Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: S. Zapata

13 LogiSun: An Interactive Robot to Reduce Pollution on the Beach

Authors: Ruth Manzanares, Victor Honores, Hugo Zapata, Javier Cansaya, Deivid Yavar, Junior Meza

Abstract:

LogiSum is a robot focused on education like a solution to the ecological crisis. This robot allows reducing the pollution on the beaches by stimulating environmental awareness of not contaminating through the collection of waste. Through the use of the methodology of design thinking, it is intended to reinforce values in adults and with a greater focus on children, so as not to contaminate the beaches. The goal is to encourage the use of the container of the robot LogiSum to put the garbage, with visual interaction and simulation of dialogue with the function of the robot. The results obtained of the testings of the interaction of children with the robot showed an encouraging behavior. With the robot, children left the waste in the right places and not bury it in the sand or in the floor.

Keywords: Pollution Reduction, social robot, interaction human-robot, robot container, beach pollution

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12 Microbiological Analysis, Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects from Material Captured in PM2.5 and PM10 Filters Used in the Aburrá Valley Air Quality Monitoring Network (Colombia)

Authors: Carmen E. Zapata, Natalia A. Cano, Juan Bautista, Olga Montoya, Claudia Moreno, Marisol Suarez, Alejandra Betancur, Duvan Nanclares

Abstract:

This study aims to evaluate the diversity of microorganisms in filters PM2.5 and PM10; and determine the genotoxic and cytotoxic activity of the complex mixture present in PM2.5 filters used in the Aburrá Valley Air Quality Monitoring Network (Colombia). The research results indicate that particulate matter PM2.5 of different monitoring stations are bacteria; however, this study of detection of bacteria and their phylogenetic relationship is not complete evidence to connect the microorganisms with pathogenic or degrading activities of compounds present in the air. Additionally, it was demonstrated the damage induced by the particulate material in the cell membrane, lysosomal and endosomal membrane and in the mitochondrial metabolism; this damage was independent of the PM2.5 concentrations in almost all the cases.

Keywords: genotoxic, cytotoxic, PM2.5, PM10, microbiological analysis

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11 Family Functionality in Mexican Children with Congenital and Non-Congenital Deafness

Authors: D. Estrella, A. Silva, R. Zapata, H. Rubio

Abstract:

A total of 100 primary caregivers (mothers, fathers, grandparents) with at least one child or grandchild with a diagnosis of congenital bilateral profound deafness were assessed in order to evaluate the functionality of families with a deaf member, who was evaluated by specialists in audiology, molecular biology, genetics and psychology. After confirmation of the clinical diagnosis, DNA from the patients and parents were analyzed in search of the 35delG deletion of the GJB2 gene to determine who possessed the mutation. All primary caregivers were provided psychological support, regardless of whether or not they had the mutation, and prior and subsequent, the family APGAR test was applied. All parents, grandparents were informed of the results of the genetic analysis during the psychological intervention. The family APGAR, after psychological and genetic counseling, showed that 14% perceived their families as functional, 62% moderately functional and 24% dysfunctional. This shows the importance of psychological support in family functionality that has a direct impact on the quality of life of these families.

Keywords: Family, Deafness, psychological support, adaptation to disability

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10 Nonlinear Analysis with Failure Using the Boundary Element Method

Authors: Ernesto Pineda Leon, Dante Tolentino Lopez, Janis Zapata Lopez

Abstract:

The current paper shows the application of the boundary element method for the analysis of plates under shear stress causing plasticity. In this case, the shear deformation of a plate is considered by means of the Reissner’s theory. The probability of failure of a Reissner’s plate due to a proposed index plastic behavior is calculated taken into account the uncertainty in mechanical and geometrical properties. The problem is developed in two dimensions. The classic plasticity’s theory is applied and a formulation for initial stresses that lead to the boundary integral equations due to plasticity is also used. For the plasticity calculation, the Von Misses criteria is used. To solve the non-linear equations an incremental method is employed. The results show a relatively small failure probability for the ranges of loads between 0.6 and 1.0. However, for values between 1.0 and 2.5, the probability of failure increases significantly. Consequently, for load bigger than 2.5 the plate failure is a safe event. The results are compared to those that were found in the literature and the agreement is good.

Keywords: Probability, Plasticity, Failure, boundary element method

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9 Relocation of the Air Quality Monitoring Stations Network for Aburrá Valley Based on Local Climatic Zones

Authors: Carmen E. Zapata, José F. Jiménez, Mauricio Ramiréz, Natalia A. Cano

Abstract:

The majority of the urban areas in Latin America face the challenges associated with city planning and development problems, attributed to human, technical, and economical factors; therefore, we cannot ignore the issues related to climate change because the city modifies the natural landscape in a significant way transforming the radiation balance and heat content in the urbanized areas. These modifications provoke changes in the temperature distribution known as “the heat island effect”. According to this phenomenon, we have the need to conceive the urban planning based on climatological patterns that will assure its sustainable functioning, including the particularities of the climate variability. In the present study, it is identified the Local Climate Zones (LCZ) in the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley (Colombia) with the objective of relocate the air quality monitoring stations as a partial solution to the problem of how to measure representative air quality levels in a city for a local scale, but with instruments that measure in the microscale.

