Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2943

Search results for: bridge monitoring

2943 Monitoring and Analysis of Bridge Crossing Ground Fissures

Authors: Zhiqing Zhang, Xiangong Zhou, Zihan Zhou

Abstract:

Ground fissures can be seen in some cities all over the world. As a special urban geological disaster, ground fissures in Xi'an have caused great harm to infrastructure. Chang'an Road Interchange in Xi'an City is a bridge across ground fissures. The damage to Chang'an Road interchange is the most serious and typical. To study the influence of ground fissures on the bridge, we established a bridge monitoring system. The main monitoring items include elevation monitoring, structural displacement monitoring, etc. The monitoring results show that the typical failure is mainly reflected in the bridge deck damage caused by horizontal tension and vertical dislocation. For the construction of urban interchange spanning ground fissures, the interchange should be divided reasonably, a simple support structure with less restriction should be adopted, and the monitoring of supports should be strengthened to prevent the occurrence of beam falling.

Keywords: bridge monitoring, ground fissures, typical disease, structural displacement

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2942 Vibration-Based Monitoring of Tensioning Stay Cables of an Extradosed Bridge

Authors: Chun-Chung Chen, Bo-Han Lee, Yu-Chi Sung

Abstract:

Monitoring the status of tensioning force of stay cables is a significant issue for the assessment of structural safety of extradosed bridges. Moreover, it is known that there is a high correlation between the existing tension force and the vibration frequencies of cables. This paper presents the characteristic of frequencies of stay cables of a field extradosed bridge by using vibration-based monitoring methods. The vibration frequencies of each stay cables were measured in stages from the beginning to the completion of bridge construction. The result shows that the vibration frequency variation trend of different lengths of cables at each measured stage is different. The observed feature can help the application of the bridge long-term monitoring system and contribute to the assessment of bridge safety.

Keywords: vibration-based method, extradosed bridges, bridge health monitoring, bridge stay cables

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2941 Study of Structural Health Monitoring System for Vam Cong Cable-Stayed Bridge

Authors: L. M. Chinh

Abstract:

Vam Cong Bridge beside Can Tho Bridge is the next cable-stayed bridge spanning the Hau River, connecting Lap Vo district with Thot Not district. After construction by the end of 2018, the Vam Cong Bridge with Cao Lanh Bridge will help to improve the road network in this region of Mekong Delta. For this bridge, the SHM system also had designed for two stages – construction stage and exploitation stage. At the moment over 65% of the bridge construction had completed, and the bridge will be completed at the end of 2018. During the construction stage, the SHM system had been install to monitor behaviors of the bridge. Based on the study of the design documentation of the SHM system of the Vam Cong Bridge and site visit during construction work, many designs and installation errors have been detected. In this paper author thoroughly analyzed the pros and cons of this SHM system, simultaneously make conclusions and recommendations for this system. Specially concentrated on the possibility of implementing the acoustic emission method (AE) into this SHM system, which is an alternative to the further development of the system, enabling a full and cost-effective solution for the bridge management, which is of utmost importance for the service life and safe operation of the bridge.

Keywords: SHM system, design and installation, Vam Cong bridge, construction stage, acoustic emission method (AE)

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2940 Examination of Corrosion Durability Related to Installed Environments of Steel Bridges

Authors: Jin-Hee Ahn, Seok-Hyeon Jeon, Young-Bin Lee, Min-Gyun Ha, Yu-Chan Hong

Abstract:

Corrosion durability of steel bridges can be generally affected by atmospheric environments of bridge installation, since corrosion problem is related to environmental factors such as humidity, temperature, airborne salt, chemical components as SO₂, chlorides, etc. Thus, atmospheric environment condition should be measured to estimate corrosion condition of steel bridges as well as measurement of actual corrosion damage of structural members of steel bridge. Even in the same atmospheric environment, the corrosion environment may be different depending on the installation direction of structural members. In this study, therefore, atmospheric corrosion monitoring was conducted using atmospheric corrosion monitoring sensor, hygrometer, thermometer and airborne salt collection device to examine the corrosion durability of steel bridges. As a target steel bridge for corrosion durability monitoring, a cable-stayed bridge with truss steel members was selected. This cable-stayed bridge was located on the coast to connect the islands with the islands. Especially, atmospheric corrosion monitoring was carried out depending on structural direction of a cable-stayed bridge with truss type girders since it consists of structural members with various directions. For atmospheric corrosion monitoring, daily average electricity (corrosion current) was measured at each monitoring members to evaluate corrosion environments and corrosion level depending on structural members with various direction which have different corrosion environment in the same installed area. To compare corrosion durability connected with monitoring data depending on corrosion monitoring members, monitoring steel plate was additionally installed in same monitoring members. Monitoring steel plates of carbon steel was fabricated with dimension of 60mm width and 3mm thickness. And its surface was cleaned for removing rust on the surface by blasting, and its weight was measured before its installation on each structural members. After a 3 month exposure period on real atmospheric corrosion environment at bridge, surface condition of atmospheric corrosion monitoring sensors and monitoring steel plates were observed for corrosion damage. When severe deterioration of atmospheric corrosion monitoring sensors or corrosion damage of monitoring steel plates were found, they were replaced or collected. From 3month exposure tests in the actual steel bridge with various structural member with various direction, the rust on the surface of monitoring steel plate was found, and the difference in the corrosion rate was found depending on the direction of structural member from their visual inspection. And daily average electricity (corrosion current) was changed depending on the direction of structural member. However, it is difficult to identify the relative differences in corrosion durability of steel structural members using short-term monitoring results. After long exposure tests in this corrosion environments, it can be clearly evaluated the difference in corrosion durability depending on installed conditions of steel bridges. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A1B03028755).

