Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 241

Search results for: Pseudomonas ssp. fluorescents

211 Removal of Protein from Chromium Tanning Bath by Biological Treatment Using Pseudomonas sp.

Authors: Rachida Maachi, Amel Benhadji, Mourad Taleb Ahmed

Abstract:

The challenge for the new millennium is to develop an industrial system that has minimal socio-ecological impacts, without compromising quality of life. Leather industry is one of these industries demanding environmentally friendly products. In this study, we investigated the possibility of applying innovative low cost biological treatment using Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This strain tested the efficiency of the batch biological treatment in the recovery of protein and hexavalent chromium from chromium tanning bath. We have compared suspended and fixed bacteria culture. The results showed the removal of the total protein of treatment and a decrease of hexavalent chromium concentration is during the treatment. The better efficiency of the biological treatment is obtained when using fixed culture of P. aeruginosa.

Keywords: Biological treatment, hexavalent chromium, tanning wastewater, protein removal

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
210 Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on the Germination and Early Growth of Onion (Allium cepa)

Authors: Dragana R. Stamenov, Simonida S. Djuric, Timea Hajnal Jafari

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Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a heterogeneous group of bacteria that can be found in the rhizosphere, at root surfaces and in association with roots, enhancing the growth of the plant either directly and/or indirectly. Increased crop productivity associated with the presence of PGPR has been observed in a broad range of plant species, such as raspberry, chickpeas, legumes, cucumber, eggplant, pea, pepper, radish, tobacco, tomato, lettuce, carrot, corn, cotton, millet, bean, cocoa, etc. However, until now there has not been much research about influences of the PGPR on the growth and yield of onion. Onion (Allium cepa L.), of the Liliaceae family, is a species of great economic importance, widely cultivated all over the world. The aim of this research was to examine the influence of plant growth promoting bacteria Pseudomonas sp. Dragana, Pseudomonas sp. Kiš, Bacillus subtillis and Azotobacter sp. on the seed germination and early growth of onion (Allium cepa). PGPR Azotobacter sp., Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas sp. Dragana, Pseudomonas sp. Kiš, from the collection of the Faculty of Agriculture, Novi Sad, Serbia, were used as inoculants. The number of cells in 1 ml of the inoculum was 10⁸ CFU/ml. The control variant was not inoculated. The effect of PGPR on seed germination and hypocotyls length of Allium cepa was evaluated in controlled conditions, on filter paper in the dark at 22°C, while effect on the plant length and mass in semicontrol conditions, in 10 l volume vegetative pots. Seed treated with fungicide and untreated seed were used. After seven days the percentage of germination was determined. After seven and fourteen days hypocotil length was measured. Fourteen days after germination, length and mass of plants were measured. Application of Pseudomonas sp. Dragana and Kiš and Bacillus subtillis had a negative effect on onion seed germination, while the use of Azotobacter sp. gave positive results. On average, application of all investigated inoculants had a positive effect on the measured parameters of plant growth. Azotobacter sp. had the greatest effect on the hypocotyls length, length and mass of the plant. In average, better results were achieved with untreated seeds in compare with treated. Results of this study have shown that PGPR can be used in the production of onion.

Keywords: Microorganisms, Mass, Germination, onion, length

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
209 Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Diseased Giant Freshwater Prawn in Shrimp Culture Ponds

Authors: Kusumawadee Thancharoen, Rungrat Nontawong, Thanawat Junsom

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Pathogenic bacterial flora was isolated from giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Infected shrimp samples were collected from BuaBan Aquafarm in Kalasin Province, Thailand, between June and September 2018. Bacterial species were isolated by serial dilution and plated on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt Sucrose (TCBS) agar medium. A total 89 colonies were isolated and identified using the API 20E biochemical tests. Results showed the presence of genera Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Chromobacterium, Providencia, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Vibrio. Maximum number of species was recorded in Pseudomonas (50.57%) with minimum observed in Chromobacterium and Providencia (1.12%).

Keywords: Isolation, salt tolerance, biochemical test, giant freshwater prawn, shrimp diseases

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208 Biodegradation of 2,4-Dichlorophenol by Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain Isolated from Activated Sludge Sample from a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Durban, South Africa

Authors: Boitumelo Setlhare, Mduduzi P. Mokoena, Ademola O. Olaniran

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Agricultural and industrial activities have led to increasing production of xenobiotics such as 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), a derivative of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), which is a widely used herbicide. Bioremediation offers an efficient, cost-effective and environmentally friendly method for degradation of the compound through the activities of the various microbial enzymes involved in the catabolic pathway. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize bacterial isolate indigenous to contaminated sites in Durban, South Africa for 2,4-DCP degradation. One bacterium capable of utilizing 2,4-DCP as sole carbon source was isolated using culture enrichment technique and identified as Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain UFB2 via PCR amplification and analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. This isolate was able to degrade up to 75.11% of 2,4-DCP in batch cultures within 10 days, with the degradation rate constant of 0.14 mg/l/d. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the relatedness of this bacterial isolate to other Pseudomonas sp. previously characterized for chlorophenol degradation. PCR amplification of the catabolic genes involved in 2,4-DCP degradation revealed the presence of the correct amplicons for phenol hydroxylase (600 bp), catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (214 bp), muconate isomerase (851 bp), cis-dienelactone hydrolase (577 bp), and trans-dienelactone hydrolase (491 bp) genes. Enzyme assays revealed activity as high as 21840 mU/mg, 15630 mU/mg, 2340 mU/mg and 1490 mU/mg obtained for phenol hydroxylase, catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, cis-dienelactone hydroxylase and trans-dienelactone hydroxylase, respectively. The absence of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase gene and the corresponding enzyme in this isolate suggests that the organism followed ortho-pathway for 2,4-DCP degradation. Furthermore, the absence of malaycetate reductase genes showed that the bacterium may not be able to completely mineralize 2,4-DCP. Further studies are required to optimize 2,4-DCP degradation by this isolate as well as to elucidate the mechanism of 2,4-DCP degradation.

