Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Alisha Akya

4 Clonal Dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates in Kermanshah Hospitals, West of Iran

Authors: Alisha Akya, Afsaneh salami

Abstract:

Background and Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen associated with nosocomial infections. One of the major concerns for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections is its resistant to a variety of antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to assess the dissemination of p. aeruginosa isolates obtained from major hospitals in Kermanshah, west of Iran. Materials and Methods: Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the minimal inhibitory concentrations. Mettalo-beta-lactamase was investigated using the double disk diffusion (DDST) test and PCR. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: The 60 P. aeruginosa isolates, 30 (50%) were resistant to gentamicin, 38 (63/3%) to piperacilin, 42 (70%) to ceftazidime, and 45 (75%) to cefepime. Twenty-nine (48/3%) isolates were MBLs producer based on the DDST test. Five (8/3%) isolates were positive for VIM gene and 4 of them were from burn specimens. PFGE analysis among MBLs producers revealed 12 distinct genotype patterns. A pattern covering the highest number of strains was determined as the dominant clone. Conclusions: Our study showed that P. aeruginosa strains can be spread between patients in hospitals or acquired from different environmental sources. P. aeruginosa isolates were highly resistant to antibiotics and, therefore, the susceptibility of isolates to antibiotics should be tested before treatment. Given the clinical significance of MBLs producing isolates, identification of these organisms is essential in the hospitals in order to get a better therapeutic response and control of bacterial dissemination.

Keywords: clonal dissemination, mettalo-beta-lactamase, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, PFGE

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3 Comparative Canadian Online News Coverage Analysis of Sex Trafficking Reported Cases in Ontario, and Nova Scotia

Authors: Alisha Fisher

Abstract:

Sex trafficking is a worldwide crisis that requires trauma-informed and survivor-centered media attention to accurate disseminate information. Much of the previous literature on sex trafficking tends to focus on the frequency of incidents, intervention, and support strategies for survivors, with few of them looking to how the media is conducting their reporting on sex trafficking cases to the public. Utilizing data of reports from the media of cases of sex trafficking in the two Canadian provinces with the highest cases of sex trafficking, Ontario and Nova Scotia, the authors sought to analyze the similarities and differences of how sex trafficking cases were being reported. A total of twenty articles were examined, with ten based within the province of Ontario and the remaining ten from the province of Nova Scotia. The authors coded in two processes, first, who the article was about, and second, the framing and content inclusion. The results suggest that there is high usage and reliance of voices and images of authority, with male people of color being shown as the perpetrators and white women being shown as the survivors. These findings can aid in the expansion of trauma-informed, survivor-centered media literacy of reports of sex trafficking to provide accurate insights and further developing robust methods to intersectional approaches to reporting cases of sex trafficking.

Keywords: sex trafficking, media coverage, Canada sex trafficking, content analysis

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2 Seismic Performance of Slopes Subjected to Earthquake Mainshock Aftershock Sequences

Authors: Alisha Khanal, Gokhan Saygili

Abstract:

It is commonly observed that aftershocks follow the mainshock. Aftershocks continue over a period of time with a decreasing frequency and typically there is not sufficient time for repair and retrofit between a mainshock–aftershock sequence. Usually, aftershocks are smaller in magnitude; however, aftershock ground motion characteristics such as the intensity and duration can be greater than the mainshock due to the changes in the earthquake mechanism and location with respect to the site. The seismic performance of slopes is typically evaluated based on the sliding displacement predicted to occur along a critical sliding surface. Various empirical models are available that predict sliding displacement as a function of seismic loading parameters, ground motion parameters, and site parameters but these models do not include the aftershocks. The seismic risks associated with the post-mainshock slopes ('damaged slopes') subjected to aftershocks is significant. This paper extends the empirical sliding displacement models for flexible slopes subjected to earthquake mainshock-aftershock sequences (a multi hazard approach). A dataset was developed using 144 pairs of as-recorded mainshock-aftershock sequences using the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) database. The results reveal that the combination of mainshock and aftershock increases the seismic demand on slopes relative to the mainshock alone; thus, seismic risks are underestimated if aftershocks are neglected.

Keywords: seismic slope stability, mainshock, aftershock, landslide, earthquake, flexible slopes

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1 Is the Addition of Computed Tomography with Angiography Superior to a Non-Contrast Neuroimaging Only Strategy for Patients with Suspected Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack Presenting to the Emergency Department?

Authors: Alisha M. Ebrahim, Bijoy K. Menon, Eddy Lang, Shelagh B. Coutts, Katie Lin

Abstract:

Introduction: Frontline emergency physicians require clear and evidence-based approaches to guide neuroimaging investigations for patients presenting with suspected acute stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Various forms of computed tomography (CT) are currently available for initial investigation, including non-contrast CT (NCCT), CT angiography head and neck (CTA), and CT perfusion (CTP). However, there is uncertainty around optimal imaging choice for cost-effectiveness, particularly for minor or resolved neurological symptoms. In addition to the cost of CTA and CTP testing, there is also a concern for increased incidental findings, which may contribute to the burden of overdiagnosis. Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, analysis was conducted on 586 anonymized triage and diagnostic imaging (DI) reports for neuroimaging orders completed on patients presenting to adult emergency departments (EDs) with a suspected stroke or TIA from January-December 2019. The primary outcome of interest is the diagnostic yield of NCCT+CTA compared to NCCT alone for patients presenting to urban academic EDs with Canadian Emergency Department Information System (CEDIS) complaints of “symptoms of stroke” (specifically acute stroke and TIA indications). DI reports were coded into 4 pre-specified categories (endorsed by a panel of stroke experts): no abnormalities, clinically significant findings (requiring immediate or follow-up clinical action), incidental findings (not meeting prespecified criteria for clinical significance), and both significant and incidental findings. Standard descriptive statistics were performed. A two-sided p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: 75% of patients received NCCT+CTA imaging, 21% received NCCT alone, and 4% received NCCT+CTA+CTP. The diagnostic yield of NCCT+CTA imaging for prespecified clinically significant findings was 24%, compared to only 9% in those who received NCCT alone. The proportion of incidental findings was 30% in the NCCT only group and 32% in the NCCT+CTA group. CTP did not significantly increase the yield of significant or incidental findings. Conclusion: In this cohort of patients presenting with suspected stroke or TIA, an NCCT+CTA neuroimaging strategy had a higher diagnostic yield for clinically significant findings than NCCT alone without significantly increasing the number of incidental findings identified.

Keywords: stroke, diagnostic yield, neuroimaging, emergency department, CT

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