TiO2 Formation after Nanotubes Growth on Ti-15Mo Alloy Surface for Different Annealing Temperatures

Authors: A. L. R. Rangel, J. A. M. Chaves, A. P. R. Alves Claro


Surface modification of titanium and its alloys using TiO2 nanotube growth has been widely studied for biomedical field due to excellent interaction between implant and biological environment. The success of this treatment is directly related to anatase phase formation (TiO2 phase) which affects the cells growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phases formed in the nanotubes growth on the Ti-15Mo surface. Nanotubes were grown by electrochemical anodization of the alloy in ammonium fluoride based glycerol electrolyte for 24 hours at 20V. Then, the samples were annealed at 200°,400°, 450°, 500°, 600°, and 800° C for 1 hour. Contact angles measurements, scanning electron microscopy images and X rays diffraction analysis (XRD) were carried out for all samples. Raman Spectroscopy was used to evaluate TiO2 phases transformation in nanotubes samples as well. The results of XRD showed anatase formation for lower temperatures, while at 800 ° C the rutile phase was observed all over the surface. Raman spectra indicate that this phase transition occurs between 500 and 600 °C. The different phases formed have influenced the nanotubes morphologies, since higher annealing temperatures induced agglutination of the TiO2 layer, disrupting the tubular structure. On the other hand, the nanotubes drastically reduced the contact angle, regardless the annealing temperature.

Keywords: nanotubes, TiO2, titanium alloys, Ti-15Mo

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6 Synthesis and Characterization of Silver/Graphene Oxide Co-Decorated TiO2 Nanotubular Arrays for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Alireza Rafieerad, Bushroa Abd Razak, Bahman Nasiri Tabrizi, Jamunarani Vadivelu


Recently, reports on the fabrication of nanotubular arrays have generated considerable scientific interest, owing to the broad range of applications of the oxide nanotubes in solar cells, orthopedic and dental implants, photocatalytic devices as well as lithium-ion batteries. A more attractive approach for the fabrication of oxide nanotubes with controllable morphology is the electrochemical anodization of substrate in a fluoride-containing electrolyte. Consequently, titanium dioxide nanotubes (TiO2 NTs) have been highly considered as an applicable material particularly in the district of artificial implants. In addition, regarding long-term efficacy and reasons of failing and infection after surgery of currently used dental implants required to enhance the cytocompatibility properties of Ti-based bone-like tissue. As well, graphene oxide (GO) with relevant biocompatibility features in tissue sites, osseointegration and drug delivery functionalization was fully understood. Besides, the boasting antibacterial ability of silver (Ag) remarkably provided for implantable devices without infection symptoms. Here, surface modification of Ti–6Al–7Nb implants (Ti67IMP) by the development of Ag/GO co-decorated TiO2 NTs was examined. Initially, the anodic TiO2 nanotubes obtained at a constant potential of 60 V were annealed at 600 degree centigrade for 2 h to improve the adhesion of the coating. Afterward, the Ag/GO co-decorated TiO2 NTs were developed by spin coating on Ti67IM. The microstructural features, phase composition and wettability behavior of the nanostructured coating were characterized comparably. In a nutshell, the results of the present study may contribute to the development of the nanostructured Ti67IMP with improved surface properties.

Keywords: anodic tio2 nanotube, biomedical applications, graphene oxide, silver, spin coating

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5 Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities of TiO2/Ag2O Heterojunction Nanotubes Arrays Obtained by Electrochemical Method

Authors: Magdalena Diaka, Paweł Mazierski, Joanna Żebrowska, Michał Winiarski, Tomasz Klimczuk, Adriana Zaleska-Medynska


