Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 284

Search results for: clonal dissemination

284 Clonal Dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates in Kermanshah Hospitals, West of Iran

Authors: Alisha Akya, Afsaneh salami

Abstract:

Background and Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen associated with nosocomial infections. One of the major concerns for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections is its resistant to a variety of antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to assess the dissemination of p. aeruginosa isolates obtained from major hospitals in Kermanshah, west of Iran. Materials and Methods: Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the minimal inhibitory concentrations. Mettalo-beta-lactamase was investigated using the double disk diffusion (DDST) test and PCR. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: The 60 P. aeruginosa isolates, 30 (50%) were resistant to gentamicin, 38 (63/3%) to piperacilin, 42 (70%) to ceftazidime, and 45 (75%) to cefepime. Twenty-nine (48/3%) isolates were MBLs producer based on the DDST test. Five (8/3%) isolates were positive for VIM gene and 4 of them were from burn specimens. PFGE analysis among MBLs producers revealed 12 distinct genotype patterns. A pattern covering the highest number of strains was determined as the dominant clone. Conclusions: Our study showed that P. aeruginosa strains can be spread between patients in hospitals or acquired from different environmental sources. P. aeruginosa isolates were highly resistant to antibiotics and, therefore, the susceptibility of isolates to antibiotics should be tested before treatment. Given the clinical significance of MBLs producing isolates, identification of these organisms is essential in the hospitals in order to get a better therapeutic response and control of bacterial dissemination.

Keywords: clonal dissemination, mettalo-beta-lactamase, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, PFGE

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
283 Adaptive Strategies of Clonal Shrub to Sand Dune Environment in Desert-Oasis Transitional Zone

Authors: Weicheng Luo, Wenzhi Zhao

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Plants growth in desert often suffered from stresses like water deficit, wind erosion and sand burial. Thus, plants in desert always have unique strategies to adapt these stresses. However, data regarding how clonal shrubs withstand wind erosion and sand burial in natural habitats remain relatively scarce. Therefore, we selected a common clonal shrub Calligonum arborescens to study the adaptive strategies of clonal plants to sand dune environment in a transitional zone of desert and Hexi Oasis of China. Our results show that sand burial is one of the essential prerequisites for the survival of C. arborescens rhizome fragments. Both the time and degrees of sand burial and wind erosion had significantly effects on clonal reproduction and growth of C. arborescens. With increasing burial depth, the number of ramets and biomass production significantly decreased. There is same change trend in severe erosion treatments. However, the number of ramets and biomass production significantly increased in moderate erosion treatments. Rhizome severed greatly decreased ramet number and biomass production under both sand burial and severe erosion treatments. That indicated that both sand burial and severe erosion had negative effects on the clonal growth of C. arborescens, but moderate wind erosion had positive effects. And rhizome connections alleviated the negative effects of sand burial and of severe erosion on the growth and performance of C. arborescens. Most fragments of C. arborescens grew in the directions of northeastern and southwestern. Ramet number and biomass, rhizome length and biomass in these two directions were significantly higher than those found in other directions. Interestingly, these directions were perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction. Distribution of C. arborescens differed in different habitats. The total number of individuals was significantly higher in inter-dune areas and on windward slopes than on the top and leeward slopes of dunes; more clonal ramets were produced on the top of dunes than elsewhere, and a few were found on leeward slopes. The mainly reason is that ramets on windward and top of dunes can easily suffered with moderated wind erosion which promoted clonal growth and reproduction of C. arborescens. These results indicated that C. arborescens adapted sand dune environment through directional growth and patchy distribution, and sand-burial and wind erosion were the key factors which led to the directional growth and patchiness of C. arborescens.

Keywords: adaptive strategy, Calligonum arborescens Litv, clonal fragment, desert-oasis transitional zone, sand burial and wind erosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
282 Clonal Evaluation of Malignant Mesothelioma

Authors: Sabahattin Comertpay, Sandra Pastorino, Rosanna Mezzapelle, Mika Tanji, Oriana Strianese, Andrea Napolitano, Tracey Weigel, Joseph Friedberg, Paul Sugarbaker, Thomas Krausz, Ena Wang, Amy Powers, Giovanni Gaudino, Harvey I. Pass, Fatmagul Ozcelik, Barbara L. Parsons, Haining Yang, Michele Carbone

Abstract:

Tumors are thought to be monoclonal in origin. This paradigm arose decades ago, primarily from the study of hematopoietic malignancies and sarcomas. The clonal origin of malignant mesothelioma (MM), a deadly cancer resistant to the current therapies, has not been investigated. Examination of the pleura from patients with MM shows often the presence of multiple pleural nodules, raising the question of whether they represent independent or metastatic growth processes. To investigate the clonality patterns of MM, we used the HUMARA (Human Androgen Receptor) assay to examine 14 sporadic and 2 familial Malignant Mesotheliomas (MM). Of 16 specimens studied, 15 were informative and 14/15 revealed two electrophoretically distinct methylated HUMARA alleles, indicating a polyclonal origin for these tumors. This discovery has important clinical implications, because an accurate assessment of tumor clonality is key to the design of novel molecular strategies for the treatment of MM.

Keywords: malignant mesothelioma, clonal origin, HUMARA, sarcomas

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
281 Macro-Somatic Clonal Propagation of Tree-Borne Oil Seed Species (Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. and Pongamia pinnata Mer.)