Keywords: corrosion, atmospheric environments, steel bridge, monitoring

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2939 [Keynote Speech]: Bridge Damage Detection Using Frequency Response Function

Authors: Ahmed Noor Al-Qayyim

Abstract:

During the past decades, the bridge structures are considered very important portions of transportation networks, due to the fast urban sprawling. With the failure of bridges that under operating conditions lead to focus on updating the default bridge inspection methodology. The structures health monitoring (SHM) using the vibration response appeared as a promising method to evaluate the condition of structures. The rapid development in the sensors technology and the condition assessment techniques based on the vibration-based damage detection made the SHM an efficient and economical ways to assess the bridges. SHM is set to assess state and expects probable failures of designated bridges. In this paper, a presentation for Frequency Response function method that uses the captured vibration test information of structures to evaluate the structure condition. Furthermore, the main steps of the assessment of bridge using the vibration information are presented. The Frequency Response function method is applied to the experimental data of a full-scale bridge.

Keywords: bridge assessment, health monitoring, damage detection, frequency response function (FRF), signal processing, structure identification

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2938 Used MATLAB Code to Study the Vehicle Bridge Coupling Vibration Based On the Method of Newmark-β

Authors: Saidi Abdelkrim, Hamouine Abdelmadjid, Abdellatif Megnounif

Abstract:

The study of interaction between vehicles and bridge structures has become extremely important. Large deflections and vibration induced by heavy and high-speed vehicles affect significantly the safety and efficiency of bridge. The vibration of a bridge caused by passage of vehicles is one of the most imperative considerations in the design of a bridge as a common sort of transportation structure. A major goal of this study is to create a simplified model of a vehicle bridge system in MATLAB. The model will then be used to study the influence of parameters to vehicle-bridge vibrations.

Keywords: vehicle-bridge interaction, Newmark-β, MATLAB code

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2937 Application of Transform Fourier for Dynamic Control of Structures with Global Positioning System

Authors: J. M. de Luis Ruiz, P. M. Sierra García, R. P. García, R. P. Álvarez, F. P. García, E. C. López

Abstract:

Given the evolution of viaducts, structural health monitoring requires more complex techniques to define their state. two alternatives can be distinguished: experimental and operational modal analysis. Although accelerometers or Global Positioning System (GPS) have been applied for the monitoring of structures under exploitation, the dynamic monitoring during the stage of construction is not common. This research analyzes whether GPS data can be applied to certain dynamic geometric controls of evolving structures. The fundamentals of this work were applied to the New Bridge of Cádiz (Spain), a worldwide milestone in bridge building. GPS data were recorded with an interval of 1 second during the erection of segments and turned to the frequency domain with Fourier transform. The vibration period and amplitude were contrasted with those provided by the finite element model, with differences of less than 10%, which is admissible. This process provides a vibration record of the structure with GPS, avoiding specific equipment.

