Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1095

Search results for: seismic refraction tomography

1095 Assessment of the Response of Seismic Refraction Tomography and Resistivity Imaging to the Same Geologic Environment: A Case Study of Zaria Basement Complex in North Central Nigeria

Authors: Collins C. Chiemeke, I. B. Osazuwa, S. O. Ibe, G. N. Egwuonwu, C. D. Ani, E. C. Chii


The study area is Zaria, located in the basement complex of northern Nigeria. The rock type forming the major part of the Zaria batholith is granite. This research work was carried out to compare the responses of seismic refraction tomography and resistivity tomography in the same geologic environment and under the same conditions. Hence, the choice of the site that has a visible granitic outcrop that extends across a narrow stream channel and is flanked by unconsolidated overburden, a neutral profile that was covered by plain overburden and a site with thick lateritic cover became necessary. The results of the seismic and resistivity tomography models reveals that seismic velocity and resistivity does not always simultaneously increase with depth, but their responses in any geologic environment are determined by changes in the mechanical and chemical content of the rock types rather than depth.

Keywords: environment, resistivity, response, seismic, velocity

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1094 Subsurface Elastic Properties Determination for Site Characterization Using Seismic Refraction Tomography at the Pwalugu Dam Area

Authors: Van-Dycke Sarpong Asare, Vincent Adongo


Field measurement of subsurface seismic p-wave velocities was undertaken through seismic refraction tomography. The aim of this work is to obtain a model of the shallow subsurface material elastic properties relevant for geotechnical site characterization. The survey area is at Pwalugu in Northern Ghana, where a multipurpose dam, for electricity generation, irrigation, and potable water delivery, is being planned. A 24-channel seismograph and 24, 10 Hz electromagnetic geophones, deployed 5 m apart constituted the acquisition hardware. Eleven (2-D) seismic refraction profiles, nine of which ran almost perpendicular and two parallel to the White Volta at Pwalugu, were acquired. The refraction tomograms of the thirteen profiles revealed a subsurface model consisting of one minor and one major acoustic impedance boundaries – the top dry/loose sand and the variably weathered sandstone contact, and the overburden-sandstones bedrock contact respectively. The p-wave velocities and by inference, with a priori values of poison ratios, the s-wave velocities, assisted in characterizing the geotechnical conditions of the proposed site and also in evaluating the dynamic properties such as the maximum shear modulus, the bulk modulus, and the Young modulus.

Keywords: tomography, characterization, consolidated, Pwalugu and seismograph

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1093 Evaluation of Duncan-Chang Deformation Parameters of Granular Fill Materials Using Non-Invasive Seismic Wave Methods

Authors: Ehsan Pegah, Huabei Liu


Characterizing the deformation properties of fill materials in a wide stress range always has been an important issue in geotechnical engineering. The hyperbolic Duncan-Chang model is a very popular model of stress-strain relationship that captures the nonlinear deformation of granular geomaterials in a very tractable manner. It consists of a particular set of the model parameters, which are generally measured from an extensive series of laboratory triaxial tests. This practice is both time-consuming and costly, especially in large projects. In addition, undesired effects caused by soil disturbance during the sampling procedure also may yield a large degree of uncertainty in the results. Accordingly, non-invasive geophysical seismic approaches may be utilized as the appropriate alternative surveys for measuring the model parameters based on the seismic wave velocities. To this end, the conventional seismic refraction profiles were carried out in the test sites with the granular fill materials to collect the seismic waves information. The acquired shot gathers are processed, from which the P- and S-wave velocities can be derived. The P-wave velocities are extracted from the Seismic Refraction Tomography (SRT) technique while S-wave velocities are obtained by the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method. The velocity values were then utilized with the equations resulting from the rigorous theories of elasticity and soil mechanics to evaluate the Duncan-Chang model parameters. The derived parameters were finally compared with those from laboratory tests to validate the reliability of the results. The findings of this study may confidently serve as the useful references for determination of nonlinear deformation parameters of granular fill geomaterials. Those are environmentally friendly and quite economic, which can yield accurate results under the actual in-situ conditions using the surface seismic methods.

