Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: orthoses

8 Epidemiological Analysis of the Patients Supplied with Foot Orthoses in Ortho-Prosthetic Center of Kosovo

Authors: Ardiana Murtezani, Ilirijana Dallku, Teuta Osmani Vllasolli, Sabit Sllamniku


Background: The use of foot orthoses are always indicated when there are alterations of the optimal biomechanics' position of the foot. Orthotics are very effective and very suitable for the majority of patients with pain due to overload which can be related to biomechanical disorders. Aim: To assess the frequency of patients requiring foot orthoses, type of orthoses and analysis of their disease leading to the use of foot orthoses. Material and Methods: Our study included 128 patients with various foot pathologies, treated at the outpatient department of the Ortho-Prosthetic Center of Kosovo (OPCK) in Prishtina. Prospective-descriptive clinical method was used during this study. Functional status of patients was examined, and the following parameters are noted: range of motion measurements for the affected joints/lower extremities, manual test for muscular strength below the knee and foot of the affected extremity, perimeter measurements of the lower extremities, measurements of lower extremities, foot length measurement, foot width measurements and size. In order to complete the measurements the following instruments are used: plantogram, pedogram, meter and cork shoe lift appliances. Results: The majority of subjects in this study are male (60.2% vs. 39.8%), and the dominant age group was 0-9 (47.7%), 61 subjects respectively. Most frequent foot disorders were: congenital disease 60.1%, trauma cases 13.3%, consequences from rheumatologic disease 12.5%, neurologic dysfunctions 11.7%, and the less frequented are the infectious cases 1.6%. Congenital anomalies were the most frequent cases, and from this group majority of cases suffered from pes planovalgus (37.5%), eqinovarus (15.6%) and discrepancies between extremities (6.3%). Furthermore, traumatic amputations (2.3%) and arthritis (0.8%). As far as neurologic disease, subjects with cerebral palsy are represented with (3.1%), peroneal nerve palsy (2.3%) and hemiparesis (1.6%). Infectious disease osteomyelitis sequels are represented with (1.6%). Conclusion: Based on our study results, we have concluded that the use of foot orthoses for patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and nonspecific arthropaty was effective treatment choice, leading to decrease of pain, less deformities and improves the quality of life.

Keywords: orthoses, epidemiological analysis, rheumatoid arthritis, rehabilitation

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7 The Clinical Effectiveness of Off-The-Shelf Foot Orthoses on the Dynamics of Gait in Patients with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

Authors: Vicki Cameron


Background: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) typically effects the feet and about 20% of patients present initially with foot and ankle symptoms. Custom moulded foot orthoses (FO) in the management of foot and ankle problems in RA is well documented in the literature. Off-the-shelf FO are thought to provide an effective alternative to custom moulded FO in patients with RA, however they are not evidence based. Objectives: To determine the effects of off-the-shelf FO on; 1. quality of life (QOL) 2. walking speed 4. peak plantar pressure in the forefoot (PPPft) Methods: Thirty-five patients (six male and 29 female) participated in the study from 11/2006 to 07/2008. The age of the patients ranged from 26 to 80 years (mean 52.4 years; standard deviation [SD] 13.3 years). A repeated measures design was used, with patients presenting at baseline, three months and six months. Patients were tested walking barefoot, shod and shod with FO. The type of orthoses used was the Slimflex Plastic ® (Algeos). The Leeds Foot Impact Scale (LFIS) was used to investigate QOL. The Vicon 612 motion analysis system was used to determine the effect of FO on walking speed. The F-scan walkway and in-shoe systems provided information of the effect on PPPft. Ethical approval was obtained on 07/2006. Data was analysed using SPSS version 15.0. Results/Discussion: The LFIS data was analysed with a repeated measures ANOVA. There was a significant improvement in the LFIS score with the use of the FO over the six months (p<0.01). A significant increase in walking speed with the orthoses was observed (p<0.01). Peak plantar pressure in the forefoot was reduced with the FO, as shown by a non-parametric Friedman’s test (chi-square = 55.314, df=2, p<0.05). Conclusion: The results show that off-the-shelf FO are effective in managing foot problems in patients with RA. Patients reported an improved QOL with the orthoses, and further objective measurements were quantified to provide a rationale for this change. Patients demonstrated an increased walking speed, which has been shown to be associated with reduced pain. The FO decreased PPPft which have been reported as a site of pain and ulceration in patients with RA. Salient Clinical Points: Off-the-shelf FO offer an effective alternative to custom moulded FO, and can be dispensed at the chair side. This is crucial in the management of foot problems associated with RA as early intervention is advocated due to the chronic and progressive nature of the disease.

