Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: PFGE

5 Molecular Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes from Fresh Fish and Fish Products

Authors: Beata Lachtara, Renata Szewczyk, Katarzyna Bielinska, Kinga Wieczorek, Jacek Osek


Listeria monocytogenes is an important human and animal pathogen that causes foodborne outbreaks. The bacteria may be present in different types of food: cheese, raw vegetables, sliced meat products and vacuum-packed sausages, poultry, meat, fish. The most common method, which has been used for the investigation of genetic diversity of L. monocytogenes, is PFGE. This technique is reliable and reproducible and established as gold standard for typing of L. monocytogenes. The aim of the study was characterization by molecular serotyping and PFGE analysis of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from fresh fish and fish products in Poland. A total of 301 samples, including fresh fish (n = 129) and fish products (n = 172) were, collected between January 2014 and March 2016. The bacteria were detected using the ISO 11290-1 standard method. Molecular serotyping was performed with PCR. The isolates were tested with the PFGE method according to the protocol developed by the European Union Reference Laboratory for L. monocytogenes with some modifications. Based on the PFGE profiles, two dendrograms were generated for strains digested separately with two restriction enzymes: AscI and ApaI. Analysis of the fingerprint profiles was performed using Bionumerics software version 6.6 (Applied Maths, Belgium). The 95% of similarity was applied to differentiate the PFGE pulsotypes. The study revealed that 57 of 301 (18.9%) samples were positive for L. monocytogenes. The bacteria were identified in 29 (50.9%) ready-to-eat fish products and in 28 (49.1%) fresh fish. It was found that 40 (70.2%) strains were of serotype 1/2a, 14 (24.6%) 1/2b, two (4.3%) 4b and one (1.8%) 1/2c. Serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b were presented with the same frequency in both categories of food, whereas serotype 1/2c was detected only in fresh fish. The PFGE analysis with AscI demonstrated 43 different pulsotypes; among them 33 (76.7%) were represented by only one strain. The remaining 10 profiles contained more than one isolate. Among them 8 pulsotypes comprised of two L. monocytogenes isolates, one profile of three isolates and one restriction type of 5 strains. In case of ApaI typing, the PFGE analysis showed 27 different pulsotypes including 17 (63.0%) types represented by only one strain. Ten (37.0%) clusters contained more than one strain among which four profiles covered two strains; three had three isolates, one with five strains, one with eight strains and one with ten isolates. It was observed that the isolates assigned to the same PFGE type were usually of the same serotype (1/2a or 1/2b). The majority of the clusters had strains of both sources (fresh fish and fish products) isolated at different time. Most of the strains grouped in one cluster of the AscI restriction was assigned to the same groups in ApaI investigation. In conclusion, PFGE used in the study showed a high genetic diversity among L. monocytogenes. The strains were grouped into varied clonal clusters, which may suggest different sources of contamination. The results demonstrated that 1/2a serotype was the most common among isolates from fresh fish and fish products in Poland.

Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes, molecular characteristic, PFGE, serotyping

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4 Salmonella Emerging Serotypes in Northwestern Italy: Genetic Characterization by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

Authors: Clara Tramuta, Floris Irene, Daniela Manila Bianchi, Monica Pitti, Giulia Federica Cazzaniga, Lucia Decastelli