Keywords: Duncan-Chang deformation parameters, granular fill materials, seismic waves velocity, multichannel analysis of surface waves, seismic refraction tomography

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1092 Application of Seismic Refraction Method in Geotechnical Study

Authors: Abdalla Mohamed M. Musbahi


The study area lies in Al-Falah area on Airport-Tripoli in Zone (16) Where planned establishment of complex multi-floors for residential and commercial, this part was divided into seven subzone. In each sup zone, were collected Orthogonal profiles by using Seismic refraction method. The overall aim with this project is to investigate the applicability of Seismic refraction method is a commonly used traditional geophysical technique to determine depth-to-bedrock, competence of bedrock, depth to the water table, or depth to other seismic velocity boundaries The purpose of the work is to make engineers and decision makers recognize the importance of planning and execution of a pre-investigation program including geophysics and in particular seismic refraction method. The overall aim with this thesis is achieved by evaluation of seismic refraction method in different scales, determine the depth and velocity of the base layer (bed-rock). Calculate the elastic property in each layer in the region by using the Seismic refraction method. The orthogonal profiles was carried out in every subzones of (zone 16). The layout of the seismic refraction set up is schematically, the geophones are placed on the linear imaginary line whit a 5 m spacing, the three shot points (in beginning of layout–mid and end of layout) was used, in order to generate the P and S waves. The 1st and last shot point is placed about 5 meters from the geophones and the middle shot point is put in between 12th to 13th geophone, from time-distance curve the P and S waves was calculated and the thickness was estimated up to three-layers. As we know any change in values of physical properties of medium (shear modulus, bulk modulus, density) leads to change waves velocity which passing through medium where any change in properties of rocks cause change in velocity of waves. because the change in properties of rocks cause change in parameters of medium density (ρ), bulk modulus (κ), shear modulus (μ). Therefore, the velocity of waves which travel in rocks have close relationship with these parameters. Therefore we can estimate theses parameters by knowing primary and secondary velocity (p-wave, s-wave).

Keywords: application of seismic, geotechnical study, physical properties, seismic refraction

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1091 Detailed Microzonation Studies around Denizli, Turkey

Authors: A. Aydin, E. Akyol, N. Soyatik


This study has been presented which is a detailed work of seismic microzonation of the city center. For seismic microzonation area of 225 km2 has been selected as the study area. MASW (Multichannel analysis of surface wave) and seismic refraction methods have been used to generate one-dimensional shear wave velocity profile at 250 locations and two-dimensional profile at 60 locations. These shear wave velocities are used to estimate equivalent shear wave velocity in the study area at every 2 and 5 m intervals up to a depth of 60 m. Levels of equivalent shear wave velocity of soil are used the classified of the study area. After the results of the study, it must be considered as components of urban planning and building design of Denizli and the application and use of these results should be required and enforced by municipal authorities.

Keywords: seismic microzonation, liquefaction, land use management, seismic refraction

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1090 Vertical Electrical Sounding and Seismic Refraction Techniques in Resolving Groundwater Problems at Kujama Prison Farm, Kaduna, Nigeria

Authors: M. D. Dogara, C. G, Afuwai, O. O. Esther, A. M. Dawai


For two decades, the inhabitants of Kujama Prison Farm faced problems of water for domestic and agricultural purposes, even after the drilling of three deep boreholes. The scarcity of this groundwater resource led to the geophysical investigation of the basement complex of the prison farm. Two geophysical techniques, vertical electrical sounding and seismic refraction methods were deployed to unravel the cause(s) of the non-productivity of the three boreholes. The area of investigation covered was 400,000 m2 of ten profiles with six investigative points. In all, 60 vertical electrical points were sounded, and sixty sets of seismic refraction data were collected using the forward and reverse approach. From the geoelectric sections, it is suggestive that the area is underlain by three to five geoelectric layers of varying thicknesses and resistivities. The result of the interpreted seismic data revealed two geovelocity layers, with velocities ranging between 478m/s to 1666m/s for the first layer and 1166m/s to 7141m/s for the second layer. From the combined results of the two techniques, it was suggestive that all the three unproductive boreholes were drilled at points that were neither weathered nor fractured. It was, therefore, suggested that new boreholes should be drilled at areas identified with depressed bedrock topography having geophysical evidence of intense weathering and fracturing within the fresh basement.

Keywords: groundwater, Kujama prison farm, kaduna, nigeria, seismic refraction, vertical electrical sounding

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1089 Integration of Resistivity and Seismic Refraction Using Combine Inversion for Ancient River Findings at Sungai Batu, Lembah Bujang, Malaysia

Authors: Rais Yusoh, Rosli Saad, Mokhtar Saidin, Fauzi Andika, Sabiu Bala Muhammad


Resistivity and seismic refraction profiling have become a common method in pre-investigations for visualizing subsurface structure. The integration of the methods could reduce an interpretation ambiguity. Both methods have their individual software packages for data inversion, but potential to combine certain geophysical methods are restricted; however, the research algorithms that have this functionality was existed and are evaluated personally. The interpretation of subsurface were improve by combining inversion data from both methods by influence each other models using closure coupling; thus, by implementing both methods to support each other which could improve the subsurface interpretation. These methods were applied on a field dataset from a pre-investigation for archeology in finding the ancient river. There were no major changes in the inverted model by combining data inversion for this archetype which probably due to complex geology. The combine data analysis provides an additional technique for interpretation such as an alluvium, which can have strong influence on the ancient river findings.

