Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: Popoola I. Olayinka

39 To Include or Not to Include: Resolving Ethical Concerns over the 20% High Quality Cassava Flour Inclusion in Wheat Flour Policy in Nigeria

Authors: Popoola I. Olayinka, Alamu E. Oladeji, B. Maziya-Dixon

Abstract:

Cassava, an indigenous crop grown locally by subsistence farmers in Nigeria has potential to bring economic benefits to the country. Consumption of bread and other confectionaries has been on the rise due to lifestyle changes of Nigerian consumers. However, wheat, being the major ingredient for bread and confectionery production does not thrive well under Nigerian climate hence the huge spending on wheat importation. To reduce spending on wheat importation, the Federal Government of Nigeria intends passing into law mandatory inclusion of 20% high-quality cassava flour (HQCF) in wheat flour. While the proposed policy may reduce post harvest loss of cassava, and also increase food security and domestic agricultural productivity, there are downsides to the policy which include reduction in nutritional quality and low sensory appeal of cassava-wheat bread, reluctance of flour millers to use HQCF, technology and processing challenges among others. The policy thus presents an ethical dilemma which must be resolved for its successful implementation. While inclusion of HQCF to wheat flour in bread and confectionery is a topic that may have been well addressed, resolving the ethical dilemma resulting from the act has not received much attention. This paper attempts to resolve this dilemma using various approaches in food ethics (cost benefits, utilitarianism, deontological and deliberative). The Cost-benefit approach did not provide adequate resolution of the dilemma as all the costs and benefits of the policy could not be stated in the quantitative term. The utilitarianism approach suggests that the policy delivers greatest good to the greatest number while the deontological approach suggests that the act (inclusion of HQCF to wheat flour) is right hence the policy is not utterly wrong. The deliberative approach suggests a win-win situation through deliberation with the parties involved.

Keywords: HQCF, ethical dilemma, food security, composite flour, cassava bread

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
38 Investigation of the Stability and Spintronic Properties of NbrhgeX (X= Cr, Co, Mn, Fe, Ni) Using Density Functional Theory

Authors: Shittu Akinpelu, Issac Popoola

Abstract:

The compound NbRhGe has been predicted to be a semiconductor with excellent mechanical properties. It is an indirect band gap material. The potential of NbRhGe for non-volatile data storage via element addition is being studied using the Density Functional Theory (DFT). Preliminary results on the electronic and magnetic properties are suggestive for their application in spintronic.

Keywords: half-metals, Heusler compound, semiconductor, spintronic

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
37 Capacity Optimization in Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Mahdi Pirmoradian, Olayinka Adigun, Christos Politis

Abstract:

Cooperative spectrum sensing is a crucial challenge in cognitive radio networks. Cooperative sensing can increase the reliability of spectrum hole detection, optimize sensing time and reduce delay in cooperative networks. In this paper, an efficient central capacity optimization algorithm is proposed to minimize cooperative sensing time in a homogenous sensor network using OR decision rule subject to the detection and false alarm probabilities constraints. The evaluation results reveal significant improvement in the sensing time and normalized capacity of the cognitive sensors.

Keywords: cooperative networks, normalized capacity, sensing time

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
36 Effect of School Environment on Students’ Responsiveness to Learning

Authors: Abel Olayinka Ogbungbemi, I. A. Omunagbe, O. R. King, O. H. Akingbade

Abstract:

This study examined the influence of environmental factors on the academic performance of students in Lagos State Polytechnic. One hundred and thirty-eight students (138) questionnaire was randomly administered among 2,600 students in the 6 departments in the school of environmental studies, Lagos state Polytechnic. The result of the study established that the school environment affects learning. Hence, improper maintenance of fixtures led to lower than average student’s performance. Based on this, the school should endeavour to sustain the school facilities and dull colour points should not be used for painting, interactions between teachers and students should be encouraged, and teachers should relate to all the students irrespective of their age, level of study, department of study and gender.

Keywords: environment, learning, responsiveness, school effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
35 An ANN-Based Predictive Model for Diagnosis and Forecasting of Hypertension

Authors: Obe Olumide Olayinka, Victor Balanica, Eugen Neagoe

Abstract:

The effects of hypertension are often lethal thus its early detection and prevention is very important for everybody. In this paper, a neural network (NN) model was developed and trained based on a dataset of hypertension causative parameters in order to forecast the likelihood of occurrence of hypertension in patients. Our research goal was to analyze the potential of the presented NN to predict, for a period of time, the risk of hypertension or the risk of developing this disease for patients that are or not currently hypertensive. The results of the analysis for a given patient can support doctors in taking pro-active measures for averting the occurrence of hypertension such as recommendations regarding the patient behavior in order to lower his hypertension risk. Moreover, the paper envisages a set of three example scenarios in order to determine the age when the patient becomes hypertensive, i.e. determine the threshold for hypertensive age, to analyze what happens if the threshold hypertensive age is set to a certain age and the weight of the patient if being varied, and, to set the ideal weight for the patient and analyze what happens with the threshold of hypertensive age.