This work presents the results obtained by the Regional Reference Centre for Salmonella Typing (CeRTiS) in a retrospective study aimed to investigate, through Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, the genetic relatedness of emerging Salmonella serotypes of human origin circulating in North-West of Italy. Furthermore, the goal of this work was to create a Regional database to facilitate foodborne outbreak investigation and to monitor them at an earlier stage. A total of 112 strains, isolated from 2016 to 2018 in hospital laboratories, were included in this study. The isolates were previously identified as Salmonella according to standard microbiological techniques and serotyping was performed according to ISO 6579-3 and the Kaufmann-White scheme using O and H antisera (Statens Serum Institut®). All strains were characterized by PFGE: analysis was conducted according to a standardized PulseNet protocol. The restriction enzyme XbaI was used to generate several distinguishable genomic fragments on the agarose gel. PFGE was performed on a CHEF Mapper system, separating large fragments and generating comparable genetic patterns. The agarose gel was then stained with GelRed® and photographed under ultraviolet transillumination. The PFGE patterns obtained from the 112 strains were compared using Bionumerics version 7.6 software with the Dice coefficient with 2% band tolerance and 2% optimization. For each serotype, the data obtained with the PFGE were compared according to the geographical origin and the year in which they were isolated. Salmonella strains were identified as follow: S. Derby n. 34; S. Infantis n. 38; S. Napoli n. 40. All the isolates had appreciable restricted digestion patterns ranging from approximately 40 to 1100 kb. In general, a fairly heterogeneous distribution of pulsotypes has emerged in the different provinces. Cluster analysis indicated high genetic similarity (≥ 83%) among strains of S. Derby (n. 30; 88%), S. Infantis (n. 36; 95%) and S. Napoli (n. 38; 95%) circulating in north-western Italy. The study underlines the genomic similarities shared by the emerging Salmonella strains in Northwest Italy and allowed to create a database to detect outbreaks in an early stage. Therefore, the results confirmed that PFGE is a powerful and discriminatory tool to investigate the genetic relationships among strains in order to monitoring and control Salmonellosis outbreak spread. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) still represents one of the most suitable approaches to characterize strains, in particular for the laboratories for which NGS techniques are not available.

Keywords: emerging Salmonella serotypes, genetic characterization, human strains, PFGE

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3 Clonal Dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates in Kermanshah Hospitals, West of Iran

Authors: Alisha Akya, Afsaneh salami


Background and Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen associated with nosocomial infections. One of the major concerns for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections is its resistant to a variety of antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to assess the dissemination of p. aeruginosa isolates obtained from major hospitals in Kermanshah, west of Iran. Materials and Methods: Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the minimal inhibitory concentrations. Mettalo-beta-lactamase was investigated using the double disk diffusion (DDST) test and PCR. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: The 60 P. aeruginosa isolates, 30 (50%) were resistant to gentamicin, 38 (63/3%) to piperacilin, 42 (70%) to ceftazidime, and 45 (75%) to cefepime. Twenty-nine (48/3%) isolates were MBLs producer based on the DDST test. Five (8/3%) isolates were positive for VIM gene and 4 of them were from burn specimens. PFGE analysis among MBLs producers revealed 12 distinct genotype patterns. A pattern covering the highest number of strains was determined as the dominant clone. Conclusions: Our study showed that P. aeruginosa strains can be spread between patients in hospitals or acquired from different environmental sources. P. aeruginosa isolates were highly resistant to antibiotics and, therefore, the susceptibility of isolates to antibiotics should be tested before treatment. Given the clinical significance of MBLs producing isolates, identification of these organisms is essential in the hospitals in order to get a better therapeutic response and control of bacterial dissemination.

Keywords: clonal dissemination, mettalo-beta-lactamase, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, PFGE

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2 Analysis of Non-Coding Genome in Streptococcus pneumoniae for Molecular Epidemiology Typing

