Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 77

Search results for: Pratibha Kumari

77 Biological Control of Karnal Bunt by Pseudomonas fluorescens

Authors: Sugandha Asthana, Geetika Vajpayee, Pratibha Kumari and Shanthy Sundaram

Abstract:

Pseudomonas species possess a variety of promising properties of antifungal and growth promoting activities in the wheat plant. In the present study, Pseudomonas fluorescens MTCC-9768 is tested against plant pathogenic fungus Tilletia indica, causing Karnal bunt, a quarantine disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) affecting kernels of wheat. It is one of the 1/A1 harmful diseases of wheat worldwide under EU legislation. This disease develops in the growth phase by the spreading of microscopically small spores of the fungus (teliospores) being dispersed by the wind. The present chemical fungicidal treatments were reported to reduce teliospores germination, but its effect is questionable since T. indica can survive up to four years in the soil. The fungal growth inhibition tests were performed using Dual Culture Technique, and the results showed inhibition by 82.5%. The interaction of antagonist bacteria-fungus causes changes in the morphology of hyphae, which was observed using Lactophenol cotton blue staining and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The rounded and swollen ends, called ‘theca’ were observed in interacted fungus as compared to control fungus (without bacterial interaction). This bacterium was tested for its antagonistic activity like protease, cellulose, HCN production, Chitinase, etc. The growth promoting activities showed increase production of IAA in bacteria. The bacterial secondary metabolites were extracted in different solvents for testing its growth inhibiting properties. The characterization and purification of the antifungal compound were done by Thin Layer Chromatography, and Rf value was calculated (Rf value = 0.54) and compared to the standard antifungal compound, 2, 4 DAPG (Rf value = 0.54). Further, the in vivo experiments showed a significant decrease in the severity of disease in the wheat plant due to direct injection method and seed treatment. Our results indicate that the extracted and purified compound from the antagonist bacteria, P. fluorescens MTCC-9768 may be used as a potential biocontrol agent against T. indica. This also concludes that the PGPR properties of the bacteria may be utilized by incorporating it into bio-fertilizers.

Keywords: Antagonism, Pseudomonas fluorescens, PGPR, Karnal bunt

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76 Isolation and Screening of Antagonistic Bacteria against Wheat Pathogenic Fungus Tilletia indica

Authors: Shanthy Sundaram, Sugandha Asthana, Geetika Vajpayee, Pratibha Kumari

Abstract:

An economically important disease of wheat in North Western region of India is Karnal Bunt caused by smut fungus Tilletia indica. This fungal pathogen spreads by air, soil and seed borne sporodia at the time of flowering, which ultimately leads to partial bunting of wheat kernels with fishy odor and taste to wheat flour. It has very serious effects due to quarantine measures which have to be applied for grain exports. Chemical fungicides such as mercurial compounds and Propiconazole applied to the control of Karnal bunt have been only partially successful. Considering the harmful effects of chemical fungicides on man as well as environment, many countries are developing biological control as the superior substitute to chemical control. Repeated use of fungicides can be responsible for the development of resistance in fungal pathogens against certain chemical compounds. The present investigation is based on the isolation and evaluation of antifungal properties of some isolated (from natural manure) and commercial bacterial strains against Tilletia indica. Total 23 bacterial isolates were obtained and antagonistic activity of all isolates and commercial bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis MTCC8601, Bacillus pumilus MTCC 8743, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were tested against T. indica by dual culture plate assay (pour plate and streak plate). Test for the production of antifungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by antagonistic bacteria was done by sealed plate method. Amongst all s1, s3, s5, and B. subtilis showed more than 80% inhibition. Production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes such as protease, beta 1, 4 glucanase, HCN and ammonia was studied for confirmation of antifungal activity. s1, s3, s5 and B. subtilis were found to be the best for protease activity and s5 and B. subtilis for beta 1, 4 glucanase activity. Bacillus subtilis was significantly effective for HCN whereas s3, s5 and Bacillus subtilis for ammonia production. Isolates were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (s1) and B. licheniformis (s3, s5) by various biochemical assays and confirmed by16s rRNA sequencing. Use of microorganisms or their secretions as biocontrol agents to avoid plant diseases is ecologically safe and may offer long term of protection to crop. The above study reports the promising effects of these strains in better pathogen free crop production and quality maintenance as well as prevention of the excessive use of synthetic fungicides.