Keywords: biodegradation, catechol 1, phenol hydroxylase, Pseudomonas chlororaphis

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
207 Search of Сompounds with Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activity in the Series of 1-(2-(1H-Tetrazol-5-yl)-R1-phenyl)-3-R2-phenyl(ethyl)ureas

Authors: O. Antypenko, I. Vasilieva, S. Kovalenko

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Investigations for new effective and less toxic antimicrobials agents are always up-to-date. The tetrazole derivatives are quite interesting objects as for synthesis as well as for pharmacological screening. Thus, some derivatives of tetrazole demonstrated antimicrobial activity, namely 5-phenyl-tetrazolo[1,5-c]quinazoline was effective one against Staphylococcus aureus and Esherichia faecalis (MIC = 250 mg/L). Besides, investigation of the 9-bromo(chloro)-5-morpholin(piperidine)-4-yl-tetrazolo[1,5-c]quinazoline’s antimicrobial activity against Esherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus revealed that sensitivity of Gram-positive bacteria to the compounds was higher than that of Gram-negative bacteria. So, our previously synthesized, 31 derivatives of 1-(2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-R1-phenyl)-3-R2-phenyl(ethyl)ureas were decided to test for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212), Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae 68) and antifungal properties against Candida albicans ATCC 885653. Agar-diffusion method was used for determination of the preliminary activity compared to well-known reference antimicrobials. All the compounds were dissolved in DMSO at a concentration of 100 μg/disk, using inhibition zone diameter (IZD, mm) as a measure for the antimicrobial activity. The most active turned to be 3 structures, that inhibited several bacterial strains: 1-ethyl-3-(5-fluoro-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl)urea (1), 1-(4-bromo-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-phenyl)-3-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)urea (2) and 1-(4-chloro-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl)-3-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)urea (3). IZM (mm) was 40 (Escherichia coli), 25 (Klebsiella pneumonia) for compound 1; 12 (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), 15 (Staphylococcus aureus), 10 (Enterococcus faecalis) for compound 2; 25 (Staphylococcus aureus), 15 (Enterococcus faecalis) for compound 3. The most sensitive to the activity of the substances were Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa. While none of compound effected on Candida albicans. Speaking about, reference drugs: Amikacin (30 µg/disk) showed 27 and Ceftazide (30 µg/disk) 25 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. That is, unfortunately, higher than studied 1-(2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-R1-phenyl)-3-R2-phenyl(ethyl)ureas. Obtained results will be used for further purposeful optimization of the leading compounds in the more effective antimicrobials because of the ever-mounting problem of microorganism’s resistance.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Compounds, Antifungal

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
206 Increasing Sustainability of Melanin Bio-Production Using Seawater

Authors: Keyur Raval, Harsha Thaira, Ritu Raval

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Melanin has immense applications in the field of agriculture, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries due to its photo-protective, UV protective and anti- oxidant activities. However, its production is limited to costly chemical methods or harsh extractive methods from hair which ultimately gives poor yields. This makes the cost of melanin very high, to the extent of US Dollar 300 per gram. Some microorganisms are reported to produce melanin under stress conditions. Out of all melanin producing organisms, Pseudomonas stutzeri can grow in sea water and produce melanin under saline stress. The objective of this study was to develop a sea water based bioprocess. Effects of different growth media and process parameters on melanin production using sea water were investigated. The marine bacterial strain Pseudomonas stutzeri HMGM-7(MTCC 11712) was selected and the effect of different media such as Nutrient Broth (NB), Luria Bertini (LB) broth, Bushnell- Haas broth (BHB) and Trypticase Soy broth (TSB) and various medium components were investigated with one factor at a time approach. Parameters like shaking frequency, inoculum age, inoculum size, pH and temperature were also investigated in order to obtain the optimum conditions for maximum melanin production. The highest yield of melanin concentration, 0.306 g/L, was obtained in Trypticase Soy broth at 36 hours. The yield was 1.88 times higher than the melanin obtained before optimization, 0.163 g/L at 36 hours. Studies are underway to optimize medium constituents to further enhance melanin production.

Keywords: Marine, Bioprocess, Pseudomonas, melanin

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
205 Response of Planktonic and Aggregated Bacterial Cells to Water Disinfection with Photodynamic Inactivation

Authors: Thayse Marques Passos, Brid Quilty, Mary Pryce

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The interest in developing alternative techniques to obtain safe water, free from pathogens and hazardous substances, is growing in recent times. The photodynamic inactivation of microorganisms (PDI) is a promising ecologically-friendly and multi-target approach for water disinfection. It uses visible light as an energy source combined with a photosensitiser (PS) to transfer energy/electrons to a substrate or molecular oxygen generating reactive oxygen species, which cause cidal effects towards cells. PDI has mainly been used in clinical studies and investigations on its application to disinfect water is relatively recent. The majority of studies use planktonic cells. However, in their natural environments, bacteria quite often do not occur as freely suspended cells (planktonic) but in cell aggregates that are either freely floating or attached to surfaces as biofilms. Microbes can form aggregates and biofilms as a strategy to protect them from environmental stress. As aggregates, bacteria have a better metabolic function, they communicate more efficiently, and they are more resistant to biocide compounds than their planktonic forms. Among the bacteria that are able to form aggregates are members of the genus Pseudomonas, they are a very diverse group widely distributed in the environment. Pseudomonas species can form aggregates/biofilms in water and can cause particular problems in water distribution systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of photodynamic inactivation in killing a range of planktonic cells including Escherichia coli DSM 1103, Staphylococcus aureus DSM 799, Shigella sonnei DSM 5570, Salmonella enterica and Pseudomonas putida DSM 6125, and aggregating cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 50090, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The experiments were performed in glass Petri dishes, containing the bacterial suspension and the photosensitiser, irradiated with a multi-LED (wavelengths 430nm and 660nm) for different time intervals. The responses of the cells were monitored using the pour plate technique and confocal microscopy. The study showed that bacteria belonging to Pseudomonads group tend to be more tolerant to PDI. While E. coli, S. aureus, S. sonnei and S. enterica required a dosage ranging from 39.47 J/cm2 to 59.21 J/cm2 for a 5 log reduction, Pseudomonads needed a dosage ranging from 78.94 to 118.42 J/cm2, a higher dose being required when the cells aggregated.