Keywords: Fourier transform, global position system, operational modal analysis, structural health monitoring

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2936 Estimation of the Dynamic Fragility of Padre Jacinto Zamora Bridge Due to Traffic Loads

Authors: Kimuel Suyat, Francis Aldrine Uy, John Paul Carreon

Abstract:

The Philippines, composed of many islands, is connected with approximately 8030 bridges. Continuous evaluation of the structural condition of these bridges is needed to safeguard the safety of the general public. With most bridges reaching its design life, retrofitting and replacement may be needed. Concerned government agencies allocate huge costs for periodic monitoring and maintenance of these structures. The rising volume of traffic and aging of these infrastructures is challenging structural engineers to give rise for structural health monitoring techniques. Numerous techniques are already proposed and some are now being employed in other countries. Vibration Analysis is one way. The natural frequency and vibration of a bridge are design criteria in ensuring the stability, safety and economy of the structure. Its natural frequency must not be so high so as not to cause discomfort and not so low that the structure is so stiff causing it to be both costly and heavy. It is well known that the stiffer the member is, the more load it attracts. The frequency must not also match the vibration caused by the traffic loads. If this happens, a resonance occurs. Vibration that matches a systems frequency will generate excitation and when this exceeds the member’s limit, a structural failure will happen. This study presents a method for calculating dynamic fragility through the use of vibration-based monitoring system. Dynamic fragility is the probability that a structural system exceeds a limit state when subjected to dynamic loads. The bridge is modeled in SAP2000 based from the available construction drawings provided by the Department of Public Works and Highways. It was verified and adjusted based from the actual condition of the bridge. The bridge design specifications are also checked using nondestructive tests. The approach used in this method properly accounts the uncertainty of observed values and code-based structural assumptions. The vibration response of the structure due to actual loads is monitored using installed sensors on the bridge. From the determinacy of these dynamic characteristic of a system, threshold criteria can be established and fragility curves can be estimated. This study conducted in relation with the research project between Department of Science and Technology, Mapúa Institute of Technology, and the Department of Public Works and Highways also known as Mapúa-DOST Smart Bridge Project deploys Structural Health Monitoring Sensors at Zamora Bridge. The bridge is selected in coordination with the Department of Public Works and Highways. The structural plans for the bridge are also readily available.

Keywords: structural health monitoring, dynamic characteristic, threshold criteria, traffic loads

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2935 Application of a Model-Free Artificial Neural Networks Approach for Structural Health Monitoring of the Old Lidingö Bridge

Authors: Ana Neves, John Leander, Ignacio Gonzalez, Raid Karoumi

Abstract:

Systematic monitoring and inspection are needed to assess the present state of a structure and predict its future condition. If an irregularity is noticed, repair actions may take place and the adequate intervention will most probably reduce the future costs with maintenance, minimize downtime and increase safety by avoiding the failure of the structure as a whole or of one of its structural parts. For this to be possible decisions must be made at the right time, which implies using systems that can detect abnormalities in their early stage. In this sense, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is seen as an effective tool for improving the safety and reliability of infrastructures. This paper explores the decision-making problem in SHM regarding the maintenance of civil engineering structures. The aim is to assess the present condition of a bridge based exclusively on measurements using the suggested method in this paper, such that action is taken coherently with the information made available by the monitoring system. Artificial Neural Networks are trained and their ability to predict structural behavior is evaluated in the light of a case study where acceleration measurements are acquired from a bridge located in Stockholm, Sweden. This relatively old bridge is presently still in operation despite experiencing obvious problems already reported in previous inspections. The prediction errors provide a measure of the accuracy of the algorithm and are subjected to further investigation, which comprises concepts like clustering analysis and statistical hypothesis testing. These enable to interpret the obtained prediction errors, draw conclusions about the state of the structure and thus support decision making regarding its maintenance.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, clustering analysis, model-free damage detection, statistical hypothesis testing, structural health monitoring

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2934 CO2 Emissions Quantification of the Modular Bridge Superstructure

Authors: Chanhyuck Jeon, Jongho Park, Jinwoong Choi, Sungnam Hong, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

Many industries put emphasis on environmentally-friendliness as environmental problems are on the rise all over the world. Among themselves, the Modular Bridge research is going on. Also performing cross-section optimization and duration reducing, this research aims at developing the modular bridge with Environment-Friendliness and economic feasibility. However, the difficulty lies in verifying environmental effectiveness because there are no field applications of the modular bridge until now. Therefore, this thesis is categorized according to the form of the modular bridge superstructure and assessed CO₂ emission quantification per work types and materials according to each form to verify the environmental effectiveness of the modular bridge.

Keywords: modular bridge, CO2 emission, environmentally friendly, quantification, carbon emission factor, LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)

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2933 Numerical Simulation of the Remaining Life of Ramshir Bridge over the Karoon River

Authors: M. Jalali Azizpour, V.Tavvaf, E. Akhlaghi, H. Mohammadi Majd, A. Shirani, S. M. Moravvej, M. Kazemi, A. R. Aboudi Asl, A. Jaderi

Abstract:

The static and corrosion behavior of the bridge using for pipelines in the south of country have been evaluated. The bridge was constructed more than 40 years ago on the Karoon River. Mentioned bridge is located in Khuzestan province and at a distance of 15 km east from the suburbs of Ahwaz. In order to determine the mechanical properties, the experimental tools such as measuring the thickness and static simulations based on the actual load were used. In addition, the metallurgical studies were used to achieve a rate of corrosion of pipes in the river and in the river bed. The aim of this project is to determine the remaining life of the bridge using mechanical and metallurgical studies.

