Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 390

Search results for: ESG specimen

390 Comparison of Effect of Pre-Stressed Strand Diameters Providing Beamm to Column Connection

Authors: Mustafa Kaya


In this study, the effect of pre-stressed strand diameters, providing the beam-to-column connections, was investigated from both experimental, and analytical aspects. In the experimental studies, the strength, stiffness, and energy dissipation capacities of the precast specimens comprising two pre-stressed strand samples of 12.70 mm, and 15.24 mm diameters, were compared with the reference specimen. The precast specimen with strands of 15.24 mm reached 96% of the maximum strength of the reference specimen; the amount of energy dissipated by this specimen until end of the test reached 48% of the amount of energy dissipated by the reference sample, and the stiffness of the same specimen at a 1.5% drift of reached 77% of the stiffness of the reference specimen at this drift. Parallel results were obtained during the analytical studies from the aspects of strength, and behavior, but the initial stiffness of the analytical models was lower than that of the test specimen.

Keywords: precast beam to column connection, moment resisting connection, post tensioned connections, finite element method

Procedia PDF Downloads 475
389 Effect of Specimen Thickness on Probability Distribution of Grown Crack Size in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi


The fatigue crack growth is stochastic because of the fatigue behavior having an uncertainty and a randomness. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the probability distribution of a grown crack size at a specific fatigue crack propagation life for maintenance of structure as well as reliability estimation. The essential purpose of this study is to present the good probability distribution fit for the grown crack size at a specified fatigue life in a rolled magnesium alloy under different specimen thickness conditions. Fatigue crack propagation experiments are carried out in laboratory air under three conditions of specimen thickness using AZ31 to investigate a stochastic crack growth behavior. The goodness-of-fit test for probability distribution of a grown crack size under different specimen thickness conditions is performed by Anderson-Darling test. The effect of a specimen thickness on variability of a grown crack size is also investigated.

Keywords: crack size, fatigue crack propagation, magnesium alloys, probability distribution, specimen thickness

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
388 Mechanical Properties of Selective Laser Sintered 304L Stainless Steel Powders

Authors: Shijie Liu, Jehnming Lin


This study mainly discussed the mechanical properties of selective laser sintered 304L stainless steel powder specimen. According to a single layer specimen sintering, the microstructure and porosity were observed to find out the proper sintering parameters. A multi-layer sintering experiment was conducted. Based on the microstructure and the integration between layers, the suitable parameters were found out. Finally, the sintered specimens were examined by metallographical inspection, hardness test, tensile test, and surface morphology measurement. The structure of the molten powder coated with unmelted powder was found in metallographic test. The hardness of the sintered stainless steel powder is greater than the raw material. The tensile strength is less than the raw material, and it is corresponding to different scanning paths. The specimen will have different patterns of cracking. It was found that the helical scanning path specimen will have a warpage deformation at the edge of the specimen. The S-scan path specimen surface is relatively flat.

Keywords: laser sintering, sintering path, microstructure, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
387 Estimation of Slab Depth, Column Size and Rebar Location of Concrete Specimen Using Impact Echo Method

Authors: Y. T. Lee, J. H. Na, S. H. Kim, S. U. Hong


In this study, an experimental research for estimation of slab depth, column size and location of rebar of concrete specimen is conducted using the Impact Echo Method (IE) based on stress wave among non-destructive test methods. Estimation of slab depth had total length of 1800×300 and 6 different depths including 150 mm, 180 mm, 210 mm, 240 mm, 270 mm and 300 mm. The concrete column specimen was manufactured by differentiating the size into 300×300×300 mm, 400×400×400 mm and 500×500×500 mm. In case of the specimen for estimation of rebar, rebar of ∅22 mm was used in a specimen of 300×370×200 and arranged at 130 mm and 150 mm from the top to the rebar top. As a result of error rate of slab depth was overall mean of 3.1%. Error rate of column size was overall mean of 1.7%. Mean error rate of rebar location was 1.72% for top, 1.19% for bottom and 1.5% for overall mean showing relative accuracy.

Keywords: impact echo method, estimation, slab depth, column size, rebar location, concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
386 Determining Full Stage Creep Properties from Miniature Specimen Creep Test

Authors: W. Sun, W. Wen, J. Lu, A. A. Becker


In this work, methods for determining creep properties which can be used to represent the full life until failure from miniature specimen creep tests based on analytical solutions are presented. Examples used to demonstrate the application of the methods include a miniature rectangular thin beam specimen creep test under three-point bending and a miniature two-material tensile specimen creep test subjected to a steady load. Mathematical expressions for deflection and creep strain rate of the two specimens were presented for the Kachanov-Rabotnov creep damage model. On this basis, an inverse procedure was developed which has potential applications for deriving the full life creep damage constitutive properties from a very small volume of material, in particular, for various microstructure constitutive  regions, e.g. within heat-affected zones of power plant pipe weldments. Further work on validation and improvement of the method is addressed.

