Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 59

Search results for: eigenvalues

59 Using Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors in Population Growth and Stability Obtaining

Authors: Abubakar Sadiq Mensah

Abstract:

The Knowledge of the population growth of a nation is paramount to national planning. The population of a place is studied and a model developed over a period of time, Matrices is used to form model for population growth. The eigenvalue ƛ of the matrix A and its corresponding eigenvector X is such that AX = ƛX is calculated. The stable age distribution of the population is obtained using the eigenvalue and the characteristic polynomial. Hence, estimation could be made using eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

Keywords: eigenvalues, eigenvectors, population, growth/stability

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58 Inverse Scattering for a Second-Order Discrete System via Transmission Eigenvalues

Authors: Abdon Choque-Rivero

Abstract:

The Jacobi system with the Dirichlet boundary condition is considered on a half-line lattice when the coefficients are real valued. The inverse problem of recovery of the coefficients from various data sets containing the so-called transmission eigenvalues is analyzed. The Marchenko method is utilized to solve the corresponding inverse problem.

Keywords: inverse scattering, discrete system, transmission eigenvalues, Marchenko method

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
57 Bounds on the Laplacian Vertex PI Energy

Authors: Ezgi Kaya, A. Dilek Maden

Abstract:

A topological index is a number related to graph which is invariant under graph isomorphism. In theoretical chemistry, molecular structure descriptors (also called topological indices) are used for modeling physicochemical, pharmacologic, toxicologic, biological and other properties of chemical compounds. Let G be a graph with n vertices and m edges. For a given edge uv, the quantity nu(e) denotes the number of vertices closer to u than v, the quantity nv(e) is defined analogously. The vertex PI index defined as the sum of the nu(e) and nv(e). Here the sum is taken over all edges of G. The energy of a graph is defined as the sum of the eigenvalues of adjacency matrix of G and the Laplacian energy of a graph is defined as the sum of the absolute value of difference of laplacian eigenvalues and average degree of G. In theoretical chemistry, the π-electron energy of a conjugated carbon molecule, computed using the Hückel theory, coincides with the energy. Hence results on graph energy assume special significance. The Laplacian matrix of a graph G weighted by the vertex PI weighting is the Laplacian vertex PI matrix and the Laplacian vertex PI eigenvalues of a connected graph G are the eigenvalues of its Laplacian vertex PI matrix. In this study, Laplacian vertex PI energy of a graph is defined of G. We also give some bounds for the Laplacian vertex PI energy of graphs in terms of vertex PI index, the sum of the squares of entries in the Laplacian vertex PI matrix and the absolute value of the determinant of the Laplacian vertex PI matrix.

Keywords: energy, Laplacian energy, laplacian vertex PI eigenvalues, Laplacian vertex PI energy, vertex PI index

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56 FPGA Implementation of Novel Triangular Systolic Array Based Architecture for Determining the Eigenvalues of Matrix

Authors: Soumitr Sanjay Dubey, Shubhajit Roy Chowdhury, Rahul Shrestha

Abstract:

In this paper, we have presented a novel approach of calculating eigenvalues of any matrix for the first time on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) using Triangular Systolic Arra (TSA) architecture. Conventionally, additional computation unit is required in the architecture which is compliant to the algorithm for determining the eigenvalues and this in return enhances the delay and power consumption. However, recently reported works are only dedicated for symmetric matrices or some specific case of matrix. This works presents an architecture to calculate eigenvalues of any matrix based on QR algorithm which is fully implementable on FPGA. For the implementation of QR algorithm we have used TSA architecture, which is further utilising CORDIC (CO-ordinate Rotation DIgital Computer) algorithm, to calculate various trigonometric and arithmetic functions involved in the procedure. The proposed architecture gives an error in the range of 10−4. Power consumption by the design is 0.598W. It can work at the frequency of 900 MHz.

Keywords: coordinate rotation digital computer, three angle complex rotation, triangular systolic array, QR algorithm

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55 Matrix Valued Difference Equations with Spectral Singularities

Authors: Serifenur Cebesoy, Yelda Aygar, Elgiz Bairamov

Abstract:

In this study, we examine some spectral properties of non-selfadjoint matrix-valued difference equations consisting of a polynomial type Jost solution. The aim of this study is to investigate the eigenvalues and spectral singularities of the difference operator L which is expressed by the above-mentioned difference equation. Firstly, thanks to the representation of polynomial type Jost solution of this equation, we obtain asymptotics and some analytical properties. Then, using the uniqueness theorems of analytic functions, we guarantee that the operator L has a finite number of eigenvalues and spectral singularities.