Authors: Amelyn M. Ambal, Jose Hermis Patricio

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A macro-somatic clonal propagation study was undertaken to determine the effects of method of propagation, rooting hormone, and level of rooting hormone concentration of TBOS (Calophyllum inophyllum Mer. and Pongamia pinnata L.). A factorial experiment in SSSPD with three replications was used in the study and analyzed using ANOVA and LSD. Open mist propagation is effective for rooting Calophyllum inophyllum and Pongamia pinnata cuttings as it gave statistically higher number of adventitious roots, longer length of roots, and higher rooting percentage. C. inophyllum cuttings exhibit statistically higher rooting percentage compared to P. pinnata cuttings when subjected to open mist method and treated with 600 ppm of NAA. NAA is more effective than IBA in terms of number and length of roots, and rooting percentage produced. However, levels of hormone concentration were not generally effective on the rooting performance and shoot production of both species.

Keywords: adventitious roots, Calophyllum, close-mist, macro-somatic clonal propagation, Pongamia, open-mist

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
280 Optimization of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Parameters Based on Modified Particle Swarm Algorithms

Authors: M. Dezvarei, S. Morovati

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In recent years, increasing usage of electrical energy provides a widespread field for investigating new methods to produce clean electricity with high reliability and cost management. Fuel cells are new clean generations to make electricity and thermal energy together with high performance and no environmental pollution. According to the expansion of fuel cell usage in different industrial networks, the identification and optimization of its parameters is really significant. This paper presents optimization of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) parameters based on modified particle swarm optimization with real valued mutation (RVM) and clonal algorithms. Mathematical equations of this type of fuel cell are presented as the main model structure in the optimization process. Optimized parameters based on clonal and RVM algorithms are compared with the desired values in the presence and absence of measurement noise. This paper shows that these methods can improve the performance of traditional optimization methods. Simulation results are employed to analyze and compare the performance of these methodologies in order to optimize the proton exchange membrane fuel cell parameters.

Keywords: clonal algorithm, proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), particle swarm optimization (PSO), real-valued mutation (RVM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
279 The Genetic Diversity and Conservation Status of Natural Populus Nigra Populations in Turkey

Authors: Asiye Ciftci, Zeki Kaya

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Populus nigra is one of the most economically and ecologically important forest trees in Turkey, well known for its rapid growth, good ability to vegetative propagation and the extreme uses of its wood. Due to overexploitation, loss of natural distribution area and extreme hybridization and introgression, Populus nigra is one of the most threatened tree species in Turkey and Europe. Using 20 nuclear microsatellite loci, the genetic structure of European black poplar populations along the two largest rivers of Turkey was analyzed. All tested loci were highly polymorphic, displaying 5 to 15 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosity (overall Ho = 0.79) has been higher than the expected (overall He = 0.58) in each population. Low level of genetic differentiation among populations (FST= 0,03) and excess of heterozygotes for each river were found. Human-mediated dispersal, phenotypic selection, high level of gene flow and extensive circulations of clonal materials may cause those situations. The genetic data obtained from this study could provide the basis for efficient in situ and ex-situ conservation and restoration of species natural populations in its natural habitat as well as having sustainable breeding and poplar plantations in the future.

Keywords: populus, clonal, loci, ex situ

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
278 Advanced Analysis on Dissemination of Pollutant Caused by Flaring System Effect Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Fluent Model with WRF Model Input in Transition Season

Authors: Benedictus Asriparusa

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In the area of the oil industry, there is accompanied by associated natural gas. The thing shows that a large amount of energy is being wasted mostly in the developing countries by contributing to the global warming process. This research represents an overview of methods in Minas area employed by these researchers in PT. Chevron Pacific Indonesia to determine ways of measuring and reducing gas flaring and its emission drastically. It provides an approximation includes analytical studies, numerical studies, modeling, computer simulations, etc. Flaring system is the controlled burning of natural gas in the course of routine oil and gas production operations. This burning occurs at the end of a flare stack or boom. The combustion process will release emissions of greenhouse gases such as NO2, CO2, SO2, etc. This condition will affect the air and environment around the industrial area. Therefore, we need a simulation to create the pattern of the dissemination of pollutant. This research paper has being made to see trends in gas flaring model and current developments to predict dominant variable which gives impact to dissemination of pollutant. Fluent models used to simulate the distribution of pollutant gas coming out of the stack. While WRF model output is used to overcome the limitations of the analysis of meteorological data and atmospheric conditions in the study area. This study condition focused on transition season in 2012 at Minas area. The goal of the simulation is looking for the exact time which is most influence towards dissemination of pollutants. The most influence factor divided into two main subjects. It is the quickest wind and the slowest wind. According to the simulation results, it can be seen that quickest wind moves to horizontal way and slowest wind moves to vertical way.

Keywords: flaring system, fluent model, dissemination of pollutant, transition season

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
277 Imaging of Peritoneal Malignancies - A Pictorial Essay and Proposed Imaging Framework

Authors: T. Hennedige

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Imaging plays a crucial role in the evaluation of the extent of peritoneal disease, which in turn determines prognosis and treatment choice. Despite advances in imaging technology, assessment of the peritoneum remains relatively challenging secondary to its large surface area, complex anatomy, and variety of imaging modalities available. This poster will review the mechanisms of spread, namely intraperitoneal dissemination, directly along peritoneal pathways, haematogeneous dissemination, and lymphatic spread. This will be followed by a side-by-side pictorial comparison of the detection of peritoneal deposits using CT, MRI, and PET/CT, depicting the advantages and shortcomings of each modality. An imaging selection framework will then be presented, which may aid the clinician in selecting the appropriate imaging modality for the malignancy in question.