Keywords: creep damage property, miniature specimen, inverse approach, finite element modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
385 Biaxial Fatigue Specimen Design and Testing Rig Development

Authors: Ahmed H. Elkholy


An elastic analysis is developed to obtain the distribution of stresses, strains, bending moment and deformation for a thin hollow, variable thickness cylindrical specimen when subjected to different biaxial loadings. The specimen was subjected to a combination of internal pressure, axial tensile loading and external pressure. Several axial to circumferential stress ratios were investigated in detail. The analytical model was then validated using experimental results obtained from a test rig using several biaxial loadings. Based on the preliminary results obtained, the specimen was then modified geometrically to ensure uniform strain distribution through its wall thickness and along its gauge length. The new design of the specimen has a higher buckling strength and a maximum value of equivalent stress according to the maximum distortion energy theory. A cyclic function generator of the standard servo-controlled, electro-hydraulic testing machine is used to generate a specific signal shape (sine, square,…) at a certain frequency. The two independent controllers of the electronic circuit cause an independent movement to each servo-valve piston. The movement of each piston pressurizes the upper and lower sides of the actuators alternately. So, the specimen will be subjected to axial and diametral loads independent of each other. The hydraulic system has two different pressures: one pressure will be responsible for axial stress produced in the specimen and the other will be responsible for the tangential stress. Changing the two pressure ratios will change the stress ratios accordingly. The only restriction on the maximum stress obtained is the capacity of the testing system and specimen instability due to buckling.

Keywords: biaxial, fatigue, stress, testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
384 Experimental Study on Connection Method of Precast Beam-Column Using CFRPS

Authors: Harmonis Rante, Rudy Djamaluddin, Herman Parung, Victor Sampebulu


Many research of FRP strengthening on beam-column joint have been done. They used FRP as a strengthening material but not as a connection method. This paper presents a result of experimental-study on connection method of precast beam-column using CFRP sheet to investigate the possibility of CFRP sheet to be a connecting material. Six specimens were prepared and tested to investigate the behavior of CFRP-s connection capacity. The performance of two-connection method is presented in this paper. Three specimens have been tested so far, they were specimen without belt, specimen using one belt and monolith specimen as a control specimen. Result indicated that FRP joint system without belt reached higher capacity than joint system using one belt, but both are lower than monolith joint. Capacity of joint system without belt is 90.6% and 62.5% for the joint system using one belt, respectively compared to the control specimen.

Keywords: belt, CFRP-s, connection method, strengthening

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
383 A Study on Effect of Dynamic Loading Speed on the Fracture Toughness of Equivalent Stress Gradient (ESG) Specimen

Authors: Moon Byung Woo, Seok Chang-Sung, Koo Jae-Mean, Kim Sang-Young, Choi Jae Gu, Huh Nam-Su


Recently, the occurrence of the earthquake has increased sharply and many of the casualties have occurred worldwide, due to the influence of earthquakes. Especially, the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident which was caused by the earthquake in 2011 has significantly increased the fear of people and the demand for the safety of the nuclear power plant. Thus, in order to prevent the earthquake accident at nuclear power plant, it is important to evaluate the fracture toughness considering the seismic loading rate. To obtain fracture toughness for the safety evaluation of nuclear power plant, it is desirable to perform experiments with a real scale pipe which is expensive and hard to perform. Therefore, many researchers have proposed various test specimens to replicate the fracture toughness of a real scale pipe. Since such specimens have several problems, the equivalent stress gradient (ESG) specimen has been recently suggested. In this study, in order to consider the effects of the dynamic loading speed on fracture toughness, the experiment was conducted by applying five different kinds of test speeds using an ESG specimen. In addition, after we performed the fracture toughness test under dynamic loading with different speeds using an ESG specimen and a standard specimen, we compared them with the test results under static loading.