Keywords: neural network, hypertension, data set, training set, supervised learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
34 Investigation of Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Anti-Corrosive Behavior of Al2O3/Cr2O3 Nanocomposite on Zn Rich Bath

Authors: N. Malatji, A. P. I. Popoola

Abstract:

Zn-Al2O3 and Cr2O3 nanocomposite coatings were successfully produced by electrodeposition technique from chloride acidic bath. Particle loading of Al2O3 (50nm) particles were varied from 5-10 g/L and for Cr2O3(100nm) was 10-20 g/L. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) affixed with energy dispersive spectrometry was used to study the surface morphology and content of the nanoparticles incorporated into the coatings. Microhardness, thermal stability, wear and corrosion behavior of the coatings were also evaluated to study the effect of these nanoparticles on these properties. Zn-Al2O3 nanocomposite was found to exhibit good surface properties especially corrosion resistance. On the other side, Cr2O3 incorporation resulted in the improvement of only mechanical properties. Therefore, Zn-Al2O3 proved to be a better coating for most industrial applications where both chemical and mechanical properties are required.

Keywords: electrodeposition, nanocomposite coatings, corrosion, thermal stability, tribology

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
33 The Safety of Microbiologically Prepared Fructooligosaccharide on White Albino Rats

Authors: Olayinka Risiquat Raimi

Abstract:

FOS was produced from FTase of Aspergillus niger. HPLC analysis showed 32.24%. Consisting of 28.57% ketose and 4.67% nystose. Effects of FOS were studied on 12 weeks old albino rats. All animals survived until scheduled euthanasia. A low incidence of clinical sign and no toxicological effect were observed. Male rats fed with 2500mg/kg fructooligosaccharides had the highest weight. Male and female rat showed a significant increase in weight from first week to the fifth week. All haematological parameters examined were normal in male and female rats. Mean haematological and haemoglobin values for 2500mg/kg bw FOS fed male rats were the highest. Clinical chemistry test, glucose, albumin, and cholesterol were within normal laboratory values for a rat. The mean glucose value was lower for FOS fed male and female rats compared to those fed with honey and 60% sucrose. Gross necropsy observation showed no remarkable internal gross abnormalities for any of the animals.

Keywords: fructooligosaccharide, white albino rat, haematology values, clinical chemistry values

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
32 Industrial Practical Training for Mechanical Engineering Students: A Multidisciplinary Approach

Authors: Bashiru Olayinka Adisa, Najeem Lateef

Abstract:

The integrated knowledge in the application of mechanical engineering, microprocessor and electronic sensor technologies is becoming the basic skill of a modern engineer in machinery based processes. To meet this objective, we have developed a cross-disciplinary industrial training to teach essential hard technical and soft project skills to the mechanical engineering students in mid-curriculum. Ten groups of students were selected to participate in a 150 hour program. The students were required to design and build a robot with ability to follow tracks and pick/place target blocks in specific locations. The students were trained to integrate the knowledge of computer aid design, electronics, sensor theories and motor technology to fabricate a workable robot as a major outcome of this course. On completion of the project, students competed for top robot honors by demonstrating their robots' movements and performance in pick/place to a panel of judges.

Keywords: electronics, sensor theories and motor, robot, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
31 Growth Mechanism, Structural and Compositional Properties of Cu₂ZnSnS₄ (CZTS) Thin Films Deposited by Sputtering Method from a Compound Target

Authors: Sanusi Abdullahi, Musa Momoh, Abubakar Umar Moreh, Aminu Muhammad Bayawa, Olubunmi Popoola

Abstract:

Kesterite-type Cu₂ZnSnS₄ (CZTS) thin films were deposited on corning glass from a single quaternary target. In this study, we investigated the growth mechanism and the influence of thin film thickness on the structural and compositional properties of CZTS films. All the four samples (as-deposited inclusive) show peaks corresponding to kesterite-type structure. The diffraction peaks of (112) are sharp and the small characteristics peaks of the kesterite structure such as (220)/ (204) and (312)/ (116) are also clearly observed in X-ray diffraction pattern. These results indicate that the quaternary CZTS would be a potential candidate for solar cell applications.