Keywords: Water Disinfection, bacterial aggregation, photoinactivation, Pseudomonads

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
204 Clonal Dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates in Kermanshah Hospitals, West of Iran

Authors: Alisha Akya, Afsaneh salami

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Background and Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen associated with nosocomial infections. One of the major concerns for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections is its resistant to a variety of antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to assess the dissemination of p. aeruginosa isolates obtained from major hospitals in Kermanshah, west of Iran. Materials and Methods: Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the minimal inhibitory concentrations. Mettalo-beta-lactamase was investigated using the double disk diffusion (DDST) test and PCR. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: The 60 P. aeruginosa isolates, 30 (50%) were resistant to gentamicin, 38 (63/3%) to piperacilin, 42 (70%) to ceftazidime, and 45 (75%) to cefepime. Twenty-nine (48/3%) isolates were MBLs producer based on the DDST test. Five (8/3%) isolates were positive for VIM gene and 4 of them were from burn specimens. PFGE analysis among MBLs producers revealed 12 distinct genotype patterns. A pattern covering the highest number of strains was determined as the dominant clone. Conclusions: Our study showed that P. aeruginosa strains can be spread between patients in hospitals or acquired from different environmental sources. P. aeruginosa isolates were highly resistant to antibiotics and, therefore, the susceptibility of isolates to antibiotics should be tested before treatment. Given the clinical significance of MBLs producing isolates, identification of these organisms is essential in the hospitals in order to get a better therapeutic response and control of bacterial dissemination.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, clonal dissemination, mettalo-beta-lactamase, PFGE

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
203 Reduction of Terpene Emissions from Oriented Strand Boards (OSB) by Bacterial Pre-Treatment

Authors: Bernhard Widhalm, Cornelia Rieder-Gradinger, Ewald Srebotnik

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Pine wood (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the basic raw material for the production of Oriented Strand Boards (OSB) and the major source of volatile organic compounds, especially terpenes (like α- and β-pinene). To lower the total emission level of OSB, terpene metabolising microorganisms were therefore applied onto pine wood strands for the production of emission-reduced boards. Suitable microorganisms were identified during preliminary tests under laboratory conditions. At first, their terpene degrading potential was investigated in liquid culture, followed by laboratory tests using unsterile pine wood particles and strands. The main focus was laid on an adoptable terpene reduction in a short incubation time. An optimised bacterial mixture of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens showed the best results and was therefore used for further experiments on a larger scale. In an industry-compatible testing procedure, pine wood strands were incubated with the bacterial mixture for a period of 2 to 4 days. Incubation time was stopped by drying the strands. OSB were then manufactured from the pre-treated strands and emissions were measured by means of SPME/GC-MS analysis. Bacterial pre-treatment of strands resulted in a reduction of α-pinene- and β-pinene-emissions from OSB by 40% and 70%, respectively, even after only 2 days of incubation. The results of the investigation provide a basis for the application of microbial treatment within the industrial OSB production line, where shortest possible incubation times are required. For this purpose, the performance of the bacterial mixture will have to be further optimised.

Keywords: GC-MS, OSB, Pseudomonas sp, terpene degradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
202 Statistical Optimization and Production of Rhamnolipid by P. aeruginosa PAO1 Using Prickly Pear Peel as a Carbon Source

Authors: Mostafa M. Abo Elsoud, Heba I. Elkhouly, Nagwa M. Sidkey

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Production of rhamnolipids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa has attracted a growing interest during the last few decades due to its high productivity compared with other microorganisms. In the current work, rhamnolipids production by P. aeruginosa PAO1 was statistically modeled using Taguchi orthogonal array, numerically optimized and validated. Prickly Pear Peel (Opuntia ficus-indica) has been used as a carbon source for production of rhamnolipid. Finally, the optimum conditions for rhamnolipid production were applied in 5L working volume bioreactors at different aerations, agitation and controlled pH for maximum rhamnolipid production. In addition, kinetic studies of rhamnolipids production have been reported. At the end of the batch bioreactor optimization process, rhamnolipids production by P. aeruginosa PAO1 has reached the worldwide levels and can be applied for its industrial production.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Opuntia ficus-indica, rhamnolipids, statistical optimization, tagushi

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
201 Microbial Reduction of Terpenes from Pine Wood Material

Authors: Bernhard Widhalm, Cornelia Rieder-Gradinger, Thomas Ters, Ewald Srebotnik, Thomas Kuncinger

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Terpenes are natural components in softwoods and rank among the most frequently emitted volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the wood-processing industry. In this study, the main focus was on α- and β-pinene as well as Δ3-carene, which are the major terpenes in softwoods. To lower the total emission level of wood composites, defined terpene degrading microorganisms were applied to basic raw materials (e.g. pine wood particles and strands) in an optimised and industry-compatible testing procedure. In preliminary laboratory tests, bacterial species suitable for the utilisation of α-pinene as single carbon source in liquid culture were selected and then subjected to wood material inoculation. The two species Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens were inoculated onto wood particles and strands and incubated at room temperature. Applying specific pre-cultivation and daily ventilation of the samples enabled a reduction of incubation time from six days to one day. SPME measurements and subsequent GC-MS analysis indicated a complete absence of α- and β-pinene emissions after 24 hours from pine wood particles. When using pine wood strands rather than particles, bacterial treatment resulted in a reduction of α- and β-pinene by 50%, while Δ3-carene emissions were reduced by 30% in comparison to untreated strands. Other terpenes were also reduced in the course of the microbial treatment. The method developed here appears to be feasible for industrial application. However, growth parameters such as time and temperature as well as the technical implementation of the inoculation step will have to be adapted for the production process.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, terpenes, GC-MS, SPME