Keywords: Biocontrol, Antifungal, antagonistic, Karnal bunt

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75 Fast Fashion Parallel to Sustainable Fashion in India

Authors: Saurav Sharma, Deepshikha Sharma, Pratibha Sharma

Abstract:

This paper includes fast fashion verses sustainable fashion or slow fashion Indian based consumers. The expression ‘Fast fashion’ is generally referred to low-cost clothing collections that considered first hand copy of luxury brands, sometime interchangeably used with ‘mass fashion’. Whereas slow fashion or limited fashion which are consider to be more organic or eco-friendly. "Sustainable fashion is ethical fashion and here the consumer is just not design conscious but also social-environment conscious". Paper will deal with desire of young Indian consumer towards such luxury brands present in India, and their understanding of sustainable fashion, how to maintain the equilibrium between never newer fashion, style, and fashion sustainability.

Keywords: Sustainability, India, Sustainable Fashion, Fast Fashion

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74 Effect of Organochlorine Insecticide (Endosulfan) on Albino Rat at the Rate of Blood Uric Acid Level

Authors: Bindu Kumari, Bindu Kumari Singh

Abstract:

Endosulfan is known to be one of the highly toxic agricultural pesticides commonly used in our societies. With the widespread use of Endosulfan in agriculture, human beings are most likely to be exposed to it, either orally by eating Endosulfan-contaminated foods or by nose and whole body inhalation in the farms during its application. The present study was conducted to observe the changes in the serum uric acid level of the Swiss albino rats due to the administration of Endosulfan. 3.0 mg Endosulfan/kg body weight was daily administered orally to albino rats for 28 days period. Alterations in their K.F.T. parameters were recorded at a regular interval of 7 days within this 28 days period and were compared with those of control rats. All rats were monitored for any observable toxic symptoms throughout the experimental period and they also were weighted weekly to monitor body weight gain. Alteration recorded in K.F.T. parameters within the groups were due to Endosulfan exposure and serum uric acid level was significantly elevated in the 3mg/kg dose group. Pathological changes of rats treated with Endosulfan were observed with typical signs of toxicity. Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound formed as an end product of metabolism of purine nucleotides. It forms ions and salts known as urate and acid urate which are harmful to our health. Uric acid clearance is one of the numerous important functions of the kidney. Defects in this process resulted in Gout, kidney stone or Kidney failure.

Keywords: endosulfan, KFT parameters, blood uric acid level, eat

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73 Elongation Factor 1 Alpha Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis for Anastrepha fraterculus Complex

Authors: Pratibha Srivastava, Ayyamperumal Jeyaprakash, Gary Steck

Abstract:

Exotic, invasive tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are a major concern to fruit and vegetable production in the USA. Timely detection and identification of these agricultural pests facilitate the possibility of eradication from newly invaded areas. They spread primarily as larvae in infested fruits carried in commerce or personal baggage. Identification of larval stages to species level is difficult but necessary to determine pest loads and their pathways into the USA. The main focus of this study is the New World genus, Anastrepha. Many of its constituent taxa are pests of major economic importance. This study is significant for national quarantine use, as morphological diagnostics to separate larvae of the various members remain poorly developed. Elongation factor 1 alpha sequences were amplified from Anastrepha fraterculus specimens collected from South America (Ecuador and Peru). Phylogenetic analysis was performed to characterize the Anastrepha fraterculus complex at a molecular level.

Keywords: fruit fly, diptera, anastrepha, elongation factor

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72 Crime against Women behind Closed Doors in Indian Society

Authors: Rasha Kumari Panda

Abstract:

The crime against women in closed door is an important burning issue in day to day life. Domestic violence has become daily part of women’s life. It affects the millions of the women throughout the India as it violates their human rights. Crime against women behind closed door is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women, discrimination against women moreover, when the world is approaching towards modernization, worse the condition of women and girls in our society. This paper examines how the rights of women are being violated and suggests the remedial measures to empower women. Powerlessness of women is the root cause of violence has been specifically addressed.