Keywords: RF sputtering, Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film, annealing, growth mechanism, annealing, growth mechanism, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
30 Construction and Evaluation of Soybean Thresher

Authors: Oladimeji Adetona Adeyeye, Emmanuel Rotimi Sadiku, Oluwaseun Olayinka Adeyeye

Abstract:

In order to resuscitate soybean production and post-harvest processing especially, in term of threshing, there is need to develop an affordable threshing machine which will reduce drudgery associated with manual soybean threshing. Soybean thresher was fabricated and evaluated at Institute of Agricultural Research and Training IAR&T Apata Ibadan. The machine component includes; hopper, threshing unit, shaker, cleaning unit and the seed outlet, all working together to achieve the main objective of threshing and cleaning. TGX1835 - 10E variety was used for evaluation because of its high resistance to pests, rust and pustules. The final moisture content of the used sample was about 15%. The sample was weighed and introduced into the machine. The parameters evaluated includes moisture content, threshing efficiency, cleaning efficiency, machine capacity and speed. The threshing efficiency and capacity are 74% and 65.9kg/hr respectively. All materials used were sourced locally which makes the cost of production of the machine extremely cheaper than the imported soybean thresher.

Keywords: efficiency, machine capacity, speed, soybean, threshing

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
29 Influence of Sintering Temperature on Microhardness and Tribological Properties of Equi-Atomic Ti-Al-Mo-Si-W Multicomponent Alloy

Authors: Rudolf L. Kanyane, Nicolaus Malatji, Patritia A. Popoola

Abstract:

Tribological failure of materials during application can lead to catastrophic events which also carry economic penalties. High entropy alloys (HEAs) have shown outstanding tribological properties in applications such as mechanical parts were moving parts under high friction are required. This work aims to investigate the effect of sintering temperature on microhardness properties and tribological properties of novel equiatomic TiAlMoSiW HEAs fabricated via spark plasma sintering. The effect of Spark plasma sintering temperature on morphological evolution and phase formation was also investigated. The microstructure and the phases formed for the developed HEAs were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) respectively. The microhardness and tribological properties were studied using a diamond base microhardness tester Rtec tribometer. The developed HEAs showed improved mechanical properties as the sintering temperature increases.

Keywords: sintering, high entropy alloy, microhardness, tribology

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
28 Published Financial Statement as a Correlate of Investment Decision among Commercial Bank Stakeholders in Nigeria

Authors: C. F. Popoola, K. Akinsanya, S. B. Babarinde, D. A. Farinde

Abstract:

This study investigated published financial statement as correlate of investment decision among commercial bank stakeholders in Nigeria. A correlation research design was used in the study. 180 users of published financial statement were purposively sampled from Lagos and Ibadan. Data generated were analyzed using Pearson correlation and regression. The findings of the study revealed that, balance sheet is negatively related with investment decision (r=-.483; p < .01) while income statement (r= .249; p < .001), notes on the account (r= .230; p < .001), cash flow statement (r= .202; p < .001), value added statement (r= .328; p < .001) and five-year financial summary (r= .191 ;p < .01) are positively related with investment decision. Findings also revealed that components of published financial statement significantly predicted good investment decision (R2= .983; F(5,175)=284.5; p < .05) for commercial bank stakeholders. Therefore, it was suggested that Nigeria banks and professional bodies should instigate programs that will increase the knowledge of stakeholders on published financial statement.

Keywords: commercial banks, financial statement, income statement, investment decision, stakeholders

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
27 Experimental Study of the Microstructure and Properties of Aluminum Alloy Composites Reinforced with Pod Ash Nanoparticles Composites

Authors: A. P .I. Popoola, V. S. Aigbodion, O. S. I. Fayomi

Abstract:

The experimental study of the microstructure and properties of Al-Cu-Mg alloy/bean pod ash (BPA) nanoparticles was investigated. The aluminium matrix composites (AMCs) were produced by varying the BPA nanoparticles from 1-4wt%. The microstructure and phases of the composites produced were examined by SEM/EDS and XRD. Properties such as: hardness, tensile strength, impact energy, fatigue and wear were evaluated. The results showed that tensile strength and hardness values increased by 35 and 44.1% at 4wt% BPA nanoparticles with appreciable impact energy. The fatigue limit of 167MPa, 135 MPa and 75Mpa were obtained for the nano-particle (55nm), micro-particle (100µm) BPA composites and unreinforced alloy respectively. The wear properties of the as-cast Al–3.7%Cu-1.4%Mg/BPA nanoparticle have been improved significantly even with a low weight percent of BPA nanoparticle. The properties of the as-cast aluminium nanoparticles (MMNCs) have been improved significantly even with a low weight percent of nano-sized BPAp.