During the last years, TiO2 nanotubes have been widely studied due to their unique highly ordered array structure, unidirectional charge transfer and higher specific surface area compared to conventional TiO2 powder. These photoactive materials, in the form of thin layer, can be activated by low powered and low cost irradiation sources (such as LEDs) to remove VOCs, microorganism and to deodorize air streams. This is possible due to their directly growth on a support material and high surface area, which guarantee enhanced photon absorption together with an extensive adsorption of reactant molecules on the photocatalyst surface. TiO2 nanotubes exhibit also lots of other attractive properties, such as potential enhancement of electron percolation pathways, light conversion, and ion diffusion at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface. Pure TiO2 nanotubes were previously used to remove organic compounds from the gas phase as well as in water splitting reaction. The major factors limiting the use of TiO2 nanotubes, which have not been fully overcome, are their relatively large band gap (3-3,2 eV) and high recombination rate of photogenerated electron–hole pairs. Many different strategies were proposed to solve this problem, however titania nanostructures containing incorporated metal oxides like Ag2O shows very promising, new optical and photocatalytic properties. Unfortunately, there is still very limited number of reports regarding application of TiO2/MxOy nanostructures. In the present work, we prepared TiO2/Ag2O nanotubes obtained by anodization of Ti-Ag alloys containing 5, 10 and 15 wt. % Ag. Photocatalysts prepared in this way were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), luminescence spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The activities of new TiO2/Ag2O were examined by photocatalytic degradation of toluene in gas phase reaction and phenol in aqueous phase using 1000 W Xenon lamp (Oriel) and light emitting diodes (LED) as a irradiation sources. Additionally efficiency of bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) removal from the gas phase was estimated. The number of surviving bacteria was determined by the serial twofold dilution microtiter plate method, in Tryptic Soy Broth medium (TSB, GibcoBRL).

Keywords: photocatalysis, antibacterial properties, titania nanotubes, new TiO2/MxOy nanostructures

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4 Synthesis and Characterization of High-Aspect-Ratio Hematite Nanostructures for Solar Water Splitting

Authors: Paula Quiterio, Arlete Apolinario, Celia T. Sousa, Joao Azevedo, Paula Dias, Adelio Mendes, Joao P. Araujo


Nowadays one of the mankind's greatest challenges has been the supply of low-cost and environmentally friendly energy sources as an alternative to non-renewable fossil fuels. Hydrogen has been considered a promising solution, representing a clean and low-cost fuel. It can be produced directly from clean and abundant resources, such as sunlight and water, using photoelectrochemical cells (PECs), in a process that mimics the nature´s photosynthesis. Hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) has attracted considerable attention as a promising photoanode for solar water splitting, due to its high chemical stability, nontoxicity, availability and low band gap (2.2 eV), which allows reaching a high thermodynamic solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 16.8 %. However, the main drawbacks of hematite such as the short hole diffusion length and the poor conductivity that lead to high electron-hole recombination result in significant PEC efficiency losses. One strategy to overcome these limitations and to increase the PEC efficiency is to use 1D nanostructures, such as nanotubes (NTs) and nanowires (NWs), which present high aspect ratios and large surface areas providing direct pathways for electron transport up to the charge collector and minimizing the recombination losses. In particular, due to the ultrathin walls of the NTs, the holes can reach the surface faster than in other nanostructures, representing a key factor for the NTs photoresponse. In this work, we prepared hematite NWs and NTs, respectively by hydrothermal process and electrochemical anodization. For hematite NWs growing, we studied the effect of variable hydrothermal conditions, different annealing temperatures and time, and the use of Ti and Sn dopants on the morphology and PEC performance. The crystalline phase characterization by X-ray diffraction was crucial to distinguish the formation of hematite and other iron oxide phases, alongside its effect on the photoanodes conductivity and consequent PEC efficiency. The conductivity of the as-prepared NWs is very low, in the order of 10-5 S cm-1, but after doping and annealing optimization it increased by a factor of 105. A high photocurrent density of 1.02 mA cm-2 at 1.45 VRHE was obtained under simulated sunlight, which is a very promising value for this kind of hematite nanostructures. The stability of the photoelectrodes was also tested, presenting good stability after several J-V measurements over time. The NTs, synthesized by fast anodizations with potentials ranging from 20-100 V, presented a linear growth of the NTs pore walls, with very low thicknesses from 10 - 18 nm. These preliminary results are also very promising for the use of hematite photoelectrodes on PEC hydrogen applications.