Authors: Martynova Alina, Lyubov Buzoleva


Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative agent of pneumonias and meningitids throught all the world. Having high genetic diversity, this microorganism can cause different clinical forms of pneumococcal infections and microbiologically it is really difficult diagnosed by routine methods. Also, epidemiological surveillance requires more developed methods of molecular typing because the recent method of serotyping doesn't allow to distinguish invasive and non-invasive isolates properly. Non-coding genome of bacteria seems to be the interesting source for seeking of highly distinguishable markers to discriminate the subspecies of such a variable bacteria as Streptococcus pneumoniae. Technically, we proposed scheme of discrimination of S.pneumoniae strains with amplification of non-coding region (SP_1932) with the following restriction with 2 types of enzymes of Alu1 and Mn1. Aim: This research aimed to compare different methods of typing and their application for molecular epidemiology purposes. Methods: we analyzed population of 100 strains of S.pneumoniae isolated from different patients by different molecular epidemiology methods such as pulse-field gel electophoresis (PFGE), restriction polymorphism analysis (RFLP) and multilolocus sequence typing (MLST), and all of them were compared with classic typing method as serotyping. The discriminative power was estimated with Simpson Index (SI). Results: We revealed that the most discriminative typing method is RFLP (SI=0,97, there were distinguished 42 genotypes).PFGE was slightly less discriminative (SI=0,95, we identified 35 genotypes). MLST is still the best reference method (SI=1.0). Classic method of serotyping showed quite weak discriminative power (SI=0,93, 24 genotypes). In addition, sensivity of RFLP was 100%, specificity was 97,09%. Conclusion: the most appropriate method for routine epidemiology surveillance is RFLP with non-coding region of Streptococcsu pneumoniae, then PFGE, though in some cases these results should be obligatory confirmed by MLST.

Keywords: molecular epidemiology typing, non-coding genome, Streptococcus pneumoniae, MLST

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1 A Comparison of Antibiotic Resistant Enterobacteriaceae: Diabetic versus Non-Diabetic Infections

Authors: Zainab Dashti, Leila Vali


Background: The Middle East, in particular Kuwait, contains one of the highest rates of patients with Diabetes in the world. Generally, infections resistant to antibiotics among the diabetic population has been shown to be on the rise. This is the first study in Kuwait to compare the antibiotic resistance profiles and genotypic differences between the resistant isolates of Enterobacteriaceae obtained from diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Material/Methods: In total, 65 isolates were collected from diabetic patients consisting of 34 E. coli, 15 K. pneumoniae and 16 other Enterobacteriaceae species (including Salmonella spp. Serratia spp and Proteus spp.). In our control group, a total of 49 isolates consisting of 37 E. coli, 7 K. pneumoniae and 5 other species (including Salmonella spp. Serratia spp and Proteus spp.) were included. Isolates were identified at the species level and antibiotic resistance profiles, including Colistin, were determined using initially the Vitek system followed by double dilution MIC and E-test assays. Multi drug resistance (MDR) was defined as isolates resistant to a minimum of three antibiotics from three different classes. PCR was performed to detect ESBL genes (blaCTX-M, blaTEM & blaSHV), flouroquinolone resistance genes (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS & aac(6’)-lb-cr) and carbapenem resistance genes (blaOXA, blaVIM, blaGIM, blaKPC, blaIMP, & blaNDM) in both groups. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to compare clonal relatedness of both E. coli and K.pneumonaie isolates. Results: Colistin resistance was determined in three isolates with MICs of 32-128 mg/L. A significant difference in resistance to ampicillin (Diabetes 93.8% vs control 72.5%, P value <0.002), augmentin (80% vs 52.5%, p value < 0.003), cefuroxime (69.2% vs 45%, p value < 0.0014), ceftazadime (73.8% vs 42.5%, p value <0.001) and ciprofloxacin (67.6% vs 40%, p value < 0.005) were determined. Also, a significant difference in MDR rates between the two groups (Diabetes 76.9%, control 57.5%, p value <0.036 were found. All antibiotic resistance genes showed a higher prevalence among the diabetic group, except for blaCTX-M, which was higher among the control group. PFGE showed a high rate of diversity between each group of isolates. Conclusions: Our results suggested an alarming rate of antibiotic resistance, in particular Colistin resistance (1.8%) among K. pneumoniea isolated from diabetic patients in Kuwait. MDR among Enterobacteriaceae infections also seems to be a worrying issue among the diabetics of Kuwait. More efforts are required to limit the issue of antibiotic resistance in Kuwait, especially among patients with diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, diabetes, enterobacreriacae, multi antibiotic resistance

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