Keywords: bean pod ash nanoparticles, al-cu-mg alloy, mechanical properties, wear, microstructures

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
26 The Impact of Technological Advancement on Academic Performance of Mathematics Students in Tertiary Institutions in Ekiti State, Nigeria

Authors: Odunayo E. Popoola, Charles A. Aladesaye, Sunday O. Gbenro

Abstract:

The study investigated the impact of technological advancement on the academic performance of Mathematics students in tertiary institutions in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The quasi-experimental research design was adopted for the study. The population for the study consisted of all the 100 level undergraduates and all Mathematics lecturers in the Department of Mathematics in all the five tertiary institutions in the State. The sample of this study was made of one hundred (100) students and fifty (50) lecturers randomly selected using stratified sampling technique. Hypotheses were postulated to find out whether (i) advancement in technology influences the academic performance of students in Mathematics (ii) teaching method and gender disparity influences the academic performance of students in Mathematics. The study revealed that teaching method, gender, and technology influence academic performance of students in Mathematics. Based on the findings, it is recommended that curriculum and assessment in school Mathematics should explicitly require that all undergraduate become proficient in using digital technologies for mathematical purposes so as to enhance the better performance of students in Mathematics.

Keywords: mathematics, performance, tertiary institutions, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
25 Using Discriminant Analysis to Forecast Crime Rate in Nigeria

Authors: O. P. Popoola, O. A. Alawode, M. O. Olayiwola, A. M. Oladele

Abstract:

This research work is based on using discriminant analysis to forecast crime rate in Nigeria between 1996 and 2008. The work is interested in how gender (male and female) relates to offences committed against the government, against other properties, disturbance in public places, murder/robbery offences and other offences. The data used was collected from the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). SPSS, the statistical package was used to analyse the data. Time plot was plotted on all the 29 offences gotten from the raw data. Eigenvalues and Multivariate tests, Wilks’ Lambda, standardized canonical discriminant function coefficients and the predicted classifications were estimated. The research shows that the distribution of the scores from each function is standardized to have a mean O and a standard deviation of 1. The magnitudes of the coefficients indicate how strongly the discriminating variable affects the score. In the predicted group membership, 172 cases that were predicted to commit crime against Government group, 66 were correctly predicted and 106 were incorrectly predicted. After going through the predicted classifications, we found out that most groups numbers that were correctly predicted were less than those that were incorrectly predicted.

Keywords: discriminant analysis, DA, multivariate analysis of variance, MANOVA, canonical correlation, and Wilks’ Lambda

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
24 Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel by Calcium Gluconate in Magnesium Chloride Solution

Authors: Olaitan Akanji, Cleophas Loto, Patricia Popoola, Andrei Kolesnikov

Abstract:

Studies involving performance of corrosion inhibitors had been identified as one of the critical research needs for improving the durability of mild steel used in various industrial applications. This paper investigates the inhibiting effect of calcium gluconate against the corrosion of mild steel in 2.5M magnesium chloride using weight loss method and linear polarization technique, calculated corrosion rates from the obtained weight loss data, potentiodynamic polarization measurements are in good agreement. Results revealed calcium gluconate has strong inhibitory effects with inhibitor efficiency increasing with increase in inhibitor concentration at ambient temperature, the efficiency of the inhibitor increased in the following order of concentrations 2%g/vol,1.5%g/vol,1%g/vol,0.5%g/vol. Further results obtained from potentiodynamics experiments had good correlation with those of the gravimetric methods, the adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild steel surface from the chloride has been found to obey Langmuir, Frumkin and Freudlich adsorption isotherm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation confirmed the existence of an absorbed protective film on the metal surface.

Keywords: calcium gluconate, corrosion, magnesium chloride, mild steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
23 Comparison between Simulation and Experimentally Observed Interactions between Two Different Sized Magnetic Beads in a Fluidic System

Authors: Olayinka Oduwole, Steve Sheard

Abstract:

The magnetic separation of biological cells using super-magnetic beads has been used widely for various bioassays. These bioassays can further be integrated with other laboratory components to form a biosensor which can be used for cell sorting, mixing, purification, transport, manipulation etc. These bio-sensing applications have also been facilitated by the wide availability of magnetic beads which range in size and magnetic properties produced by different manufacturers. In order to improve the efficiency and separation capabilities of these biosensors, it is important to determine the magnetic force induced velocities and interaction of beads within the magnetic field; this will help biosensor users choose the desired magnetic bead for their specific application. This study presents for the first time the interaction between a pair of different sized super-paramagnetic beads suspended in a static fluid moving within a uniform magnetic field using a modified finite-time-finite-difference scheme. A captured video was used to record the trajectory pattern and a good agreement was obtained between the simulated trajectories and the video data. The model is, therefore, a good approximation for predicting the velocities as well as the interaction between various magnetic particles which differ in size and magnetic properties for bio-sensing applications requiring a low concentration of magnetic beads.