Keywords: hematite, nanotubes, nanowires, photoelectrochemical cells

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3 Detection of Alzheimer's Protein on Nano Designed Polymer Surfaces in Water and Artificial Saliva

Authors: Sevde Altuntas, Fatih Buyukserin


Alzheimer’s disease is responsible for irreversible neural damage of brain parts. One of the disease markers is Amyloid-β 1-42 protein that accumulates in the brain in the form plaques. The basic problem for detection of the protein is the low amount of protein that cannot be detected properly in body liquids such as blood, saliva or urine. To solve this problem, tests like ELISA or PCR are proposed which are expensive, require specialized personnel and can contain complex protocols. Therefore, Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) a good candidate for detection of Amyloid-β 1-42 protein. Because the spectroscopic technique can potentially allow even single molecule detection from liquid and solid surfaces. Besides SERS signal can be improved by using nanopattern surface and also is specific to molecules. In this context, our study proposes to fabricate diagnostic test models that utilize Au-coated nanopatterned polycarbonate (PC) surfaces modified with Thioflavin - T to detect low concentrations of Amyloid-β 1-42 protein in water and artificial saliva medium by the enhancement of protein SERS signal. The nanopatterned PC surface that was used to enhance SERS signal was fabricated by using Anodic Alumina Membranes (AAM) as a template. It is possible to produce AAMs with different column structures and varying thicknesses depending on voltage and anodization time. After fabrication process, the pore diameter of AAMs can be arranged with dilute acid solution treatment. In this study, two different columns structures were prepared. After a surface modification to decrease their surface energy, AAMs were treated with PC solution. Following the solvent evaporation, nanopatterned PC films with tunable pillared structures were peeled off from the membrane surface. The PC film was then modified with Au and Thioflavin-T for the detection of Amyloid-β 1-42 protein. The protein detection studies were conducted first in water via this biosensor platform. Same measurements were conducted in artificial saliva to detect the presence of Amyloid Amyloid-β 1-42 protein. SEM, SERS and contact angle measurements were carried out for the characterization of different surfaces and further demonstration of the protein attachment. SERS enhancement factor calculations were also completed via experimental results. As a result, our research group fabricated diagnostic test models that utilize Au-coated nanopatterned polycarbonate (PC) surfaces modified with Thioflavin-T to detect low concentrations of Alzheimer’s Amiloid – β protein in water and artificial saliva medium. This work was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) Grant No: 214Z167.

Keywords: alzheimer, anodic aluminum oxide, nanotopography, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

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2 Fabrication of SnO₂ Nanotube Arrays for Enhanced Gas Sensing Properties

Authors: Hsyi-En Cheng, Ying-Yi Liou


Metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors are widely used in the gas-detection market due to their high sensitivity, fast response, and simple device structures. However, the high working temperature of MOS gas sensors makes them difficult to integrate with the appliance or consumer goods. One-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures are considered to have the potential to lower their working temperature due to their large surface-to-volume ratio, confined electrical conduction channels, and small feature sizes. Unfortunately, the difficulty of fabricating 1-D nanostructure electrodes has hindered the development of low-temperature MOS gas sensors. In this work, we proposed a method to fabricate nanotube-arrays, and the SnO₂ nanotube-array sensors with different wall thickness were successfully prepared and examined. The fabrication of SnO₂ nanotube arrays incorporates the techniques of barrier-free anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template and atomic layer deposition (ALD) of SnO₂. First, 1.0 µm Al film was deposited on ITO glass substrate by electron beam evaporation and then anodically oxidized by five wt% phosphoric acid solution at 5°C under a constant voltage of 100 V to form porous aluminum oxide. As the Al film was fully oxidized, a 15 min over anodization and a 30 min post chemical dissolution were used to remove the barrier oxide at the bottom end of pores to generate a barrier-free AAO template. The ALD using reactants of TiCl4 and H₂O was followed to grow a thin layer of SnO₂ on the template to form SnO₂ nanotube arrays. After removing the surface layer of SnO₂ by H₂ plasma and dissolving the template by 5 wt% phosphoric acid solution at 50°C, upright standing SnO₂ nanotube arrays on ITO glass were produced. Finally, Ag top electrode with line width of 5 μm was printed on the nanotube arrays to form SnO₂ nanotube-array sensor. Two SnO₂ nanotube-arrays with wall thickness of 30 and 60 nm were produced in this experiment for the evaluation of gas sensing ability. The flat SnO₂ films with thickness of 30 and 60 nm were also examined for comparison. The results show that the properties of ALD SnO₂ films were related to the deposition temperature. The films grown at 350°C had a low electrical resistivity of 3.6×10-3 Ω-cm and were, therefore, used for the nanotube-array sensors. The carrier concentration and mobility of the SnO₂ films were characterized by Ecopia HMS-3000 Hall-effect measurement system and were 1.1×1020 cm-3 and 16 cm3/V-s, respectively. The electrical resistance of SnO₂ film and nanotube-array sensors in air and in a 5% H₂-95% N₂ mixture gas was monitored by Pico text M3510A 6 1/2 Digits Multimeter. It was found that, at 200 °C, the 30-nm-wall SnO₂ nanotube-array sensor performs the highest responsivity to 5% H₂, followed by the 30-nm SnO₂ film sensor, the 60-nm SnO₂ film sensor, and the 60-nm-wall SnO₂ nanotube-array sensor. However, at temperatures below 100°C, all the samples were insensitive to the 5% H₂ gas. Further investigation on the sensors with thinner SnO₂ is necessary for improving the sensing ability at temperatures below 100 °C.