Keywords: FEM, stress, corrosion, bridge

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2932 The Application of Artificial Neural Network for Bridge Structures Design Optimization

Authors: Angga S. Fajar, A. Aminullah, J. Kiyono, R. A. Safitri

Abstract:

This paper discusses about the application of ANN for optimizing of bridge structure design. ANN has been applied in various field of science concerning prediction and optimization. The structural optimization has several benefit including accelerate structural design process, saving the structural material, and minimize self-weight and mass of structure. In this paper, there are three types of bridge structure that being optimized including PSC I-girder superstructure, composite steel-concrete girder superstructure, and RC bridge pier. The different optimization strategy on each bridge structure implement back propagation method of ANN is conducted in this research. The optimal weight and easier design process of bridge structure with satisfied error are achieved.

Keywords: bridge structures, ANN, optimization, back propagation

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2931 Structural Health Monitoring Method Using Stresses Occurring on Bridge Bearings Under Temperature

Authors: T. Nishido, S. Fukumoto

Abstract:

The functions of movable bearings decline due to corrosion and sediments. As the result, they cannot move or rotate according to the behaviors of girders. Because of the constraints, the bending moments are generated by the horizontal reaction forces and the heights of girders. Under these conditions, the authors obtained the following results by analysis and experiment. Tensile stresses due to the moments occurred at temperature fluctuations. The large tensile stresses on concrete slabs around the bearings caused cracks. Even if concrete slabs are newly replaced, cracks will come out again with function declined bearings. The functional declines of bearings are generally found by using displacement gauges. However the method is not suitable for long-term measurements. We focused on the change in the strains at the bearings and the lower flanges near them at temperature fluctuations. It was found that their strains were particularly large when the movements of the bearings were constrained. Therefore, we developed a long-term health monitoring wireless system with FBG (Fiber Bragg Grating) sensors which were attached to bearings and lower flanges. The FBG sensors have the characteristics such as non-electrical influence, resistance to weather, and high strain sensitivity. Such characteristics are suitable for long-term measurements. The monitoring system was inexpensive because it was limited to the purpose of measuring strains and temperature. Engineers can monitor the behaviors of bearings in real time with the wireless system. If an office is away from bridge sites, the system will save traveling time and cost.

Keywords: bridge bearing, concrete slab,  FBG sensor, health monitoring

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2930 Human-Induced Vibration and Degree of Human Comfortability Analysis of Intersection Pedestrian Bridge

Authors: Yaowen Sheng, Jiuxian Liu

Abstract:

In order to analyze the pedestrian bridge dynamic characteristics and degree of comfortability, the finite element method and live load time history method is used to calculate the dynamic response of the bridge. The example bridge’s dynamic characteristics and degree of human comfortability need to be analyzed. The project background is a three-way intersection. The intersection has three side blocks. An intersection bridge is designed to help people cross the streets. The finite element model of the bridge is established by the Midas/Civil software, and the analysis of the model is done. The strength, stiffness, and stability checks are also completed. Apart from the static analysis of the bridge, the dynamic analysis of the bridge is also completed to avoid the problems resulted from vibrations. The results show that the pedestrian bridge has different dynamic characteristics compared to other normal bridges. The degree of human comfortability satisfies the requirements of Chinese and British specifications. The live load time history method can be used to calculate the dynamic response of the bridge.

Keywords: pedestrian bridge, steel box girder, human-induced vibration, finite element analysis, degree of human comfortability

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2929 Two Dimensional Numerical Analysis for the Seismic Response of the Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soil Integral Abutments

Authors: Dawei Shen, Ming Xu, Pengfei Liu

Abstract:

The joints between simply supported bridge decks and abutments need to be regularly repaired, which would greatly increase the cost during the service life of the bridge. Simply supported girder bridges suffered the most severe damage during earthquakes. Another type of bridge, the integral bridge, of which the superstructure and abutment are rigidly connected, was also used in some European countries. Because no bearings or joints exit in the integral bridge, this type of bridge could significantly reduce maintenance requirements and costs. However, conventional integral bridge usually result in high earth pressure on the abutment and surface settlement in the backfill. To solve these problems, a new type of integral bridge, geosynthetic-reinforced soil (GRS) integral bridge, was come up in recent years. This newly invented bridge has not been used in engineering practices. There was a lack of research on the seismic behavior of the conventional and new type of integral abutments. In addition, no common design code could be found for the calculation of seismic pressure of soil behind the abutment. This paper developed a dynamic constitutive model, which can consider the soil behaviors under cyclic loading. Numerical analyses of the seismic response of a full height integral bridge and GRS integral bridge were carried out using the two-dimensional numerical code, FLAC. A parametric study was also performed to investigate the soil-structure interaction. The results are presented below. The seismic responses of GRS integral bridge together with conventional simply supported bridge, GRS conventional bridge and conventional integral bridge were investigated. The results show that the GRS integral bridge holds the highest seismic stability, followed by conventional integral bridge, GRS simply supported bridge and conventional simply supported bridge. Compared with the integral bridge with 1 m thick abutments, the GRS integral bridge with 0.4 m thick abutments is subjected to a smaller bending moment, and the natural frequency and horizontal displacement remains almost the same. Geosynthetic-reinforcement will be more effective when the abutment becomes thinner or the abutment is higher.

Keywords: geosynthetic-reinforced soil integral bridge, nonlinear hysteretic model, numerical analysis, seismic response

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2928 Analysis of the Influence of Support Failure on the Dynamic Effect of Bridge Structure

Authors: Sun Fan, Wu Xiaoguang, Fang Miaomiao, Wei Chi

Abstract:

The degree of damage to the support is simulated by finite element software, and its influence on the static and dynamic effects of the bridge structure is analyzed. Four working conditions are selected for the study of bearing damage impact: the bearing is intact (condition 1), the bearing damage coefficient is 0.8 (condition 2), the bearing damage coefficient is 0.6 (condition 3), and the bearing damage coefficient is 0.4 (Working Condition 4). The effect value of the bridge structure under each working condition is calculated, and the simple-supported girder bridge and continuous girder bridge with typical spans are taken as examples to analyze the overall change of the bridge structure after the bearing completely fails.

Keywords: bridge bearing damage, dynamic response, finite element analysis, load conditions

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2927 Disaster Probability Analysis of Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge for Train Accidents and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Bangladesh

Authors: Shahab Uddin, Kazi M. Uddin, Hamamah Sadiqa

Abstract:

The paper deals with the Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge (BMB), the 11th longest bridge in the world was constructed in 1998 aimed at contributing to promote economic development in Bangladesh. In recent years, however, the high incidence of traffic accidents and injuries at the bridge sites looms as a great safety concern. Investigation into the derailment of nine bogies out of thirteen of Dinajpur-bound intercity train ‘Drutajan Express ’were derailed and inclined on the Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge on 28 April 2014. The train accident in Bridge will be deep concern for both structural safety of bridge and people than other vehicles accident. In this study we analyzed the disaster probability of the Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge for accidents by checking the fitness of Bridge structure. We found that train accident impact is more risky than other vehicles accidents. We also found that socio-economic impact on Bangladesh will be deep concerned.

Keywords: train accident, derailment, disaster, socio-economic

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2926 Retrofitting of Bridge Piers against the Scour Damages: Case Study of the Marand-Soofian Route Bridge

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Hossein Basser, Hojat Karami, Afshin Jahangirzadeh

Abstract:

Bridge piers which are constructed in the track of high water rivers cause some variations in the flow patterns. This variation mostly is a result of the changes in river sections. Decreasing the river section, bridge piers significantly impress the flow patterns. Once the flow approaches the piers, the stream lines change their order, causing the appearance of different flow patterns around the bridge piers. New flow patterns are created following the geometry and the other technical characteristics of the piers. One of the most significant consequences of this event is the scour generated around the bridge piers which threatens the safety of the structure. In order to determine the properties of scour holes, to find maximum depth of the scour is an important factor. In this manuscript a numerical simulation of the scour around Marand-Soofian route bridge piers has been carried out via SSIIM 2.0 Software and the amount of maximum scour has been achieved subsequently. Eventually the methods for retrofitting of bridge piers against scours and also the methods for decreasing the amount of scour have been offered.