Keywords: asymptotics, continuous spectrum, difference equations, eigenvalues, jost functions, spectral singularities

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54 Normalized Laplacian Eigenvalues of Graphs

Authors: Shaowei Sun

Abstract:

Let G be a graph with vertex set V(G)={v_1,v_2,...,v_n} and edge set E(G). For any vertex v belong to V(G), let d_v denote the degree of v. The normalized Laplacian matrix of the graph G is the matrix where the non-diagonal (i,j)-th entry is -1/(d_id_j) when vertex i is adjacent to vertex j and 0 when they are not adjacent, and the diagonal (i,i)-th entry is the di. In this paper, we discuss some bounds on the largest and the second smallest normalized Laplacian eigenvalue of trees and graphs. As following, we found some new bounds on the second smallest normalized Laplacian eigenvalue of tree T in terms of graph parameters. Moreover, we use Sage to give some conjectures on the second largest and the third smallest normalized eigenvalues of graph.

Keywords: graph, normalized Laplacian eigenvalues, normalized Laplacian matrix, tree

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53 Some New Bounds for a Real Power of the Normalized Laplacian Eigenvalues

Authors: Ayşe Dilek Maden

Abstract:

For a given a simple connected graph, we present some new bounds via a new approach for a special topological index given by the sum of the real number power of the non-zero normalized Laplacian eigenvalues. To use this approach presents an advantage not only to derive old and new bounds on this topic but also gives an idea how some previous results in similar area can be developed.

Keywords: degree Kirchhoff index, normalized Laplacian eigenvalue, spanning tree, simple connected graph

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52 The Second Smallest Eigenvalue of Complete Tripartite Hypergraph

Authors: Alfi Y. Zakiyyah, Hanni Garminia, M. Salman, A. N. Irawati

Abstract:

In the terminology of the hypergraph, there is a relation with the terminology graph. In the theory of graph, the edges connected two vertices. In otherwise, in hypergraph, the edges can connect more than two vertices. There is representation matrix of a graph such as adjacency matrix, Laplacian matrix, and incidence matrix. The adjacency matrix is symmetry matrix so that all eigenvalues is real. This matrix is a nonnegative matrix. The all diagonal entry from adjacency matrix is zero so that the trace is zero. Another representation matrix of the graph is the Laplacian matrix. Laplacian matrix is symmetry matrix and semidefinite positive so that all eigenvalues are real and non-negative. According to the spectral study in the graph, some that result is generalized to hypergraph. A hypergraph can be represented by a matrix such as adjacency, incidence, and Laplacian matrix. Throughout for this term, we use Laplacian matrix to represent a complete tripartite hypergraph. The aim from this research is to determine second smallest eigenvalues from this matrix and find a relation this eigenvalue with the connectivity of that hypergraph.

Keywords: connectivity, graph, hypergraph, Laplacian matrix

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51 The Dynamics of a 3D Vibrating and Rotating Disc Gyroscope

Authors: Getachew T. Sedebo, Stephan V. Joubert, Michael Y. Shatalov

Abstract:

Conventional configuration of the vibratory disc gyroscope is based on in-plane non-axisymmetric vibrations of the disc with a prescribed circumferential wave number. Due to the Bryan's effect, the vibrating pattern of the disc becomes sensitive to the axial component of inertial rotation of the disc. Rotation of the vibrating pattern relative to the disc is proportional to the inertial angular rate and is measured by sensors. In the present paper, the authors investigate a possibility of making a 3D sensor on the basis of both in-plane and bending vibrations of the disc resonator. We derive equations of motion for the disc vibratory gyroscope, where both in-plane and bending vibrations are considered. Hamiltonian variational principle is used in setting up equations of motion and the corresponding boundary conditions. The theory of thin shells with the linear elasticity principles is used in formulating the problem and also the disc is assumed to be isotropic and obeys Hooke's Law. The governing equation for a specific mode is converted to an ODE to determine the eigenfunction. The resulting ODE has exact solution as a linear combination of Bessel and Neumann functions. We demonstrate how to obtain an explicit solution and hence the eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions for annular disc with fixed inner boundary and free outer boundary. Finally, the characteristics equations are obtained and the corresponding eigenvalues are calculated. The eigenvalues are used for the calculation of tuning conditions of the 3D disc vibratory gyroscope.