Keywords: ancient river, combine inversion, resistivity, seismic refraction

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1088 Integrated Geophysical Approach for Subsurface Delineation in Srinagar, Uttarakhand, India

Authors: Pradeep Kumar Singh Chauhan, Gayatri Devi, Zamir Ahmad, Komal Chauhan, Abha Mittal


The application of geophysical methods to study the subsurface profile for site investigation is becoming popular globally. These methods are non-destructive and provide the image of subsurface at shallow depths. Seismic refraction method is one of the most common and efficient method being used for civil engineering site investigations particularly for knowing the seismic velocity of the subsurface layers. Resistivity imaging technique is a geo-electrical method used to image the subsurface, water bearing zone, bedrock and layer thickness. Integrated approach combining seismic refraction and 2-D resistivity imaging will provide a better and reliable picture of the subsurface. These are economical and less time-consuming field survey which provide high resolution image of the subsurface. Geophysical surveys carried out in this study include seismic refraction and 2D resistivity imaging method for delineation of sub-surface strata in different parts of Srinagar, Garhwal Himalaya, India. The aim of this survey was to map the shallow subsurface in terms of geological and geophysical properties mainly P-wave velocity, resistivity, layer thickness, and lithology of the area. Both sides of the river, Alaknanda which flows through the centre of the city, have been covered by taking two profiles on each side using both methods. Seismic and electrical surveys were carried out at the same locations to complement the results of each other. The seismic refraction survey was carried out using ABEM TeraLoc 24 channel Seismograph and 2D resistivity imaging was performed using ABEM Terrameter LS equipment. The results show three distinct layers on both sides of the river up to the depth of 20 m. The subsurface is divided into three distinct layers namely, alluvium extending up to, 3 m depth, conglomerate zone lying between the depth of 3 m to 15 m, and compacted pebbles and cobbles beyond 15 m. P-wave velocity in top layer is found in the range of 400 – 600 m/s, in second layer it varies from 700 – 1100 m/s and in the third layer it is 1500 – 3300 m/s. The resistivity results also show similar pattern and were in good agreement with seismic refraction results. The results obtained in this study were validated with an available exposed river scar at one site. The study established the efficacy of geophysical methods for subsurface investigations.

Keywords: 2D resistivity imaging, P-wave velocity, seismic refraction survey, subsurface

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1087 Combined Seismic Methods for Near-Surface Characterization

Authors: Irena Gjorgjeska, Vlatko Sheshov, Kemal Edip, Julijana Bojadjieva


Surface seismic methods are among the most popular, widely accepted geophysical methods for near-surface characterization. The most practical and effective ways to perform in-situ measurements and processing using different seismic methods such as seismic refraction, seismic reflection and Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method are presented in this paper. Each of the methods has some advantages and limitations, but their application in an integrated approach provides higher accuracy in subsurface modeling. The results of the surveys performed at two characteristic locations in R. North Macedonia are presented to show the efficiency of the combined methods approach.

Keywords: geophysical survey, integrated approach, seismic methods, site characterization

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1086 The TiO2 Refraction Film for CsI Scintillator

Authors: C. C. Chen, C. W. Hun, C. J. Wang, C. Y. Chen, J. S. Lin, K. J. Huang


Cesium iodide (CsI) melt was injected into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template and was solidified to CsI column. The controllable AAO channel size (10~500 nm) can makes CsI column size from 10 to500 nm in diameter. In order to have a shorter light irradiate from each singe CsI column top to bottom the AAO template was coated a TiO2 nano-film. The TiO2 film acts a refraction film and makes X-ray has a shorter irradiation path in the CsI crystal making a stronger the photo-electron signal. When the incidence light irradiate from air (R=1.0) to CsI’s first surface (R=1.84) the first refraction happen, the first refraction continue into TiO2 film (R=2.88) and produces the low angle of the second refraction. Then the second refraction continue into AAO wall (R=1.78) and produces the third refraction after refractions between CsI and AAO wall (R=1.78) produce the fourth refraction. The incidence light after through CsI and TiO2 film refractions arrive to the CsI second surface. Therefore, the TiO2 film can has shorter refraction path of incidence light and increase the photo-electron conversion efficiency.