Keywords: podiatry, rheumatoid arthritis, foot orthoses, gait analysis

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6 F-IVT Actuation System to Power Artificial Knee Joint

Authors: Alò Roberta, Bottiglione Francesco, Mantriota Giacomo


The efficiency of the actuation system of lower limb exoskeletons and of active orthoses is a significant aspect of the design of such devices because it affects their efficacy. F-IVT is an innovative actuation system to power artificial knee joint with energy recovery capabilities. Its key and non-conventional elements are a flywheel, that acts as a mechanical energy storage system, and an Infinitely Variable Transmission (IVT). The design of the F-IVT can be optimized for a certain walking condition, resulting in a heavy reduction of both the electric energy consumption and of the electric peak power. In this work, by means of simulations of level ground walking at different speeds, it is demonstrated how F-IVT is still an advantageous actuator, even when it does not work in nominal conditions.

Keywords: active orthoses, actuators, lower extremity exoskeletons, knee joint

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5 Designing and Using a 3-D Printed Dynamic Upper Extremity Orthosis (DUEO) with Children with Cerebral Palsy and Severe Upper Extremity Involvement

Authors: Justin Lee, Siraj Shaikh, Alice Chu MD


Children with cerebral palsy (CP) commonly present with upper extremity impairment, affecting one or both extremities, and are classified using the Manual Ability Classification Scale (MACS). The MACS defines bimanual hand abilities for children ages 4-18 years in everyday tasks and is a gradient scale, with I being nearly normal and V requiring total assistance. Children with more severe upper extremity impairment (MACS III-V) are often underrepresented, and relatively few effective therapies have been identified for these patients. Current orthoses are static and are only meant to prevent the progression of contractures in these patients. Other limitations include cost, comfort, accessibility, and longevity of the orthoses. Taking advantage of advances in 3D printing technology, we have created a highly customizable upper extremity orthotic that can be produced at a low cost. Iterations in our design have resulted in an orthotic that is custom fit to the patient based on scans of their arm, made of rigid polymer when needed to provide support, flexible material where appropriate to allow for comfort, and designed with a mechanical pulley system to allow for some functional use of the arm while in the orthotic. Preliminary data has shown that our orthotic can be built at a fraction of the cost of current orthoses and provide clinically significant improvement in assisting hand assessment (AHA) and pediatric quality of life scores (PedsQL).

Keywords: upper extremity orthosis, upper extremity, orthosis, 3-D printing, cerebral palsy, occupational therapy, spasticity, customizable

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4 A Knee Modular Orthosis Design Based on Kinematic Considerations

Authors: C. Copilusi, C. Ploscaru


This paper addresses attention to a research regarding the design of a knee orthosis in a modular form used on children walking rehabilitation. This research is focused on the human lower limb kinematic analysis which will be used as input data on virtual simulations and prototype validation. From this analysis, important data will be obtained and used as input for virtual simulations of the knee modular orthosis. Thus, a knee orthosis concept was obtained and validated through virtual simulations by using MSC Adams software. Based on the obtained results, the modular orthosis prototype will be manufactured and presented in this article.

Keywords: human lower limb, children orthoses, kinematic analysis, knee orthosis

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3 Orthosis and Finite Elements: A Study for Development of New Designs through Additive Manufacturing

Authors: M. Volpini, D. Alves, A. Horta, M. Borges, P. Reis


The gait pattern in people that present motor limitations foment the demand for auxiliary locomotion devices. These artifacts for movement assistance vary according to its shape, size and functional features, following the clinical applications desired. Among the ortheses of lower limbs, the ankle-foot orthesis aims to improve the ability to walk in people with different neuromuscular limitations, although they do not always answer patients' expectations for their aesthetic and functional characteristics. The purpose of this study is to explore the possibility of using new design in additive manufacturer to reproduce the shape and functional features of a ankle-foot orthesis in an efficient and modern way. Therefore, this work presents a study about the performance of the mechanical forces through the analysis of finite elements in an ankle-foot orthesis. It will be demonstrated a study of distribution of the stress on the orthopedic device in orthostatism and during the movement in the course of patient's walk.