Keywords: Air quality, monitoring, local climatic zones, valley, monitoring stations

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8 A Framework for Teaching Distributed Requirements Engineering in Latin American Universities

Authors: E. Torres, G. Sevilla, S. Zapata, F. Giraldo, C. Collazos

Abstract:

This work describes a framework for teaching of global software engineering (GSE) in university undergraduate programs. This framework proposes a method of teaching that incorporates adequate techniques of software requirements elicitation and validated tools of communication, critical aspects to global software development scenarios. The use of proposed framework allows teachers to simulate small software development companies formed by Latin American students, which build information systems. Students from three Latin American universities played the roles of engineers by applying an iterative development of a requirements specification in a global software project. The proposed framework involves the use of a specific purpose Wiki for asynchronous communication between the participants of the process. It is also a practice to improve the quality of software requirements that are formulated by the students. The additional motivation of students to participate in these practices, in conjunction with peers from other countries, is a significant additional factor that positively contributes to the learning process. The framework promotes skills for communication, negotiation, and other complementary competencies that are useful for working on GSE scenarios.

Keywords: Requirements Analysis, distributed requirements engineering, practical experiences, collaborative support

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7 Optimization in the Compressive Strength of Iron Slag Self-Compacting Concrete

Authors: Luis E. Zapata, Sergio Ruiz, María F. Mantilla, Jhon A. Villamizar

Abstract:

Sand as fine aggregate for concrete production needs a feasible substitute due to several environmental issues. In this work, a study of the behavior of self-compacting concrete mixtures under replacement of sand by iron slag from 0.0% to 50.0% of weight and variations of water/cementitious material ratio between 0.3 and 0.5 is presented. Control fresh state tests of Slump flow, T500, J-ring and L-box were determined. In the hardened state, compressive strength was determined and optimization from response surface analysis was performed. The study of the variables in the hardened state was developed based on inferential statistical analyses using central composite design methodology and posterior analyses of variance (ANOVA). An increase in the compressive strength up to 50% higher than control mixtures at 7, 14, and 28 days of maturity was the most relevant result regarding the presence of iron slag as replacement of natural sand. Considering the obtained result, it is possible to infer that iron slag is an acceptable alternative replacement material of the natural fine aggregate to be used in structural concrete.

Keywords: Self-Compacting Concrete, ANOVA, response surface analysis, iron slag

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6 Effect of Temperature and CuO Nanoparticle Concentration on Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity of a Phase Change Material

Authors: V. Bastian Aguila, C. Diego Vasco, P. Paula Galvez, R. Paula Zapata

Abstract:

The main results of an experimental study of the effect of temperature and nanoparticle concentration on thermal conductivity and viscosity of a nanofluid are shown. The nanofluid was made by using octadecane as a base fluid and CuO spherical nanoparticles of 75 nm (MkNano). Since the base fluid is a phase change material (PCM) to be used in thermal storage applications, the engineered nanofluid is referred as nanoPCM. Three nanoPCM were prepared through the two-step method (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0%wv). In order to increase the stability of the nanoPCM, the surface of the CuO nanoparticles was modified with sodium oleate, and it was verified by IR analysis. The modified CuO nanoparticles were dispersed by using an ultrasonic horn (Hielscher UP50H) during one hour (amplitude of 180 μm at 50 W). The thermal conductivity was measured by using a thermal properties analyzer (KD2-Pro) in the temperature range of 30ºC to 40ºC. The viscosity was measured by using a Brookfield DV2T-LV viscosimeter to 30 RPM in the temperature range of 30ºC to 55ºC. The obtained results for the nanoPCM showed that thermal conductivity is almost constant in the analyzed temperature range, and the viscosity decreases non-linearly with temperature. Respect to the effect of the nanoparticle concentration, both thermal conductivity and viscosity increased with nanoparticle concentration. The thermal conductivity raised up to 9% respect to the base fluid, and the viscosity increases up to 60%, in both cases for the higher concentration. Finally, the viscosity measurements for different rotation speeds (30 RPM - 80 RPM) exhibited that the addition of nanoparticles modifies the rheological behavior of the base fluid, from a Newtonian to a viscoplastic (Bingham) or shear thinning (power-law) non-Newtonian behavior.