Keywords: Domestic Violence, cruelty, dowry, statutes

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71 Study of Dermatoglyphics Pattern in Patient with Hypertension

Authors: Ajeevan Gautam, Gulam Anwer Khan, Pratibha Pokhrel

Abstract:

Introduction: Dermatoglyphics is the science which deals with the study of dermal ridge configuration on the digits, palms and soles. It is grooved by ridges and forms variety of configurations. The aim of the study was to identify dermal ridge patterns on fingertip of hypertensive patients and in normal population and to compare patterns among them. Methods: The subjects of the study were 130 hypertensives and 130 non-hypertensives cases of Kathmandu Valley aged between 40 to 80 years. Case history was recorded after consent finger prints were taken. Different parameters as whorl, loop, arch and composite patterns were studied and analysed. Result: It revealed, increased whorl pattern in hypertensive. It showed 65.69% whorl, 29.23% loop and 5.07% arch patterns in right hand of hypertensive people. In control, it was found to be 34.46% whorl, 58.15% loop and 5.38% arch patterns respectively. Similarly in left hand 63.69% whorl, 32% loop and 4.30% arch in hypertensive group. In control group it was 60.15% as loop, 35.69% as whorl and 15% as arch. Discussion: Based on findings of the result, it was concluded that the whorl, loop and arch patterns observed as 65.69%, 29.23% and 5.07% respectively in hypertensive cases in right hand. Similarly in left hand, it was found to be 4.30% as arch, 32% as loop and 63.69% as whorl patterns, but in normotensive subjects these patterns were recorded as 36.43%, 58.15%, 5.38% in right hand and 35.69%, 60.15%, 4.15% in left hand as whorl, loop and arch respectively.

Keywords: Hypertension, loop, arch, dermatoglyphics, whorl

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70 Pre-Shared Key Distribution Algorithms' Attacks for Body Area Networks: A Survey

Authors: Priti Kumari, Tricha Anjali

Abstract:

Body Area Networks (BANs) have emerged as the most promising technology for pervasive health care applications. Since they facilitate communication of very sensitive health data, information leakage in such networks can put human life at risk, and hence security inside BANs is a critical issue. Safe distribution and periodic refreshment of cryptographic keys are needed to ensure the highest level of security. In this paper, we focus on the key distribution techniques and how they are categorized for BAN. The state-of-art pre-shared key distribution algorithms are surveyed. Possible attacks on algorithms are demonstrated with examples.

Keywords: Attacks, key distribution, body area network, key refreshment, pre-shared keys

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69 A Study of Financial Literacy among Undergraduates

Authors: Prasansha Kumari

Abstract:

Financial Literacy is the possession of knowledge and understanding of financial matters. Financial Literacy often entails the knowledge of properly making decisions pertaining to certain personal financial areas like real estate, insurance investing, and savings. This paper intends to identify and analyze the financial knowledge among university undergraduates by using 200 undergraduates in four faculties of University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. Collected data will be analyzed by descriptive research method using SPSS package. Expected outcomes are considerable percentage of undergraduates have basic knowledge on financial matters while it has a law percentage for advanced financial literacy among undergraduates. Students from faculty of Commerce and Management and Science have good understanding about financial matters than undergraduates in other two faculties

Keywords: Financial Literacy, savings, undergraduates, advanced finance

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68 Design of a Real Time Closed Loop Simulation Test Bed on a General Purpose Operating System: Practical Approaches

Authors: Pratibha Srivastava, Chithra V. J., Sudhakar S., Nitin K. D.

Abstract:

A closed-loop system comprises of a controller, a response system, and an actuating system. The controller, which is the system under test for us, excites the actuators based on feedback from the sensors in a periodic manner. The sensors should provide the feedback to the System Under Test (SUT) within a deterministic time post excitation of the actuators. Any delay or miss in the generation of response or acquisition of excitation pulses may lead to control loop controller computation errors, which can be catastrophic in certain cases. Such systems categorised as hard real-time systems that need special strategies. The real-time operating systems available in the market may be the best solutions for such kind of simulations, but they pose limitations like the availability of the X Windows system, graphical interfaces, other user tools. In this paper, we present strategies that can be used on a general purpose operating system (Bare Linux Kernel) to achieve a deterministic deadline and hence have the added advantages of a GPOS with real-time features. Techniques shall be discussed how to make the time-critical application run with the highest priority in an uninterrupted manner, reduced network latency for distributed architecture, real-time data acquisition, data storage, and retrieval, user interactions, etc.

Keywords: Scheduling, real time data acquisition, real time kernel preemption, network latency

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67 Performance Comparison of Reactive, Proactive and Hybrid Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Ramesh Kumar, Kumar Manoj, Kumari Arti, Kumar Prashant

Abstract:

Routing protocols have a central role in any mobile ad hoc network (MANET). There are many routing protocols that exhibit different performance levels in different scenarios. In this paper we compare AODV, DSDV, DSR and ZRP routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks to determine the best operational conditions for each protocol. We analyses these routing protocols by extensive simulations in OPNET simulator and show that how pause time and the number of nodes affect their performance. In this study, performance is measured in terms of control traffic received, control traffic sent, data traffic received, data traffic sent, throughput, retransmission attempts.