Keywords: dynamic loading speed, fracture toughness, load-ratio-method, equivalent stress gradient (ESG) specimen

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
382 A Study on the Comparatison of Mechanical and Thermal Properties According to Laminated Orientation of CFRP through Bending Test

Authors: Hee Jae Shin, Lee Ku Kwac, In Pyo Cha, Min Sang Lee, Hyun Kyung Yoon, Hong Gun Kim


In rapid industrial development has increased the demand for high-strength and lightweight materials. Thus, various CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) with composite materials are being used. The design variables of CFRP are its lamination direction, order, and thickness. Thus, the hardness and strength of CFRP depend much on their design variables. In this paper, the lamination direction of CFRP was used to produce a symmetrical ply [0°/0°, -15°/+15°, -30°/+30°, -45°/+45°, -60°/+60°, -75°/+75°, and 90°/90°] and an asymmetrical ply [0°/15°, 0°/30°, 0°/45°, 0°/60° 0°/75°, and 0°/90°]. The bending flexure stress of the CFRP specimen was evaluated through a bending test. Its thermal property was measured using an infrared camera. The symmetrical specimen and the asymmetrical specimen were analyzed. The results showed that the asymmetrical specimen increased the bending loads according to the increase in the orientation angle; and from 0°, the symmetrical specimen showed a tendency opposite the asymmetrical tendency because the tensile force of fiber differs at the vertical direction of its load. Also, the infrared camera showed that the thermal property had a trend similar to that of the mechanical properties.

Keywords: Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP), bending test, infrared camera, composite

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
381 Comparison of the Effect of Strand Diameters, Providing Beam to Column Connection

Authors: Mustafa Kaya


In this study, the effect of pre-stressed strand diameters, providing the beam-to-column connections, was investigated from both experimental, and analytical aspects. In the experimental studies, the strength and stiffness, the capacities of the precast specimens were compared. The precast specimen with strands of 15.24 mm reached an equal strength of the reference specimen. Parallel results were obtained during the analytical studies from the aspects of strength, and behavior, but in terms of stiffness, it was seen that the initial stiffness of the analytical models was lower than that of the tested specimen.

Keywords: post-tensioned connections, beam to column connections, finite element method, strand diameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
380 Experimental Investigation on Cold-Formed Steel Foamed Concrete Composite Wall under Compression

Authors: Zhifeng Xu, Zhongfan Chen


A series of tests on cold-formed steel foamed concrete (CSFC) composite walls subjected to axial load were proposed. The primary purpose of the experiments was to study the mechanical behavior and identify the failure modes of CSFC composite walls. Two main factors were considered in this study: 1) specimen with pouring foamed concrete or without and 2) different foamed concrete density ranks (corresponding to different foamed concrete strength). The interior space between two pieces of straw board of the specimen W-2 and W-3 were poured foamed concrete, and the specimen W-1 does not have foamed concrete core. The foamed concrete density rank of the specimen W-2 was A05 grade, and that of the specimen W-3 was A07 grade. Results showed that the failure mode of CSFC composite wall without foamed concrete was distortional buckling of cold-formed steel (CFS) column, and that poured foamed concrete includes the local crushing of foamed concrete and local buckling of CFS column, but the former prior to the later. Compared with CSFC composite wall without foamed concrete, the ultimate bearing capacity of spec imens poured A05 grade and A07 grade foamed concrete increased 1.6 times and 2.2 times respectively, and specimen poured foamed concrete had a low vertical deformation. According to these results, the simplified calculation formula for the CSFC wall subjected to axial load was proposed, and the calculated results from this formula are in very good agreement with the test results.

Keywords: cold-formed steel, composite wall, foamed concrete, axial behavior test

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
379 Evaluating Mechanical Properties of CoNiCrAlY Coating from Miniature Specimen Testing at Elevated Temperature

Authors: W. Wen, G. Jackson, S. Maskill, D. G. McCartney, W. Sun


CoNiCrAlY alloys have been widely used as bond coats for thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems because of low cost, improved control of composition, and the feasibility to tailor the coatings microstructures. Coatings are in general very thin structures, and therefore it is impossible to characterize the mechanical responses of the materials via conventional mechanical testing methods. Due to this reason, miniature specimen testing methods, such as the small punch test technique, have been developed. This paper presents some of the recent research in evaluating the mechanical properties of the CoNiCrAlY coatings at room and high temperatures, through the use of small punch testing and the developed miniature specimen tensile testing, applicable to a range of temperature, to investigate the elastic-plastic and creep behavior as well as ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) behavior. An inverse procedure was developed to derive the mechanical properties from such tests for the coating materials. A two-layer specimen test method is also described. The key findings include: 1) the temperature-dependent coating properties can be accurately determined by the miniature tensile testing within a wide range of temperature; 2) consistent DBTTs can be identified by both the SPT and miniature tensile tests (~ 650 °C); and 3) the FE SPT modelling has shown good capability of simulating the early local cracking. In general, the temperature-dependent material behaviors of the CoNiCrAlY coating has been effectively characterized using miniature specimen testing and inverse method.