Keywords: cesium iodide, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), TiO2, refraction, X-ray

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1085 Application of the Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Tunnel Seismic Prediction 303 Methods for Detection Fracture Zones Ahead of Tunnel: A Case Study

Authors: Nima Dastanboo, Xiao-Qing Li, Hamed Gharibdoost


The purpose of this study is to investigate about the geological properties ahead of a tunnel face with using Electrical Resistivity Tomography ERT and Tunnel Seismic Prediction TSP303 methods. In deep tunnels with hydro-geological conditions, it is important to study the geological structures of the region before excavating tunnels. Otherwise, it would lead to unexpected accidents that impose serious damage to the project. For constructing Nosoud tunnel in west of Iran, the ERT and TSP303 methods are employed to predict the geological conditions dynamically during the excavation. In this paper, based on the engineering background of Nosoud tunnel, the important results of applying these methods are discussed. This work demonstrates seismic method and electrical tomography as two geophysical techniques that are able to detect a tunnel. The results of these two methods were being in agreement with each other but the results of TSP303 are more accurate and quality. In this case, the TSP 303 method was a useful tool for predicting unstable geological structures ahead of the tunnel face during excavation. Thus, using another geophysical method together with TSP303 could be helpful as a decision support in excavating, especially in complicated geological conditions.

Keywords: tunnel seismic prediction (TSP303), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), seismic wave, velocity analysis, low-velocity zones

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1084 Best Season for Seismic Survey in Zaria Area, Nigeria: Data Quality and Implications

Authors: Ibe O. Stephen, Egwuonwu N. Gabriel


Variations in seismic P-wave velocity and depth resolution resulting from variations in subsurface water saturation were investigated in this study in order to determine the season of the year that gives the most reliable P-wave velocity and depth resolution of the subsurface in Zaria Area, Nigeria. A 2D seismic refraction tomography technique involving an ABEM Terraloc MK6 Seismograph was used to collect data across a borehole of standard log with the centre of the spread situated at the borehole site. Using the same parameters this procedure was repeated along the same spread for at least once in a month for at least eight months in a year for four years. The choice for each survey time depended on when there was significant variation in rainfall data. The seismic data collected were tomographically inverted. The results suggested that the average P-wave velocity ranges of the subsurface in the area are generally higher when the ground was wet than when it was dry. The results also suggested that the overburden of about 9.0 m in thickness, the weathered basement of about 14.0 m in thickness and the fractured basement at a depth of about 23.0 m best fitted the borehole log. This best fit was consistently obtained in the months between March and May when the average total rainfall was about 44.8 mm in the area. The results had also shown that the velocity ranges in both dry and wet formations fall within the standard ranges as provided in literature. In terms of velocity, this study has not in any way clearly distinguished the quality of the results of the seismic data obtained when the subsurface was dry from the results of the data collected when the subsurface was wet. It was concluded that for more detailed and reliable seismic studies in Zaria Area and its environs with similar climatic condition, the surveys are best conducted between March and May. The most reliable seismic data for depth resolution are most likely obtainable in the area between March and May.

Keywords: best season, variations in depth resolution, variations in P-wave velocity, variations in subsurface water saturation, Zaria area

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1083 Application of the Shallow Seismic Refraction Technique to Characterize the Foundation Rocks at the Proposed Tushka New City Site, South Egypt

Authors: Abdelnasser Mohamed, R. Fat-Helbary, H. El Khashab, K. EL Faragawy


Tushka New City is one of the proposed new cities in South Egypt. It is located in the eastern part of the western Desert of Egypt between latitude 22.878º and 22.909º N and longitude 31.525º and 31.635º E, about 60 kilometers far from Abu Simble City. The main target of the present study is the investigation of the shallow subsurface structure conditions and the dynamic characteristics of subsurface rocks using the shallow seismic refraction technique. Forty seismic profiles were conducted to calculate the P- and S-waves velocity at the study area. P- and SH-waves velocities can be used to obtain the geotechnical parameters and also SH-wave can be used to study the vibration characteristics of the near surface layers, which are important for earthquakes resistant structure design. The output results of the current study indicated that the P-waves velocity ranged from 450 to 1800 m/sec and from 1550 to 3000 m/sec for the surface and bedrock layer respectively. The SH-waves velocity ranged from 300 to 1100 m/sec and from 1000 to 1800 m/sec for the surface and bedrock layer respectively. The thickness of the surface layer and the depth to the bedrock layer were determined along each profile. The bulk density ρ of soil layers that used in this study was calculated for all layers at each profile in the study area. In conclusion, the area is mainly composed of compacted sandstone with high wave velocities, which is considered as a good foundation rock. The south western part of the study area has minimum values of the computed P- and SH-waves velocities, minimum values of the bulk density and the maximum value of the mean thickness of the surface layer.