Keywords: manet, DSDV, AODV, DSR, ZRP

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66 Effect of Particle Aspect Ratio and Shape Factor on Air Flow inside Pulmonary Region

Authors: Pratibha, Jyoti Kori

Abstract:

Particles in industry, harvesting, coal mines, etc. may not necessarily be spherical in shape. In general, it is difficult to find perfectly spherical particle. The prediction of movement and deposition of non spherical particle in distinct airway generation is much more difficult as compared to spherical particles. Moreover, there is extensive inflexibility in deposition between ducts of a particular generation and inside every alveolar duct since particle concentrations can be much bigger than the mean acinar concentration. Consequently, a large number of particles fail to be exhaled during expiration. This study presents a mathematical model for the movement and deposition of those non-spherical particles by using particle aspect ratio and shape factor. We analyse the pulsatile behavior underneath sinusoidal wall oscillation due to periodic breathing condition through a non-Darcian porous medium or inside pulmonary region. Since the fluid is viscous and Newtonian, the generalized Navier-Stokes equation in two-dimensional coordinate system (r, z) is used with boundary-layer theory. Results are obtained for various values of Reynolds number, Womersley number, Forchsheimer number, particle aspect ratio and shape factor. Numerical computation is done by using finite difference scheme for very fine mesh in MATLAB. It is found that the overall air velocity is significantly increased by changes in aerodynamic diameter, aspect ratio, alveoli size, Reynolds number and the pulse rate; while velocity is decreased by increasing Forchheimer number.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, Deposition, interstitial lung diseases, non-Darcian medium, shape factor

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65 Kinetic Alfvén Wave Localization and Turbulent Spectrum

Authors: Anju Kumari, R. P. Sharma

Abstract:

The localization of Kinetic Alfvén Wave (KAW) caused by finite amplitude background density fluctuations has been studied in intermediate beta plasma. KAW breaks up into localized large amplitude structures when perturbed by MHD fluctuations of the medium which are in the form of magnetosonic waves. Numerical simulation has been performed to analyse the localized structures and resulting turbulent spectrum of KAW applicable to magnetopause. Simulation results reveal that power spectrum deviates from Kolmogorov scaling at the transverse size of KAW, equal to ion gyroradius. Steepening of power spectrum at shorter wavelengths may be accountable for heating and acceleration of the plasma particles. The obtained results are compared with observations collected from the THEMIS spacecraft in magnetopause.

Keywords: Turbulence, Localization, Kinetic Alfvén Wave (KAW), turbulent spectrum

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64 Image Steganography Using Least Significant Bit Technique

Authors: Preeti Kumari, Ridhi Kapoor

Abstract:

 In any communication, security is the most important issue in today’s world. In this paper, steganography is the process of hiding the important data into other data, such as text, audio, video, and image. The interest in this topic is to provide availability, confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of data. The steganographic technique that embeds hides content with unremarkable cover media so as not to provoke eavesdropper’s suspicion or third party and hackers. In which many applications of compression, encryption, decryption, and embedding methods are used for digital image steganography. Due to compression, the nose produces in the image. To sustain noise in the image, the LSB insertion technique is used. The performance of the proposed embedding system with respect to providing security to secret message and robustness is discussed. We also demonstrate the maximum steganography capacity and visual distortion.

Keywords: Information Hiding, Steganography, color image, encoding, lsb

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63 Nuclear Mitochondrial Pseudogenes in Anastrepha fraterculus Complex

Authors: Pratibha Srivastava, Ayyamperumal Jeyaprakash, Gary Steck, Jason Stanley, Leroy Whilby

Abstract:

Exotic, invasive tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are a major threat to fruit and vegetable industries in the United States. The establishment of pest fruit fly in the agricultural industries and produce severe ecological and economic impacts on agricultural diversification and trade. Detection and identification of these agricultural pests in a timely manner will facilitate the possibility of eradication from newly invaded areas. Identification of larval stages to species level is difficult, but is required to determine pest loads and their pathways into the United States. The aim of this study is the New World genus, Anastrepha which includes pests of major economic importance. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene sequences were amplified from Anastrepha fraterculus specimens collected from South America (Ecuador and Peru). Phylogenetic analysis was performed to characterize the Anastrepha fraterculus complex at a molecular level. During phylogenetics analysis numerous nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) were discovered in different specimens. The numts are nonfunctional copies of the mtDNA present in the nucleus and are easily coamplified with the mitochondrial COI gene copy by using conserved universal primers. This is problematic for DNA Barcoding, which attempts to characterize all living organisms by using the COI gene. This study is significant for national quarantine use, as morphological diagnostics to separate larvae of the various members remain poorly developed.

