Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: genotoxic

45 In vitro Estimation of Genotoxic Lesions in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes of Rat Exposed to Organophosphate Pesticides

Authors: A. Ojha, Y. K. Gupta

Abstract:

Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are among the most widely used synthetic chemicals for controlling a wide variety of pests throughout the world. Chlorpyrifos (CPF), methyl parathion (MPT), and malathion (MLT) are among the most extensively used OP pesticides in India. DNA strand breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC) are toxic lesions associated with the mechanisms of toxicity of genotoxic compounds. In the present study, we have examined the potential of CPF, MPT, and MLT individually and in combination, to cause DNA strand breakage and DPC formation. Peripheral blood lymphocytes of rat were exposed to 1/4 and 1/10 LC50 dose of CPF, MPT, and MLT for 2, 4, 8, and 12h. The DNA strand break was measured by the comet assay and expressed as DNA damage index while DPC estimation was done by fluorescence emission. There was significantly marked increase in DNA damage and DNA-protein crosslink formation in time and dose dependent manner. It was also observed that MPT caused the highest level of DNA damage as compared to other studied OP compounds. Thus, from present study, we can conclude that studied pesticides have genotoxic potential. The pesticides mixture does not potentiate the toxicity of each other. Nonetheless, additional in vivo data are required before a definitive conclusion can be drawn regarding hazard prediction to humans.

Keywords: organophosphate, pesticides, DNA damage, DNA protein crosslink, genotoxic

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44 Mutagenic in vitro Activity and Genotoxic Effect of Zygophyllum Cornutun Methanolic Extract

Authors: Awatif Boumaza, Abderraouf Hilali, Hayat Talbi, Houda Sbayou

Abstract:

The methanolic extract of Zygophyllum cornutun coss, an Algerian medicinal plant, was screened to the presence of mutagenic activity and genotoxic effect using the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome) and the micronucleus assay respectively. Positive results were obtained with both tests. The Ames test showed mutagenic activity in the presence of microsomal activation, while negative result was observed without microsomal activation. In the micronucleus test, two parameters were evaluated: the frequency of the micronucleus that increased in a dose dependent way and the proliferation index that decreased according to the micronucleus frequency. Even that further studies must be carried out, the mutagenic activity and the genotoxic effect of Zygophyllum cornutum should be taken in consideration when used as therapeutic plant.

Keywords: ames test, micronucleus test, mutagenic activity, genotoxicity, Zygophyllum cornutum

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43 In vitro Investigation of Genotoxic and Antigenotoxic Properties of Gunnera perpensa Roots Extracts

Authors: P. H. Mfengwana, S. S. Mashele, L. Verschaeve, R. Anthonissen, I. T. Manduna

Abstract:

Gunnera perpensa is traditionally used mostly by women for the treatment of different gynaecological related conditions due to its proven uterine contractility effects. The uses of this plant include menstrual pain relief, treatment of infertility and promotion of easy labour. However, even though this plant species has been reported to possess numerous medicinal properties, to author’s best knowledge, its safety has not been investigated. Thus, this study was aimed at investigating the genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of Gunnera perpensa aqueous, methanol and dichloromethane extracts. The in vitro toxicity of the plant extracts was assessed with the neutral red uptake (NRU) test. Genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of Gunnera perpensa were investigated using high-throughput assays: bacterial Vitotox test and the alkaline comet assay with and without S9 activation on human C3A cells. Ethyl Methanesulfonate (EMS) and 4-nitroquinoline-oxide (4-NQO) were used as positive controls, respectively. All extracts showed toxicity in a dose-dependent manner; however, that does not mean they were all genotoxic. Methanol extract did show genotoxicity with S9 (metabolism) only at the highest concentration of 500 µg/ml due to increased DNA damage observed, however, no genotoxicity was observed from other concentrations. Therefore, the results show that Gunnera perpensa extracts are genotoxic and not safe for human use.

Keywords: antigenotoxicity, comet test, genotoxicity, Gunnera perpensa, vitotox assay

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42 Microbiological Analysis, Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects from Material Captured in PM2.5 and PM10 Filters Used in the Aburrá Valley Air Quality Monitoring Network (Colombia)

Authors: Carmen E. Zapata, Juan Bautista, Olga Montoya, Claudia Moreno, Marisol Suarez, Alejandra Betancur, Duvan Nanclares, Natalia A. Cano

Abstract:

This study aims to evaluate the diversity of microorganisms in filters PM2.5 and PM10; and determine the genotoxic and cytotoxic activity of the complex mixture present in PM2.5 filters used in the Aburrá Valley Air Quality Monitoring Network (Colombia). The research results indicate that particulate matter PM2.5 of different monitoring stations are bacteria; however, this study of detection of bacteria and their phylogenetic relationship is not complete evidence to connect the microorganisms with pathogenic or degrading activities of compounds present in the air. Additionally, it was demonstrated the damage induced by the particulate material in the cell membrane, lysosomal and endosomal membrane and in the mitochondrial metabolism; this damage was independent of the PM2.5 concentrations in almost all the cases.

Keywords: cytotoxic, genotoxic, microbiological analysis, PM10, PM2.5

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41 Health Risk Assessment of Trihalogenmethanes in Drinking Water

Authors: Lenka Jesonkova, Frantisek Bozek

Abstract:

Trihalogenmethanes (THMs) are disinfection byproducts with non-carcinogenic and genotoxic effects. The contamination of 6 sites close to the water treatment plant has been monitored in second largest city of the Czech Republic. Health risk assessment including both non-carcinogenic and genotoxic risk for long term exposition was realized using the critical concentrations. Concentrations of trihalogenmethanes met national standards in all samples. Risk assessment proved that health risks from trihalogenmethanes are acceptable on each site.