Keywords: seismic refraction, Tushak new city, P-waves, SH-waves

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1082 Delineation of the Geoelectric and Geovelocity Parameters in the Basement Complex of Northwestern Nigeria

Authors: M. D. Dogara, G. C. Afuwai, O. O. Esther, A. M. Dawai


The geology of Northern Nigeria is under intense investigation particularly that of the northwest believed to be of the basement complex. The variability of the lithology is consistently inconsistent. Hence, the need for a close range study, it is, in view of the above that, two geophysical techniques, the vertical electrical sounding employing the Schlumberger array and seismic refraction methods, were used to delineate the geoelectric and geovelocity parameters of the basement complex of northwestern Nigeria. A total area of 400,000 m² was covered with sixty geoelectric stations established and sixty sets of seismic refraction data collected using the forward and reverse method. From the interpretation of the resistivity data, it is suggestive that the area is underlain by not more than five geoelectric layers of varying thicknesses and resistivities when a maximum half electrode spread of 100m was used. The result of the interpreted seismic data revealed two geovelocity layers, with velocities ranging between 478m/s to 1666m/s for the first layer and 1166m/s to 7141m/s for the second layer. The results of the two techniques, suggests that the area of study has an undulating bedrock topography with geoeletric and geovelocity layers composed of weathered rock materials.

Keywords: basement complex, delineation, geoelectric, geovelocity, Nigeria

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1081 Examination of the Influence of the Near-Surface Geology on the Initial Infrastructural Development Using High-Resolution Seismic Method

Authors: Collins Chiemeke, Stephen Ibe, Godwin Onyedim


This research work on high-resolution seismic tomography method was carried out with the aim of investigating how near-surface geology influences the initial distribution of infrastructural development in an area like Otuoke and its environs. To achieve this objective, seismic tomography method was employed. The result revealed that the overburden (highly-weathered layer) thickness ranges from 27 m to 50 m within the survey area, with an average value of 37 m. The 3D surface analysis for the overburden thickness distribution within the survey area showed that the thickness of the overburden is more in regions with less infrastructural development, and least in built-up areas. The range of velocity distribution from the surface to within a depth of 5 m is about 660 m/s to 1160 m/s, with an average value of 946 m/s. The 3D surface analysis of the velocity distribution also revealed that the areas with large infrastructural development are characterized with large velocity values compared with the undeveloped regions that has average low-velocity values. Hence, one can conclusively say that the initial settlement of Otuoke and its environs and the subsequent infrastructural development was influenced by the underlying near surface geology (rigid earth), among other factors.

Keywords: geology, seismic, infrastructural, near-surface

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1080 Passive Seismic in Hydrogeological Prospecting: The Case Study from Hard Rock and Alluvium Plain

Authors: Prarabdh Tiwari, M. Vidya Sagar, K. Bhima Raju, Joy Choudhury, Subash Chandra, E. Nagaiah, Shakeel Ahmed


Passive seismic, a wavefield interferometric imaging, low cost and rapid tool for subsurface investigation is used for various geotechnical purposes such as hydrocarbon exploration, seismic microzonation, etc. With the recent advancement, its application has also been extended to groundwater exploration by means of finding the bedrock depth. Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR)-National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI) has experimented passive seismic studies along with electrical resistivity tomography for groundwater in hard rock (Choutuppal, Hyderabad). Passive Seismic with Electrical Resistivity (ERT) can give more clear 2-D subsurface image for Groundwater Exploration in Hard Rock area. Passive seismic data were collected using a Tromino, a three-component broadband seismometer, to measure background ambient noise and processed using GRILLA software. The passive seismic results are found corroborating with ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography) results. For data acquisition purpose, Tromino was kept over 30 locations consist recording of 20 minutes at each station. These location shows strong resonance frequency peak, suggesting good impedance contrast between different subsurface layers (ex. Mica rich Laminated layer, Weathered layer, granite, etc.) This paper presents signature of passive seismic for hard rock terrain. It has been found that passive seismic has potential application for formation characterization and can be used as an alternative tool for delineating litho-stratification in an urban condition where electrical and electromagnetic tools cannot be applied due to high cultural noise. In addition to its general application in combination with electrical and electromagnetic methods can improve the interpreted subsurface model.