Keywords: COI, tephritid, Anastrepha fraterculus, numts

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62 Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Differentiation of Neurocysticercosis and Tuberculoma

Authors: Rajendra N. Ghosh, Paramjeet Singh, Niranjan Khandelwal, Sameer Vyas, Pratibha Singhi, Naveen Sankhyan

Abstract:

Background: Tuberculoma and neurocysticercosis (NCC) are two most common intracranial infections in developing country. They often simulate on neuroimaging and in absence of typical imaging features cause significant diagnostic dilemmas. Differentiation is extremely important to avoid empirical exposure to antitubercular medications or nonspecific treatment causing disease progression. Purpose: Better characterization and differentiation of CNS tuberculoma and NCC by using morphological and multiple advanced functional MRI. Material and Methods: Total fifty untreated patients (20 tuberculoma and 30 NCC) were evaluated by using conventional and advanced sequences like CISS, SWI, DWI, DTI, Magnetization transfer (MT), T2Relaxometry (T2R), Perfusion and Spectroscopy. rCBV,ADC,FA,T2R,MTR values and metabolite ratios were calculated from lesion and normal parenchyma. Diagnosis was confirmed by typical biochemical, histopathological and imaging features. Results: CISS was most useful sequence for scolex detection (90% on CISS vs 73% on routine sequences). SWI showed higher scolex detection ability. Mean values of ADC, FA,T2R from core and rCBV from wall of lesion were significantly different in tuberculoma and NCC (P < 0.05). Mean values of rCBV, ADC, T2R and FA for tuberculoma and NCC were (3.36 vs1.3), (1.09x10⁻³vs 1.4x10⁻³), (0.13 x10⁻³ vs 0.09 x10⁻³) and (88.65 ms vs 272.3 ms) respectively. Tuberculomas showed high lipid peak, more choline and lower creatinine with Ch/Cr ratio > 1. T2R value was most significant parameter for differentiation. Cut off values for each significant parameters have proposed. Conclusion: Quantitative MRI in combination with conventional sequences can better characterize and differentiate similar appearing tuberculoma and NCC and may be incorporated in routine protocol which may avoid brain biopsy and empirical therapy.

Keywords: Differentiation, advanced functional MRI, neurcysticercosis, tuberculoma

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61 Screening of Potential Sources of Tannin and Its Therapeutic Application

Authors: Mamta Kumari, Shashi Jain

Abstract:

Tannins are a unique category of plant phytochemicals especially in terms of their vast potential health-benefiting properties. Researchers have described the capacity of tannins to enhance glucose uptake and inhibit adipogenesis, thus being potential drugs for the treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Thus, the present research was conducted to find out tannin content of food products. The percentage of tannin in various analyzed sources ranged from 0.0 to 108.53%; highest in kathaa and lowest in ker and mango bark. The percentage of tannins present in the plants, however, varies. Numerous studies have confirmed that the naturally occurring polyphenols are key factor for the beneficial effects of the herbal medicines. Isolation and identification of active constituents from plants, preparation of standardized dose & dosage regimen can play a significant role in improving the hypoglycaemic action.

Keywords: Diabetes, polyphenols, hypoglycemia, antioxidant, tannins

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60 Possibility of Agritourism Development for Sustainable Rural Development in Sri Lanka

Authors: Prasansha Kumari

Abstract:

Agritourism is a growing industry in many parts of the world. At present, agritourism is promoted by most of the countries in the world aiming at sustainable rural development. This study intends to identify and analyze the potential for agritourism development in Sri Lanka with special reference to five farming areas in Kegalle district. SWOT analysis used to identify the possibility of agritourism in this areas. The study rival that there are several opportunities to the development of agritourism while identified the main threat and weakness for developing agritourism in the study areas. The opportunities related to a number of tourist attraction places and increase the demand for agritourism. The main problems related to infrastructure facilities, large farming lands, knowledge and skill of farmers, government support, credits and financial assistance, attitude of young generation and environmental impact.