Keywords: NiCoCrAlY coatings, mechanical properties, DBTT, miniature specimen testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
378 Thermal Property Improvement of Silica Reinforced Epoxy Composite Specimens

Authors: Hyu Sang Jo, Gyo Woo Lee


In this study, the mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy composites that are reinforced with micrometer-sized silica particles were investigated by using the specimen experiments. For all specimens used in this study (from the baseline to specimen containing 70 wt% silica filler), the tensile strengths were gradually increased by 8-10%, but the ductility of the specimen was decreased by 34%, compared with those of the baseline samples. Similarly, for the samples containing 70 wt% silica filler, the coefficient of thermal expansion was reduced by 25%, but the thermal conductivity was increased by 100%, compared with those of the baseline samples. The improvement of thermal stability of the silica-reinforced specimen was confirmed to be within the experimented range, and the smaller silica particle was found to be more effective in delaying the thermal expansion of the specimens. When the smaller particle was used as filler, due to the increased specific interface area between filler and matrix, the thermal conductivities of the composite specimens were measured to be slightly lower than those of the specimens reinforced with the larger particle.

Keywords: carbon nanotube filler, epoxy composite, mechanical property, thermal property

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
377 The Effect of Type of Nanoparticles on the Quenching Process

Authors: Dogan Ciloglu, Abdurrahim Bolukbasi, Harun Cifci


In this study, the experiments were carried out to determine the best coolant for the quenching process among water-based silica, alumina, titania and copper oxide nanofluids (0.1 vol%). A sphere made up off brass material was used in the experiments. After the spherical test specimen was heated at high temperatures, it was suddenly plunged into the nanofluid suspensions. All experiments were performed at saturated conditions and under atmospheric pressure. Using the temperature-time data of the specimen, the cooling curves were obtained. The experimental results showed that the cooling performance of test specimen depended on the type of nanofluids. The silica nanoparticles enhanced the performance of boiling heat transfer and it is the best coolant for the quenching among other nanoparticles.

Keywords: quenching, nanofluid, pool boiling, heat transfer

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376 Plastic Pipe Defect Detection Using Nonlinear Acoustic Modulation

Authors: Gigih Priyandoko, Mohd Fairusham Ghazali, Tan Siew Fun


This paper discusses about the defect detection of plastic pipe by using nonlinear acoustic wave modulation method. It is a sensitive method for damage detection and it is based on the propagation of high frequency acoustic waves in plastic pipe with low frequency excitation. The plastic pipe is excited simultaneously with a slow amplitude modulated vibration pumping wave and a constant amplitude probing wave. The frequency of both the excitation signals coincides with the resonances of the plastic pipe. A PVP pipe is used as the specimen as it is commonly used for the conveyance of liquid in many fields. The results obtained are being observed and the difference between uncracked specimen and cracked specimen can be distinguished clearly.

Keywords: plastic pipe, defect detection, nonlinear acoustic modulation, excitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
375 Effect of Shape and Size of Concrete Specimen and Strength of Concrete Mixture in the Absence and Presence of Fiber

Authors: Sultan Husein Bayqra, Ali Mardani Aghabaglou, Zia Ahmad Faqiri, Hassane Amidou Ouedraogo


In this study, the effect of shape and size of the concrete specimen on the compressive and splitting tensile strength of the concrete mixtures in the absence and presence of steel fiber was investigated. For this aim, ten different concrete mixtures having w/c ratio of 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 with and without fiber were prepared. In the mixtures containing steel fibers having aspect ratio (L/D) of 64 were used by 1% of the total mixture volume. In all concrete mixtures, CEM I 42,5R type Portland cement and crushed Lime-stone aggregates having different aggregate size fractions were used. The combined aggregate was obtained by mixing %40 0-5 mm, %30 5-12 mm and %30 12-22 mm aggregate size fraction. The slump values of concrete mixtures were kept constant as 17 ± 2 cm. To provide the desired slump value, a polycarboxylate ether-based high range water reducing admixture was used. In order to investigate the effect of size and shape of concrete specimen on strength properties 10 cm, 15 cm cubic specimens and 10×20 cm, 15×30 cm cylindrical specimens were prepared for each mixture. The specimens were cured under standard conditions until testing days. The 7- and 28-day compressive and splitting tensile strengths of mixtures were determined. The results obtained from the experimental study showed that the strength ratio between the cylinder and the cube specimens increased with the increase of the strength of the concrete. Regardless of the fiber utilization and specimen shape, strength values of concrete mixtures were increased by decreasing specimen size. However, the mentioned behaviour was not observed for the case that the mixtures having high W/C ratio and containing fiber. The compressive strength of cube specimens containing fiber was less affected by the size of the specimen compared to that of cube specimens containing no fibers.