Keywords: imaging, CT, malignancy, MRI, peritoneum, PET

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276 Establishment and Improvement of Oil Palm Liquid Culture for Clonal Propagation

Authors: Mohd Naqiuddin Bin Husri, Siti Rahmah Abd Rahman, Dalilah Abu Bakar, Dayang Izawati Abang Masli, Meilina Ong Abdullah

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A serious shortage of prime agricultural land coupled with environmental concerns inland expansion has daunted efforts to increase the national yield average. To address this issue, maximising yield per unit hectare through quality planting material is of great importance. Breeding for improved planting materials has been a continuous effort since the early days of this industry, it is time-consuming, and the likelihood of segregation within the progenies further impedes progress in this area. Incorporation of the cloning technology in oil palm breeding programmes is therefore advantageous to expedite the development of commercial elite and high-yielding planting materials. After more than 22 years of research and development through this project, reliable protocols for liquid/suspension culture systems coupled with various innovative technologies which are effective at promoting proliferation and growth of oil palm culture have been established. Subsequently, clonal palms derived from the suspension culture system were extensively studied in the field, and the results have been encouraging. Clones such as CPS1, CPS2 and a few others recorded superior performance in comparison with D x P standard crosses.

Keywords: tissue culture, suspension culture, oil palm, Elaeis guineensis

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275 Forms of Promoting and Disseminating Traditional Local Wisdom to Create Occupations among the Elderly in Nonmueng Community, Muang Sub-District, Baan Doong District, Udonthani Province

Authors: Pennapa Palapin

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This research sought to study the traditional local wisdom and study the promotion and dissemination of traditional local wisdom in order to find the forms of promotion and dissemination of traditional local wisdom to create occupations among the elderly at Nonmueng Community, Muang Sub-District, Baan Dung District, UdonThani Province. The criterion used to select the research sample group was, being a person having a role involved in the promotion and dissemination of traditional local wisdom to create occupations among the elderly at Nonmueng Community, Muang Sub-District, Baan Dung District, UdonThani Province; being an experienced person whom the residents of Nonmueng Community find trustworthy; and having lived in Nonmueng Community for a long time so as to be able to see the development and change that occurs. A total of 16 people were selected. Data was gathered as a qualitative study, through semi-structured in-depth interviews. The collected data was then summarised and discussed according to the research objectives. Finally, the data was presented in a narrative format. Results found that the identifying traditional local wisdom of the community (which grew from the residents’ experience and beneficial usage in daily life, passed down from generation to generation) was the weaving of cloth and basketry. As for the manner of promotion and dissemination of traditional local wisdom, the skills were passed down through teaching by example to family members, relatives and others in the community. This was done by the elders or elderly members of the community. For the promotion and dissemination of traditional local wisdom to create occupations among the elderly, the traditional local wisdom should be supported in every way through participation of the community members. For example, establish a museum of traditional local wisdom for the collection of traditional local wisdom in various fields, both in the past and at present. This would be a source of pride for the community, in order to make traditional local wisdom widely known and to create income for the community’s elderly. Additional ways include exhibitions of products made by traditional local wisdom, finding both domestic and international markets, as well as building both domestic and international networks aiming to find opportunities to market products made by traditional local wisdom.

Keywords: traditional local wisdom, occupation, elderly, community

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
274 Comparison of Automated Zone Design Census Output Areas with Existing Output Areas in South Africa

Authors: T. Mokhele, O. Mutanga, F. Ahmed

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South Africa is one of the few countries that have stopped using the same Enumeration Areas (EAs) for census enumeration and dissemination. The advantage of this change is that confidentiality issue could be addressed for census dissemination as the design of geographic unit for collection is mainly to ensure that this unit is covered by one enumerator. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the performance of automated zone design output areas against non-zone design developed geographies using the 2001 census data, and 2011 census to some extent, as the main input. The comparison of the Automated Zone-design Tool (AZTool) census output areas with the Small Area Layers (SALs) and SubPlaces based on confidentiality limit, population distribution, and degree of homogeneity, as well as shape compactness, was undertaken. Further, SPSS was employed for validation of the AZTool output results. The results showed that AZTool developed output areas out-perform the existing official SAL and SubPlaces with regard to minimum population threshold, population distribution and to some extent to homogeneity. Therefore, it was concluded that AZTool program provides a new alternative to the creation of optimised census output areas for dissemination of population census data in South Africa.