Keywords: Tourism, Farming, Agritourism, sustainable rural development

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
59 Structural Analysis of Hydro-Turbine Head Cover Using Ansys

Authors: VINOD KUMAR, Surjit Angra, Manisha Kumari

Abstract:

The objective of the Hydro Turbine Head Cover is to support the guide bearing, guide vane regulating mechanism and even in some design for generator thrust bearing support. Mechanical design of head cover deals with high static as well as fluctuating load acting on the structure. In the present work structural analysis of hydro turbine Head-cover using ANSYS software is carried out. Finite element method is used to calculate stresses on head cover. These calculations were done for the maximum possible loading under operating condition “LCI Quick Shut Down”. The results for equivalent Von-Mises stress, total deformation and directional deformation have been plotted and compared with the existing results whether the design is safe or not.

Keywords: Structural Analysis, ANSYS, hydro-turbine, head cover, total deformation, Von-Mises stress

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58 Model-Independent Price Bounds for the Swiss Re Mortality Bond 2003

Authors: Raj Kumari Bahl, Sotirios Sabanis

Abstract:

In this paper, we are concerned with the valuation of the first Catastrophic Mortality Bond that was launched in the market namely the Swiss Re Mortality Bond 2003. This bond encapsulates the behavior of a well-defined mortality index to generate payoffs for the bondholders. Pricing this bond is a challenging task. We adapt the payoff of the terminal principal of the bond in terms of the payoff of an Asian put option and present an approach to derive model-independent bounds exploiting comonotonic theory. We invoke Jensen’s inequality for the computation of lower bounds and employ Lagrange optimization technique to achieve the upper bound. The success of these bounds is based on the availability of compatible European mortality options in the market. We carry out Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the bond price and illustrate the strength of these bounds across a variety of models. The fact that our bounds are model-independent is a crucial breakthrough in the pricing of catastrophic mortality bonds.

Keywords: comonotonicity, mortality bond, Swiss Re Bond, mortality index

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57 Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Specific Bacteriophage Isolation from Sewage Treatment Plant and in vivo Analysis of Phage Efficiency in Swiss Albino Mice

Authors: Anuradha Singh, Pratibha Goyal, Nupur Mathur

Abstract:

Antibiotic resistance is the worldwide threat to human health in this century. Excessive use of antibiotic after their discovery in 1940 makes certain bacteria to become resistant against antibiotics. Most common antibiotic-resistant bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, E.coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Streptococcus pneumonia. Among all Staphylococcus resistant strain called Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for several lives threatening infection in human commonly found in the hospital environment. Our study aimed to isolate bacteriophage against MRSA from the hospital sewage treatment plant and to analyze its efficiency In Vivo in Swiss albino mice model. Sewage sample for the isolation of bacteriophages was collected from SDMH hospital sewage treatment plant in Jaipur. Bacteriophages isolated by the use of enrichment technique and after characterization, isolated phages used to determine phage treatment efficiency in mice. Mice model used to check the safety and suitability of phage application in human need which in turn directly support the use of natural bacteriophage rather than synthetic chemical to kill pathogens. Results show the plaque formation in-vitro and recovery of MRSA infected mice during the experiment. Favorable lytic efficiency determination of MRSA and Salmonella presents a natural way to treat lethal infections caused by Multidrug-resistant bacteria by using their natural host-pathogen relationship.

Keywords: Pathogens, Bacteriophages, Antibiotic Resistance, Phage Therapy, salmonella typhi, methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus

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56 Design and Development of High Strength Aluminium Alloy from Recycled 7xxx-Series Material Using Bayesian Optimisation

Authors: Sunil Gupta, Alireza Vahid, Santu Rana, Pratibha Vellanki, Svetha Venkatesh, Thomas Dorin

Abstract:

Aluminum is the preferred material for lightweight applications and its alloys are constantly improving. The high strength 7xxx alloys have been extensively used for structural components in aerospace and automobile industries for the past 50 years. In the next decade, a great number of airplanes will be retired, providing an obvious source of valuable used metals and great demand for cost-effective methods to re-use these alloys. The design of proper aerospace alloys is primarily based on optimizing strength and ductility, both of which can be improved by controlling the additional alloying elements as well as heat treatment conditions. In this project, we explore the design of high-performance alloys with 7xxx as a base material. These designed alloys have to be optimized and improved to compare with modern 7xxx-series alloys and to remain competitive for aircraft manufacturing. Aerospace alloys are extremely complex with multiple alloying elements and numerous processing steps making optimization often intensive and costly. In the present study, we used Bayesian optimization algorithm, a well-known adaptive design strategy, to optimize this multi-variable system. An Al alloy was proposed and the relevant heat treatment schedules were optimized, using the tensile yield strength as the output to maximize. The designed alloy has a maximum yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of more than 730 and 760 MPa, respectively, and is thus comparable to the modern high strength 7xxx-series alloys. The microstructure of this alloy is characterized by electron microscopy, indicating that the increased strength of the alloy is due to the presence of a high number density of refined precipitates.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Aluminum Alloys, Bayesian Optimization, tensile properties