Keywords: compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, fiber reinforced concrete, size effect, shape effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
374 Plasma Spraying of 316 Stainless Steel on Aluminum and Investigation of Coat/Substrate Interface

Authors: P. Abachi, T. W. Coyle, P. S. Musavi Gharavi


By applying coating onto a structural component, the corrosion and/or wear resistance requirements of the surface can be fulfilled. Since the layer adhesion of the coating influences the mechanical integrity of the coat/substrate interface during the service time, it should be examined accurately. At the present work, the tensile bonding strength of the 316 stainless steel plasma sprayed coating on aluminum substrate was determined by using tensile adhesion test, TAT, specimen. The interfacial fracture toughness was specified using four-point bend specimen containing a saw notch and modified chevron-notched short-bar (SB) specimen. The coating microstructure and fractured specimen surface were examined by using scanning electron- and optical-microscopy. The investigation of coated surface after tensile adhesion test indicates that the failure mechanism is mostly cohesive and rarely adhesive type. The calculated value of critical strain energy release rate proposes relatively good interface status. It seems that four-point bending test offers a potentially more sensitive means for evaluation of mechanical integrity of coating/substrate interfaces than is possible with the tensile test. The fracture toughness value reported for the modified chevron-notched short-bar specimen testing cannot be taken as absolute value because its calculation is based on the minimum stress intensity coefficient value which has been suggested for the fracture toughness determination of homogeneous parts in the ASTM E1304-97 standard. 

Keywords: bonding strength, four-point bend test, interfacial fracture toughness, modified chevron-notched short-bar specimen, plasma sprayed coating, tensile adhesion test

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
373 Relocation of Plastic Hinge of Interior Beam Column Connections with Intermediate Bars in Reinforced Concrete and T-Section Steel Inserts in Precast Concrete Frames

Authors: P. Wongmatar, C. Hansapinyo, C. Buachart


Failure of typical seismic frames has been found by plastic hinge occurring on beams section near column faces. Past researches shown that the seismic capacity of the frames can be enhanced if the plastic hinges of the beams are shifted away from the column faces. This paper presents detailing of reinforcements in the interior beam–column connections aiming to relocate the plastic hinge of reinforced concrete and precast concrete frames. Four specimens were tested under quasi-static cyclic load including two monolithic specimens and two precast specimens. For one monolithic specimen, typical seismic reinforcement was provided and considered as a reference specimen named M1. The other reinforced concrete frame M2 contained additional intermediate steel in the connection area compared with the specimen M1. For the precast specimens, embedded T-section steels in joint were provided, with and without diagonal bars in the connection area for specimen P1 and P2, respectively. The test results indicated the ductile failure with beam flexural failure in monolithic specimen M1 and the intermediate steel increased strength and improved joint performance of specimen M2. For the precast specimens, cracks generated at the end of the steel inserts. However, slipping of reinforcing steel lapped in top of the beams was seen before yielding of the main bars leading to the brittle failure. The diagonal bars in precast specimens P2 improved the connection stiffness and the energy dissipation capacity.

Keywords: relocation, plastic hinge, intermediate bar, T-section steel, precast concrete frame

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
372 Characterization of Bacteria by a Nondestructive Sample Preparation Method in a TEM System

Authors: J. Shiue, I. H. Chen, S. W. Y. Chiu, Y. L. Wang


In this work, we present a nondestructive method to characterize bacteria in a TEM system. Unlike the conventional TEM specimen preparation method, which needs to thin the specimen in a destructive way, or spread the samples on a tiny millimeter sized carbon grid, our method is easy to operate without the need of sample pretreatment. With a specially designed transparent chip that allows the electron beam to pass through, and a custom made chip holder to fit into a standard TEM sample holder, the bacteria specimen can be easily prepared on the chip without any pretreatment, and then be observed under TEM. The centimeter-sized chip is covered with Au nanoparticles in the surface as the markers which allow the bacteria to be observed easily on the chip. We demonstrate the success of our method by using E. coli as an example, and show that high-resolution TEM images of E. coli can be obtained with the method presented. Some E. coli morphology characteristics imaged using this method are also presented.