Keywords: drinking water, health risk assessment, trihalogenmethanes, water pollution

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40 Genistein Suppresses Doxorubicin Associated Genotoxicity in Human Lymphocytes

Authors: Tanveer Beg, Yasir H. Siddique, Gulshan Ara, Asfar S. Azmi, Mohammad Afzal

Abstract:

Doxorubicin is a well-known DNA intercalating chemotherapy drug that is widely used for treatment of different cancers. Its clinical utility is limited due to the observed genotoxic side effects on healthy cells suggesting that newer combination and genoprotective regimens are urgently needed for the management of doxorubicin chemotherapy. Some dietary phytochemicals are well known for their protective mechanism of action and genistein from soy is recognized as an anti-oxidant with similar properties. Therefore, the present study investigates the effect of genistein against the genotoxic doses of doxorubicin by assessing chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, cell cycle kinetics, cell viability, apoptosis, and DNA damage markers in cultured human lymphocytes. Our results reveal that genistein treatment significantly suppresses genotoxic damage induced by doxorubicin. It is concluded that genistein has the potential to reduce the genotoxicity induced by anti-cancer drugs, thereby reducing the chances of developing secondary tumors during the therapy.

Keywords: apoptosis, DNA damage markers, doxorubicin, genistein, genotoxicity, human lymphocyte culture

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39 Study of the Genotoxic Potential of Plant Growth Regulator Ethephon

Authors: Mahshid Hodjat, Maryam Baeeri, Mohammad Amin Rezvanfar, Mohammad Abdollahi

Abstract:

Ethephon is one of the most widely used plant growth regulator in agriculture that its application has been increased in recent years. The toxicity of organophosphate compounds is mostly attributed to their potent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and their involvement in neurodegenerative disease. Although there are few reports on butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory role of ethephon, still there is no evidence on neurotoxicity and genotoxicity of this compound. The aim of the current study is to assess the potential genotoxic effect of ethephon using two genotoxic endpoints; γH2AX expression and comet assay on embryonic murine fibroblast. γH2AX serves as an early and sensitive biomarker for evaluating the genotoxic effects of chemicals. Oxidative stress biomarkers, including intracellular reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity were also examined. The results showed a significant increase in cell proliferation 24h post-treatment with 10, 40,160µg/ml ethephon. The γH2AX expression and γH2AX foci count per cell were increased at low concentration of ethephon that was concomitant with increased DNA damage break at 40 and 160 µg/ml as illustrated by increased comet tail moment. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation and ROS formation were observed at 160 µg/ml and higher doses. The results showed that low-dose of ethephon promoted cell proliferation while induce DNA damage, raising the possibility of ethephon mutagenicity. Ethephon-induced genotoxic effect of low dose might not related to oxidative damage. However, ethephon was found to increase oxidative stress at higher doses, lead to cellular cytotoxicity. Taken together, all data indicated that ethylene, deserves more attention as a plant regulator with potential genotoxicity for which appropriate control is needed to reduce its usage.

Keywords: ethephon, DNA damage, γH2AX, oxidative stress

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38 The Genotoxic Effect of Coal Fly Ash of Thermal Power Plant on Raphanus sativus L. (Radish)

Authors: Patel Kailash P, Patel Parimal M

Abstract:

The effect of coal fly ash treatment on the chromosomes of Raphanus sativus L. was investigated. The seeds of Raphanus sativusL. were placed in petri dishes in three replicates and allowed to germinate for five days in different concentration of coal fly ash solution. The root was treated with the diluted, semidiluted, and concentrated solution of fly ash while the control group had distilled water.The total aberration were examined. The mitotic index was calculated and the results were statically evaluated by the analysis of variance 5% significant level. The mitotic index decreased as the concentration increased. The highest mitotic index value was diluted fly ash solution while the least was concentrated fly ash treatment. The results show the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities observed included: chromatid bridge, c-mitosis, and stickiness. Concentrated fly ash solution is much more genotoxic than semidiluted fly ash solution, as it induced more aberrations having percentage abnormalities for the highest concentration tested. Increased fly ash pollution can lead to some irreversible cytogenetic effect in plants. The study is an attempt to corroborate the toxic effect of coal fly ash of thermal power plant on the chromosome of plants. These results will be useful in environmental monitoring of the cytotoxicity of coal fly ash.

Keywords: coal fly-ash, genotoxic, cytogenetic, mitotic index, Raphanus sativus L.

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37 Assessment of Genotoxic Effects of a Fungicide (Propiconazole) in Freshwater Fish Gambusia Affinis Using Alkaline Single-Cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet Essay)

Authors: Bourenane Bouhafs Naziha

Abstract:

ARTEA330EC is a fungicide used to inhibit the growth of many types of fungi on and cereals and rice, it is the single largest selling agrochemical that has been widely detected in surface waters in our area (Northeast Algerian). The studies on long-term genotoxic effects of fugicides in different tissues of fish using genotoxic biomarkers are limited. Therefore, in the present study DNA damage by propiconazole in freshwater fish Gambusia affinis by comet assays was investigated. The LC(50)- 96 h of the fungicide was estimated for the fish in a semi-static system. On this basis of LC(50) value sublethal and nonlethal concentrations were determined (25; 50; 75; and 100 ppm). The DNA damage was measured in erythrocytes as the percentage of DNA in comet tails of fishes exposed to above concentrations the fungicide. In general,non significant effects for both the concentrations and time of exposure were observed in treated fish compared with the controls. However It was found that the highest DNA damage was observed at the highest concentration and the longest time of exposure (day 12). The study indicated comet assay to be sensitive and rapid method to detect genotoxicity of propiconasol and other pesticides in fishes.

Keywords: genotoxicity, fungicide, propiconazole, freshwater, Gambusia affinis, alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis

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36 Assessment of Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effect of Tartrazine in Both Male and Female Albino Rats

Authors: Alaa F. A. Bakr, Sherein S. Abdelgayed, Osama. S. EL-Tawil, Adel M. Bakeer

Abstract:

Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of tartrazine in both male and female albino rats. Methodology: Forty adult male (20) and female (20) Sprague Dawley albino rats (120 - 150g) were obtained and distributed into four experimental groups; Group I; 10 untreated males, Group II; 10 untreated females, Group III; 10 treated males, and Group IV; 10 treated females. Body weight was recorded weekly, reduced glutathione (RGH), lipid peroxidation (SOD), and superoxide dismutase activity (MDA) in liver tissue were carried out, histopathological studies of brain, liver, and kidneys were performed, COMET assay was performed, all values were statistically analyzed. Results: Decrease in the activity of RGH and SOD in the treated groups were reported, but there was a more significant decrease in the female treated group. MDA was increased in treated groups with tartrazine, moreover, it was more significant in the female treated group. Multiple histological lesions were developed in brain, liver, and kidneys. COMET showed positive results. Conclusion: Our study concluded that Tartrazine has a cytotoxic and genotoxic effect on albino rats and it was more significant in females than males.