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55 Statistical Modeling for Permeabilization of a Novel Yeast Isolate for β-Galactosidase Activity Using Organic Solvents

Authors: Parmjit S. Panesar, Manab B. Bera, Shweta Kumari

Abstract:

The hydrolysis of lactose using β-galactosidase is one of the most promising biotechnological applications, which has wide range of potential applications in food processing industries. However, due to intracellular location of the yeast enzyme, and expensive extraction methods, the industrial applications of enzymatic hydrolysis processes are being hampered. The use of permeabilization technique can help to overcome the problems associated with enzyme extraction and purification of yeast cells and to develop the economically viable process for the utilization of whole cell biocatalysts in food industries. In the present investigation, standardization of permeabilization process of novel yeast isolate was carried out using a statistical model approach known as Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to achieve maximal b-galactosidase activity. The optimum operating conditions for permeabilization process for optimal β-galactosidase activity obtained by RSM were 1:1 ratio of toluene (25%, v/v) and ethanol (50%, v/v), 25.0 oC temperature and treatment time of 12 min, which displayed enzyme activity of 1.71 IU /mg DW.

Keywords: Optimization, Yeast, response surface methodology, β-galactosidase, permeabilization

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54 The Impact of Sport Tourism on Small Scale Business Development in Sri Lanka

Authors: Prasansha Kumari, Vimuckthi Charika Wickramaratne

Abstract:

Sport tourism refers to travel which involves either observing or participating in a sporting event apart from their usual environment. Sport tourism in a fast growing sector of the Sri Lankan travelling industry since Cricket are more popular sport game in the country. This study intends to analyze the impact of these popular sport events for creating and developing small scale business in the country. Primary data gathered from 100 small entrepreneurs around Keththarama Cricket Ground in Sri Lanka. Collected data analyzed using descriptive research methods. The study revealed that local and international visitors for cricket games had impacted on small scale business activities such as retail, handicraft, transport, vehicle parking, small restaurant, hotels, foods and beverage industry. In addition, it was identified that these type of small business are sessional income generating activities for the short period.

Keywords: Entrepreneurs, Sport Tourism, cricket, small scale business

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53 A Comparative Study of Modern Trends in Traditional Farming Methods of Paddy Cultivation

Authors: Prasansha Kumari

Abstract:

This research intends to identify and analyze the new trends of usage the traditional farming methods to modern paddy cultivation. Information gathered through conducting interviews with total of 200 farmers in selected paddy cultivation areas in Kurunegalla district. As well as this research utilized by case study and observation in Ulpotha Traditional Village, Galgamuwa of Sri Lanka. Secondary data collected from books, articles, relevant websites and other relevant documents. Collected data analyzed by descriptive research methodology. Outcomes are there is growing interest in usage the traditional farming methods to the small consumption level paddy lands that have emerged during the last few decades as well as the research revealed that traditional farming method has identified the ecofriendly farming practices to restrict long term side effects inherited from the modern methods. The study finds out the demand of traditional rice varieties has been growing among the community as health and nutrition purpose.

Keywords: Organic, inorganic, traditional farming, paddy cultivation

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52 Treatment of Industrial Effluents by Using Polyethersulfone/Chitosan Membrane Derived from Fishery Waste

Authors: Suneeta Kumari, Abanti Sahoo

Abstract:

Industrial effluents treatment is a major problem in the world. All wastewater treatment methods have some problems in the environment. Due to this reason, today many natural biopolymers are being used in the waste water treatment because those are safe for our environment. In this study, synthesis and characterization of polyethersulfone/chitosan membranes (Thin film composite membrane) are carried out. Fish scales are used as raw materials. Different characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) are analysed for the synthesized membrane. The performance of membranes such as flux, rejection, and pore size are also checked. The synthesized membrane is used for the treatment of steel industry waste water where Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), pH, colour, Total dissolved solids (TDS), Total suspended solids (TSS), Electrical conductivity (EC) and Turbidity aspects are analysed.