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
200 The Effect of Different Metal Nanoparticles on Growth and Survival of Pseudomonas syringae Bacteria

Authors: Omar Alhamd, Peter A. Thomas, Trevor J. Greenhough, Annette K. Shrive

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The Pseudomonas syringae species complex includes many plant pathogenic strains with highly specific interactions with varied host species and cultivars. The rapid spread of these bacteria over the last ten years has become a cause for concern. Nanoparticles have previously shown promise in microbiological action. We have therefore investigated in vitro and in vivo the effects of different types and sizes of nanoparticles in order to provide quantitative information about their effect on the bacteria. The effects of several different nanoparticles against several bacteria strains were investigated. The effect of NP on bacterial growth was studied by measuring the optical density, biochemical and nutritional tests, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the shape and size of NP. Our results indicate that their effects varied, with either a negative or a positive impact on both bacterial and plant growth. Additionally, the methods of exposure to nanoparticles have a crucial role in accumulation, translocation, growth response and bacterial growth. The results of our studies on the behaviour and effects of nanoparticles in model plants showed. Cerium oxide (CeO₂) and silver (Ag) NP showed significant antibacterial activity against several pathogenic bacteria. It was found that titanium nanoparticles (TiO₂) can have either a negative or a positive impact, according to concentration and size. It is also thought that environmental conditions can have a major influence on bacterial growth. Studies were therefore also carried out under some environmental stress conditions to test bacterial survival and to assess bacterial virulence. All results will be presented including information about the effects of different nanoparticles on Pseudomonas syringae bacteria.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, plant microbiome, bacterial survival

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
199 Biodiversity of Plants Rhizosphere and Rhizoplane Bacteria in the Presence of Petroleum Hydrocarbons

Authors: Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Anel A. Omirbekova, Raikhan S. Sydykbekova, Ramza Zh. Berzhanova, Lyudmila V. Ignatova

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Following plants-barley (Hordeum sativum), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), grass mixture (red fescue-75%, long-term ryegrass - 20% Kentucky bluegrass - 10%), oilseed rape (Brassica napus biennis), resistant to growth in the contaminated soil with oil content of 15.8 g / kg 25.9 g / kg soil were used. Analysis of the population showed that the oil pollution reduces the number of bacteria in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants and enhances the amount of spore-forming bacteria and saprotrophic micromycetes. It was shown that regardless of the plant, dominance of Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera bacteria was typical for the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants. The frequency of bacteria of these genera was more than 60%. Oil pollution changes the ratio of occurrence of various types of bacteria in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants. Besides the Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera, in the presence of hydrocarbons in the root zone of plants dominant and most typical were the representatives of the Mycobacterium and Rhodococcus genera. Together the number was between 62% to 72%.

Keywords: Identification, Pollution, root system, micromycetes

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
198 Assessing Storage of Stability and Mercury Reduction of Freeze-Dried Pseudomonas putida within Different Types of Lyoprotectant

Authors: A. A. M. Azoddein, A. B. Bustary, Y. Nuratri, F. A. M. Azli, S. C. Sayuti

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Pseudomonas putida is a potential strain in biological treatment to remove mercury contained in the effluent of petrochemical industry due to its mercury reductase enzyme that able to reduce ionic mercury to elementary mercury. Freeze-dried P. putida allows easy, inexpensive shipping, handling and high stability of the product. This study was aimed to freeze dry P. putida cells with addition of lyoprotectant. Lyoprotectant was added into the cells suspension prior to freezing. Dried P. putida obtained was then mixed with synthetic mercury. Viability of recovery P. putida after freeze dry was significantly influenced by the type of lyoprotectant. Among the lyoprotectants, tween 80/ sucrose was found to be the best lyoprotectant. Sucrose able to recover more than 78% (6.2E+09 CFU/ml) of the original cells (7.90E+09CFU/ml) after freeze dry and able to retain 5.40E+05 viable cells after 4 weeks storage in 4oC without vacuum. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) pre-treated freeze dry cells and broth pre-treated freeze dry cells after freeze-dry recovered more than 64% (5.0 E+09CFU/ml) and >0.1% (5.60E+07CFU/ml). Freeze-dried P. putida cells in PEG and broth cannot survive after 4 weeks storage. Freeze dry also does not really change the pattern of growth P. putida but extension of lag time was found 1 hour after 3 weeks of storage. Additional time was required for freeze-dried P. putida cells to recover before introduce freeze-dried cells to more complicated condition such as mercury solution. The maximum mercury reduction of PEG pre-treated freeze-dried cells after freeze dry and after storage 3 weeks was 56.78% and 17.91%. The maximum of mercury reduction of tween 80/sucrose pre-treated freeze-dried cells after freeze dry and after storage 3 weeks were 26.35% and 25.03%. Freeze dried P. putida was found to have lower mercury reduction compare to the fresh P. putida that has been growth in agar. Result from this study may be beneficial and useful as initial reference before commercialize freeze-dried P. putida.

Keywords: Mercury, cell viability, pseudomonas putida, PEG, freeze-dry, tween80/Sucrose

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
197 Biological Control of Karnal Bunt by Pseudomonas fluorescens

Authors: Sugandha Asthana, Geetika Vajpayee, Pratibha Kumari and Shanthy Sundaram