Keywords: scour, bridge pier, numerical simulation, SSIIM 2.0

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2925 Strengthening Evaluation of Steel Girder Bridge under Load Rating Analysis: Case Study

Authors: Qudama Albu-Jasim, Majdi Kanaan

Abstract:

A case study about the load rating and strengthening evaluation of the six-span of steel girders bridge in Colton city of State of California is investigated. To simulate the load rating strengthening assessment for the Colton Overhead bridge, a three-dimensional finite element model built in the CSiBridge program is simulated. Three-dimensional finite-element models of the bridge are established considering the nonlinear behavior of critical bridge components to determine the feasibility and strengthening capacity under load rating analysis. The bridge was evaluated according to Caltrans Bridge Load Rating Manual 1st edition for rating the superstructure using the Load and Resistance Factor Rating (LRFR) method. The analysis for the bridge was based on load rating to determine the largest loads that can be safely placed on existing I-girder steel members and permitted to pass over the bridge. Through extensive numerical simulations, the bridge is identified to be deficient in flexural and shear capacities, and therefore strengthening for reducing the risk is needed. An in-depth parametric study is considered to evaluate the sensitivity of the bridge’s load rating response to variations in its structural parameters. The parametric analysis has exhibited that uncertainties associated with the steel’s yield strength, the superstructure’s weight, and the diaphragm configurations should be considered during the fragility analysis of the bridge system.

Keywords: load rating, CSIBridge, strengthening, uncertainties, case study

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2924 Finite Element Simulation of Embankment Bumps at Bridge Approaches, Comparison Study

Authors: F. A. Hassona, M. D. Hashem, R. I. Melek, B. M. Hakeem

Abstract:

A differential settlement at the end of a bridge near the interface between the abutment and the embankment is a persistent problem for highway agencies. The differential settlement produces the common ‘bump at the end of the bridge’. Reduction in steering response, distraction to the driver, added risk and expense to maintenance operation, and reduction in a transportation agency’s public image are all undesirable effects of these uneven and irregular transitions. This paper attempts to simulate the bump at the end of the bridge using PLAXIS finite element 2D program. PLAXIS was used to simulate a laboratory model called Bridge to Embankment Simulator of Transition (B.E.S.T.) device which was built by others to investigate this problem. A total of six numerical simulations were conducted using hardening- soil model with rational assumptions of missing soil parameters to estimate the bump at the end of the bridge. The results show good agreements between the numerical and the laboratory models. Important factors influencing bumps at bridge ends were also addressed in light of the model results.

Keywords: bridge approach slabs, bridge bump, hardening-soil, PLAXIS 2D, settlement

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2923 Early Detection of Damages in Railway Steel Truss Bridges from Measured Dynamic Responses

Authors: Dinesh Gundavaram

Abstract:

This paper presents an investigation on bridge damage detection based on the dynamic responses estimated from a passing vehicle. A numerical simulation of steel truss bridge for railway was used in this investigation. The bridge response at different locations is measured using CSI-Bridge software. Several damage scenarios are considered including different locations and severities. The possibilities of dynamic properties of global modes in the identification of structural changes in truss bridges were discussed based on the results of measurement.

Keywords: bridge, damage, dynamic responses, detection

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2922 Influence of Pier Modification Techniques for Reducing Scour around Bridge Piers

Authors: Rashid Farooq, Abdul Razzaq Ghumman, Hashim Nisar Hashmi

Abstract:

Bridge piers often fail all over the world and the whole structure may be endangered due to scouring phenomena. Scouring has been linked to catastrophic failures that lead into the loss of human lives. Various techniques have been employed to extenuate the scouring process in order to assist the bridge designs. Pier modifications plays vital role to control scouring at the vicinity of the pier. This experimental study aims at monitoring the effectiveness of pier modification and temporal development of scour depth around a bridge pier by providing a collar, a cable or openings under the same flow conditions. Provision of a collar around the octagonal pier reduced more scour depth than that for other two configurations. Providing a collar around the octagonal pier found to be the best in reducing scour. The scour depth in front of pier was found to be 19.5% less than that at the octagonal pier without any modifications. Similarly, the scour depth around the octagonal pier having provision of a cable was less than that at pier with provision of openings. The scour depth around an octagonal pier was also compared with a plain circular pier and found to be 9.1% less.

Keywords: Scour, octagonal pier, collar, cable

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2921 Mitigation of Seismic Forces Effect on Highway Bridge Using Aseismic Bearings

Authors: Kaoutar Zellat, Tahar Kadri

Abstract:

The purpose of new aseismic techniques is to provide an additional means of energy dissipation, thereby reducing the transmitted acceleration into the superstructure. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of aseismic bearings technique and understand the behavior of seismically isolated bridges by such devices a three-span continuous deck bridge made of reinforced concrete is considered. The bridge is modeled as a discrete model and the relative displacements of the isolation bearing are crucial from the design point of view of isolation system and separation joints at the abutment level. The systems presented here are passive control systems and the results of some important experimental tests are also included. The results show that the base shear in the piers is significantly reduced for the isolated system as compared to the non isolated system in the both directions of the bridge. This indicates that the use of aseismic systems is effective in reducing the earthquake response of the bridge.