Keywords: atomic layer deposition, nanotube arrays, gas sensor, tin dioxide

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1 Investigation of Alumina Membrane Coated Titanium Implants on Osseointegration

Authors: Pinar Erturk, Sevde Altuntas, Fatih Buyukserin


In order to obtain an effective integration between an implant and a bone, implant surfaces should have similar properties to bone tissue surfaces. Especially mimicry of the chemical, mechanical and topographic properties of the implant to the bone is crucial for fast and effective osseointegration. Titanium-based biomaterials are more preferred in clinical use, and there are studies of coating these implants with oxide layers that have chemical/nanotopographic properties stimulating cell interactions for enhanced osseointegration. There are low success rates of current implantations, especially in craniofacial implant applications, which are large and vital zones, and the oxide layer coating increases bone-implant integration providing long-lasting implants without requiring revision surgery. Our aim in this study is to examine bone-cell behavior on titanium implants with an aluminum oxide layer (AAO) on effective osseointegration potential in the deformation of large zones with difficult spontaneous healing. In our study, aluminum layer coated titanium surfaces were anodized in sulfuric, phosphoric, and oxalic acid, which are the most common used AAO anodization electrolytes. After morphologic, chemical, and mechanical tests on AAO coated Ti substrates, viability, adhesion, and mineralization of adult bone cells on these substrates were analyzed. Besides with atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a sensitive and conformal technique, these surfaces were coated with pure alumina (5 nm); thus, cell studies were performed on ALD-coated nanoporous oxide layers with suppressed ionic content too. Lastly, in order to investigate the effect of the topography on the cell behavior, flat non-porous alumina layers on silicon wafers formed by ALD were compared with the porous ones. Cell viability ratio was similar between anodized surfaces, but pure alumina coated titanium and anodized surfaces showed a higher viability ratio compared to bare titanium and bare anodized ones. Alumina coated titanium surfaces, which anodized in phosphoric acid, showed significantly different mineralization ratios after 21 days over other bare titanium and titanium surfaces which anodized in other electrolytes. Bare titanium was the second surface that had the highest mineralization ratio. Otherwise, titanium, which is anodized in oxalic acid electrolyte, demonstrated the lowest mineralization. No significant difference was shown between bare titanium and anodized surfaces except AAO titanium surface anodized in phosphoric acid. Currently, osteogenic activities of these cells on the genetic level are investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis results of RUNX-2, VEGF, OPG, and osteopontin genes. Also, as a result of the activities of the genes mentioned before, Western Blot will be used for protein detection. Acknowledgment: The project is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey.

Keywords: alumina, craniofacial implant, MG-63 cell line, osseointegration, oxalic acid, phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid, titanium

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