Keywords: tartrazine, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, histopathology, albino rats

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35 Genotoxicity Induced by Nanoparticles on Human Lymphoblast Cells (TK6)

Authors: Piyaporn Buaklang, Narisa Kengtrong Bordeerat

Abstract:

The use of nanoparticles is increasing worldwide and there are many nanotech-based daily products available in the market. The toxicity of nanoparticles results from their extremely small size which can be transported easily into the blood stream and other organs. We aimed to study the genotoxicity of two nanoparticles, Titanium dioxide (TiO2-NPs) and Zinc oxide (ZnO-NPs), in TK6 cells by micronucleus assay. The cells were tested at 8, 24, and 48 hours after exposed to 0.10, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 µg/mL of TiO2-NPs particles size < 25 nm and < 100 nm and to ZnO-NPs at 1, 10, 50, and 100 µg/mL, particles size < 50 nm and < 100 nm. At 24 hours of incubation transmission electron microscope (TEM) revealed that the nanoparticles TiO2-NPs at 1.00 µg/mL and ZnO-NPs at 10 µg/mL were able to be taken into the cells and induced the production of increasing amount of micronucleus in dose-dependent manner. The effect of the two nanoparticles on chromosome aberration indicated that TiO2-NPs and ZnO-NPs are genotoxic. In addition, the toxicity of TiO2-NPs was found to be 10 times more toxic than ZnO-NPs after 24 hours exposure. Analysis showed that the TiO2-NPs induced formation of micronucleus was both time and dose dependent, whereas the genotoxicity of ZnO-NPs was only dose dependent. In conclusion, TiO2-NPs and ZnO-NPs were able to transport through the cells membrane and directly genotoxic to TK6 cells in dose-dependent manner.

Keywords: nanoparticles, genotoxicity, human lymphoblast cells (TK6), micronucleus

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34 In vivo Genotoxicity Testing of Sesbania Grandiflora (Katuray) Flower Methanolic Extract

Authors: Levylee Bautista, Dawn Grace Santos, Aishwarya Veluchamy, Jesusa Santos, Ghafoor, Jr. I Haque, Rodolfo Rafael

Abstract:

The booming interest in using natural compounds as an alternative to conventional medications has paved way to focus the attention on plants that provide rich sources of bioactive phytochemicals. For regulatory purposes, evaluation of the genotoxic effects of such alternatives is therefore empirical as part of the plant’s hazard assessment. Sesbania grandiflora is among the plants used as a traditional remedy in folk medicine and a subject of research for its medicinal benefits. This study aimed to evaluate the genotoxic potential induced by S. grandiflora flower methanol extract (SGFME) in terms of the frequency of micronucleus (MN) in polychromatic erythrocyte (PCE) (MNPCE) and PCE ratio employing the micronucleus assay. The frequency of MN was examined in bone marrow cells (BMCs) obtained from male Swiss albino mice exposed in vivo to four different concentrations (11.25, 22.5, 40, and 90 mg/kg) of SGFME and MMC (70 mg/kg; positive control) and sacrificed 24 hours post-intraperitoneal injection. Results showed a significant (p < 0.01) rate of MNPCEs for 11.25 and 22.5 tested concentrations of SGFME and is comparable with the MMC-treated mice. Although PCE ratio values in all doses of SGFME-treated mice were over 0.20, it is worth noting that 40 and 90 tested concentrations of SGFME-treated mice exhibited the lowest value, i.e., 0.22 and 0.28, respectively. The present study has demonstrated that S. grandiflora possesses genotoxic potential for murine BMCs. Such activity could be ascribed from the bioactive compounds present in S. grandiflora that require further isolation and characterization of the active molecules. Likewise, findings of this study warrant a caution of the use of S. grandiflora insomuch as further investigations do not demonstrate their safety.

Keywords: genotoxicity, micronucleus, phytochemicals, Sesbania grandiflora

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33 Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Chemical Material in Filters PM2.5 of the Monitoring Stations of the Network of Air Quality in the Valle De Aburrá, Colombia

Authors: Alejandra Betancur Sánchez, Carmen Elena Zapata Sánchez, Juan Bautista López Ortiz

Abstract:

Adverse effects and increased air pollution has raised concerns about regulatory policies and has fostered the development of new air quality standards; this is due to the complexity of the composition and the poorly understood reactions in the atmospheric environment. Toxic compounds act as environmental agents having various effects, from irritation to death of cells and tissues. A toxic agent is defined an adverse response in a biological system. There is a particular class that produces some kind of alteration in the genetic material or associated components, so they are recognized as genotoxic agents. Within cells, they interact directly or indirectly with DNA, causing mutations or interfere with some enzymatic repair processes or in the genesis or polymerization of proteinaceous material involved in chromosome segregation. An air pollutant may cause or contribute to increased mortality or serious illness and even pose a potential danger to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on the viability and the genotoxic potential on the cell lines CHO-K1 and Jurkat and peripheral blood of particulate matter PM T lymphocytes 2.5 obtained from filters collected three monitoring stations network air quality Aburrá Valley. Tests, reduction of MTT, trypan blue, NRU, comet assay, sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations allowed evidence reduction in cell viability in cell lines CHO-K1 and Jurkat and damage to the DNA from cell line CHOK1, however, no significant effects were observed in the number of SCEs and chromosomal aberrations. The results suggest that PM2.5 material has genotoxic potential and can induce cancer development, as has been suggested in other studies.