Keywords: biosensor, magnetic field, magnetic separation, super-paramagnetic bead

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
22 Logistics Information Systems in the Distribution of Flour in Nigeria

Authors: Cornelius Femi Popoola

Abstract:

This study investigated logistics information systems in the distribution of flour in Nigeria. A case study design was used and 50 staff of Honeywell Flour Mill was sampled for the study. Data generated through a questionnaire were analysed using correlation and regression analysis. The findings of the study revealed that logistic information systems such as e-commerce, interactive telephone systems and electronic data interchange positively correlated with the distribution of flour in Honeywell Flour Mill. Finding also deduced that e-commerce, interactive telephone systems and electronic data interchange jointly and positively contribute to the distribution of flour in Honeywell Flour Mill in Nigeria (R = .935; Adj. R2 = .642; F (3,47) = 14.739; p < .05). The study therefore recommended that Honeywell Flour Mill should upgrade their logistic information systems to computer-to-computer communication of business transactions and documents, as well adopt new technology such as, tracking-and-tracing systems (barcode scanning for packages and palettes), tracking vehicles with Global Positioning System (GPS), measuring vehicle performance with ‘black boxes’ (containing logistic data), and Automatic Equipment Identification (AEI) into their systems.

Keywords: e-commerce, electronic data interchange, flour distribution, information system, interactive telephone systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
21 Electrochemical Studies of the Inhibition Effect of 2-Dimethylamine on the Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steel Type 304 in Dilute Hydrochloric Acid

Authors: Roland Tolulope Loto, Cleophas Akintoye Loto, Abimbola Patricia Popoola

Abstract:

The inhibiting action of 2-dimethylamine on the electrochemical behaviour of austenitic stainless steel (type 304) in dilute hydrochloric was evaluated through weight-loss method, open circuit potential measurement and potentiodynamic polarization tests at specific concentrations of the organic compound. Results obtained reveal that the compound performed effectively giving a maximum inhibition efficiency of 79% at 12.5% concentration from weight loss analysis and 80.9% at 12.5% concentration from polarization tests. The average corrosion potential of -321 mV was obtained the same concentration from other tests which is well within passivation potentials on the steel thus, providing good protection against corrosion in the acid solutions. 2-dimethylamine acted through physiochemical interaction at the steel/solution interface from thermodynamic calculations and obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The values of the inhibition efficiency determined from the three methods are in reasonably good agreement. Polarization studies showed that the compounds behaved as cathodic type inhibitor.

Keywords: corrosion, 2-dimethylamine, inhibition, adsorption, hydrochloric acid, steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
20 A Critical Re-Evaluation of Knowledge Management Definitions and Terminologies

Authors: Raymond Olayinka

Abstract:

The last three decades have witnessed myriads of definitions of knowledge management proposed by researchers and industry practitioners. Despite the magnitude of research and available literature on knowledge management, there is yet to be a consensus on what constitutes a good definition. There exists an in-exhaustive list of definitions which can appear confusing, conflicting and overlapping. What is even more daunting is the lack of common terminology in describing knowledge management processes and the inconsistency in the sequence in which the processes take. Whilst newbies to knowledge management research would struggle to make sense of knowledge management definitions, industry practitioners would struggle with their applicability. Against this backdrop, this study aimed to re-evaluate knowledge management definitions and terminologies. The objectives were threefold: (1) to conduct a critical review of an existing body of work around knowledge management concepts and definitions (2) to analyse and synthesise findings (3) to present conclusions and recommendations. The methodology for this study centres around the review of the literature and secondary data sources. A total of 48 knowledge management processes were found and extracted from various definitions (e.g. ‘identify’, ‘capture’, ‘codify’, ‘store’…). A taxonomy of the processes was created based on the commonality of the entities. The 48 processes were classified under 8 headings which were further converged into 3 main headings namely ‘acquire’, ‘exploit’ and ‘evaluate’, of which all definitions therefore hinge. The study concludes that in the multitude of knowledge management definitions, there is a consistent pattern to which the processes are organised and should be utilised. The contribution of this study is in the synthesis of previous work by various authors and the presentation of a more holistic approach to knowledge management definitions and terminologies.

Keywords: knowledge management definitions, knowledge management terminologies, knowledge management processes, literature review

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
19 Evaluation of the Effect Rare Earth Metal on the Microstructure and Properties of Zn-ZnO-Y2O3 Coating of Mild Steel

Authors: A. P. I. Popoola, O. S. I. Fayomi, V. S. Aigbodion

Abstract:

Mild steel has found many engineering applications due to its great formability, availability, low cost and good mechanical properties among others. However its functionality and durability is subject of concern due to corrosion deterioration. Based on these Yttrium is selected as reinforcing particles using electroplating process in this work to enhance the corrosion resistance. Bath formulation of zinc-yttrium was prepared at moderated temperature and pH, to coat mild steel sample. Corrosion and wear behaviour were analyzed using electrochemical potentiostat and abrasive test rig. The composition and microstructure of coated films were investigated standard method. The microstructure of the deposited plate obtained from optimum (10%Yttrium) bath revealed fine-grained deposit of the alloy in the presence of condensation product and hence modified the morphology of zinc–yttrium alloy deposit. It is demonstrated that by adding yttria particles, mild steel can be strengthened with improved polarization behaviour and higher resistance to corrosive in sodium chloride solutions. Microhardness of the coating compared to plain mild steel have increased before and after heat treatment, and an increased wear resistance was also obtained from the modified coating of zinc-yttrium.