Keywords: AZTool, enumeration areas, small areal layers, South Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
273 The Effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Loaded with Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Indole-3-Butyric Acid on in vitro Rooting of Apple Microcuttings

Authors: Shabnam Alizadeh, Hatice Dumanoglu

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Plant tissue culture is a substantial plant propagation technique for mass clonal production throughout the year, regardless of time in fruit species. However, the rooting achievement must be enhanced in the difficult-to-root genotypes. Classical auxin applications in clonal propagation of these genotypes are inadequate to solve the rooting problem. Nanoparticles having different physical and chemical properties from bulk material could enhance the rooting success of controlled release of these substances when loaded with auxin due to their ability to reach the active substance up to the target cells as a carrier system.The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles loaded with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA-nZnO) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA-nZnO) on in vitro rooting of microcuttings in a difficult-to-root apple genotype (Malus domestica Borkh.). Rooting treatments consisted of IBA or IAA at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 mg/L; nZnO, IAA-nZnO and IBA-nZnO at doses of 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0 mg/L were used. All components were added to the Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium at strength ½ with 2% sucrose and 0.7% agar before autoclaving. In the study, no rooting occurred in control and nZnO applications. Especially, 1.0 mg/L and 2.0 mg/L IBA-nZnO nanoparticle applications (containing 0.5 mg/L and 0.9 mg/L IBA), respectively with rooting rates of 40.3% and 70.4%, rooting levels of 2.0±0.4 and 2.3±0.4, 2.6±0.7 and 2.5±0.6 average root numbers and 20.4±1.6 mm and 20.2±3.4 mm average root lengths put forward as effective applications.

Keywords: Auxin, Malus, nanotechnology, zinc oxide nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
272 Wikipedia World: A Computerized Process for Cultural Heritage Data Dissemination

Authors: L. Rajaonarivo, M. N. Bessagnet, C. Sallaberry, A. Le Parc Lacayrelle, L. Leveque

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TCVPYR is a European FEDER (European Regional Development Fund) project which aims to promote tourism in the French Pyrenees region by leveraging its cultural heritage. It involves scientists from various domains (geographers, historians, anthropologists, computer scientists...). This paper presents a fully automated process to publish any dataset as Wikipedia articles as well as the corresponding linked information on Wikidata and Wikimedia Commons. We validate this process on a sample of geo-referenced cultural heritage data collected by TCVPYR researchers in different regions of the Pyrenees. The main result concerns the technological prerequisites, which are now in place. Moreover, we demonstrated that we can automatically publish cultural heritage data on Wikimedia.

Keywords: cultural heritage dissemination, digital humanities, open data, Wikimedia automated publishing

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
271 Mobile Genetic Elements in Trematode Himasthla Elongata Clonal Polymorphism

Authors: Anna Solovyeva, Ivan Levakin, Nickolai Galaktionov, Olga Podgornaya

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Animals that reproduce asexually were thought to have the same genotypes within generations for a long time. However, some refuting examples were found, and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) or transposons are considered to be the most probable source of genetic instability. Dispersed nature and the ability to change their genomic localization enables MGEs to be efficient mutators. Hence the study of MGEs genomic impact requires an appropriate object which comprehends both representative amounts of various MGEs and options to evaluate the genomic influence of MGEs. Animals that reproduce asexually seem to be a decent model to study MGEs impact in genomic variability. We found a small marine trematode Himasthla elongata (Himasthlidae) to be a good model for such investigation as it has a small genome size, diverse MGEs and parthenogenetic stages in the lifecycle. In the current work, clonal diversity of cercaria was traced with an AFLP (Amplified fragment length polymorphism) method, diverse zones from electrophoretic patterns were cloned, and the nature of the fragments explored. Polymorphic patterns of individual cercariae AFLP-based fingerprints are enriched with retrotransposons of different families. The bulk of those sequences are represented by open reading frames of non-Long Terminal Repeats containing elements(non-LTR) yet Long-Terminal Repeats containing elements (LTR), to a lesser extent in variable figments of AFLP array. The CR1 elements expose both in polymorphic and conservative patterns are remarkably more frequent than the other non-LTR retrotransposons. This data was confirmed with shotgun sequencing-based on Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. Individual cercaria of the same clone (i.e., originated from a single miracidium and inhabiting one host) has a various distribution of MGE families detected in sequenced AFLP patterns. The most numerous are CR1 and RTE-Bov retrotransposons, typical for trematode genomes. Also, we identified LTR-retrotransposons of Pao and Gypsy families among DNA transposons of CMC-EnSpm, Tc1/Mariner, MuLE-MuDR and Merlin families. We detected many of them in H. elongata transcriptome. Such uneven MGEs distribution in AFLP sequences’ sets reflects the different patterns of transposons spreading in cercarial genomes as transposons affect the genome in many ways (ectopic recombination, gene structure interruption, epigenetic silencing). It is considered that they play a key role in the origins of trematode clonal polymorphism. The authors greatly appreciate the help received at the Kartesh White Sea Biological Station of the Russian Academy of Sciences Zoological Institute. This work is funded with RSF 19-74-20102 and RFBR 17-04-02161 grants and the research program of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (project number AAAA-A19-119020690109-2).

Keywords: AFLP, clonal polymorphism, Himasthla elongata, mobile genetic elements, NGS

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270 Ontological Modeling Approach for Statistical Databases Publication in Linked Open Data

Authors: Bourama Mane, Ibrahima Fall, Mamadou Samba Camara, Alassane Bah

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At the level of the National Statistical Institutes, there is a large volume of data which is generally in a format which conditions the method of publication of the information they contain. Each household or business data collection project includes a dissemination platform for its implementation. Thus, these dissemination methods previously used, do not promote rapid access to information and especially does not offer the option of being able to link data for in-depth processing. In this paper, we present an approach to modeling these data to publish them in a format intended for the Semantic Web. Our objective is to be able to publish all this data in a single platform and offer the option to link with other external data sources. An application of the approach will be made on data from major national surveys such as the one on employment, poverty, child labor and the general census of the population of Senegal.