Keywords: PM2.5, cell line Jurkat, cell line CHO-K1, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity

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32 Effects of Benzo(k)Fluoranthene, a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, on DNA Damage and Oxidative Stress in Marine Gastropod Morula Granulata

Authors: Jacky Bhagat, Baban S Ingole

Abstract:

In this study, in vivo experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of a toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo(k)fluoranthene (B[k]F), on marine gastropod, Morula granulata collected from Goa, west coast of India. Snails were exposed to different concentrations of B(k)F (1, 10, 25 and 50 µg/L) for 96 h. The genotoxic effects were evaluated by measuring DNA strand breaks using alkaline comet assay and oxidative stress were measured with the help of battery of biomarkers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Concentration-dependent increase in percentage tail DNA (TDNA) was observed in snails exposed to B(k)F. Exposure concentrations above 1 µg/L of B(k)F, showed significant increase in SOD activity and LPO value in snails. After 96 h, SOD activity were found to be doubled for 50 µg/L of B(k)F with reference to control. Significant increase in CAT and GST activity was observed at all exposure conditions at the end of the exposure time. Our study showed that B(k)F induces oxidative stress in snails which further lead to genotoxic damage.

Keywords: benzo(k)fluoranthene, comet assay, gastropod, oxidative stress

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31 Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects of Methidathion Pesticide

Authors: Mohammad Y. Alfaifi

Abstract:

Methidathion (MTD) (Trade name Supracide®) is a non-systemic organophosphorus insecticide used intensively worldwide including Saudi Arabia. However, there is a lack in published studies about it's genotoxicity. In this study we evaluated MTD toxicity in rat bone marrow cells (in vivo) and in lymphocytes (in vitro) using different doses based on LD50. MNNCE (Micronucleated normocromatic erythrocytes) and MNPCE (Micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes), NDI (Nuclear division index) and NDCI (nuclear division cytotoxicity index), necrotic and apoptotic cells were recorded in rat's bone marrow samples. CA, MI (number of cells undergoing mitosis) necrotic, and apoptotic cells recorded in lymphocytes. Results showed that there was a slight increase in the frequency of micronucleated bone marrow cells. However, no structural chromosomal aberrations were detected in vivo or in vitro. On the other hand, the results showed significant increase in necrotic and apoptotic cells following MTD administration in a dose-dependent manner comparing to positive and negative control groups. In light of these results, MTD can be considered highly cytotoxic and moderate genotoxic, and precaution should be taken when using MTD.

Keywords: methidathion, micronucleus, NDI, NDCI, toxicity, chromosomal aberrations

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30 Analysis of Cell Cycle Status in Radiation Non-Targeted Hepatoma Cells Using Flow Cytometry: Evidence of Dose Dependent Response

Authors: Sharmi Mukherjee, Anindita Chakraborty

Abstract:

Cellular irradiation incites complex responses including arrest of cell cycle progression. This article accentuates the effects of radiation on cell cycle status of radiation non-targeted cells. Human Hepatoma HepG2 cells were exposed to increasing doses of γ radiations (1, 2, 4, 6 Gy) and their cell culture media was transferred to non-targeted HepG2 cells cultured in other Petri plates. These radiation non-targeted cells cultured in the ICCM (Irradiated cell conditioned media) were the bystander cells on which cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. An apparent decrease in the distribution of bystander cells at G0/G1 phase was observed with increased radiation doses upto 4 Gy representing a linear relationship. This was accompanied by a gradual increase in cellular distribution at G2/M phase. Interestingly the number of cells in G2/M phase at 1 and 2 Gy irradiation was not significantly different from each other. However, the percentage of G2 phase cells at 4 and 6 Gy doses were significantly higher than 2 Gy dose indicating the IC50 dose to be between 2 and 4 Gy. Cell cycle arrest is an indirect indicator of genotoxic damage in cells. In this study, bystander stress signals through the cell culture media of irradiated cells disseminated the radiation induced DNA damages in the non-targeted cells which resulted in arrest of the cell cycle progression at G2/M phase checkpoint. This implies that actual radiation biological effects represent a penumbra with effects encompassing a larger area than the actual beam. This article highlights the existence of genotoxic damages as bystander effects of γ rays in human Hepatoma cells by cell cycle analysis and opens up avenues for appraisal of bystander stress communications between tumor cells. Contemplation of underlying signaling mechanisms can be manipulated to maximize damaging effects of radiation with minimum dose and thus has therapeutic applications.

Keywords: bystander effect, cell cycle, genotoxic damage, hepatoma

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29 In vitro Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Arsenic Trioxide on Human Keratinocytes

Authors: H. Bouaziz, M. Sefi, J. de Lapuente, M. Borras, N. Zeghal

Abstract:

Although arsenic trioxide has been the subject of toxicological research, in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies using relevant cell models and uniform methodology are not well elucidated. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by arsenic trioxide in human keratinocytes (HaCaT) using the MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] and alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assays, respectively. Human keratinocytes were treated with different doses of arsenic trioxide for 4 h prior to cytogenetic assessment. Data obtained from the MTT assay indicated that arsenic trioxide significantly reduced the viability of HaCaT cells in a dose-dependent manner, showing a IC50 value of 34.18 ± 0.6 µM. Data generated from the comet assay also indicated a significant dose-dependent increase in DNA damage in HaCaT cells associated with arsenic trioxide exposure. We observed a significant increase in comet tail length and tail moment, showing an evidence of arsenic trioxide -induced genotoxic damage in HaCaT cells. This study confirms that the comet assay is a sensitive and effective method to detect DNA damage caused by arsenic.

Keywords: arsenic trioxide, cytotoxixity, genotoxicity, HaCaT

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28 Genotoxicity of 4-Nonylphenol (4NP) on Oreochromus spilurs Fish

Authors: M. M. Alsharif

Abstract:

4-Nonylphenol Compound is widely used as an element of detergents, paints, insecticides and many others products. It is known that the existence of this compound may lead to the emission of estrogenic responses in mammals, birds and fish. It is described as pollutant since it causes disorder of endocrine glands. In previous studies, it was proven that this compound exists in water and in the materials precipitated in Red Sea coast in Jeddah near the drains of processed drainage water and near the drainage site of the residuals of paper factories. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the cytogenetic aberrations caused by 4-nonylphenol through exposing Talapia Fishes to aquatic solution of the compound with 0, 15, 30 microgram/liter for one month. Samples of gills and liver were collected for micronuclei, nuclear abnormalities and measuring DNA and RNA amount in the treated fish. The results pointed out that there is a significant increase in the numbers of micronuclei in the fish exposed to the former concentrations as compared to the control group. Exposing fishes to 4-nonylphenol resulted in an increased amount of both DNA and RNA, compared to the control group. There is a positive correlation between the amount of the compound (i.e. dosage dependent effect) and the inspiring for cytogenetic effect on Talapia fishes in Jeddah. Therefore, micronucleus test, DNA and RNA contents can be considered as an index of cumulative exposure, which appear to be a sensitive model to evaluate genotoxic effects of 4-Nonylphenol compound on fish.