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Pseudomonas species possess a variety of promising properties of antifungal and growth promoting activities in the wheat plant. In the present study, Pseudomonas fluorescens MTCC-9768 is tested against plant pathogenic fungus Tilletia indica, causing Karnal bunt, a quarantine disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) affecting kernels of wheat. It is one of the 1/A1 harmful diseases of wheat worldwide under EU legislation. This disease develops in the growth phase by the spreading of microscopically small spores of the fungus (teliospores) being dispersed by the wind. The present chemical fungicidal treatments were reported to reduce teliospores germination, but its effect is questionable since T. indica can survive up to four years in the soil. The fungal growth inhibition tests were performed using Dual Culture Technique, and the results showed inhibition by 82.5%. The interaction of antagonist bacteria-fungus causes changes in the morphology of hyphae, which was observed using Lactophenol cotton blue staining and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The rounded and swollen ends, called ‘theca’ were observed in interacted fungus as compared to control fungus (without bacterial interaction). This bacterium was tested for its antagonistic activity like protease, cellulose, HCN production, Chitinase, etc. The growth promoting activities showed increase production of IAA in bacteria. The bacterial secondary metabolites were extracted in different solvents for testing its growth inhibiting properties. The characterization and purification of the antifungal compound were done by Thin Layer Chromatography, and Rf value was calculated (Rf value = 0.54) and compared to the standard antifungal compound, 2, 4 DAPG (Rf value = 0.54). Further, the in vivo experiments showed a significant decrease in the severity of disease in the wheat plant due to direct injection method and seed treatment. Our results indicate that the extracted and purified compound from the antagonist bacteria, P. fluorescens MTCC-9768 may be used as a potential biocontrol agent against T. indica. This also concludes that the PGPR properties of the bacteria may be utilized by incorporating it into bio-fertilizers.

Keywords: Antagonism, Pseudomonas fluorescens, PGPR, Karnal bunt

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
196 The Effect of Bacteria on Mercury's Biological Removal

Authors: Nastaran Soltani

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Heavy metals such as Mercury are toxic elements that enter the environment through different ways and endanger the environment, plants, animals, and humans’ health. Microbial activities reduce the amount of heavy metals. Therefore, an effective mechanism to eliminate heavy metals in the nature and factory slops, is using bacteria living in polluted areas. Karun River in Khuzestan Province in Iran has been always polluted by heavy metals as it is located among different industries in the region. This study was performed based on the data from sampling water and sediments of four stations across the river during the four seasons of a year. The isolation of resistant bacteria was performed through enrichment and direct cultivation in a solid medium containing mercury. Various bacteria such as Pseudomonas sp., Serratia Marcescens, and E.coli were identified as mercury-resistant bacteria. The power of these bacteria to remove mercury varied from 28% to 86%, with strongest power belonging to Pseudomonas sp. isolated in spring making a good candidate to be used for mercury biological removal from factory slops.

Keywords: Bacteria, Mercury, Karun River, biological removal, mercury-resistant

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
195 Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Mentha piperita Endemic in Khorasan-Iran

Authors: M. Maleki, V. Hakimzadeh, M. Noori

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The aim of this study was to determine the composition and antimicrobial effect of Mentha piperita essential oil in "in-vitro" condition. The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation was examined by GC/MS and the antimicrobial effect was studied on the growth of seven microbial species including Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris using micro-dilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Chemical composition analysis identified a total of 28 compounds in which the main components were menthol (32%), mentone (13.4), menthyl acetate (12%), 1,8-cineole (8.2%) and neomenthol (4%) representing 69.6 % of the total oil. Other separated components accounted for less than 30.4% of the oil. Results of antimicrobial analysis showed that the MIC values for Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris was respectively 50, 200 and 100 µg/ml and the MBC was determined at 200, 400 and 200 µg/ml respectively. The results of the present study indicated that Mentha piperita essential oil had significant antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, mentha piperita, essential oil composition

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
194 Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Using Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated from Oil Contaminated Soil Incorporated into E. coli DH5α Host

Authors: C. S. Jeba Samuel

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Soil, especially from oil field has posed a great hazard for terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The traditional treatment of oil contaminated soil cannot degrade the crude oil completely. So far, biodegradation proves to be an efficient method. During biodegradation, crude oil is used as the carbon source and addition of nitrogenous compounds increases the microbial growth, resulting in the effective breakdown of crude oil components to low molecular weight components. The present study was carried out to evaluate the biodegradation of crude oil by hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from natural environment like oil contaminated soil. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an oil degrading microorganism also called as hydrocarbon utilizing microorganism (or “HUM” bug) can utilize crude oil as sole carbon source. In this study, the biodegradation of crude oil was conducted with modified mineral basal salt medium and nitrogen sources so as to increase the degradation. The efficacy of the plasmid from the isolated strain was incorporated into E.coli DH5 α host to speed up the degradation of oil. The usage of molecular techniques has increased oil degradation which was confirmed by the degradation of aromatic and aliphatic rings of hydrocarbons and was inferred by the lesser number of peaks in Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The gas chromatogram again confirms better degradation by transformed cells by the lesser number of components obtained in the oil treated with transformed cells. This study demonstrated the technical feasibility of using direct inoculation of transformed cells onto the oil contaminated region thereby leading to the achievement of better oil degradation in a shorter time than the degradation caused by the wild strain.

Keywords: biodegradation, Hydrocarbon, aromatic rings, plasmid, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)

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193 Experimental Design in Extraction of Pseudomonas sp. Protease from Fermented Broth by Polyethylene Glycol/Citrate Aqueous Two-Phase System

Authors: Omar Pillaca-Pullo, Arturo Alejandro-Paredes, Carol Flores-Fernandez, Marijuly Sayuri Kina, Amparo Iris Zavaleta

Abstract:

Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is an interesting alternative for separating industrial enzymes due to it is easy to scale-up and low cost. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixed with potassium phosphate or magnesium sulfate is one of the most frequently polymer/salt ATPS used, but the consequences of its use is a high concentration of phosphates and sulfates in wastewater causing environmental issues. Citrate could replace these inorganic salts due to it is biodegradable and does not produce toxic compounds. On the other hand, statistical design of experiments is widely used for ATPS optimization and it allows to study the effects of the involved variables in the purification, and to estimate their significant effects on selected responses and interactions. The 24 factorial design with four central points (20 experiments) was employed to study the partition and purification of proteases produced by Pseudomonas sp. in PEG/citrate ATPS system. ATPS was prepared with different sodium citrate concentrations [14, 16 and 18% (w/w)], pH values (7, 8 and 9), PEG molecular weight (2,000; 4,000 and 6,000 g/mol) and PEG concentrations [18, 20 and 22 % (w/w)]. All system components were mixed with 15% (w/w) of the fermented broth and deionized water was added to a final weight of 12.5 g. Then, the systems were mixed and kept at room temperature until to reach two-phases separation. Volumes of the top and bottom phases were measured, and aliquots from both phases were collected for subsequent proteolytic activity and total protein determination. Influence of variables such as PEG molar mass (MPEG), PEG concentration (CPEG), citrate concentration (CSal) and pH were evaluated on the following responses: purification factor (PF), activity yield (Y), partition coefficient (K) and selectivity (S). STATISTICA program version 10 was used for the analysis. According to the obtained results, higher levels of CPEG and MPEG had a positive effect on extraction, while pH did not influence on the process. On the other hand, the CSal could be related with low values of Y because of the citrate ions have a negative effect on solubility and enzymatic structure. The optimum values of Y (66.4 %), PF (1.8), K (5.5) and S (4.3) were obtained at CSal (18%), MPEG (6,000 g/mol), CPEG (22%) and pH 9. These results indicated that the PEG/citrate system is accurate to purify these Pseudomonas sp. proteases from fermented broth as a first purification step.

Keywords: protease, polyethylene glycol, Pseudomonas sp, citrate

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192 Drug Sensitivity Pattern of Organisms Causing Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media

Authors: Fatma M. Benrabha

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to determine the type and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of the pathogenic microorganisms causing chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), which could lead to better therapeutic decisions and consequently avoidance of appearance of resistance to specific antibiotics. Most frequently isolated agents were Pseudomonas aeruginosa 28.5%; followed by Staphylococcus aureus 18.2%; proteus mirabilis 13.9%; Providencia stuartti 6.7%; Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Aspergillus sp., candida sp., 4.2% each; and other microorganisms were represented in 3-0.2%. Drug sensitivities pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed that ciprofloxacin was active against the majority of isolates (93.9%) followed by ceftazidime 86.2%, amikacin 76.2% and gentamicin 40.8%. However, Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin 72.7%, erythromycin 28.6%, cephalothin 18.2%, cloxacillin 8.3% and ciprofloxacin was active against 96.2% of isolates. The resistance pattern of proteus mirabilis were 55.6% to ampicillin, 47.1% to carbencillin, 29.4% to cephalothin, 14.3% to gentamicin and 4.8% to amikacin while 100% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is the best drug of choice in treatment of CSOM caused by the common microorganisms.

Keywords: Microorganism, otitis media, chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), drug sensitivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
191 Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Punica Granatum L. Bark

Authors: H. Kadi, A. Moussaoui, A. Medah, N. Benayahia, Nahal Bouderba

Abstract:

For thousands of years, Punica granatum L. has been used in traditional medicine all over the world and predate the introduction of antibacterial drugs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum L. bark obtained by decoction and maceration. The different extracts of Punica granatum L. (Lythraceae) bark have been tested for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus stearothermophilus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) by disc diffusion method. The ethanolic macerate extract showed the strong in vitro antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with zone inhibition of 24.4 mm. However, the results tests by disc diffusion method revealed the effectiveness of ethanolic decoctate against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus stearothermophilus) with diameter zone of inhibition varying with 21.1mm and 23.75 mm respectively.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, Punica granatum L. bark, maceration, decoction

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190 Soil Bioremediation Monitoring Systems Powered by Microbial Fuel Cells

Authors: András Fülöp, Lejla Heilmann, Zsolt Szabó, Ákos Koós

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Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) present a sustainable biotechnological solution to future energy demands. The aim of this study was to construct soil based, single cell, membrane-less MFC systems, operated without treatment to continuously power on-site monitoring and control systems during the soil bioremediation processes. Our Pseudomonas aeruginosa 541 isolate is an ideal choice for MFCs, because it is able to produce pyocyanin which behaves as electron-shuttle molecule, furthermore, it also has a significant antimicrobial effect. We tested several materials and structural configurations to obtain long term high power output. Comparing different configurations, a proton exchange membrane-less, 0.6 m long with 0.05 m diameter MFC tubes offered the best long-term performances. The long-term electricity production were tested from starch, yeast extract (YE), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with humic acid (HA) as a mediator. In all cases, 3 kΩ external load have been used. The two best-operated systems were the Pseudomonas aeruginosa 541 containing MFCs with 1 % carboxymethyl cellulose and the MFCs with 1% yeast extract in the anode area and 35% hydrogel in the cathode chamber. The first had 3.3 ± 0.033 mW/m2 and the second had 4.1 ± 0.065 mW/m2 power density values. These systems have operated for 230 days without any treatment. The addition of 0.2 % HA and 1 % YE referred to the volume of the anode area resulted in 1.4 ± 0.035 mW/m2 power densities. The mixture of 1% starch with 0.2 % HA gave 1.82 ± 0.031 mW/m2. Using CMC as retard carbon source takes effect in the long-term bacterial survivor, thus enable the expression of the long term power output. The application of hydrogels in the cathode chamber significantly increased the performance of the MFC units due to their good water retention capacity.

Keywords: Bioremediation, microbial fuel cell, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biotechnological solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
189 Drug Sensitivity Pattern of Organisms Causing Suppurative Otitis Media

Authors: Mabruka S. Elashheb, Nagat M. Saeed, Fatma M. Ben Rabaha, Aisha M Edrah

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to determine the type and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of the pathogenic microorganisms causing chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), which could lead to better therapeutic decisions and consequently avoidance of appearance of resistance to specific antibiotics. Most frequently isolated agents were Pseudomonas aeruginosa 28.5%; followed by Staphylococcus aureus 18.2%; proteus mirabilis 13.9%; Providencia stuartti 6.7%; Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Aspergillus sp., candida sp., 4.2% each; and other microorganisms were represented in 3-0.2%. Drug sensitivities pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed that ciprofloxacin was active against the majority of isolates (93.9%) followed by ceftazidime 86.2%, amikacin 76.2% and gentamicin 40.8%. However, Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin 72.7%, erythromycin 28.6%, cephalothin 18.2%, cloxacillin 8.3% and ciprofloxacin was active against 96.2% of isolates. The resistance pattern of proteus mirabilis was 55.6% to ampicillin, 47.1% to carbencillin, 29.4% to cephalothin, 14.3% to gentamicin and 4.8% to amikacin while 100% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is the best drug of choice in the treatment of CSOM caused by the common microorganisms.