Keywords: Bryan’s effect, bending vibrations, disc gyroscope, eigenfunctions, eigenvalues, tuning conditions

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50 Extremal Laplacian Energy of Threshold Graphs

Authors: Seyed Ahmad Mojallal

Abstract:

Let G be a connected threshold graph of order n with m edges and trace T. In this talk we give a lower bound on Laplacian energy in terms of n, m, and T of G. From this we determine the threshold graphs with the first four minimal Laplacian energies. We also list the first 20 minimal Laplacian energies among threshold graphs. Let σ=σ(G) be the number of Laplacian eigenvalues greater than or equal to average degree of graph G. Using this concept, we obtain the threshold graphs with the largest and the second largest Laplacian energies.

Keywords: Laplacian eigenvalues, Laplacian energy, threshold graphs, extremal graphs

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49 A Variant of a Double Structure-Preserving QR Algorithm for Symmetric and Hamiltonian Matrices

Authors: Ahmed Salam, Haithem Benkahla

Abstract:

Recently, an efficient backward-stable algorithm for computing eigenvalues and vectors of a symmetric and Hamiltonian matrix has been proposed. The method preserves the symmetric and Hamiltonian structures of the original matrix, during the whole process. In this paper, we revisit the method. We derive a way for implementing the reduction of the matrix to the appropriate condensed form. Then, we construct a novel version of the implicit QR-algorithm for computing the eigenvalues and vectors.

Keywords: block implicit QR algorithm, preservation of a double structure, QR algorithm, symmetric and Hamiltonian structures

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48 A Time-Reducible Approach to Compute Determinant |I-X|

Authors: Wang Xingbo

Abstract:

Computation of determinant in the form |I-X| is primary and fundamental because it can help to compute many other determinants. This article puts forward a time-reducible approach to compute determinant |I-X|. The approach is derived from the Newton’s identity and its time complexity is no more than that to compute the eigenvalues of the square matrix X. Mathematical deductions and numerical example are presented in detail for the approach. By comparison with classical approaches the new approach is proved to be superior to the classical ones and it can naturally reduce the computational time with the improvement of efficiency to compute eigenvalues of the square matrix.

Keywords: algorithm, determinant, computation, eigenvalue, time complexity

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47 Improvement a Lower Bound of Energy for Some Family of Graphs, Related to Determinant of Adjacency Matrix

Authors: Saieed Akbari, Yousef Bagheri, Amir Hossein Ghodrati, Sima Saadat Akhtar

Abstract:

Let G be a simple graph with the vertex set V (G) and with the adjacency matrix A (G). The energy E (G) of G is defined to be the sum of the absolute values of all eigenvalues of A (G). Also let n and m be number of edges and vertices of the graph respectively. A regular graph is a graph where each vertex has the same number of neighbours. Given a graph G, its line graph L(G) is a graph such that each vertex of L(G) represents an edge of G; and two vertices of L(G) are adjacent if and only if their corresponding edges share a common endpoint in G. In this paper we show that for every regular graphs and also for every line graphs such that (G) 3 we have, E(G) 2nm + n 1. Also at the other part of the paper we prove that 2 (G) E(G) for an arbitrary graph G.

Keywords: eigenvalues, energy, line graphs, matching number

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46 1D Klein-Gordon Equation in an Infinite Square Well with PT Symmetry Boundary Conditions

Authors: Suleiman Bashir Adamu, Lawan Sani Taura

Abstract:

We study the role of boundary conditions via -symmetric quantum mechanics, where denotes parity operator and denotes time reversal operator. Using the one-dimensional Schrödinger Hamiltonian for a free particle in an infinite square well, we introduce symmetric boundary conditions. We find solutions of the 1D Klein-Gordon equation for a free particle in an infinite square well with Hermitian boundary and symmetry boundary conditions, where in both cases the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunction, respectively, are obtained.

Keywords: Eigenvalues, Eigenfunction, Hamiltonian, Klein- Gordon equation, PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

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45 A Contribution to the Polynomial Eigen Problem

Authors: Malika Yaici, Kamel Hariche, Tim Clarke

Abstract:

The relationship between eigenstructure (eigenvalues and eigenvectors) and latent structure (latent roots and latent vectors) is established. In control theory eigenstructure is associated with the state space description of a dynamic multi-variable system and a latent structure is associated with its matrix fraction description. Beginning with block controller and block observer state space forms and moving on to any general state space form, we develop the identities that relate eigenvectors and latent vectors in either direction. Numerical examples illustrate this result. A brief discussion of the potential of these identities in linear control system design follows. Additionally, we present a consequent result: a quick and easy method to solve the polynomial eigenvalue problem for regular matrix polynomials.