Keywords: passive seismic, resonant frequency, Tromino, GRILLA

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1079 Evaluation of Geotechnical Parameters at Nubian Habitations in Kurkur Area, Aswan, Egypt

Authors: R. E. Fat-Helbary, A. A. Abdel-latief, M. S. Arfa, Alaa Mostafa


The Egyptian Government proposed a general plan, aiming at constructing new settlements for Nubian in south Aswan in different places around Nasser Lake, one of these settlements in Kurkur area. The Nubian habitations in Wadi Kurkur are located around 30 km southwest of Aswan City. This area are affecting by near distance earthquakes from Kalabsha faults system. The shallow seismic refraction technique was conducted at the study area, to evaluate the soil and rock material quality and geotechnical parameters, in addition to the detection of the subsurface ground model under the study area. The P and S-wave velocities were calculated. The surface layer has P-wave, velocity ranges from 900 m/sec to 1625 m/sec and S-wave velocity ranges from 650 m/sec to 1400 m/sec. On the other hand the bedrock has P-wave velocity ranges from 1300 m/sec to 1980 m/sec and S-wave velocity ranges from 1050 m/sec to1725 m/sec. Measuring Vp and Vs velocities together with bulk density are calculated and used to extract the mechanical properties and geotechnical parameters of the foundation material at the study area. Output of this study is very important for solving the problems, which associated with the construction of various civil engineering purposes, for land use planning and for earthquakes resistant structure design.

Keywords: shallow seismic refraction technique, Kurkur area, p and s-wave velocities, geotechnical parameters, bulk density, Kalabsha faults

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1078 Foundation Settlement Determination: A Simplified Approach

Authors: Adewoyin O. Olusegun, Emmanuel O. Joshua, Marvel L. Akinyemi


The heterogeneous nature of the subsurface requires the use of factual information to deal with rather than assumptions or generalized equations. Therefore, there is need to determine the actual rate of settlement possible in the soil before structures are built on it. This information will help in determining the type of foundation design and the kind of reinforcement that will be necessary in constructions. This paper presents a simplified and a faster approach for determining foundation settlement in any type of soil using real field data acquired from seismic refraction techniques and cone penetration tests. This approach was also able to determine the depth of settlement of each strata of soil. The results obtained revealed the different settlement time and depth of settlement possible.

Keywords: heterogeneous, settlement, foundation, seismic, technique

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1077 Application of Post-Stack and Pre-Stack Seismic Inversion for Prediction of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in a Persian Gulf Gas Field

Authors: Nastaran Moosavi, Mohammad Mokhtari


Seismic inversion is a technique which has been in use for years and its main goal is to estimate and to model physical characteristics of rocks and fluids. Generally, it is a combination of seismic and well-log data. Seismic inversion can be carried out through different methods; we have conducted and compared post-stack and pre- stack seismic inversion methods on real data in one of the fields in the Persian Gulf. Pre-stack seismic inversion can transform seismic data to rock physics such as P-impedance, S-impedance and density. While post- stack seismic inversion can just estimate P-impedance. Then these parameters can be used in reservoir identification. Based on the results of inverting seismic data, a gas reservoir was detected in one of Hydrocarbon oil fields in south of Iran (Persian Gulf). By comparing post stack and pre-stack seismic inversion it can be concluded that the pre-stack seismic inversion provides a more reliable and detailed information for identification and prediction of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Keywords: density, p-impedance, s-impedance, post-stack seismic inversion, pre-stack seismic inversion

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1076 Application of the Seismic Reflection Survey to an Active Fault Imaging

Authors: Nomin-Erdene Erdenetsogt, Tseedulam Khuut, Batsaikhan Tserenpil, Bayarsaikhan Enkhee


As the framework of 60 years of development of Astronomical and Geophysical science in modern Mongolia, various geophysical methods (electrical tomography, ground-penetrating radar, and high-resolution reflection seismic profiles) were used to image an active fault in-depth range between few decimeters to few tens meters. An active fault was fractured by an earthquake magnitude 7.6 during 1967. After geophysical investigations, trench excavations were done at the sites to expose the fault surfaces. The complex geophysical survey in the Mogod fault, Bulgan region of central Mongolia shows an interpretable reflection arrivals range of < 5 m to 50 m with the potential for increased resolution. Reflection profiles were used to help interpret the significance of neotectonic surface deformation at earthquake active fault. The interpreted profiles show a range of shallow fault structures and provide subsurface evidence with support of paleoseismologic trenching photos, electrical surveys.

Keywords: Mogod fault, geophysics, seismic processing, seismic reflection survey

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1075 Measuring the Cavitation Cloud by Electrical Impedance Tomography

Authors: Michal Malik, Jiri Primas, Darina Jasikova, Michal Kotek, Vaclav Kopecky


This paper is a case study dealing with the viability of using Electrical Impedance Tomography for measuring cavitation clouds in a pipe setup. The authors used a simple passive cavitation generator to cause a cavitation cloud, which was then recorded for multiple flow rates using electrodes in two measuring planes. The paper presents the results of the experiment, showing the used industrial grade tomography system ITS p2+ is able to measure the cavitation cloud and may be particularly useful for identifying the inception of cavitation in setups where other measuring tools may not be viable.