Keywords: Microorganisms, otitis media, chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), drug sensitivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
188 Identification and Application of Biocontrol Agents against Cotton Leaf Curl Virus Disease in Gossypium hirsutum under Green House Conditions

Authors: Muhammad Tariq, Anwar Khan, Tayyab Husnain, Idrees Ahmad Nasir, Bushra Tabassum, Memoona Ramzan, Mudassar Fareed Awan, Zahida Qamar, Naila Shahid

Abstract:

Biological control is a novel approach being used in crop protection nowadays. Bacteria like Bacillus and Pseudomonas are reported for this purpose and few of their products are commercially available too. Rhizosphere and phyllosphere of healthy cotton plants were used as a source to isolate bacteria capable of exhibiting properties worthy for selection as biocontrol agent. For this purpose all isolated strains were screened for the activities like phosphate solubilization, Indole acetic acid (IAA) production and biocontrol against fungi. Two strains S1HL3 and S1HL4 showed phosphate solubilization and IAA production simultaneously while two other JS2HR4 and JS3HR2 were good inhibitors of fungal pathogens. Through biochemical and molecular characterization these bacteria were identified as P. aeruginosa, Burkholderia and Bacillus respectively. In green house trials of these isolates against Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), seven treatments including individual bacterial isolate and consortia were included. Treated plants were healthy as compared to control plants in which upto 74% CLCuV symptomatic plants exist. Maximum inhibition of CLCuV was observed in T7 treated plants where viral load was only 0.4% as compared to control where viral load was upto 74%. This treatment consortium included Bacillus and Pseudomonas isolates; S1HL3, S1HL4, JS2HR4 and JS3HR2. Principal Component Biplot depicted highly significant correlation between percentage viral load and the disease incidence.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, Biological Control, bacillus, cotton leaf curl virus

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
187 Motif Search-Aided Screening of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. Maculicola Genome for Genes Encoding Tertiary Alcohol Ester Hydrolases

Authors: M. L. Mangena, N. Mokoena, K. Rashamuse, M. G. Tlou

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Tertiary alcohol ester (TAE) hydrolases are a group of esterases (EC 3.1.1.-) that catalyze the kinetic resolution of TAEs and as a result, they are sought-after for the production of optically pure tertiary alcohols (TAs) which are useful as building blocks for number biologically active compounds. What sets these enzymes apart is, the presence of a GGG(A)X-motif in the active site which appears to be the main reason behind their activity towards the sterically demanding TAEs. The genome of Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) comprises a multitude of genes that encode esterases. We therefore, hypothesize that some of these genes encode TAE hydrolases. In this study, Psm was screened for TAE hydrolase activity using the linalyl acetate (LA) plate assay and a positive reaction was observed. As a result, the genome of Psm was screened for esterases with a GGG(A)X-motif using the motif search tool and two potential TAE hydrolase genes (PsmEST1 and 2, 1100 and 1000bp, respectively) were identified, PsmEST1 was amplified by PCR and the gene sequenced for confirmation. Analysis of the sequence data with the SingnalP 4.1 server revealed that the protein comprises a signal peptide (22 amino acid residues) on the N-terminus. Primers specific for the gene encoding the mature protein (without the signal peptide) were designed such that they contain NdeI and XhoI restriction sites for directional cloning of the PCR products into pET28a. The gene was expressed in E. coli JM109 (DE3) and the clones screened for TAE hydrolase activity using the LA plate assay. A positive clone was selected, overexpressed and the protein purified using nickel affinity chromatography. The activity of the esterase towards LA was confirmed using thin layer chromatography.

Keywords: Screening, hydrolases, tertiary alcohol esters, tertiary alcohols, Pseudomonas syringae pv, maculicola genome, esterase activity, linalyl acetate

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186 The Overexpression of Horsegram MURLK Improves Regulation of Cell Death and Defense Responses to Microbial Pathogens

Authors: Shikha Masand, Sudesh Kumar Yadav

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Certain protein kinases have been shown to be crucial for plant cell signaling pathways associated with plant immune responses. Here we identified a horsegram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.] malectin-like leucine rich receptor-like protein kinase (RLK) gene MuRLK. The functional MuRLK protein preferentially binds to mannose and N-acetyl glucosamine residues. MuRLK exists in the cytoplasm and also localizes to the plasma membrane of plant cells via its N-terminus. Over-expression of MuRLK in Arabidopsis enhances the basal resistance to infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Alternaria brassicicola and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, are associated with elevated ROS bursts, MAPK activation, thus ultimately leading to hypersensitive cell death. Moreover, salicylic acid-dependent and jasmonic acid-dependent defense responses are also enhanced in the MuRLK-overexpressed plants that lead to HR-induced cell death. Together, these results suggest that MuRLK plays a key role in the regulation of plant cell death, early and late defense responses after the recognition of microbial pathogens.