Keywords: eigenvalues/eigenvectors, latent values/vectors, matrix fraction description, state space description

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44 Random Matrix Theory Analysis of Cross-Correlation in the Nigerian Stock Exchange

Authors: Chimezie P. Nnanwa, Thomas C. Urama, Patrick O. Ezepue

Abstract:

In this paper we use Random Matrix Theory to analyze the eigen-structure of the empirical correlations of 82 stocks which are consistently traded in the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) over a 4-year study period 3 August 2009 to 26 August 2013. We apply the Marchenko-Pastur distribution of eigenvalues of a purely random matrix to investigate the presence of investment-pertinent information contained in the empirical correlation matrix of the selected stocks. We use hypothesised standard normal distribution of eigenvector components from RMT to assess deviations of the empirical eigenvectors to this distribution for different eigenvalues. We also use the Inverse Participation Ratio to measure the deviation of eigenvectors of the empirical correlation matrix from RMT results. These preliminary results on the dynamics of asset price correlations in the NSE are important for improving risk-return trade-offs associated with Markowitz’s portfolio optimization in the stock exchange, which is pursued in future work.

Keywords: correlation matrix, eigenvalue and eigenvector, inverse participation ratio, portfolio optimization, random matrix theory

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43 A Combined Error Control with Forward Euler Method for Dynamical Systems

Authors: R. Vigneswaran, S. Thilakanathan

Abstract:

Variable time-stepping algorithms for solving dynamical systems performed poorly for long time computations which pass close to a fixed point. To overcome this difficulty, several authors considered phase space error controls for numerical simulation of dynamical systems. In one generalized phase space error control, a step-size selection scheme was proposed, which allows this error control to be incorporated into the standard adaptive algorithm as an extra constraint at negligible extra computational cost. For this generalized error control, it was already analyzed the forward Euler method applied to the linear system whose coefficient matrix has real and negative eigenvalues. In this paper, this result was extended to the linear system whose coefficient matrix has complex eigenvalues with negative real parts. Some theoretical results were obtained and numerical experiments were carried out to support the theoretical results.

Keywords: adaptivity, fixed point, long time simulations, stability, linear system

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42 Optical Signal-To-Noise Ratio Monitoring Based on Delay Tap Sampling Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Feng Wang, Shencheng Ni, Shuying Han, Shanhong You

Abstract:

With the development of optical communication, optical performance monitoring (OPM) has received more and more attentions. Since optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is directly related to bit error rate (BER), it is one of the important parameters in optical networks. Recently, artificial neural network (ANN) has been greatly developed. ANN has strong learning and generalization ability. In this paper, a method of OSNR monitoring based on delay-tap sampling (DTS) and ANN has been proposed. DTS technique is used to extract the eigenvalues of the signal. Then, the eigenvalues are input into the ANN to realize the OSNR monitoring. The experiments of 10 Gb/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ) on–off keying (OOK), 20 Gb/s pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) and 20 Gb/s return-to-zero (RZ) differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) systems are demonstrated for the OSNR monitoring based on the proposed method. The experimental results show that the range of OSNR monitoring is from 15 to 30 dB and the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) for 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK, 20 Gb/s PAM4 and 20 Gb/s RZ-DPSK systems are 0.36 dB, 0.45 dB and 0.48 dB respectively. The impact of chromatic dispersion (CD) on the accuracy of OSNR monitoring is also investigated in the three experimental systems mentioned above.