Keywords: genotoxic, 4-nonylphenol, micronuclei, fish, DNA, RNA

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27 Effects of Cell Phone Electromagnetic Radiation on the Brain System

Authors: A. Alao Olumuyiwa

Abstract:

Health hazards reported to be associated with exposure to electromagnetic radiations which include brain tumors, genotoxic effects, neurological effects, immune system deregulation, allergic responses and some cardiovascular effects are discussed under a closed tabular model in this study. This review however showed that there is strong and robust evidence that chronic exposures to electromagnetic frequency across the spectrum, through strength, consistency, biological plausibility and many dose-response relationships, may result in brain cancer and other carcinogenic disease symptoms. There is therefore no safe threshold because of the genotoxic nature of the mechanism that may however be involved. The discussed study explains that the cell phone has induced effects upon the blood –brain barrier permeability and the cerebellum exposure to continuous long hours RF radiation may result in significant increase in albumin extravasations. A physical Biomodeling approach is however employed to review this health effects using Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) of different GSM machines to critically examine the symptoms such as a decreased loco motor activity, increased grooming and reduced memory functions in a variety of animal spices in classified grouped and sub grouped models.

Keywords: brain cancer, electromagnetic radiations, physical biomodeling, specific absorption rate (SAR)

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26 In vivo Evidence of Protective Effect of Hyparrhenia Hirta against Nitrate-Induced Genotoxicity

Authors: H. Bouaziz-Ketata, G. Ben Salah, Z. Aidi, C. Kallel, H. Kammoun, F. Fakhfakh, N. Zeghal

Abstract:

The present study was performed to evaluate the potential protective effect of Hyparrhenia hirta methanolic extract in NaNO3-induced genotoxic and hematotoxic effects. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control group and two treated groups during 50 days with NaNO3 administered at a dose of 400 mg kg-1 bw either alone in drinking water or co-administered with Hyparrhenia hirta at a dose of 200 mg kg-1 bw. NaNO3 treatment showed a significant increase in the frequencies of total chromosomal aberrations, aberrant metaphases and micronucleus in bone-marrow cells. In parallel, the NaNO3-treated group showed a significant decrease in red blood cell count, hemoglobin and hematocrit and a significant increase in total white blood cell, in neutrophil and eosinophil counts. Platelet count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration remained unchanged in treated groups compared to those of controls. Hyparrhenia hirta methanolic extract appeared to be effective against genotoxic and hematotoxic changes induced by nitrate, as evidenced by the improvement of the markers cited above.

Keywords: Hyparrhenia hirta, sodium nitrate, erythrocytes, genotoxicity

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25 Influence of Smoking on Fine And Ultrafine Air Pollution Pm in Their Pulmonary Genetic and Epigenetic Toxicity

Authors: Y. Landkocz, C. Lepers, P.J. Martin, B. Fougère, F. Roy Saint-Georges. A. Verdin, F. Cazier, F. Ledoux, D. Courcot, F. Sichel, P. Gosset, P. Shirali, S. Billet

Abstract:

In 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified air pollution and fine particles as carcinogenic to humans. Causal relationships exist between elevated ambient levels of airborne particles and increase of mortality and morbidity including pulmonary diseases, like lung cancer. However, due to a double complexity of both physicochemical Particulate Matter (PM) properties and tumor mechanistic processes, mechanisms of action remain not fully elucidated. Furthermore, because of several common properties between air pollution PM and tobacco smoke, like the same route of exposure and chemical composition, potential mechanisms of synergy could exist. Therefore, smoking could be an aggravating factor of the particles toxicity. In order to identify some mechanisms of action of particles according to their size, two samples of PM were collected: PM0.03 2.5 and PM0.33 2.5 in the urban-industrial area of Dunkerque. The overall cytotoxicity of the fine particles was determined on human bronchial cells (BEAS-2B). Toxicological study focused then on the metabolic activation of the organic compounds coated onto PM and some genetic and epigenetic changes induced on a co-culture model of BEAS-2B and alveolar macrophages isolated from bronchoalveolar lavages performed in smokers and non-smokers. The results showed (i) the contribution of the ultrafine fraction of atmospheric particles to genotoxic (eg. DNA double-strand breaks) and epigenetic mechanisms (eg. promoter methylation) involved in tumor processes, and (ii) the influence of smoking on the cellular response. Three main conclusions can be discussed. First, our results showed the ability of the particles to induce deleterious effects potentially involved in the stages of initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis. The second conclusion is that smoking affects the nature of the induced genotoxic effects. Finally, the in vitro developed cell model, using bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages can take into account quite realistically, some of the existing cell interactions existing in the lung.