Keywords: cell death, Plant Defense, horsegram, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, MuRLK, ROS burst

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
185 Structural and Binding Studies of Peptidyl-tRNA Hydrolase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Provide a Platform for the Structure Based Inhibitor Design against Peptidyl-tRNA Hydrolase

Authors: Pradeep Sharma, Sujata Sharma, Avinash Singh, Lovely Gautam, Mau Sinha, Asha Bhushan, Punit Kaur, Tej P. Singh

Abstract:

Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (Pth) Pth is an essential bacterial enzyme that catalyzes the release of free tRNA and peptide moeities from peptidyl tRNAs during stalling of protein synthesis. In order to design inhibitors of Pth from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PaPth), we have determined the structures of PaPth in its native state and in the bound states with two compounds, amino acylate-tRNA analogue (AAtA) and 5-azacytidine (AZAC). The peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase gene from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was amplified by Phusion High-Fidelity DNA Polymerase using forward and reverse primers, respectively. The E. coliBL21 (λDE3) strain was used for expression of the recombinant peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The protein was purified using a Ni-NTA superflow column. The crystallization experiments were carried out using hanging drop vapour diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 1.50 Å resolution. The data were processed using HKL-2000. The polypeptide chain of PaPth consists of 194 amino acid residues from Met1 to Ala194. The centrally located β-structure is surrounded by α-helices from all sides except the side that has entrance to the substrate binding site. The structures of the complexes of PaPth with AAtA and AZAC showed the ligands bound to PaPth in the substrate binding cleft and interacted with protein atoms extensively. The residues that formed intermolecular hydrogen bonds with the atoms of AAtA included Asn12, His22, Asn70, Gly113, Asn116, Ser148, and Glu161 of the symmetry related molecule. The amino acids that were involved in hydrogen bonded interactions in case of AZAC included, His22, Gly113, Asn116, and Ser148. As indicated by fittings of two ligands and the number of interactions made by them with protein atoms, AAtA appears to be a more compatible with the structure of the substrate binding cleft. However, there is a further scope to achieve a better stacking than that of O-tyrosyl moiety because it is not still ideally stacked. These observations about the interactions between the protein and ligands have provided the information about the mode of binding of ligands, nature and number of interactions. This information may be useful for the design of tight inhibitors of Pth enzymes.

Keywords: peptidyl tRNA hydrolase, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pth enzymes, O-tyrosyl

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
184 Cloning and Expression of Azurin: A Protein Having Antitumor and Cell Penetrating Ability

Authors: Mohsina Akhter

Abstract:

Cancer has become a wide spread disease around the globe and takes many lives every year. Different treatments are being practiced but all have potential side effects with somewhat less specificity towards target sites. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known to secrete a protein azurin with special anti-cancer function. It has unique cell penetrating peptide comprising of 18 amino acids that have ability to enter cancer cells specifically. Reported function of Azurin is to stabilize p53 inside the tumor cells and induces apoptosis through Bax mediated cytochrome c release from mitochondria. At laboratory scale, we have made recombinant azurin through cloning rpTZ57R/T-azu vector into E.coli strain DH-5α and subcloning rpET28-azu vector into E.coli BL21-CodonPlus (DE3). High expression was ensured with IPTG induction at different concentrations then optimized high expression level at 1mM concentration of IPTG for 5 hours. Purification has been done by using Ni+2 affinity chromatography. We have concluded that azurin can be a remarkable improvement in cancer therapeutics if it produces on a large scale. Azurin does not enter into the normal cells so it will prove a safe and secure treatment for patients and prevent them from hazardous anomalies.

Keywords: Cancer, Therapeutics, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, azurin

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
183 The Effect of Biological Fertilizers on Yield and Yield Components of Maize with Different Levels of Chemical Fertilizers in Normal and Difficit Irrigation Conditions

Authors: Felora Rafiei, Shahram Shoaei

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The aim of this studies was to evaluate effect of nitroxin, super nitro plus and biophosphorus on yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays) under different levels of chemical fertilizers in the condition of normal and difficiet irrigation. Experiment laid out as split plot factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plots includes two irrigation treatments of 70 (I1), 120(I2) mm evaporation from class A pan. Sub plots were biological fertilizer and chemical fertilizer as factorial biological fertilizer consisting of nitroxin: Azospirillium lipoferum, Azospirillium brasilens, Azotobacter chroococcum Azotobacter agilis (108 CFU ml-1) (B1), super nitro plus (Azospirillium spp, + Pseudomonas fluorescence + Bacillus subtilis (108 CFU ml-1) + biological fungicide) (B2), biophosphorus (Pseudomonas spp + Bacillus spp (107 CFU ml-1) (B3), and chemical fertilizer consisting of NPK (C1), N5oP5oK5o (C2) and NoPoKo (C3).The results showed that usage of biological fertilizer have positive effects on chemical fertilizers use efficiency and tolerance to drought stress in maize. Also with use of biological fertilizer can decrease usage of chemical fertilizers.

Keywords: Yield, corn, yield component, chemical fertilizer, biological fertilizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
182 Comparison Study of 70% Ethanol Effect on Direct and Retrival Culture of Contaminated Umblical Cord Tissue for Expansion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Ganeshkumar, Ashika, Valavan, Ramesh, Thangam, Chirayu

Abstract:

MSCs are found in much higher concentration in the Wharton’s jelly compared to the umbilical cord blood, which is a rich source of hematopoietic stem cells. Umbilical cord tissue is collected at the time of birth; it is processed and stored in liquid nitrogen for future therapeutical purpose. The source of contamination might be either from vaginal tract of mother or from hospital environment or from personal handling during cord tissue sample collection. If the sample were contaminated, decontamination procedure will be done with 70% ethanol (1 minute) in order to avoid sample rejection. Ethanol is effective against a wide range of bacteria, protozoa and fungi and has low toxicity to humans. Among the 1954 samples taken for the study, 24 samples were found to be contaminated with microorganism. The organisms isolated from the positive samples were found to be E. coli, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas aueroginosa, Enterococcus fecalis, Acinetobacter bowmani, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter cloacae, and Proteus mirabilis. Among these organisms 70% ethanol successfully eliminated E. coli, Enterococcus fecalis, Acinetobacter bowmani, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Proteus mirabilis. 70% ethanol was unsuccessful in eliminating Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas aueroginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas aueroginosa have the ability to form biofilm that make them resistant to alcohol. Biofilm act as protective layer for bacteria and which protects them from host defense and antibiotic wash. Finally it was found 70% ethanol wash saved 58.3% cord tissue samples from rejection and it is ineffective against 41% of the samples. The contamination rate can be reduced by maintaining proper aseptic techniques during sample collection and processing.

Keywords: Contamination, decontamination, umblical cord tissue

Procedia PDF Downloads 236