Keywords: artificial neural network (ANN), chromatic dispersion (CD), delay-tap sampling (DTS), optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR)

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41 Genetic Variation among the Wild and Hatchery Raised Populations of Labeo rohita Revealed by RAPD Markers

Authors: Fayyaz Rasool, Shakeela Parveen

Abstract:

The studies on genetic diversity of Labeo rohita by using molecular markers were carried out to investigate the genetic structure by RAPAD marker and the levels of polymorphism and similarity amongst the different groups of five populations of wild and farmed types. The samples were collected from different five locations as representatives of wild and hatchery raised populations. RAPAD data for Jaccard’s coefficient by following the un-weighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) for Hierarchical Clustering of the similar groups on the basis of similarity amongst the genotypes and the dendrogram generated divided the randomly selected individuals of the five populations into three classes/clusters. The variance decomposition for the optimal classification values remained as 52.11% for within class variation, while 47.89% for the between class differences. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for grouping of the different genotypes from the different environmental conditions was done by Spearman Varimax rotation method for bi-plot generation of the co-occurrence of the same genotypes with similar genetic properties and specificity of different primers indicated clearly that the increase in the number of factors or components was correlated with the decrease in eigenvalues. The Kaiser Criterion based upon the eigenvalues greater than one, first two main factors accounted for 58.177% of cumulative variability.

Keywords: variation, clustering, PCA, wild, hatchery, RAPAD, Labeo rohita

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40 Quantum Graph Approach for Energy and Information Transfer through Networks of Cables

Authors: Mubarack Ahmed, Gabriele Gradoni, Stephen C. Creagh, Gregor Tanner

Abstract:

High-frequency cables commonly connect modern devices and sensors. Interestingly, the proportion of electric components is rising fast in an attempt to achieve lighter and greener devices. Modelling the propagation of signals through these cable networks in the presence of parameter uncertainty is a daunting task. In this work, we study the response of high-frequency cable networks using both Transmission Line and Quantum Graph (QG) theories. We have successfully compared the two theories in terms of reflection spectra using measurements on real, lossy cables. We have derived a generalisation of the vertex scattering matrix to include non-uniform networks – networks of cables with different characteristic impedances and propagation constants. The QG model implicitly takes into account the pseudo-chaotic behavior, at the vertices, of the propagating electric signal. We have successfully compared the asymptotic growth of eigenvalues of the Laplacian with the predictions of Weyl law. We investigate the nearest-neighbour level-spacing distribution of the resonances and compare our results with the predictions of Random Matrix Theory (RMT). To achieve this, we will compare our graphs with the generalisation of Wigner distribution for open systems. The problem of scattering from networks of cables can also provide an analogue model for wireless communication in highly reverberant environments. In this context, we provide a preliminary analysis of the statistics of communication capacity for communication across cable networks, whose eventual aim is to enable detailed laboratory testing of information transfer rates using software defined radio. We specialise this analysis in particular for the case of MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) protocols. We have successfully validated our QG model with both TL model and laboratory measurements. The growth of Eigenvalues compares well with Weyl’s law and the level-spacing distribution agrees so well RMT predictions. The results we achieved in the MIMO application compares favourably with the prediction of a parallel on-going research (sponsored by NEMF21.)

Keywords: eigenvalues, multiple-input multiple-output, quantum graph, random matrix theory, transmission line

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39 An Improved Adaptive Dot-Shape Beamforming Algorithm Research on Frequency Diverse Array

Authors: Yanping Liao, Zenan Wu, Ruigang Zhao

Abstract:

Frequency diverse array (FDA) beamforming is a technology developed in recent years, and its antenna pattern has a unique angle-distance-dependent characteristic. However, the beam is always required to have strong concentration, high resolution and low sidelobe level to form the point-to-point interference in the concentrated set. In order to eliminate the angle-distance coupling of the traditional FDA and to make the beam energy more concentrated, this paper adopts a multi-carrier FDA structure based on proposed power exponential frequency offset to improve the array structure and frequency offset of the traditional FDA. The simulation results show that the beam pattern of the array can form a dot-shape beam with more concentrated energy, and its resolution and sidelobe level performance are improved. However, the covariance matrix of the signal in the traditional adaptive beamforming algorithm is estimated by the finite-time snapshot data. When the number of snapshots is limited, the algorithm has an underestimation problem, which leads to the estimation error of the covariance matrix to cause beam distortion, so that the output pattern cannot form a dot-shape beam. And it also has main lobe deviation and high sidelobe level problems in the case of limited snapshot. Aiming at these problems, an adaptive beamforming technique based on exponential correction for multi-carrier FDA is proposed to improve beamforming robustness. The steps are as follows: first, the beamforming of the multi-carrier FDA is formed under linear constrained minimum variance (LCMV) criteria. Then the eigenvalue decomposition of the covariance matrix is ​​performed to obtain the diagonal matrix composed of the interference subspace, the noise subspace and the corresponding eigenvalues. Finally, the correction index is introduced to exponentially correct the small eigenvalues ​​of the noise subspace, improve the divergence of small eigenvalues ​​in the noise subspace, and improve the performance of beamforming. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can make the multi-carrier FDA form a dot-shape beam at limited snapshots, reduce the sidelobe level, improve the robustness of beamforming, and have better performance.