Keywords: microhardness, zinc-yttrium, coating, mild steel, microstructure, wear, corrosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
18 Effects of Cognitive Reframe on Depression among Secondary School Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Self-Esteem

Authors: Olayinka M. Ayannuga

Abstract:

This study explored the effect of cognitive reframe in reducing depression among Senior Secondary School Adolescents. It adopted a pre-test, post-test, control quasi-experimental research design with a 2x2 factorial matrix. Participants included 120 depressed adolescents randomly drawn from public Senior Secondary School Two (SSS.II) students in Lagos State, Nigeria. Sixty participants were randomly selected and assigned to the treatment and control groups. Participants in the Cognitive Reframe (CR) group were trained for 8 weeks, while those in the Control group were given a placebo. Two instruments were used for data collection namely: Self – Esteem Scale (SES: Rosenberg 1965: α = 0.85), and The Self Rating Depression Scale (SDS: Zung, 1972; α 0 = 0.87) were administered at pretest level. However, only the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was re-administered at post-test to measure the effect of the intervention. The results revealed that there was a significant effect of cognitive reframe training programmes on secondary school adolescents’ depression, also there were significant effects of self-esteem on secondary school adolescents’ depression. The study showed that the technique is capable of reducing depression among adolescents. It was recommended, amongst others, that Counselling psychologists, Curriculum planners and Teachers could explore incorporating the contents of cognitive reframe into the secondary school curriculum for students’ capacity building to reduce depression tendencies.

Keywords: adolescents, cognitive reframe, depression, self – esteem

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
17 Economic Indicators as Correlates of Inward Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria

Authors: C. F. Popoola, P. Osho, S. B. Babarinde

Abstract:

This study examined economic indicators as correlates of inward FDI. An exploratory research design was used to obtained annual published data on inflation rate, market size, exchange rate, political instability, human development, and infrastructure from Central Bank of Nigeria, National Bureau of Statistics, Nigerian Capital Market, Nigeria Institute of Social and Economic Research, and UNCTAD. Data generated were analyzed using Pearson correlation, analysis of variance and regression. The findings of the study revealed that market size (r = 0.852, p < 0.001), infrastructure (r = 0.264, p < 0.001), human development (r = 0.154, p < 0.01) and exchange rate ( r= 0.178, p < 0.05) correlate positively with inward FDI, while inflation rate (r = -0.88, p < 0.001), and political instability (r= -0.102, p < 0.05) correlate negatively with inward FDI. Findings also revealed that the economic indicators significantly predicted inward FDI (R2 = 0.913; F(1,19) = 29.40; p < 0.05) for Nigeria. It was concluded that exchange rate, market size, human development, and infrastructure positively related to inward FDI while the high level of inflation and political instability negatively related to inward FDI. Therefore, it was suggested that policy makers and government agencies should readdress steps and design policies that would encourage more FDI into the country.

Keywords: exchange rate, foreign direct investment, human development, inflation rate, infrastructure, market size, political instability

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
16 Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Rivers, Sediments and Wastewater Effluents in Vhembe District of South Africa Using GC-TOF-MS

Authors: Joshua N. Edokpayi, John O. Odiyo, Titus A. M. Msagati, Elizabeth O. Popoola

Abstract:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are very toxic and persistent environmental contaminants. This study was undertaken to assess the concentrations and possible sources of 16 PAHs classified by the United State Environmental Protection Agency as priority pollutants in Mvudi and Nzhelele Rivers and sediments. Effluents from Thohoyandou wastewater treatment plant and Siloam waste stabilization ponds were also investigated. Diagnostic ratios were used to evaluate the possible sources of PAHs. PAHs in the water samples were extracted using 1:1 dichloromethane and n-hexane mixtures, while those in the sediment samples were extracted with 1:1 acetone and dichloromethane using ultrasonication method. The extracts were purified using SPE technique and reconstituted in n-hexane before analyses with GC-TOF-MS. The results obtained indicate the prevalence of high molecular weight PAHs in all the samples. PAHs concentrations in water and sediment samples from all the sampling sites were in the range of 13.174-26.382 mg/L and 27.10-55.93 mg/kg, respectively. Combustion of biomass was identified as the major possible source of PAHs. Effluents from wastewater treatment facilities were also considered as major anthropogenic contributions to the levels of PAHs determined in both river waters and sediments. Mvudi and Nzhelele Rivers show moderate to high contamination level of PAHs.