Keywords: aseismic bearings, bridge isolation, bridge, seismic response

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2920 Defect-Based Urgency Index for Bridge Maintenance Ranking and Prioritization

Authors: Saleh Abu Dabous, Khaled Hamad, Rami Al-Ruzouq

Abstract:

Bridge condition assessment and rating provide essential information needed for bridge management. This paper reviews bridge inspection and condition rating practices and introduces a defect-based urgency index. The index is estimated at the element-level based on the extent and severity of the different defects typical to the bridge element. The urgency index approach has the following advantages: (1) It facilitates judgment submission, i.e. instead of rating the bridge element with a specific linguistic overall expression (which can be subjective and used differently by different people), the approach is based on assessing the defects; (2) It captures multiple defects that can be present within a deteriorated element; and (3) It reflects how critical the element is through quantifying critical defects and their severity. The approach can be further developed and validated. It is expected to be useful for practical purposes as an early-warning system for critical bridge elements.

Keywords: condition rating, deterioration, inspection, maintenance

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2919 Comparison Of Data Mining Models To Predict Future Bridge Conditions

Authors: Pablo Martinez, Emad Mohamed, Osama Mohsen, Yasser Mohamed

Abstract:

Highway and bridge agencies, such as the Ministry of Transportation in Ontario, use the Bridge Condition Index (BCI) which is defined as the weighted condition of all bridge elements to determine the rehabilitation priorities for its bridges. Therefore, accurate forecasting of BCI is essential for bridge rehabilitation budgeting planning. The large amount of data available in regard to bridge conditions for several years dictate utilizing traditional mathematical models as infeasible analysis methods. This research study focuses on investigating different classification models that are developed to predict the bridge condition index in the province of Ontario, Canada based on the publicly available data for 2800 bridges over a period of more than 10 years. The data preparation is a key factor to develop acceptable classification models even with the simplest one, the k-NN model. All the models were tested, compared and statistically validated via cross validation and t-test. A simple k-NN model showed reasonable results (within 0.5% relative error) when predicting the bridge condition in an incoming year.

Keywords: asset management, bridge condition index, data mining, forecasting, infrastructure, knowledge discovery in databases, maintenance, predictive models

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2918 An Analytical Study of FRP-Concrete Bridge Superstructures

Authors: Wael I. Alnahhal

Abstract:

It is a major challenge to build a bridge superstructure that has long-term durability and low maintenance requirements. A solution to this challenge may be to use new materials or to implement new structural systems. Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have continued to play an important role in solving some of persistent problems in infrastructure applications because of its high specific strength, light weight, and durability. In this study, the concept of the hybrid FRP-concrete structural systems is applied to a bridge superstructure. The hybrid FRP-concrete bridge superstructure is intended to have durable, structurally sound, and cost effective hybrid system that will take full advantage of the inherent properties of both FRP materials and concrete. In this study, two hybrid FRP-concrete bridge systems were investigated. The first system consists of trapezoidal cell units forming a bridge superstructure. The second one is formed by arch cells. The two systems rely on using cellular components to form the core of the bridge superstructure, and an outer shell to warp around those cells to form the integral unit of the bridge. Both systems were investigated analytically by using finite element (FE) analysis. From the rigorous FE studies, it was concluded that first system is more efficient than the second.

Keywords: bridge superstructure, hybrid system, fiber reinforced polymer, finite element analysis

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2917 Development of the Parametric Building Information Model of Bridge Components and the Integration of Bridge Model by Visual Programming Language

Authors: Elfrido Elias Tita, Shao Peilun, Gakuho Watanabe

Abstract:

Recently, the number of transportation facilities like bridges has grown significantly due to economic growth and an increase in traffic. Since the conventional bridge design method requires a manual and repetitive process, it consumes much time, cost, and energy for designers and engineers. To decrease those burden and get high productivity, Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Visual programming language (VPL) dynamo have emerged as modern and innovative design methods and document projects. It enables the bridge engineers to optimize their design and modeling workflows effectively, faster, and accurately. In this research, the parametric BIM model for bridge components to optimize the design processes is developed for a PC-balanced cantilever bridge. It enables to speed up the modeling and reduces the time and costs of bridge design projects. Also, VPL dynamo is used to provide automatic assembling of the bridge models from their components, significantly reducing the burden of iterative processes in the design project. In addition, Autodesk InfraWorks is applied for the simulation and visualization of the bridge model with the surrounding environment.