Keywords: cavitation cloud, conductivity measurement, electrical impedance tomography, mechanically induced cavitation

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1074 Seizure Effects of FP Bearings on the Seismic Reliability of Base-Isolated Systems

Authors: Paolo Castaldo, Bruno Palazzo, Laura Lodato


This study deals with the seizure effects of friction pendulum (FP) bearings on the seismic reliability of a 3D base-isolated nonlinear structural system, designed according to Italian seismic code (NTC08). The isolated system consists in a 3D reinforced concrete superstructure, a r.c. substructure and the FP devices, described by employing a velocity dependent model. The seismic input uncertainty is considered as a random variable relevant to the problem, by employing a set of natural seismic records selected in compliance with L’Aquila (Italy) seismic hazard as provided from NTC08. Several non-linear dynamic analyses considering the three components of each ground motion have been performed with the aim to evaluate the seismic reliability of the superstructure, substructure, and isolation level, also taking into account the seizure event of the isolation devices. Finally, a design solution aimed at increasing the seismic robustness of the base-isolated systems with FPS is analyzed.

Keywords: FP devices, seismic reliability, seismic robustness, seizure

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1073 Evaluation of Internal Friction Angle in Overconsolidated Granular Soil Deposits Using P- and S-Wave Seismic Velocities

Authors: Ehsan Pegah, Huabei Liu


Determination of the internal friction angle (φ) in natural soil deposits is an important issue in geotechnical engineering. The main objective of this study was to examine the evaluation of this parameter in overconsolidated granular soil deposits by using the P-wave velocity and the anisotropic components of S-wave velocity (i.e., both the vertical component (SV) and the horizontal component (SH) of S-wave). To this end, seventeen pairs of P-wave and S-wave seismic refraction profiles were carried out at three different granular sites in Iran using non-invasive seismic wave methods. The acquired shot gathers were processed, from which the P-wave, SV-wave and SH-wave velocities were derived. The reference values of φ and overconsolidation ratio (OCR) in the soil deposits were measured through laboratory tests. By assuming cross-anisotropy of the soils, the P-wave and S-wave velocities were utilized to develop an equation for calculating the coefficient of lateral earth pressure at-rest (K₀) based on the theory of elasticity for a cross-anisotropic medium. In addition, to develop an equation for OCR estimation in granular geomaterials in terms of SH/SV velocity ratios, a general regression analysis was performed on the resulting information from this research incorporated with the respective data published in the literature. The calculated K₀ values coupled with the estimated OCR values were finally employed in the Mayne and Kulhawy formula to evaluate φ in granular soil deposits. The results showed that reliable values of φ could be estimated based on the seismic wave velocities. The findings of this study may be used as the appropriate approaches for economic and non-invasive determination of in-situ φ in granular soil deposits using the surface seismic surveys.

Keywords: angle of internal friction, overconsolidation ratio, granular soils, P-wave velocity, SV-wave velocity, SH-wave velocity

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1072 Introduction of the Harmfulness of the Seismic Signal in the Assessment of the Performance of Reinforced Concrete Frame Structures

Authors: Kahil Amar, Boukais Said, Kezmane Ali, Hannachi Naceur Eddine, Hamizi Mohand


The principle of the seismic performance evaluation methods is to provide a measure of capability for a building or set of buildings to be damaged by an earthquake. The common objective of many of these methods is to supply classification criteria. The purpose of this study is to present a method for assessing the seismic performance of structures, based on Pushover method, we are particularly interested in reinforced concrete frame structures, which represent a significant percentage of damaged structures after a seismic event. The work is based on the characterization of seismic movement of the various earthquake zones in terms of PGA and PGD that is obtained by means of SIMQK_GR and PRISM software and the correlation between the points of performance and the scalar characterizing the earthquakes will be developed.

Keywords: seismic performance, pushover method, characterization of seismic motion, harmfulness of the seismic

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1071 Seismic Design Approach for Areas with Low Seismicity

Authors: Mogens Saberi


The following article focuses on a new seismic design approach for Denmark. Denmark is located in a low seismic zone and up till now a general and very simplified approach has been used to accommodate the effect of seismic loading. The current used method is presented and it is found that the approach is on the unsafe side for many building types in Denmark. The damages during time due to earth quake is presented and a seismic map for Denmark is developed and presented. Furthermore, a new design approach is suggested and compared to the existing one. The new approach is relatively simple but captures the effect of seismic loading more realistic than the existing one. The new approach is believed to the incorporated in the Danish Deign Code for building structures.