Keywords: Semantic Web, linked open data, database, statistic

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
269 Molecular Insights into the Genetic Integrity of Long-Term Micropropagated Clones Using Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) Markers: A Case Study with Ansellia africana, an Endangered, Medicinal Orchid

Authors: Paromik Bhattacharyya, Vijay Kumar, Johannes Van Staden

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Micropropagation is an important tool for the conservation of threatened and commercially important plant species of which orchids deserve special attention. Ansellia africana is one such medicinally important orchid species having much commercial significance. Thus, development of regeneration protocols for producing clonally stable regenerates using axillary buds is of much importance. However, for large-scale micropropagation to become not only successful but also acceptable by end-users, somaclonal variations occurring in the plantlets need to be eliminated. In the light of the various factors (genotype, ploidy level, in vitro culture age, explant and culture type, etc.) that may account for the somaclonal variations of divergent genetic changes at the cellular and molecular levels, genetic analysis of micropropagated plants using a multidisciplinary approach is of utmost importance. In the present study, the clonal integrity of the long term micropropagated A. africana plants were assessed using advanced molecular marker system i.e. Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism (SCoT). Our studies recorded a clonally stable regeneration protocol for A. africana with a very high degree of clonal fidelity amongst the regenerates. The results obtained from these molecular analyses could help in modifying the regeneration protocols for obtaining clonally stable true to type plantlets for sustainable commercial use.

Keywords: medicinal orchid micropropagation, start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT), RAP), traditional African pharmacopoeia, genetic fidelity

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
268 Fecal Immunochemical Testing to Deter Colon Cancer

Authors: Valerie A. Conrade

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Introduction: A large body of literature suggests patients who complete fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) kits are likely to identify colorectal cancer sooner than those who do not complete FIT kits. Background: Patients who do not participate in preventative measures such as the FIT kit are at a higher risk of colorectal cancer growing unnoticed. The objective was to see if the method the principal investigator (PI) uses to educate clinical staff on the importance of FIT kit administration provides an increased amount of FIT kit dissemination to patients post clinical education. Methodologies: Data collection via manual tallies took place before and after the clinical staff was educated on the importance of FIT kits. Results: The results showed an increase in FIT kit dissemination post clinical staff education. Through enhanced instruction to the clinical staff regarding the importance of FIT kits, expanding their knowledge on preventative measures to detect colorectal cancer positively impacted nurses and, in turn, their patients.

Keywords: colon cancer, education, fecal immunochemical testing, nursing

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
267 The Role of the Media in Inculcating Predictors Hitherto Ignored to Mitigate Vaccine Hesitancy

Authors: Huijun Wu

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The COVID-19 pandemic has caused massive negative shocks across countries. Various research institutes have worked assiduously to develop vaccines to help fight the pandemic, but misinformation from the media has spurred public outcry in several countries not to take jabs. This study leverages massive data [i.e., responses from more than 140,000 people sampled from 144 countries] extracted from the Gallup World Poll’s Wellcome Global Monitor, to analyze and assess how the media contributes to inadequate dissemination of basic scientific knowledge on the vaccines and spread of distrust in central governments as predictors of vaccine hesitancy. The results show that all three predictors are statistically significant at a 5% level and that appropriate design and dissemination of basic scientific knowledge on the vaccines and spread of justified reasons to trust governments would help mitigate vaccine hesitancy. The implication of the results is that the media needs to consider such predictors hitherto ignored.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, vaccine hesitancy, media and communication, basic scientific knowledge, distrust in central governments

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
266 Phylogenetic Analysis of Klebsiella Species from Clinical Specimens from Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital in Mthatha, South Africa

Authors: Sandeep Vasaikar, Lary Obi

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Rapid and discriminative genotyping methods are useful for determining the clonality of the isolates in nosocomial or household outbreaks. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a nucleotide sequence-based approach for characterising bacterial isolates. The genetic diversity and the clinical relevance of the drug-resistant Klebsiella isolates from Mthatha are largely unknown. For this reason, prospective, experimental study of the molecular epidemiology of Klebsiella isolates from patients being treated in Mthatha over a three-year period was analysed. Methodology: PCR amplification and sequencing of the drug-resistance-associated genes, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using 7 housekeeping genes mdh, pgi, infB, FusAR, phoE, gapA and rpoB were conducted. A total of 32 isolates were analysed. Results: The percentages of multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistance (XDR) and pandrug-resistant (PDR) isolates were; MDR 65.6 % (21) and XDR and PDR with 0 % each. In this study, K. pneumoniae was 19/32 (59.4 %). MLST results showed 22 sequence types (STs) were identified, which were further separated by Maximum Parsimony into 10 clonal complexes and 12 singletons. The most dominant group was Klebsiella pneumoniae with 23/32 (71.8 %) isolates, Klebsiella oxytoca as a second group with 2/32 (6.25 %) isolates, and a single (3.1 %) K. varricola as a third group while 6 isolates were of unknown sequences. Conclusions/significance: A phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequences of the 7 housekeeping genes showed that strains of K. pneumoniae form a distinct lineage within the genus Klebsiella, with K. oxytoca and K. varricola its nearest phylogenetic neighbours. With the analysis of 7 genes were determined 1 K. variicola, which was mistakenly identified as K. pneumoniae by phenotypic methods. Two misidentifications of K. oxytoca were found when phenotypic methods were used. No significant differences were observed between ESBL blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaSHV groups in the distribution of Sequence types (STs) or Clonal complexes (CCs).