Keywords: air pollution, fine and ultrafine particles, genotoxic and epigenetic alterations, smoking

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24 Evaluation of DNA Oxidation and Chemical DNA Damage Using Electrochemiluminescent Enzyme/DNA Microfluidic Array

Authors: Itti Bist, Snehasis Bhakta, Di Jiang, Tia E. Keyes, Aaron Martin, Robert J. Forster, James F. Rusling

Abstract:

DNA damage from metabolites of lipophilic drugs and pollutants, generated by enzymes, represents a major toxicity pathway in humans. These metabolites can react with DNA to form either 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), which is the oxidative product of DNA or covalent DNA adducts, both of which are genotoxic and hence considered important biomarkers to detect cancer in humans. Therefore, detecting reactions of metabolites with DNA is an effective approach for the safety assessment of new chemicals and drugs. Here we describe a novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) sensor array which can detect DNA oxidation and chemical DNA damage in a single array, facilitating a more accurate diagnostic tool for genotoxicity screening. Layer-by-layer assembly of DNA and enzyme are assembled on the pyrolytic graphite array which is housed in a microfluidic device for sequential detection of two type of the DNA damages. Multiple enzyme reactions are run on test compounds using the array, generating toxic metabolites in situ. These metabolites react with DNA in the films to cause DNA oxidation and chemical DNA damage which are detected by ECL generating osmium compound and ruthenium polymer, respectively. The method is further validated by the formation of 8-oxodG and DNA adduct using similar films of DNA/enzyme on magnetic bead biocolloid reactors, hydrolyzing the DNA, and analyzing by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Hence, this combined DNA/enzyme array/LC-MS approach can efficiently explore metabolic genotoxic pathways for drugs and environmental chemicals.

Keywords: biosensor, electrochemiluminescence, DNA damage, microfluidic array

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23 In Vitro Assessment of the Genotoxicity of Composite Obtained by Mixture of Natural Rubber and Leather Residues for Textile Application

Authors: Dalita G. S. M. Cavalcante, Elton A. P. dos Reis, Andressa S. Gomes, Caroline S. Danna, Leandra Ernest Kerche-Silva, Eidi Yoshihara, Aldo E. Job

Abstract:

In order to minimize environmental impacts, a composite was developed from mixture of leather shavings (LE) with natural rubber (NR), which patent is already deposited. The new material created can be used in applications such as floors e heels for shoes. Besides these applications, the aim is to use this new material for the production of products for the textile industry, such as boots, gloves and bags. But the question arises, as to biocompatibility of this new material. This is justified because the structure of the leather shavings has chrome. The trivalent chromium is usually not toxic, but the hexavalent chromium can be highly toxic and genotoxic for living beings, causing damage to the DNA molecule and contributing to the formation of cancer. Based on this, the objective of this study is evaluate the possible genotoxic effects of the new composite, using as system - test two cell lines (MRC-5 and CHO-K1) by comet assay. For this, the production of the composite was performed in three proportions: for every 100 grams of NR was added 40 (E40), 50 (E50) or 60 (E60) grams of LE. The latex was collected from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). For vulcanization of the NR, activators and accelerators were used. The two cell lines were exposed to the new composite in its three proportions using elution method, that is, cells exposed to liquid extracts obtained from the composite for 24 hours. For obtaining the liquid extract, each sample of the composite was crushed into pieces and mixed with an extraction solution. The quantification of total chromium and hexavalent chromium in the extracts were performed by Optical Emission Spectrometry by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES). The levels of DNA damage in cells exposed to both extracts were monitored by alkaline version of the comet assay. The results of the quantification of metals in ICP-OES indicated the presence of total chromium in different extracts, but were not detected presence of hexavalent chromium in any extract. Through the comet assay were not found DNA damage of the CHO-K1 cells exposed to both extracts. As for MRC-5, was found a significant increase in DNA damage in cells exposed to E50 and E60. Based on the above data, it can be asserted that the extracts obtained from the composite were highly genotoxic for MRC-5 cells. These biological responses do not appear to be related to chromium metal, since there was a predominance of trivalent chromium in the extracts, indicating that during the production process of the new composite, there was no formation of hexavalent chromium. In conclusion it can infer that the leather shavings containing chromium can be reused, thereby reducing the environmental impacts of this waste. Already on the composite indicates to its incorporation in applications that do not aim at direct contact with the human skin, and it is suggested the chain of composite production be studied, in an attempt to make it biocompatible so that it may be safely used by the textile industry.

Keywords: cell line, chrome, genotoxicity, leather, natural rubber

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22 Genotoxic Effect of Tricyclieandidepressant Drug “Clomipramine Hydrochloride’ on Somatic and Germ Cells of Male Mice

Authors: Samia A. El-Fiky, F. A. Abou-Zaid, Ibrahim M. Farag, Naira M. Efiky

Abstract:

Clomipramine hydrochloride is one of the most used tricyclic antidepressant drug in Egypt. This drug contains in its chemical structure on two benzene rings. Benzene is considered to be toxic and clastogenic agent. So, the present study was designed to assess the genotoxic effect of Clomipramine hydrochloride on somatic and germ cells in mice. Three dose levels 0.195 (Low), 0.26 (Medium), and 0.65 (High) mg/kg.b.wt. were used. Seven groups of male mice were utilized in this work. The first group was employed as a control. In the remaining six groups, each of the above doses was orally administrated for two groups, one of them was treated for 5 days and the other group was given the same dose for 30 days. At the end of experiments, the animals were sacrificed for cytogenetic and sperm examination as well as histopathological investigations by using hematoxylin and eosin stains (H and E stains) and electron microscope. Concerning the sperm studies, these studies were confined to 5 days treatment with different dose levels. Moreover, the ultrastructural investigation by electron microscope was restricted to 30 days treatment with drug doses. The results of the dose dependent effect of Clomipramine showed that the treatment with three different doses induced increases of frequencies of chromosome aberrations in bone marrow and spermatocyte cells as compared to control. In addition, mitotic and meiotic activities of somatic and germ cells were declined. The treatments with medium or high doses were more effective for inducing significant increases of chromosome aberrations and significant decreases of cell divisions than treatment with low dose. The effect of high dose was more pronounced for causing such genetic deleterious in respect to effect of medium dose. Moreover, the results of the time dependent effect of Clomipramine observed that the treatment with different dose levels for 30 days led to significant increases of genetic aberrations than treatment for 5 days. Sperm examinations revealed that the treatment with Clomipramine at different dose levels caused significant increase of sperm shape abnormalities and significant decrease in sperm count as compared to control. The adverse effects on sperm shape and count were more obviousness by using the treatments with medium or high doses than those found in treatment with low dose. The group of mice treated with high dose had the highest rate of sperm shape abnormalities and the lowest proportion of sperm count as compared to mice received medium dose. In histopathological investigation, hematoxylin and eosin stains showed that, the using of low dose of Clomipramine for 5 or 30 days caused a little pathological changes in liver tissue. However, using medium and high doses for 5 or 30 days induced severe damages than that observed in mice treated with low dose. The treatment with high dose for 30 days gave the worst results of pathological changes in hepatic cells. Moreover, ultrastructure examination revealed, the mice treated with low dose of Clomipramine had little differences in liver histological architecture as compared to control group. These differences were confined to cytoplasmic inclusions. Whereas, prominent pathological changes in nuclei as well as dilated of rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (rER) were observed in mice treated with medium or high doses of Clomipramine drug. In conclusion, the present study adds evidence that treatments with medium or high doses of Clomipramine have genotoxic effects on somatic and germ cells of mice, as unwanted side effects. However, the using of low dose (especially for short time, 5 days) can be utilized as a therapeutic dose, where it caused relatively similar proportions of genetic, sperm, and histopathological changes as those found in normal control.