Keywords: additive manufacture, new designs, orthoses, finite elements

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2 Development of a Novel Ankle-Foot Orthotic Using a User Centered Approach for Improved Satisfaction

Authors: Ahlad Neti, Elisa Arch, Martha Hall


Studies have shown that individuals who use Ankle-Foot-Orthoses (AFOs) have a high level of dissatisfaction regarding their current AFOs. Studies point to the focus on technical design with little attention given to the user perspective as a source of AFO designs that leave users dissatisfied. To design a new AFO that satisfies users and thereby improves their quality of life, the reasons for their dissatisfaction and their wants and needs for an improved AFO design must be identified. There has been little research into the user perspective on AFO use and desired improvements, so the relationship between AFO design and satisfaction in daily use must be assessed to develop appropriate metrics and constraints prior to designing a novel AFO. To assess the user perspective on AFO design, structured interviews were conducted with 7 individuals (average age of 64.29±8.81 years) who use AFOs. All interviews were transcribed and coded to identify common themes using Grounded Theory Method in NVivo 12. Qualitative analysis of these results identified sources of user dissatisfaction such as heaviness, bulk, and uncomfortable material and overall needs and wants for an AFO. Beyond the user perspective, certain objective factors must be considered in the construction of metrics and constraints to ensure that the AFO fulfills its medical purpose. These more objective metrics are rooted in a common medical device market and technical standards. Given the large body of research concerning these standards, these objective metrics and constraints were derived through a literature review. Through these two methods, a comprehensive list of metrics and constraints accounting for both the user perspective on AFO design and the AFO’s medical purpose was compiled. These metrics and constraints will establish the framework for designing a new AFO that carries out its medical purpose while also improving the user experience. The metrics can be categorized into several overarching areas for AFO improvement. Categories of user perspective related metrics include comfort, discreteness, aesthetics, ease of use, and compatibility with clothing. Categories of medical purpose related metrics include biomechanical functionality, durability, and affordability. These metrics were used to guide an iterative prototyping process. Six concepts were ideated and compared using system-level analysis. From these six concepts, two concepts – the piano wire model and the segmented model – were selected to move forward into prototyping. Evaluation of non-functional prototypes of the piano wire and segmented models determined that the piano wire model better fulfilled the metrics by offering increased stability, longer durability, fewer points for failure, and a strong enough core component to allow a sock to cover over the AFO while maintaining the overall structure. As such, the piano wire AFO has moved forward into the functional prototyping phase, and healthy subject testing is being designed and recruited to conduct design validation and verification.

Keywords: ankle-foot orthotic, assistive technology, human centered design, medical devices

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1 3D Design of Orthotic Braces and Casts in Medical Applications Using Microsoft Kinect Sensor

Authors: Sanjana S. Mallya, Roshan Arvind Sivakumar


Orthotics is the branch of medicine that deals with the provision and use of artificial casts or braces to alter the biomechanical structure of the limb and provide support for the limb. Custom-made orthoses provide more comfort and can correct issues better than those available over-the-counter. However, they are expensive and require intricate modelling of the limb. Traditional methods of modelling involve creating a plaster of Paris mould of the limb. Lately, CAD/CAM and 3D printing processes have improved the accuracy and reduced the production time. Ordinarily, digital cameras are used to capture the features of the limb from different views to create a 3D model. We propose a system to model the limb using Microsoft Kinect2 sensor. The Kinect can capture RGB and depth frames simultaneously up to 30 fps with sufficient accuracy. The region of interest is captured from three views, each shifted by 90 degrees. The RGB and depth data are fused into a single RGB-D frame. The resolution of the RGB frame is 1920px x 1080px while the resolution of the Depth frame is 512px x 424px. As the resolution of the frames is not equal, RGB pixels are mapped onto the Depth pixels to make sure data is not lost even if the resolution is lower. The resulting RGB-D frames are collected and using the depth coordinates, a three dimensional point cloud is generated for each view of the Kinect sensor. A common reference system was developed to merge the individual point clouds from the Kinect sensors. The reference system consisted of 8 coloured cubes, connected by rods to form a skeleton-cube with the coloured cubes at the corners. For each Kinect, the region of interest is the square formed by the centres of the four cubes facing the Kinect. The point clouds are merged by considering one of the cubes as the origin of a reference system. Depending on the relative distance from each cube, the three dimensional coordinate points from each point cloud is aligned to the reference frame to give a complete point cloud. The RGB data is used to correct for any errors in depth data for the point cloud. A triangular mesh is generated from the point cloud by applying Delaunay triangulation which generates the rough surface of the limb. This technique forms an approximation of the surface of the limb. The mesh is smoothened to obtain a smooth outer layer to give an accurate model of the limb. The model of the limb is used as a base for designing the custom orthotic brace or cast. It is transferred to a CAD/CAM design file to design of the brace above the surface of the limb. The proposed system would be more cost effective than current systems that use MRI or CT scans for generating 3D models and would be quicker than using traditional plaster of Paris cast modelling and the overall setup time is also low. Preliminary results indicate that the accuracy of the Kinect2 is satisfactory to perform modelling.

Keywords: 3d scanning, mesh generation, Microsoft kinect, orthotics, registration

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