Keywords: chitosan, fish scale, membrane synthesis, treatment of industrial effluents

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51 Treatment and Reuse of Nonmetallic PCBs Waste

Authors: Shantha Kumari Muniyandi, Johan Sohaili, Siti Suhaila Mohamad

Abstract:

The strength development, durability and leachability aspects of mortar added with nonmetallic printed circuit board (NMPCBs) were investigated. This study aims to propose methods for treatment and reuse of NMPCBs waste. The leachability of raw NMPCBs was tested for toxicity by performing the Crushed Block Leachability (CBL) test. The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated by performing compressive, flexural strength, durability and whole block leachability (WBL) tests on the mortar. The results indicated that the concentration of metals leach from the raw NMPCBs are within the standard limits and higher than the concentration of metals from WBL test. The compressive and flexural strength of the NMPCBs mortar was generally lower than the standard mortar. From durability tests, weight and compressive strength both of mortars was decrease after soaking in acid solution. As a conclusion, the treated NMPCBs can be reused in profitable and environmentally friendly ways and has broad application prospects.

Keywords: treatment, reuse, nonmetallic, printed circuit board

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50 Modelling Fluoride Pollution of Groundwater Using Artificial Neural Network in the Western Parts of Jharkhand

Authors: Neeta Kumari, Gopal Pathak

Abstract:

Artificial neural network has been proved to be an efficient tool for non-parametric modeling of data in various applications where output is non-linearly associated with input. It is a preferred tool for many predictive data mining applications because of its power , flexibility, and ease of use. A standard feed forward networks (FFN) is used to predict the groundwater fluoride content. The ANN model is trained using back propagated algorithm, Tansig and Logsig activation function having varying number of neurons. The models are evaluated on the basis of statistical performance criteria like Root Mean Squarred Error (RMSE) and Regression coefficient (R2), bias (mean error), Coefficient of variation (CV), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and the index of agreement (IOA). The results of the study indicate that Artificial neural network (ANN) can be used for groundwater fluoride prediction in the limited data situation in the hard rock region like western parts of Jharkhand with sufficiently good accuracy.

Keywords: artificial neural network (ANN), Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, FFN (Feed-forward network), backpropagation algorithm, groundwater fluoride contamination

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
49 Hepatoprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Terminalia paniculata against Anti-Tubercular Drugs (ATT) Induced Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Albino Rats

Authors: Mohana Babu Amberkar, Meena Kumari K, Ravi, Arjun, Christopher Rockson

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Terminalia paniculata (Tp) against ATT induced hepatic damage in rats.Three hepatotoxic ATT drugs Isoniazid + Rifampicin + Pyrazinamide, silymarin as standard hepatoprotective drug and 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as a control were used. Tp extract and silymarin were administered orally with ATT drugs for 90 days. Two doses 250 and 500 mg/kg of Tp extract, ATT drugs and silymarin were administered as suspensions with 0.5% CMC. ATT treated rats showed a significant increase in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and lipid peroxides in the serum vs. control. Treatment of silymarin and Tp (250mg/kg) extract showed hepatoprotective activity against the hepatic damage by ATT. This was evident from significant reduction in serum liver enzymes levels, and also there was a significant increase in serum proteins, albumin and total liver tissue thiols as compared to the ATT treated groups. Tp was found to possess hepatoprotective property.

Keywords: antitubercular drugs, hepatoprotective, liver enzymes, Terminalia paniculata

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48 The Influence of High Temperatures on HVFA Concrete Columns by NDT Methods

Authors: D. Jagath Kumari, K. Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

Quality assurance of the structures subjected to high temperatures is now enforcing measure for the Structural Engineers. The existing relations between strength and nondestructive measurements have been established under normal conditions are not suitable to concretes that have been exposed to high temperatures. The scope of the work is to investigate the influence of high temperatures of short durations on the residual properties of reinforced HVFA concrete columns that affect the strength by non-destructive tests (NDT). Fly ash concrete is increasingly used in the design of normal strength, high strength and high performance concretes. In this paper, the authors revealed the influence of high temperatures on HVFA concrete columns. These columns are heated from 100oC to 800oC with increments of 100oC and allowed to cool to room temperature by two methods one is air cooling method and the other immediate water quenching method. All the specimens were tested identically, before heating and after heating for compressive strength and material integrity by rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) meter respectively. HVFA concrete retained more residual strength by water quenching method than air-cooling method.

Keywords: Non-destructive Tests, HVFA concrete, NDT methods, residual strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 327