Keywords: clomipramine, mice, chromosome aberrations, sperm abnormalities, histopathology

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21 Genotoxic Effect of Tricyclic Antidepressant Drug “Clomipramine Hydrochloride’ on Somatic and Germ Cells of Male Mice

Authors: Samia A. El-Fiky, Fouad A. Abou-Zaid, Ibrahim M. Farag, Naira M. El-Fiky

Abstract:

Clomipramine hydrochloride is one of the most used tricyclic antidepressant drug in Egypt. This drug contains in its chemical structure on two benzene rings. Benzene is considered to be toxic and clastogenic agent. So, the present study was designed to assess the genotoxic effect of Clomipramine hydrochloride on somatic and germ cells in mice. Three dose levels 0.195 (Low), 0.26 (Medium), and 0.65 (High) mg/kg.b.wt. were used. Seven groups of male mice were utilized in this work. The first group was employed as a control. In the remaining six groups, each of the above doses was orally administrated for two groups, one of them was treated for 5 days and the other group was given the same dose for 30 days. At the end of experiments, the animals were sacrificed for cytogenetic and sperm examination as well as histopathological investigations by using hematoxylin and eosin stains (H and E stains) and electron microscope. Concerning the sperm studies, these studies were confined to 5 days treatment with different dose levels. Moreover, the ultrastructural investigation by electron microscope was restricted to 30 days treatment with drug doses. The results of the dose dependent effect of Clomipramine showed that the treatment with three different doses induced increases of frequencies of chromosome aberrations in bone marrow and spermatocyte cells as compared to control. In addition, mitotic and meiotic activities of somatic and germ cells were declined. The treatments with medium or high doses were more effective for inducing significant increases of chromosome aberrations and significant decreases of cell divisions than treatment with low dose. The effect of high dose was more pronounced for causing such genetic deleterious in respect to effect of medium dose. Moreover, the results of the time dependent effect of Clomipramine observed that the treatment with different dose levels for 30 days led to significant increases of genetic aberrations than treatment for 5 days. Sperm examinations revealed that the treatment with Clomipramine at different dose levels caused significant increase of sperm shape abnormalities and significant decrease in sperm count as compared to control. The adverse effects on sperm shape and count were more obviousness by using the treatments with medium or high doses than those found in treatment with low dose. The group of mice treated with high dose had the highest rate of sperm shape abnormalities and the lowest proportion of sperm count as compared to mice received medium dose. In histopathological investigation, hematoxylin and eosin stains showed that, the using of low dose of Clomipramine for 5 or 30 days caused a little pathological changes in liver tissue. However, using medium and high doses for 5 or 30 days induced severe damages than that observed in mice treated with low dose. The treatment with high dose for 30 days gave the worst results of pathological changes in hepatic cells. Moreover, ultrastructure examination revealed, the mice treated with low dose of Clomipramine had little differences in liver histological architecture as compared to control group. These differences were confined to cytoplasmic inclusions. Whereas, prominent pathological changes in nuclei as well as dilated of rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (rER) were observed in mice treated with medium or high doses of Clomipramine drug. In conclusion, the present study adds evidence that treatments with medium or high doses of Clomipramine have genotoxic effects on somatic and germ cells of mice, as unwanted side effects. However, the using of low dose (especially for short time, 5 days) can be utilized as a therapeutic dose, where it caused relatively similar proportions of genetic, sperm, and histopathological changes as those found in normal control.

Keywords: chromosome aberrations, clomipramine, mice, histopathology, sperm abnormalities

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
20 Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Glyphosate and Its Two Impurities in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

Authors: Marta Kwiatkowska, Paweł Jarosiewicz, Bożena Bukowska

Abstract:

Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) is a non-selected broad spectrum ingredient in the herbicide (Roundup) used for over 35 years for the protection of agricultural and horticultural crops. Glyphosate was believed to be environmentally friendly but recently, a large body of evidence has revealed that glyphosate can negatively affect on environment and humans. It has been found that glyphosate is present in the soil and groundwater. It can also enter human body which results in its occurrence in blood in low concentrations of 73.6 ± 28.2 ng/ml. Research conducted for potential genotoxicity and cytotoxicity can be an important element in determining the toxic effect of glyphosate. Due to regulation of European Parliament 1107/2009 it is important to assess genotoxicity and cytotoxicity not only for the parent substance but also its impurities, which are formed at different stages of production of major substance – glyphosate. Moreover verifying, which of these compounds are more toxic is required. Understanding of the molecular pathways of action is extremely important in the context of the environmental risk assessment. In 2002, the European Union has decided that glyphosate is not genotoxic. Unfortunately, recently performed studies around the world achieved results which contest decision taken by the committee of the European Union. World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2015 has decided to change the classification of glyphosate to category 2A, which means that the compound is considered to "probably carcinogenic to humans". This category relates to compounds for which there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity to humans and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity on experimental animals. That is why we have investigated genotoxicity and cytotoxicity effects of the most commonly used pesticide: glyphosate and its impurities: N-(phosphonomethyl)iminodiacetic acid (PMIDA) and bis-(phosphonomethyl)amine on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), mostly lymphocytes. DNA damage (analysis of DNA strand-breaks) using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) and ATP level were assessed. Cells were incubated with glyphosate and its impurities: PMIDA and bis-(phosphonomethyl)amine at concentrations from 0.01 to 10 mM for 24 hours. Evaluating genotoxicity using the comet assay showed a concentration-dependent increase in DNA damage for all compounds studied. ATP level was decreased to zero as a result of using the highest concentration of two investigated impurities, like bis-(phosphonomethyl)amine and PMIDA. Changes were observed using the highest concentration at which a person can be exposed as a result of acute intoxication. Our survey leads to a conclusion that the investigated compounds exhibited genotoxic and cytotoxic potential but only in high concentrations, to which people are not exposed environmentally. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Polish National Science Centre (Contract-2013/11/N/NZ7/00371), MSc Marta Kwiatkowska, project manager.