Keywords: low seismicity, new design approach, earthquakes, Denmark

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1070 Study on Seismic Response Feature of Multi-Span Bridges Crossing Fault

Authors: Yingxin Hui


Understanding seismic response feature of the bridges crossing fault is the basis of the seismic fortification. Taking a multi-span bridge crossing active fault under construction as an example, the seismic ground motions at bridge site were generated following hybrid simulation methodology. Multi-support excitations displacement input models and nonlinear time history analysis was used to calculate seismic response of structures, and the results were compared with bridge in the near-fault region. The results showed that the seismic response features of bridges crossing fault were different from the bridges in the near-fault region. The design according to the bridge in near-fault region would cause the calculation results with insecurity and non-reasonable if the effect of cross the fault was ignored. The design of seismic fortification should be based on seismic response feature, which could reduce the adverse effect caused by the structure damage.

Keywords: bridge engineering, seismic response feature, across faults, rupture directivity effect, fling step

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1069 Microwave Tomography: The Analytical Treatment for Detecting Malignant Tumor Inside Human Body

Authors: Muhammad Hassan Khalil, Xu Jiadong


Early detection through screening is the best tool short of a perfect treatment against the malignant tumor inside the breast of a woman. By detecting cancer in its early stages, it can be recognized and treated before it has the opportunity to spread and change into potentially dangerous. Microwave tomography is a new imaging method based on contrast in dielectric properties of materials. The mathematical theory of microwave tomography involves solving an inverse problem for Maxwell’s equations. In this paper, we present designed antenna for breast cancer detection, which will use in microwave tomography configuration.

Keywords: microwave imaging, inverse scattering, breast cancer, malignant tumor detection

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1068 Seismic Performance Evaluation of Existing Building Using Structural Information Modeling

Authors: Byungmin Cho, Dongchul Lee, Taejin Kim, Minhee Lee


The procedure for the seismic retrofit of existing buildings includes the seismic evaluation. In the evaluation step, it is assessed whether the buildings have satisfactory performance against seismic load. Based on the results of that, the buildings are upgraded. To evaluate seismic performance of the buildings, it usually goes through the model transformation from elastic analysis to inelastic analysis. However, when the data is not delivered through the interwork, engineers should manually input the data. In this process, since it leads to inaccuracy and loss of information, the results of the analysis become less accurate. Therefore, in this study, the process for the seismic evaluation of existing buildings using structural information modeling is suggested. This structural information modeling makes the work economic and accurate. To this end, it is determined which part of the process could be computerized through the investigation of the process for the seismic evaluation based on ASCE 41. The structural information modeling process is developed to apply to the seismic evaluation using Perform 3D program usually used for the nonlinear response history analysis. To validate this process, the seismic performance of an existing building is investigated.

Keywords: existing building, nonlinear analysis, seismic performance, structural information modeling

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1067 3D Printed Multi-Modal Phantom Using Computed Tomography and 3D X-Ray Images

Authors: Sung-Suk Oh, Bong-Keun Kang, Sang-Wook Park, Hui-Jin Joo, Jong-Ryul Choi, Seong-Jun Lee, Jeong-Woo Sohn


The imaging phantom is utilized for the verification, evaluation and tuning of the medical imaging device and system. Although it could be costly, 3D printing is an ideal technique for a rapid, customized, multi-modal phantom making. In this article, we propose the multi-modal phantom using 3D printing. First of all, the Dicom images for were measured by CT (Computed Tomography) and 3D X-ray systems (PET/CT and Angio X-ray system of Siemens) and then were analyzed. Finally, the 3D modeling was processed using Dicom images. The 3D printed phantom was scanned by PET/CT and MRI systems and then evaluated.

Keywords: imaging phantom, MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), PET / CT (Positron Emission Tomography / Computed Tomography), 3D printing

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1066 O-(2-18F-Fluoroethyl)-L-Tyrosine Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Patients with Suspicious Recurrent Low and High-Grade Glioma

Authors: Mahkameh Asadi, Habibollah Dadgar


The precise definition margin of high and low-grade glioma is crucial for choosing best treatment approach after surgery and radio-chemotherapy. The aim of the current study was to assess the O-(2-18F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (18F-FET) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in patients with low (LGG) and high grade glioma (HGG). We retrospectively analyzed 18F-FET PET/CT of 10 patients (age: 33 ± 12 years) with suspicious for recurrent LGG and HGG. The final decision of recurrence was made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and registered clinical data. While response to radio-chemotherapy by MRI is often complex and sophisticated due to the edema, necrosis, and inflammation, emerging amino acid PET leading to better interpretations with more specifically differentiate true tumor boundaries from equivocal lesions. Therefore, integrating amino acid PET in the management of glioma to complement MRI will significantly improve early therapy response assessment, treatment planning, and clinical trial design.

Keywords: positron emission tomography, amino acid positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, low and high grade glioma

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