Keywords: bacteria, chip, nanoparticles, TEM

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371 A Study of the Weld Properties of Inconel 625 Based on Nb Content

Authors: JongWon Han, NoHoon Kim, HyoIk Ahn, HaeWoo Lee


In this study, shielded metal arc welding was performed as a function of Nb content at 2.24 wt%, 3.25 wt%, and 4.26 wt%. The microstructure was observed using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and showed the development of a columnar dendrite structure in the specimen having the least Nb content. From the hardness test, the hardness value was confirmed to reduce with decreasing Nb content. From electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis, the largest grain size was found in the specimen with Nb content of 2.24 wt%. The potentiodynamic polarization test was carried out to determine the pitting corrosion resistance; there was no significant difference in the pitting corrosion resistance with increasing Nb content. To evaluate the degree of sensitization to intergranular corrosion, the Double Loop Electrochemical Potentiodynamic Reactivation(DL-EPR test) was conducted. A similar degree of sensitization was found in two specimens except with a Nb content of 2.24 wt%, while a relatively high degree of sensitization was found in the specimen with a Nb content of 2.24 wt%.

Keywords: inconel 625, Nb content, potentiodynamic test, DL-EPR test

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370 Pulse Method for Investigation of Zr-C Phase Diagram at High Carbon Content Domain under High Temperatures

Authors: Arseniy M. Kondratyev, Sergey V. Onufriev, Alexander I. Savvatimskiy


The microsecond electrical pulse heating technique which provides uniform energy input into an investigated specimen is considered. In the present study we investigated ZrC+C carbide specimens in a form of a thin layer (about 5 microns thick) that were produced using a method of magnetron sputtering on insulating substrates. Specimens contained (at. %): Zr–17.88; C–67.69; N–8.13; O–5.98. Current through the specimen, voltage drop across it and radiation at the wavelength of 856 nm were recorded in the experiments. It enabled us to calculate the input energy, specific heat (from 2300 to 4500 K) and resistivity (referred to the initial dimensions of a specimen). To obtain the true temperature a black body specimen was used. Temperature of the beginning and completion of a phase transition (solid–liquid) was measured.Temperature of the onset of melting was 3150 K at the input energy 2.65 kJ/g; temperature of the completion of melting was 3450 K at the input energy 5.2 kJ/g. The specific heat of the solid phase of investigated carbide calculated using our data on temperature and imparted energy, is close to 0.75 J/gК for temperature range 2100–2800 K. Our results are considered together with the equilibrium Zr-C phase diagram.

Keywords: pulse heating, zirconium carbide, high temperatures, melting

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369 Tensile Retention Properties of Thermoplastic Starch Based Biocomposites Modified with Glutaraldehyde

Authors: Jen-Taut Yeh, Yuan-jing Hou, Li Cheng, Ya Zhou Wang, Zhi Yu Zhang


Tensile retention properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) reinforced thermoplastic starch (TPS) resins were successfully improved by reacting with glutaraldehyde (GA) in their gelatinization processes. Small amounts of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) were blended with GA modified TPS resins to improve their processability. As evidenced by the newly developed ether (-C-O-C-) stretching bands on FT-IR spectra of TPS100BC0.02GAx series specimens, hydroxyl groups of TPS100BC0.02 resins were successfully reacted with the aldehyde groups of GA molecules during their modification processes. The retention values of tensile strengths (σf) of TPS100BC0.02GAx and (TPS100BC0.02GAx)75PLA25 specimens improved significantly and reached a maximal value as GA contents approached an optimal value at 0.5 part per hundred parts of TPS resin (PHR). By addition of 0.5 PHR GA in biocomposite specimens, the initial tensile strength and elongation at break values of (TPS100BC0.02GA0.5)75PLA25 specimen improved to 24.6 MPa and 5.6%, respectively, which were slightly improved than those of (TPS100BC0.02)75PLA25 specimen. However, the retention values of tensile strengths of (TPS100BC0.02GA0.5)75PLA25 specimen reached around 82.5%, after placing the specimen under 20oC/50% relative humidity for 56 days, which were significantly better than those of the (TPS100BC0.02)75PLA25 specimen. In order to understand these interesting tensile retention properties found for (TPS100BC0.02GAx)75PLA25 specimens. Thermal analyses of initial and aged TPS100BC0.02, TPS100BC0.02GAx and (TPS100BC0.02GAx)75PLA25 specimens were also performed in this investigation. Possible reasons accounting for the significantly improved tensile retention properties of TPS100BC0.02GAx and (TPS100BC0.02GAx)75PLA25 specimens are proposed.

Keywords: biocomposite, strength retention, thermoplastic starch, tensile retention

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368 Optical and Mechanical Characterization of Severe Plastically Deformed Copper Alloy Processed by Constrained Groove Pressing

Authors: Jaya Prasad Vanam, Vinay Anurag P, Vidya Sravya N S, Kishore Babu Nagamothu


Constrained Groove Pressing (CGP) is one of the severe plastic deformation technique (SPD) by which we can process Ultra Fine Grained (UFG)/plane metallic materials. This paper discusses the effects of CGP on Cu-Zn alloy specimen at room temperature. A comprehensive study is made on the structural and mechanical properties of Brass specimen before and after Constrained grooves Pressing. Entire process is simulated in AFDEX CAE Software. It is found that most of the properties are superior with respect to brass samples such as yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, hardness, strain rate, etc., and they are found to be better for the CGP processed specimen. The results are discussed with respective graphs.