Keywords: cell viability, DNA damage, glyphosate, impurities, peripheral blood mononuclear cells

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19 Hepatoxicity induced Glyphosate-Based Herbicide Baron in albino rats

Authors: Manal E. A Elhalwagy, Nadia Amin Abdulmajeed, Hanan S. Alnahdi, Enas N. Danial

Abstract:

Baron is herbicide includes (48% glyphosate) widely used in Egypt. The present study assesses the cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of baron on rats liver. Two groups of rats were treated orally with 1/10 LD 50, (275.49 mg kg -1) and 1/40 LD 50, (68.86 mg kg-1) glyphosate for 28 days compared with control group. Serum and liver tissues were taken at 14 and 28 days of treatment. An inhibition in Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were recorded at both treatment periods and reduction in total serum protein (TP) and albumin (ALB). However, non-significant changes in serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Elevation in oxidative stress biomarker malondyaldehyde (MDA) and the decline in detoxification biomarker total reduced glutathione (GSH), Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissues led to increase in percentage of DNA damage. Destruction in liver tissue architecture was observed . Although, Baron was classified in the safe category pesticides repeated exposure to small doses has great danger effect.

Keywords: glyphosate, liver toxicity, oxidative stress, DNA damage, commet assay

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18 Protective Effect of Cow Urine against Chlorpyrifos Induced-Genotoxicity and Neurotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Shelly Sharma, Pooja Chadha

Abstract:

Humans are exposed to pesticides and insecticides either directly or indirectly. Exposure to these pesticides may lead to acute toxicity to mammals and non-target organisms. Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a broad spectrum organophosphate pesticide widely used in various countries of the world. The aim of the present study was to assess the toxicity associated with chlorpyrifos exposure and possible mitigating effect of cow urine against genotoxic and toxic effects in rat brain induced by chlorpyrifos. For this purpose LD50 was determined and rats were orally administered with 1/8th of LD50 (19mg/kg b.wt). Brain samples were taken after 24hrs, 48hrs and 72hrs of treatment. A significant increase in the % tail DNA was observed along with the increase in MDA levels of brain tissues in chlorpyrifos treated groups as compared to control. Cow urine treated groups show decrease in DNA damage and MDA levels as compared to CPF treated group. The study indicates that cow urine has ameliorative potential against neurotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by CPF. Cow urine is considered rich in vitamin A, E and volatile fatty acids which provide antioxidant potential to it. Thus, it can be used as a genoprotective agent.

Keywords: comet assay, brain, cow urine, genotoxicity, toxicity

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17 Acrylamide Induced Chronic Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Afshin Zahedi, Keivan Jmahidi

Abstract:

Acrylamide (AA) has been shown to cause neurotoxic effects in humans and neurotoxic, genotoxic, reproductive, and carcinogenic effects in laboratory animals. To investigate the nephrotoxic effect of acrylamide (ACR) 50 adult male rats (Wistar, approximately 250 g) were randomly assigned in 4 groups; including 3 treatment groups and 1 control group named as A, B, C, and D respectively. Rats in treatment groups were exposed to 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg ACR per day×90 days p.o (gavage) respectively. The remaining 10 rats in control group received daily p.o (gavage) of 0.9% saline (3ml/kg). On day 91, two rats were randomly selected, perfused, dissected and proper samples were collected from their kidneys. Results of histopathological studies based on H&E technique did not show morphologic changes in kidneys of rats belong to groups A, B and D, while moderate to severe morphologic changes including glomerular hypercellularity, global pattern of proliferative glomerulonephritis, occupation of capsular space, and tubular cell swelling and hyaline cast formation, were observed in different stained sections obtained from the kidneys of rats belong to group, C. This finding, beside neurotoxic, reproductive and carcinogenic effects, indicates for the first time another important aspect of toxic effect of ACR, ie, chronic nephrotoxicity.

Keywords: acrylamide, nephrotoxicity, glomerulonephritis, rats

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16 Changes in Global DNA Methylation and DNA Damage in Two Tumor Cell Lines Treated with Silver and Gold Nanoparticles

Authors: Marcin Kruszewski, Barbara Sochanowicz, Sylwia Męczyńska-Wielgosz, Maria Wojewódzka, Lucyna Kapka-Skrzypczak

Abstract:

Metallic NPs are widely used in a number of applications in industry, science and medicine. Among metallic NPs foreseen to be widely used in medicine are gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) due to their low toxicity, and silver NPs (AgNPs) due to their strong antimicrobial activity. In this study, we compared an effect of AgNPs and gold NPs (AuNPs) on the formation of DNA damage and global DNA methylation and in A2780 and 4T1 cell lines, widely used models of human ovarian carcinoma and murine mammary carcinoma, respectively. The cells were treated with AgNPs coated with citrate (AgNPs(cit) or PEG (AgNPs(PEG), or AuNPs. A global DNA methylation was investigated with ELISA, whereas the formation of DNA damage was investigated by a comet +/- FPG. AgNPs decreased global DNA methylation and increased the formation of DNA lesions in both cell lines. The effect was dependent on the type of NPs used, it's coating, and cell line used. In conclusion, the epigenetic and genotoxic effects of NPs strongly depends on NP nature and cellular context. Epigenetic changes observed upon the action of AgNPs may play a crucial role in NPs-induced changes in protein expression.

Keywords: DNA damage, gold nanoparticles, methylation, silver nanoparticles

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