Keywords: viscosity, Thermal Conductivity, non-Newtonian fluid, NanoPCM

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5 Influence of Genetic Counseling in Family Dynamics in Patients with Deafness in Merida, Yucatán, Mexico

Authors: Damaris Estrella Castillo, Zacil ha Vilchis Zapata, Leydi Peraza Gómez

Abstract:

Hearing loss is an etiologically heterogeneous condition, where almost 60% is genetic in origin, 20% is due to environmental factors, and 20% have unknown causes. However, it is now known that the gene, GJB2, which encodes the connexin 26 protein, accounts for a large percentage of non-syndromic genetic hearing loss, and variants in this gene have been identified to be a common cause of hereditary hearing loss in many populations. The literature reports that the etiology in deafness helps improve family functioning but low-income countries this is difficult. Therefore, it is difficult to contribute the right of families to know about the genetic risk in future pregnancies as well as determining the certainty of being a carrier or affected. In order to assess the impact of genetic counseling and the functionality, 100 families with at least one child with profound hearing loss, were evaluated by specialists in audiology, clinical genetics and psychology. Targeted mutation analysis for one of the two known large deletions of upstream of GJB2/GJB6 gene (35delG; and including GJB2 regulatory sequences and GJB6) were performed in patients with diagnosis of non-syndromic hearing loss. Genetic counseling was given to all parents and primary caregivers, and APGAR family test was applied before and after the counseling. We analyzed a total of 300 members (children, parents) to determine the presence of the GJB2 gene mutation. Twelve patients (carriers and affected) were positive for the mutation, from 5 different families. The subsequent family APGAR testing and genetic counseling, showed that 14% perceived their families as functional, 62 % and 24 % moderately functional dysfunctional. This shows the importance of genetic counseling in the perception of family function that can directly impact the quality of life of these families.

Keywords: Counseling, Deafness, Family Dynamics, APGAR

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4 Resistance of Haemonchus spp. to Albendazole, Fenbendazole and Levamisole in 4 Goat Farms of Antioquia, Colombia

Authors: Jose D. Zapata-Torres, Esteban Naranjo-Gutiérrez, Angela M. Martínez-Valencia, Jenny J. Chaparro-Gutiérrez, David Villar-Argaiz

Abstract:

Reports of drug resistance have been made in every livestock host and to every anthelmintic class. In some regions of world, the extremely high prevalence of multi-drug resistance in nematodes of sheep and goats threatens the viability of small-ruminant industries. In the region of Antioquia, Colombia, no reports of nematode resistance have been documented due to a lack of veterinary diagnostic laboratories. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of albendazole, fenbendazole, and levamisole to control gastrointestinal nematodes in goat farms of Antioquia by doing fecal egg count reduction tests. A total of 139 crossbreed goats from four separate farms were sampled for feces prior to, and 14 days following anthelmintc treatments. Individual fecal egg counts were performed using the modified three chamber McMaster technique. The anthelmintics administered at day 0 were albendazole (farm 1, n=63), fenbendazole (farm 2, n=20), and levamisole (farm 3 and 4, n= 37, and 19). Larval cultures were used to identify the genus of nematodes using Baermann`s technique and the morphological keys for identification of L3 in small ruminants. There was no difference in fecal egg counts between 0 and 14, with means (±SD) of 1681,5 ± 2121,5 and 1715,12 ± 1895,4 epg (eggs per gram), respectively. The egg count reductions for each anthelmintic and farm were 25,86% for albendazole (farm 1), 0% for fenbendazole (farm 2), 0% (farm 3), and 5,5% (farm 4) for levamisole. The genus of nematodes identified was predominantly Haemonchus spp., with 70,27% and 82,81% for samples from day 0 and 14, respectively. These results provide evidence of a total state of resistance to 3 common anthelmintics. Further research is needed to design integrate management programs to control nematodes in small ruminants in Colombia.

Keywords: Resistance, Goat, anthelmintics, haemonchus

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3 Assessing Two Protocols for Positive Reinforcement Training in Captive Olive Baboons (Papio anubis)

Authors: N. Garcia, H. Cano, P. Ferrer, M. Popovic, J. Zapata

Abstract:

Positive Reinforcement Training is a well-known methodology which has been reported frequently to be used in captive non-human primates. As a matter of fact, it is an invaluable tool for different purposes related with animal welfare, such as primate husbandry and environmental enrichment. It is also essential to perform some cognitive experiments. The main propose of this pilot study was to establish an efficient protocol to train captive olive baboons (Papio anubis). This protocol seems to be vital in the context of a larger research program in which it will be necessary to train a complete population of around 40 baboons. Baboons were studied at the Veterinary Research Farm of the University of Murcia. Temporally isolated animals were trained to perform three basic tasks. Firstly, they were required to take food prices directly from the researchers’ hands. Then a clicker sound or bridge stimulus was added each time the animal acceded to the reinforcement. Finally, they were trained to touch a target, consisted of a whip with a red ball in its end, with their hands or their nose. When the subject completed correctly this task, it was also exposed to the bridge stimulus and awarded with a food price, such as a portion of banana, orange, apple, peach or a raisin. Two protocols were tested during this experiment. In both of them, there were 6 series of 2min training periods each day. However, in the first protocol, the series consisted in 3 trials, whereas in the second one, in each series there were 5 trials. A reliable performance was obtained with only 6 days of training in the case of the 5-trials protocol. However, with the 3-trials one, 26 days of training were needed. As a result, the 5-trials protocol seems to be more effective than the 3-trials one, in order to teach these three basic tasks to olive baboons. In consequence, it will be used to train the rest of the colony.

Keywords: training, captive primates, olive baboon, positive reinforcement training, Papio anubis

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2 Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Chemical Material in Filters PM2.5 of the Monitoring Stations of the Network of Air Quality in the Valle De Aburrá, Colombia

Authors: Alejandra Betancur Sánchez, Carmen Elena Zapata Sánchez, Juan Bautista López Ortiz

Abstract:

Adverse effects and increased air pollution has raised concerns about regulatory policies and has fostered the development of new air quality standards; this is due to the complexity of the composition and the poorly understood reactions in the atmospheric environment. Toxic compounds act as environmental agents having various effects, from irritation to death of cells and tissues. A toxic agent is defined an adverse response in a biological system. There is a particular class that produces some kind of alteration in the genetic material or associated components, so they are recognized as genotoxic agents. Within cells, they interact directly or indirectly with DNA, causing mutations or interfere with some enzymatic repair processes or in the genesis or polymerization of proteinaceous material involved in chromosome segregation. An air pollutant may cause or contribute to increased mortality or serious illness and even pose a potential danger to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on the viability and the genotoxic potential on the cell lines CHO-K1 and Jurkat and peripheral blood of particulate matter PM T lymphocytes 2.5 obtained from filters collected three monitoring stations network air quality Aburrá Valley. Tests, reduction of MTT, trypan blue, NRU, comet assay, sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations allowed evidence reduction in cell viability in cell lines CHO-K1 and Jurkat and damage to the DNA from cell line CHOK1, however, no significant effects were observed in the number of SCEs and chromosomal aberrations. The results suggest that PM2.5 material has genotoxic potential and can induce cancer development, as has been suggested in other studies.

Keywords: Genotoxicity, Cytotoxicity, PM2.5, cell line Jurkat, cell line CHO-K1

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1 Results of an Educative Procedure by Nursing on Patients Subjected to a Transplant from Hematopoietic Parents

Authors: C. Catalina Zapata, Z. Claudia Montoya

Abstract:

Transplant from hematopoietic parents (THP) or medulla (MT) is a procedure used to replace the medulla that does not work as part of a disease or when it is destroyed either by a treatment of high medication doses against cancer or by radiation. The transplant process has three stages, a stage prior to transplant, during and after the transplant. It is held with the help of an interdisciplinary team, including nursing, carrying out mainly educative procedures to warrant the adhesion and the changes in lifestyles needed to whom will undergo this procedure. The aim of the study was to assess the results of an educative procedure by nursing, on adult patients subjected to a transplant from hematopoietic parents at a high complexity institution of Medellin city, Colombia. This study had an observational longitudinal design. According to the rules of protocol, the educative activity must be held on all patients joining the procedure. Four instruments were designed in order to collect all the information. One of them to measure the sociodemographic variables, another one to measure self-care practices, another one to measure transplant knowledge and its cares and the other one to measure the 30-day post-transplant complications. The last three instruments were applied before and after the educative procedure. A univaried analysis was carried out but the bivaried analysis was not carried out since there were not statistically meaningful differences before and after. Within the results, ten patients were evaluated. The average age was 38.2 (13.38 SD – standard deviation), 8/10 were men. Some self-care practices such us having pets and plants and consuming some specific food as well as little use of UV protection are all present in this type of patients and are not modified after the procedure. In measuring the knowledge, something stands out among the answers. It is the fact that some patients do not know what the medulla is, the nature of separating wastes at home and the need to consult about vomit and nausea. The most frequent complications during the first thirty days were: nausea, vomit, fever, and rash. They are considered to be expected within this period. Patients do not exhibit differences in their level of knowledge before and after the educative procedure by nursing. The patients’ self-care practices do not involve all the necessary ones to avoid complications. During the first 30 days, most of the complications are typical of the transplant process from hematopoietic parents.

Keywords: Education, Nursing, Family, patients, bone marrow transplant, Transplantation of hematopoietic progenitors

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