Keywords: constrained groove pressing, AFDEX, ultra fine grained materials, severe plastic deformation technique

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367 Study on Effect of Reverse Cyclic Loading on Fracture Resistance Curve of Equivalent Stress Gradient (ESG) Specimen

Authors: Jaegu Choi, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok, Byungwoo Moon


Since massive earthquakes in the world have been reported recently, the safety of nuclear power plants for seismic loading has become a significant issue. Seismic loading is the reverse cyclic loading, consisting of repeated tensile and compression by longitudinal and transverse wave. Up to this time, the study on characteristics of fracture toughness under reverse cyclic loading has been unsatisfactory. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the fracture toughness under reverse cyclic load for the integrity estimation of nuclear power plants under seismic load. Fracture resistance (J-R) curves, which are used for determination of fracture toughness or integrity estimation in terms of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, can be derived by the fracture resistance test using single specimen technique. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of reverse cyclic loading on a fracture resistance curve of ESG specimen, having a similar stress gradient compared to the crack surface of the real pipe. For this, we carried out the fracture toughness test under the reverse cyclic loading, while changing incremental plastic displacement. Test results showed that the J-R curves were decreased with a decrease of the incremental plastic displacement.

Keywords: reverse cyclic loading, j-r curve, ESG specimen, incremental plastic displacement

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
366 Fully Printed Strain Gauges: A Comparison of Aerosoljet-Printing and Micropipette-Dispensing

Authors: Benjamin Panreck, Manfred Hild


Strain sensors based on a change in resistance are well established for the measurement of forces, stresses, or material fatigue. Within the scope of this paper, fully additive manufactured strain sensors were produced using an ink of silver nanoparticles. Their behavior was evaluated by periodic tensile tests. Printed strain sensors exhibit two advantages: Their measuring grid is adaptable to the use case and they do not need a carrier-foil, as the measuring structure can be printed directly onto a thin sprayed varnish layer on the aluminum specimen. In order to compare quality characteristics, the sensors have been manufactured using two different technologies, namely aerosoljet-printing and micropipette-dispensing. Both processes produce structures which exhibit continuous features (in contrast to what can be achieved with droplets during inkjet printing). Briefly summarized the results show that aerosoljet-printing is the preferable technology for specimen with non-planar surfaces whereas both technologies are suitable for flat specimen.

Keywords: aerosoljet-printing, micropipette-dispensing, printed electronics, printed sensors, strain gauge

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
365 Structural Performance Evaluation of Electronic Road Sign Panels Reflecting Damage Scenarios

Authors: Junwon Seo, Bipin Adhikari, Euiseok Jeong


This paper is intended to evaluate the structural performance of welded electronic road signs under various damage scenarios (DSs) using a finite element (FE) model calibrated with full-scale ultimate load testing results. The tested electronic road sign specimen was built with a back skin made of 5052 aluminum and two channels and a frame made of 6061 aluminum, where the back skin was connected to the frame by welding. The size of the tested specimen was 1.52 m long, 1.43 m wide, and 0.28 m deep. An actuator applied vertical loads at the center of the back skin of the specimen, resulting in a displacement of 158.7 mm and an ultimate load of 153.46 kN. Using these testing data, generation and calibration of a FE model of the tested specimen were executed in ABAQUS, indicating that the difference in the ultimate load between the calibrated model simulation and full-scale testing was only 3.32%. Then, six different DSs were simulated where the areas of the welded connection in the calibrated model were diminished for the DSs. It was found that the corners at the back skin-frame joint were prone to connection failure for all the DSs, and failure of the back skin-frame connection occurred remarkably from the distant edges.

Keywords: computational analysis, damage scenarios, electronic road signs, finite element, welded connections

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364 Application of Electronic Nose Systems in Medical and Food Industries

Authors: Khaldon Lweesy, Feryal Alskafi, Rabaa Hammad, Shaker Khanfar, Yara Alsukhni


Electronic noses are devices designed to emulate the humane sense of smell by characterizing and differentiating odor profiles. In this study, we build a low-cost e-nose using an array module containing four different types of metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors. We used this system to create a profile for a meat specimen over three days. Then using a pattern recognition software, we correlated the odor of the specimen to its age. It is a simple, fast detection method that is both non-expensive and non-destructive. The results support the usage of this technology in food control management.