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, rivers, sediments, wastewater effluents

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
15 Diversities, Antibiogram and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Staphylococcus Species in Raw Meat from a Research Farm

Authors: Anthony Ayodeji Adegoke, Olayinka Ayobami Aiyegoro, Thor Axel Stenstrom

Abstract:

A study to investigate the species diversities, antibiogram and antibiotic resistance genes in Staphylococcus species from raw meat and dairy products collected from an abattoir and a farm shop of a research institute in Irene, South Africa over a six-month period was conducted. Polymerase Chain Reaction was used to speciate the bacteria and to detect the presence and otherwise of resistance genes. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute standards. A total of twenty-six (26) antibiotics were used to determine the antibiotic susceptibility. S. xylosus was the predominant isolate with 30% total occurrence, followed by S. epidermis, S. aureus, S. saprophyticus and S. haemolyticus with 25%, 15%, 15%, and 10% abundance respectively. The isolates were resistant to ceftezidime, gentamycin, nalidixic acid, nortrafuration, ampicillin, penicillin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, doxycycline, clindamycin and lincomycin. mecA genes was detected among the methicillin resistant Staphylococcus species (MRSS) but no vancomycin resistance genes (van A and van B) were detected in these isolates. The presence of MRSS and multidrug resistant Staphylococcus species in meat affirms the need to avoid consumption of partially cooked meat currently rampant in South Africa, to avoid the spread of difficult to control pathogens in epidemiological proportion.

Keywords: Staphylococcus species, antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes, food products, methicillin resistance, mecA gene

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
14 Suitability of Quarry Dust as Replacement of Sand in Medium Grade Concrete

Authors: Popoola M. Oyenola

Abstract:

Concrete plays the important role and a huge percentage of concrete is being utilized in every construction practices. Natural river sand is one of the major ingredients of concrete, is becoming expensive due to excessive cost of accessibility from sources. Also large scale depletion of sources creates environmental problems. Therefore, there is a need of economic alternative materials. Quarry dust is a waste obtained during quarrying process. It has been rampantly used in different construction practices and could be used as an effective fine aggregate instead of river sand. Partial and total replacement of fine aggregate in conventional concrete with quarry dust has been empirically conducted with the view to examining primarily the compressive strength of the resulting composite and possible total utilization of quarry dust as fine aggregate in the production of medium grade concrete. The results of the study showed that its specific gravity, porosity and water absorption showed satisfactory performance. The percentage replacement of natural river sand with quarry dust for a designed strength of 25N/mm2 varied at intervals of 10% up to a maximum value of 100%. A total of 132 cubes of 150 x 150 x 150mm were cast and tested at 7, 14 and 28 days of hydration. Compressive strength increases with curing age in all the mixes. Compressive strength decreases with increase in percentage of quarry dust. Generally the compressive strength of concrete incorporating quarry dust attained strength of 22.47 N/mm2 after 28 days which makes it a suitable aggregate for the production medium grade concrete.

Keywords: quarry dust, concrete, aggregates, compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
13 Modern Agriculture and Industrialization Nexus in the Nigerian Context

Authors: Ese Urhie, Olabisi Popoola, Obindah Gershon, Olabanji Ewetan

Abstract:

Modern agriculture involves the use of improved tools and equipment (instead of crude and ineffective tools) like tractors, hand operated planters, hand operated fertilizer drills and combined harvesters - which increase agricultural productivity. Farmers in Nigeria still have huge potentials to enhance their productivity. The study argues that the increase in agricultural output due to increased productivity, orchestrated by modern agriculture will promote forward linkages and opportunities in the processing sub-sector; both the manufacturing of machines and the processing of raw materials. Depending on existing incentives, foreign investment could be attracted to augment local investment in the sector. The availability of raw materials in large quantity – which prices are competitive – will attract investment in other industries. In addition, potentials for backward linkages will also be created. In a nutshell, adopting the unbalanced growth theory in favour of the agricultural sector could engender industrialization in a country with untapped potentials. The paper highlights the numerous potentials of modern agriculture that are yet to be tapped in Nigeria and also provides a theoretical analysis of how the realization of such potentials could promote industrialization in the country. The study adopts the Lewis’ theory of structural–change model and Hirschman’s theory of unbalanced growth in the design of the analytical framework. The framework will be useful in empirical studies that will guide policy formulation.