Keywords: phylogenetic analysis, phylogeny, klebsiella phylogenetic, klebsiella

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
265 Enhanced Iceberg Information Dissemination for Public and Autonomous Maritime Use

Authors: Ronald Mraz, Gary C. Kessler, Ethan Gold, John G. Cline

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The International Ice Patrol (IIP) continually monitors iceberg activity in the North Atlantic by direct observation using ships, aircraft, and satellite imagery. Daily reports detailing navigational boundaries of icebergs have significantly reduced the risk of iceberg contact. What is currently lacking is formatting this data for automatic transmission and display of iceberg navigational boundaries in commercial navigation equipment. This paper describes the methodology and implementation of a system to format iceberg limit information for dissemination through existing radio network communications. This information will then automatically display on commercial navigation equipment. Additionally, this information is reformatted for Google Earth rendering of iceberg track line limits. Having iceberg limit information automatically available in standard navigation equipment will help support full autonomous operation of sailing vessels.

Keywords: iceberg, iceberg risk, iceberg track lines, AIS messaging, international ice patrol, North American ice service, google earth, autonomous surface vessels

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
264 Bandwidth Efficient Cluster Based Collision Avoidance Multicasting Protocol in VANETs

Authors: Navneet Kaur, Amarpreet Singh

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In Vehicular Adhoc Networks, Data Dissemination is a challenging task. There are number of techniques, types and protocols available for disseminating the data but in order to preserve limited bandwidth and to disseminate maximum data over networks makes it more challenging. There are broadcasting, multicasting and geocasting based protocols. Multicasting based protocols are found to be best for conserving the bandwidth. One such protocol named BEAM exists that improves the performance of Vehicular Adhoc Networks by reducing the number of in-network message transactions and thereby efficiently utilizing the bandwidth during an emergency situation. But this protocol may result in multicar chain collision as there was no V2V communication. So, this paper proposes a new protocol named Enhanced Bandwidth Efficient Cluster Based Multicasting Protocol (EBECM) that will overcome the limitations of existing BEAM protocol. And Simulation results will show the improved performance of EBECM in terms of Routing overhead, throughput and PDR when compared with BEAM protocol.

Keywords: BEAM, data dissemination, emergency situation, vehicular adhoc network

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
263 Impact of E-Commerce Integrated for Export Marketing on Performance of Thai Export Businesses

Authors: Peerawat Chailom, Pimgarn Suwan-Natada

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The objective of this study is to examine the effects of e-commerce integrated for export marketing strategy on export advantage and firm performance. This study indicates that e-commerce infrastructure, organizational learning for e-commerce, and internet dissemination were antecedent of e-commerce integrated for export marketing strategy. In additional, export expertise is moderating variable of the research. In this study, 151 export businesses in Thailand are the sample of study. The results of study indicate that e-commerce integrated for export marketing strategy has significant positive influences on export advantage and export performance. Moreover, e-commerce infrastructure, organizational learning for e-commerce, and internet dissemination are have positive effects on e-commerce integrated for export marketing strategy. For moderating effect, export expertise significant influences on the relationships between e-commerce integrated for export marketing strategy and export advantage, and significant influences on the relationships between e-commerce integrated for export marketing strategy and export performance. Theoretical and practical implications are presented. Conclusion and suggestions for future research are also discussed.

Keywords: e-commerce integrated for export marketing, e-commerce infrastructure, organizational learning for e-commerce, export performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
262 Capacity Building of Extension Agents for Sustainable Dissemination of Agricultural Information and Technologies in Developing Countries

Authors: Michael T. Ajayi, Oluwakemi E. Fapojuwo

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Farmers are in need of regular and relevant information relating to new technologies. Production of extension materials has been found to be useful in facilitating the process. Extension materials help to provide information to reach large numbers of farmers quickly and economically. However, as good as extension materials are, previous materials produced are not used by farmers. The reasons for this include lack of involvement of farmers in the production of the extension materials, most of the extension materials are not relevant to the farmers’ environments, the agricultural extension agents lack capacity to prepare the materials, and many extension agents lack commitment. These problems led to this innovative capacity building of extension agents. This innovative approach involves five stages. The first stage is the diagnostic survey of farmers’ environment to collect useful information. The second stage is the development and production of draft extension materials. The third stage is the field testing and evaluation of draft materials by the same farmers that were involved at the diagnostic stage. The fourth stage is the revision of the draft extension materials by incorporating suggestions from farmers. The fifth stage is the action plans. This process improves the capacity of agricultural extension agents in the preparation of extension materials and also promotes engagement of farmers and beneficiaries in the process. The process also makes farmers assume some level of ownership of the exercise and the extension materials.