Keywords: adaptive beamforming, correction index, limited snapshot, multi-carrier frequency diverse array, robust

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38 Robust Segmentation of Salient Features in Automatic Breast Ultrasound (ABUS) Images

Authors: Lamees Nasser, Yago Diez, Robert Martí, Joan Martí, Ibrahim Sadek

Abstract:

Automated 3D breast ultrasound (ABUS) screening is a novel modality in medical imaging because of its common characteristics shared with other ultrasound modalities in addition to the three orthogonal planes (i.e., axial, sagittal, and coronal) that are useful in analysis of tumors. In the literature, few automatic approaches exist for typical tasks such as segmentation or registration. In this work, we deal with two problems concerning ABUS images: nipple and rib detection. Nipple and ribs are the most visible and salient features in ABUS images. Determining the nipple position plays a key role in some applications for example evaluation of registration results or lesion follow-up. We present a nipple detection algorithm based on color and shape of the nipple, besides an automatic approach to detect the ribs. In point of fact, rib detection is considered as one of the main stages in chest wall segmentation. This approach consists of four steps. First, images are normalized in order to minimize the intensity variability for a given set of regions within the same image or a set of images. Second, the normalized images are smoothed by using anisotropic diffusion filter. Next, the ribs are detected in each slice by analyzing the eigenvalues of the 3D Hessian matrix. Finally, a breast mask and a probability map of regions detected as ribs are used to remove false positives (FP). Qualitative and quantitative evaluation obtained from a total of 22 cases is performed. For all cases, the average and standard deviation of the root mean square error (RMSE) between manually annotated points placed on the rib surface and detected points on rib borders are 15.1188 mm and 14.7184 mm respectively.

Keywords: Automated 3D Breast Ultrasound, Eigenvalues of Hessian matrix, Nipple detection, Rib detection

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37 Kemmer Oscillator in Cosmic String Background

Authors: N. Messai, A. Boumali

Abstract:

In this work, we aim to solve the two dimensional Kemmer equation including Dirac oscillator interaction term, in the background space-time generated by a cosmic string which is submitted to an uniform magnetic field. Eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of our problem have been found and the influence of the cosmic string space-time on the energy spectrum has been analyzed.

Keywords: Kemmer oscillator, cosmic string, Dirac oscillator, eigenfunctions

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36 Stability of Property (gm) under Perturbation and Spectral Properties Type Weyl Theorems

Authors: M. H. M. Rashid

Abstract:

A Banach space operator T obeys property (gm) if the isolated points of the spectrum σ(T) of T which are eigenvalues are exactly those points λ of the spectrum for which T − λI is a left Drazin invertible. In this article, we study the stability of property (gm), for a bounded operator acting on a Banach space, under perturbation by finite rank operators, by nilpotent operators, by quasi-nilpotent operators, or more generally by algebraic operators commuting with T.

Keywords: Weyl's Theorem, Weyl Spectrum, Polaroid operators, property (gm)

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35 The Realization of a System’s State Space Based on Markov Parameters by Using Flexible Neural Networks

Authors: Ali Isapour, Ramin Nateghi

Abstract:

— Markov parameters are unique parameters of the system and remain unchanged under similarity transformations. Markov parameters from a power series that is convergent only if the system matrix’s eigenvalues are inside the unity circle. Therefore, Markov parameters of a stable discrete-time system are convergent. In this study, we aim to realize the system based on Markov parameters by using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), and this end, we use Flexible Neural Networks. Realization means determining the elements of matrices A, B, C, and D.