Keywords: e-nose, low cost, odor detection, food safety

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363 Wire Localization Procedures in Non-Palpable Breast Cancers: An Audit Report and Review of Literature

Authors: Waqas Ahmad, Eisha Tahir, Shahper Aqeel, Imran Khalid Niazi, Amjad Iqbal


Background: Breast conservation surgery applies a number of techniques for accurate localization of lesions. Wire localization remains the method of choice in non-palpable breast cancers post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Objective: The aim of our study was to determine the accuracy of wire localization procedures in our department and compare it with internationally set protocols as per the Royal College of Radiologists. Post wire mammography, as well as the margin status of the postoperative specimen, assessed the accuracy of the procedure. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 225 patients who presented to our department from May 2014 to June 2015 post neoadjuvant chemotherapy with non-palpable cancers. These patients are candidates for wire localized lumpectomies either under ultrasound or stereotactic guidance. Metallic marker was placed in all the patients at the time of biopsy. Post wire mammogram was performed in all the patients and the distance of the wire tip from the marker was calculated. The presence or absence of the metallic clip in the postoperative specimen, as well as the marginal status of the postoperative specimen, was noted. Results: 157 sonographic and 68 stereotactic wire localization procedures were performed. 95% of the wire tips were within 1 cm of the metallic marker. Marginal status was negative in 94% of the patients in histopathological specimen. Conclusion: Our audit report declares more than 95% accuracy of image guided wire localization in successful excision of non-palpable breast lesions.

Keywords: breast, cancer, non-palpable, wire localization

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362 Diversity and Taxonomy: Malaysian Marine Algae Genus Halimeda (Halimedaceae, Chlorophyta)

Authors: Nur Farah Ain Zainee, Ahmad Ismail, Nazlina Ibrahim, Asmida Ismail


The study of genus Halimeda in Malaysia is in the early stage due to less specific study on its taxonomy. Most of the previous research tend to choose other genus such as Caulerpa and Gracilaria because of the potential of being utilized. The identification of Halimeda is complex by the high morphological variation within individual species due to different types of habitat and the changes in composition of seawater. The study was completed to study the diversity and distribution of Halimeda in Malaysia and to identify the morphological and anatomical differences between Halimeda species. The methods which have been used for this study are collection of Halimeda and seawater, preservation of specimen, identification of the specimen including the preparation of the temporary slide and decalcification of the calcium layer by using diluted hydrochloric acid. The specimen were processed in laboratory and kept as herbarium specimen in Algae Herbarium, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Environmental parameters were tested by using YSI multiparameter probe and the recorded data were temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen. The nutrient content of seawater such as nitrate and phosphate were analysed by using Hach kit model DR 2000. In the present study, out of 330 herbarium specimen, ten species were identified as Halimeda cuneata, H. discoidea, H. macroloba, H. macrophysa, H. opuntia, H. simulans, H. stuposa, H. taenicola, H. tuna and H. velasquezii. Of these, five species were new record to Malaysia. They are Halimeda cuneata, H. macrophysa, H. stuposa, H. taenicola and H. velasquezii. H. opuntia was found as the most abundance species with wide distribution in Malaysia coastal area. Meanwhile, from the study of their distribution, two localities in which Pulau Balak Balak, Kudat and Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, were noted having high number of Halimeda species. As a conclusion, this study has successfully identified ten species of Halimeda of Malaysia with full description of morphological characteristics that may assist further researcher to differentiate and identify Halimeda.

Keywords: Distribution, diversity, Halimeda, morphological, taxonomy

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361 Influence of the Paint Coating Thickness in Digital Image Correlation Experiments

Authors: Jesús A. Pérez, Sam Coppieters, Dimitri Debruyne


In the past decade, the use of digital image correlation (DIC) techniques has increased significantly in the area of experimental mechanics, especially for materials behavior characterization. This non-contact tool enables full field displacement and strain measurements over a complete region of interest. The DIC algorithm requires a random contrast pattern on the surface of the specimen in order to perform properly. To create this pattern, the specimen is usually first coated using a white matt paint. Next, a black random speckle pattern is applied using any suitable method. If the applied paint coating is too thick, its top surface may not be able to exactly follow the deformation of the specimen, and consequently, the strain measurement might be underestimated. In the present article, a study of the influence of the paint thickness on the strain underestimation is performed for different strain levels. The results are then compared to typical paint coating thicknesses applied by experienced DIC users. A slight strain underestimation was observed for paint coatings thicker than about 30μm. On the other hand, this value was found to be uncommonly high compared to coating thicknesses applied by DIC users.

Keywords: digital image correlation, paint coating thickness, strain

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