Keywords: BIM, parametric model, VPL, automatic assembling, InfraWorks

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2916 Proposal of Non-Destructive Inspection Function Based on Internet of Things Technology Using Drone

Authors: Byoungjoon Yu, Jihwan Park, Sujung Sin, Junghyun Im, Minsoo Park, Sehwan Park, Seunghee Park

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a technology to monitor the soundness of an Internet-based bridge using a non-conductive inspection function. There has been a collapse accident due to the aging of the bridge structure, and it is necessary to prepare for the deterioration of the bridge. The NDT/SHM system for maintenance of existing bridge structures requires a large number of inspection personnel and expensive inspection costs, and access of expensive and large equipment to measurement points is required. Because current drone inspection equipment can only be inspected through camera, it is difficult to inspect inside damage accurately, and the results of an internal damage evaluation are subjective, and it is difficult for non-specialists to recognize the evaluation results. Therefore, it is necessary to develop NDT/SHM techniques for maintenance of new-concept bridge structures that allow for free movement and real-time evaluation of measurement results. This work is financially supported by Korea Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport (MOLIT) as 'Smart City Master and Doctor Course Grant Program' and a grant (14SCIP-B088624-01) from Construction Technology Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

Keywords: Structural Health Monitoring, SHM, non-contact sensing, nondestructive testing, NDT, Internet of Things, autonomous self-driving drone

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2915 Seismic Performance Evaluation of Bridge Structures Using 3D Finite Element Methods in South Korea

Authors: Woo Young Jung, Bu Seog Ju

Abstract:

This study described the seismic performance evaluation of bridge structures, located near Daegu metropolitan city in Korea. The structural design code or regulatory guidelines is focusing on the protection of brittle failure or collapse in bridges’ lifetime during an earthquake. This paper illustrated the procedure in terms of the safety evaluation of bridges using simple linear elastic 3D Finite Element (FE) model in ABAQUS platform. The design response spectra based on KBC 2009 were then developed, in order to understand the seismic behavior of bridge structures. Besides, the multiple directional earthquakes were applied and it revealed that the most dominated earthquake direction was transverse direction of the bridge. Also, the bridge structure under the compressive stress was more fragile than the tensile stress and the vertical direction of seismic ground motions was not significantly affected to the structural system.

Keywords: seismic, bridge, FEM, evaluation, numerical analysis

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2914 Development a Forecasting System and Reliable Sensors for River Bed Degradation and Bridge Pier Scouring

Authors: Fong-Zuo Lee, Jihn-Sung Lai, Yung-Bin Lin, Xiaoqin Liu, Kuo-Chun Chang, Zhi-Xian Yang, Wen-Dar Guo, Jian-Hao Hong

Abstract:

In recent years, climate change is a major factor to increase rainfall intensity and extreme rainfall frequency. The increased rainfall intensity and extreme rainfall frequency will increase the probability of flash flood with abundant sediment transport in a river basin. The floods caused by heavy rainfall may cause damages to the bridge, embankment, hydraulic works, and the other disasters. Therefore, the foundation scouring of bridge pier, embankment and spur dike caused by floods has been a severe problem in the worldwide. This severe problem has happened in many East Asian countries such as Taiwan and Japan because of these areas are suffered in typhoons, earthquakes, and flood events every year. Results from the complex interaction between fluid flow patterns caused by hydraulic works and the sediment transportation leading to the formation of river morphology, it is extremely difficult to develop a reliable and durable sensor to measure river bed degradation and bridge pier scouring. Therefore, an innovative scour monitoring sensor using vibration-based Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) was developed. This vibration-based MEMS sensor was packaged inside a stainless sphere with the proper protection of the full-filled resin, which can measure free vibration signals to detect scouring/deposition processes at the bridge pier. In addition, a friendly operational system includes rainfall runoff model, one-dimensional and two-dimensional numerical model, and the applicability of sediment transport equation and local scour formulas of bridge pier are included in this research. The friendly operational system carries out the simulation results of flood events that includes the elevation changes of river bed erosion near the specified bridge pier and the erosion depth around bridge piers. In addition, the system is developed with easy operation and integrated interface, the system can supplies users to calibrate and verify numerical model and display simulation results through the interface comparing to the scour monitoring sensors. To achieve the forecast of the erosion depth of river bed and main bridge pier in the study area, the system also connects the rainfall forecast data from Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute. The results can be provided available information for the management unit of river and bridge engineering in advance.

Keywords: flash flood, river bed degradation, bridge pier scouring, a friendly operational system

Procedia PDF Downloads 126