Keywords: modern agriculture, industrialization, structural change model, unbalanced growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
12 Production of Soy Yoghurt Using Soymilk-Based Lactic Acid Bacteria as Starter Culture

Authors: Ayobami Solomon Popoola, Victor N. Enujiugha

Abstract:

Production of soy-yogurt by fermentation of soymilk with lactic acid bacteria isolated from soymilk was studied. Soymilk was extracted from dehulled soybean seeds and pasteurized at 95 °C for 15 min. The soymilk was left to naturally ferment (temperature 40 °C; time 8 h) and lactic acid bacteria were isolated, screened and selected for yogurt production. Freshly prepared soymilk was pasteurized (95 °C, 15 min), inoculated with the lactic acid bacteria isolated (3% w/v starter culture) and incubated at 40 °C for 8 h. The yogurt produced was stored at 4 °C. Investigations were carried out with the aim of improving the sensory qualities and acceptability of soy yogurt. Commercial yogurt was used as a control. The percentage of soymilk inoculated was 70% of the broth. Soy-yoghurt samples produced were subsequently subjected to biochemical and microbiological assays which included total viable counts of fresh milk and soy-based yoghurt; proximate composition of functional soy-based yoghurt fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum; changes in pH, Titratable acidity, and lactic acid bacteria during a 14 day period of storage; as well as morphological and biochemical characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolated. The results demonstrated that using Lactobacillus plantarum to inoculate soy milk for yogurt production takes about 8 h. The overall acceptability of the soy-based yogurt produced was not significantly different from that of the control sample. The use of isolate from soymilk had the added advantage of reducing the cost of yogurt starter culture, thereby making soy-yogurt, a good source of much desired good quality protein. However, more experiments are needed to improve the sensory qualities such as beany or astringent flavor and color.

Keywords: soy, soymilk, yoghurt, starter culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
11 Integrating Accreditation and Quality Assurance Exercises into the Quranic School System in the South-Western Nigeria

Authors: Popoola Sulaimon Akorede, Muinat A. Agbabiaka-Mustapha

Abstract:

The Quranic / piazza school where the rudiments of Islam are being imparted from the teaching of Arabic/ Quranic alphabets which later metamorphosized to higher fundamental principles of Islam is the major determinant of the existence of Islam in any part of south western Nigeria. In other words, one can successfully say that where there is a few or non-existence of such schools in that part of the country, the practice of the religion of Islam would be either very low or not existing at all. However, it has been discovered in the modern worlds that several challenges are militating against the development of these schools and among these challenges are poor admission policy, inadequate facilities such as learning environment and instructional materials, curriculum inadequacy and the management and the administration of the schools which failed to change in order to meet the modern contemporary Educational challenges. The focus of this paper therefore is to improve the conditions of these basic Islamic schools through the introduction of quality assurance and integrating accreditation Exercise to improve their status in order to enhance economic empowerment and to further their educational career in the future so that they will be able to compete favourably among the graduates of conventional universities. The scope of this study is limited to only seven (7) states of yorubaland and with only three (3) proprietors/ schools from each state which are Lagos, Oyo, Ogun, Osun, Ekiti, Ondo and parts of Kwara State. The study revealed that quality assurance as well as accreditation exercise are lacking in all the local Arabic/Quranic schools. Suggestions are proffered towards correcting the anomalies in these schools so that they can meet the modern Educational standard.

Keywords: accreditation, quality assurance, Quranic schools, South-western Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
10 Maternal Care Practices on Nutritional Status of Pre School Children in Dass Local Government Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: Adebusoye Michael, Okunola Olayinka, Owolabi Abdulateef, Jacob Anayo

Abstract:

Introduction: Child undernutrition remains one of Africa’s most fundamental challenges for improved human development because the time and capacities of caregivers are limited; far too many children are unable to access effectively amenities they need for a healthy life. Methods and procedures: This cross-sectional, descriptive study evaluated the maternal care practices on nutritional status of pre-school children, 150 mothers were selected by systematic random sampling in Dass L.G.A., Bauchi-State, Nigeria. Information on relevant parameters were collected by questionaire, analysed by various indices of descriptive statistics using SPSS version 16.0.Spearman’s rank correlation was used to test for associations between the variables. Results: Thirty-five (23.3%) of the respondents were aged 21-25 years. Thirty-three (28.0%) had secondary education, while forty-nine (32.7%) were full housewives. Majority 79(52.7) earned NI,000- N10,000 monthly versus 10(6.7%) who earned N11,000- N20,000.113(75.3%) married while 7(4.7%) of respondents were separated. Sixty-one (40.7%) practiced exclusive breastfeeding within six months. Only seventy-one (47.3%) initiated breastfeeding between 7 and 13 months. Five (3.3%) of children were mildly underweight while nine (6.0%) were severely stunted. Conclusion: The outcome suggested that working time of mothers is a major determinant on their child nutritional status. However, there is a significant relationship on the working time of mothers, income level and educational level of mothers to the nutritional status of their children (P<0.05). Recommendation: Good policy programmes should aim at eradicating poverty, better child care practices that would reduce malnutrition among under-five children.

Keywords: maternal care, nutritional status, preschool children, Dass L.G.A.

Procedia PDF Downloads 473