Keywords: capacity building, extension agents, dissemination, information/technologies

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261 Assesment of Genetic Fidelity of Micro-Clones of an Aromatic Medicinal Plant Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng

Authors: Ramesh Joshi, Nisha Khatik

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Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng locally known as “Curry patta” or “Meetha neem” belonging to the family Rutaceae that grows wildly in Southern Asia. Its aromatic leaves are commonly used as the raw material for traditional medicinal formulations in India. The leaves contain essential oil and also used as a condiment. Several monomeric and binary carbazol alkaloids present in the various plant parts. These alkaloids have been reported to possess anti-microbial, mosquitocidal, topo-isomerase inhibition and antioxidant properties. Some of the alkaloids reported in this plant have showed anti carcinogenic and anti-diabetic properties. The conventional method of propagation of this tree is limited to seeds only, which retain their viability for only a short period. Hence, a biotechnological approach might have an advantage edging over traditional breeding as well as the genetic improvement of M. koenigii within a short period. The development of a reproducible regeneration protocol is the prerequisite for ex situ conservation and micropropagation. An efficient protocol for high frequency regeneration of in vitro plants of Murraya koenigii via different explants such as- nodal segments, intermodal segments, leaf, root segments, hypocotyle, cotyledons and cotyledonary node explants is described. In the present investigation, assessment of clonal fidelity in the micropropagated plantlets of Murraya koenigii was attempted using RAPD and ISSR markers at different pathways of plant tissue culture technique. About 20 ISSR and 40 RAPD primers were used for all the samples. Genomic DNA was extracted by CTAB method. ISSR primer were found to be more suitable as compared to RAPD for the analysis of clonal fidelity of M. koenigii. The amplifications however, were finally performed using RAPD, ISSR markers owing to their better performance in terms of generation of amplification products. In RAPD primer maximum 75% polymorphism was recorded in OPU-2 series which exhibited out of 04 scorable bands, three bands were polymorphic with a band range of size 600-1500 bp. In ISSR primers the UBC 857 showed 50% polymorphism with 02 band were polymorphic of band range size between 400-1000 bp.

Keywords: genetic fidelity, Murraya koenigii, aromatic plants, ISSR primers

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260 Student Perceptions on Administrative Support in the Delivering of Open Distance Learning Programmes – A Case Study

Authors: E. J. Spamer, J. M. Van Zyl, MHA Combrinck

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The Unit for Open Distance Learning (UODL) at the North-West University (NWU), South Africa was established in 2013 with its main function to deliver open distance learning (ODL) programmes to approximately 30 000 students from the Faculties of Education Sciences, Health Sciences, Theology and Arts and Culture. Quality operational and administrative processes are key components in the delivery of these programmes and they need to function optimally for students to be successful in their studies. Operational and administrative processes include aspects such as applications, registration, dissemination of study material, availability of electronic platforms, the management of assessment, and the dissemination of important information. To be able to ensure and enhance quality during these processes, it is vital to determine students’ perceptions with regards to these mentioned processes. A questionnaire was available online and also distributed to the 63 tuition centres. The purpose of this research was to determine the perceptions of ODL students from NWU regarding operational and administrative processes. 1903 students completed and submitted the questionnaire. The data was quantitatively analysed and discussed. Results indicated that the majority of students are satisfied with the operational and administrative processes; however, the results also indicated some areas that need improvement. The data gathered is important to identify strengths and areas for improvement and form part of a bigger strategy of qualitative assurance at the UODL.

Keywords: administrative support, ODL programmes, quantitative study, students' perceptions

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259 Preparing Education Enter the ASEAN Community: The Case Study of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Sakapas Saengchai, Vilasinee Jintalikhitdee, Mathinee Khongsatid, Nattapol Pourprasert

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This paper studied the preparing education enter the ASEAN Community by the year 2015 the Ministry of Education has policy on ASEAN Charter, including the dissemination of information to create a good attitude about ASEAN, development of students' skills appropriately, development of educational standards to prepare for the liberalization of education in the region and Youth Development as a vital resource in advancing the ASEAN community. Preparing for the liberalization of education Commission on Higher Education (CHE) has prepared Thailand strategic to become ASEAN and support the free trade in higher education service; increasing graduate capability to reach international standards; strengthening higher educational institutions; and enhancing roles of educational institutions in the ASEAN community is main factor in set up long-term education frame 15 years, volume no. 2. As well as promoting Thailand as a center for education in the neighbor countries. As well as development data centers of higher education institutions in the region make the most of the short term plan is to supplement the curriculum in the ASEAN community. Moreover, provides a teaching of English and other languages used in the region, creating partnerships with the ASEAN countries to exchange academics staff and students, research, training, development of joint programs, and system tools in higher education.

Keywords: ASEAN community, education, institution, dissemination of information

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258 Wind Direction and Its Linkage with Vibrio cholerae Dissemination

Authors: Shlomit Paz, Meir Broza

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Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It has a short incubation period and produces an enterotoxin that causes copious, painless, watery diarrhoea that can quickly lead to severe dehydration and death if treatment is not promptly given. In an epidemic, the source of the contamination is usually the feces of an infected person. The disease can spread rapidly in areas with poor treatment of sewage and drinking water. Cholera remains a global threat and is one of the key indicators of social development. An estimated 3-5 million cases and over 100,000 deaths occur each year around the world. The relevance of climatic events as causative factors for cholera epidemics is well known. However, the examination of the involvement of winds in intra-continental disease distribution is new. The study explore the hypothesis that the spreading of cholera epidemics may be related to the dominant wind direction over land by presenting the influence of the wind direction on windborn dissemination by flying insects, which may serve as vectors. Chironomids ("non-biting midges“) exist in the majority of freshwater aquatic habitats, especially in estuarine and organic-rich water bodies typical to Vibrio cholerae. Chironomid adults emerge into the air for mating and dispersion. They are highly mobile, huge in number and found frequently in the air at various elevations. The huge number of chironomid egg masses attached to hard substrate on the water surface, serve as a reservoir for the free-living Vibrio bacteria. Both male and female, while emerging from the water, may carry the cholera bacteria. In experimental simulation, it was demonstrated that the cholera-bearing adult midges are carried by the wind, and transmit the bacteria from one body of water to another. In our previous study, the geographic diffusions of three cholera outbreaks were examined through their linkage with the wind direction: a) the progress of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor in Africa during 1970–1971 and b) again in 2005–2006; and c) the rapid spread of Vibrio cholerae O139 over India during 1992–1993. Using data and map of cholera dissemination (WHO database) and mean monthly SLP and geopotential data (NOAA NCEP-NCAR database), analysis of air pressure data at sea level and at several altitudes over Africa, India and Bangladesh show a correspondence between the dominant wind direction and the intra-continental spread of cholera. The results support the hypothesis that aeroplankton (the tiny life forms that float in the air and that may be caught and carried upward by the wind, landing far from their origin) carry the cholera bacteria from one body of water to an adjacent one. In addition to these findings, the current follow-up study will present new results regarding the possible involvement of winds in the spreading of cholera in recent outbreaks (2010-2013). The findings may improve the understanding of how climatic factors are involved in the rapid distribution of new strains throughout a vast continental area. Awareness of the aerial transfer of Vibrio cholerae may assist health authorities by improving the prediction of the disease’s geographic dissemination.