Keywords: Markov parameters, realization, activation function, flexible neural network

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34 Comparison of Finite Difference Schemes for Numerical Study of Ripa Model

Authors: Sidrah Ahmed

Abstract:

The river and lakes flows are modeled mathematically by shallow water equations that are depth-averaged Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations under Boussinesq approximation. The temperature stratification dynamics influence the water quality and mixing characteristics. It is mainly due to the atmospheric conditions including air temperature, wind velocity, and radiative forcing. The experimental observations are commonly taken along vertical scales and are not sufficient to estimate small turbulence effects of temperature variations induced characteristics of shallow flows. Wind shear stress over the water surface influence flow patterns, heat fluxes and thermodynamics of water bodies as well. Hence it is crucial to couple temperature gradients with shallow water model to estimate the atmospheric effects on flow patterns. The Ripa system has been introduced to study ocean currents as a variant of shallow water equations with addition of temperature variations within the flow. Ripa model is a hyperbolic system of partial differential equations because all the eigenvalues of the system’s Jacobian matrix are real and distinct. The time steps of a numerical scheme are estimated with the eigenvalues of the system. The solution to Riemann problem of the Ripa model is composed of shocks, contact and rarefaction waves. Solving Ripa model with Riemann initial data with the central schemes is difficult due to the eigen structure of the system.This works presents the comparison of four different finite difference schemes for the numerical solution of Riemann problem for Ripa model. These schemes include Lax-Friedrichs, Lax-Wendroff, MacCormack scheme and a higher order finite difference scheme with WENO method. The numerical flux functions in both dimensions are approximated according to these methods. The temporal accuracy is achieved by employing TVD Runge Kutta method. The numerical tests are presented to examine the accuracy and robustness of the applied methods. It is revealed that Lax-Freidrichs scheme produces results with oscillations while Lax-Wendroff and higher order difference scheme produce quite better results.

Keywords: finite difference schemes, Riemann problem, shallow water equations, temperature gradients

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33 The Norm, Singular Value and Condition Number Analysis for the Hadamard Matrices

Authors: Emine Tuğba Akyüz

Abstract:

In this study, the analysis of Hadamard matrices, which is a special type of matrix, was made under three headings: norms, singular values, condition number. Six norm types was applied to Hadamard matrices and the relationship between the results and the size of the matrix has been studied. As a result of the investigation when 2-norm was used on the problem Hx =f, the equation ‖x‖_2= ‖f‖_2/√n was shown (H is n-dimensional Hadamard matrix). Related with this, the relationship between the the singular value of H and 2-norm and eigenvalues was shown. Then, the evaluation of condition number for Hx =f was made.

Keywords: condition number, Hadamard matrix, norm, singular value

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32 Representation of the Solution of One Dynamical System on the Plane

Authors: Kushakov Kholmurodjon, Muhammadjonov Akbarshox

Abstract:

This present paper is devoted to a system of second-order nonlinear differential equations with a special right-hand side, exactly, the linear part and a third-order polynomial of a special form. It is shown that for some relations between the parameters, there is a second-order curve in which trajectories leaving the points of this curve remain in the same place. Thus, the curve is invariant with respect to the given system. Moreover, this system is invariant under a non-degenerate linear transformation of variables. The form of this curve, depending on the relations between the parameters and the eigenvalues of the matrix, is proved. All solutions of this system of differential equations are shown analytically.

Keywords: dynamic system, ellipse, hyperbola, Hess system, polar coordinate system

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31 Energy States of Some Diatomic Molecules: Exact Quantization Rule Approach

Authors: Babatunde J. Falaye

Abstract:

In this study, we obtain the approximate analytical solutions of the radial Schrödinger equation for the Deng-Fan diatomic molecular potential by using exact quantization rule approach. The wave functions have been expressed by hypergeometric functions via the functional analysis approach. An extension to rotational-vibrational energy eigenvalues of some diatomic molecules are also presented. It is shown that the calculated energy levels are in good agreement with the ones obtained previously E_nl-D (shifted Deng-Fan).

Keywords: Schrödinger equation, exact quantization rule, functional analysis, Deng-Fan potential

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30 Turing Pattern in the Oregonator Revisited

Authors: Elragig Aiman, Dreiwi Hanan, Townley Stuart, Elmabrook Idriss

Abstract:

In this paper, we reconsider the analysis of the Oregonator model. We highlight an error in this analysis which leads to an incorrect depiction of the parameter region in which diffusion driven instability is possible. We believe that the cause of the oversight is the complexity of stability analyses based on eigenvalues and the dependence on parameters of matrix minors appearing in stability calculations. We regenerate the parameter space where Turing patterns can be seen, and we use the common Lyapunov function (CLF) approach, which is numerically reliable, to further confirm the dependence of the results on diffusion coefficients intensities.

Keywords: diffusion driven instability, common Lyapunov function (CLF), turing pattern, positive-definite matrix

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