Keywords: cholera, Vibrio cholerae, wind direction, Vibrio cholerae dissemination

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257 The Automated Soil Erosion Monitoring System (ASEMS)

Authors: George N. Zaimes, Valasia Iakovoglou, Paschalis Koutalakis, Konstantinos Ioannou, Ioannis Kosmadakis, Panagiotis Tsardaklis, Theodoros Laopoulos

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The advancements in technology allow the development of a new system that can continuously measure surface soil erosion. Continuous soil erosion measurements are required in order to comprehend the erosional processes and propose effective and efficient conservation measures to mitigate surface erosion. Mitigating soil erosion, especially in Mediterranean countries such as Greece, is essential in order to maintain environmental and agricultural sustainability. In this paper, we present the Automated Soil Erosion Monitoring System (ASEMS) that measures surface soil erosion along with other factors that impact erosional process. Specifically, this system measures ground level changes (surface soil erosion), rainfall, air temperature, soil temperature and soil moisture. Another important innovation is that the data will be collected by remote communication. In addition, stakeholder’s awareness is a key factor to help reduce any environmental problem. The different dissemination activities that were utilized are described. The overall outcomes were the development of an innovative system that can measure erosion very accurately. These data from the system help study the process of erosion and find the best possible methods to reduce erosion. The dissemination activities enhance the stakeholder's and public's awareness on surface soil erosion problems and will lead to the adoption of more effective soil erosion conservation practices in Greece.

Keywords: soil management, climate change, new technologies, conservation practices

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256 Farmers' Perception of the Effects of Climate Change on Rice Production in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Authors: P. O. Fatoki, R. S. Olaleye, B. O. Adeniji

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The study investigated farmers’ perception of the effects of climate change on rice production in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting a total of 248 rice farmers from the study area. Data for the study were collected through the use of interview schedule. The data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed that majority (71.8%) of the respondents were married and the mean age of the respondents was 44.54 years. The results also showed that most adapted strategies for mitigating the effects of climate change on rice production were change of planting and harvesting date (67.7%), movement to another site (63.7%) and increased or reduced land size (58.5%). Relationship between the roles of extension agents in mitigating climate change effects on rice production and farmers’ perception were significant as revealed Chi-Square analysis from the study ; Dissemination of information ( = 2.16, P < 0.05) and use of demonstration methods ( = 2.15, P < 0.05). Poisson regression analysis revealed that educational status, farm size, experience and yield had significant relationship with the perception of the effects of climate change at 0.01 significance level while household size was as well significant at 0.05. It is recommended that some of the adaptive strategies and practices for mitigating the effects of climate change in rice production should be improved, while the extension outfits should be strengthened to ensure adequate dissemination of relevant information on climate change with a view to mitigate its effects on rice production.

Keywords: perception, rice farmers, climate change, mitigation, adaptive strategies

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255 Augmented Reality: New Relations with the Architectural Heritage Education

Authors: Carla Maria Furuno Rimkus

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The technologies related to virtual reality and augmented reality in combination with mobile technologies, are being more consolidated and used each day. The increasing technological availability along with the decrease of their acquisition and maintenance costs, have favored the expansion of its use in the field of historic heritage. In this context it is focused, in this article, on the potential of mobile applications in the dissemination of the architectural heritage, using the technology of Augmented Reality. From this perspective approach, it is discussed about the process of producing an application for mobile devices on the Android platform, which combines the technologies of geometric modeling with augmented reality (AR) and access to interactive multimedia contents with cultural, social and historic information of the historic building that we take as the object of study: a block with a set of buildings built in the XVIII century, known as "Quarteirão dos Trapiches", which was modeled in 3D, coated with the original texture of its facades and displayed on AR. From this perspective approach, this paper discusses about methodological aspects of the development of this application regarding to the process and the project development tools, and presents our considerations on methodological aspects of developing an application for the Android system, focused on the dissemination of the architectural heritage, in order to encourage the tourist potential of the city in a sustainable way and to contribute to develop the digital documentation of the heritage of the city, meeting a demand of tourists visiting the city and the professionals who work in the preservation and restoration of it, consisting of architects, historians, archaeologists, museum specialists, among others.

Keywords: augmented reality, architectural heritage, geometric modeling, mobile applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 416