Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: C. F. Popoola

26 Investigation of the Stability and Spintronic Properties of NbrhgeX (X= Cr, Co, Mn, Fe, Ni) Using Density Functional Theory

Authors: Shittu Akinpelu, Issac Popoola


The compound NbRhGe has been predicted to be a semiconductor with excellent mechanical properties. It is an indirect band gap material. The potential of NbRhGe for non-volatile data storage via element addition is being studied using the Density Functional Theory (DFT). Preliminary results on the electronic and magnetic properties are suggestive for their application in spintronic.

Keywords: half-metals, Heusler compound, semiconductor, spintronic

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25 Investigation of Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Anti-Corrosive Behavior of Al2O3/Cr2O3 Nanocomposite on Zn Rich Bath

Authors: N. Malatji, A. P. I. Popoola


Zn-Al2O3 and Cr2O3 nanocomposite coatings were successfully produced by electrodeposition technique from chloride acidic bath. Particle loading of Al2O3 (50nm) particles were varied from 5-10 g/L and for Cr2O3(100nm) was 10-20 g/L. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) affixed with energy dispersive spectrometry was used to study the surface morphology and content of the nanoparticles incorporated into the coatings. Microhardness, thermal stability, wear and corrosion behavior of the coatings were also evaluated to study the effect of these nanoparticles on these properties. Zn-Al2O3 nanocomposite was found to exhibit good surface properties especially corrosion resistance. On the other side, Cr2O3 incorporation resulted in the improvement of only mechanical properties. Therefore, Zn-Al2O3 proved to be a better coating for most industrial applications where both chemical and mechanical properties are required.

Keywords: electrodeposition, nanocomposite coatings, corrosion, thermal stability, tribology

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24 Growth Mechanism, Structural and Compositional Properties of Cu₂ZnSnS₄ (CZTS) Thin Films Deposited by Sputtering Method from a Compound Target

Authors: Sanusi Abdullahi, Musa Momoh, Abubakar Umar Moreh, Aminu Muhammad Bayawa, Olubunmi Popoola


Kesterite-type Cu₂ZnSnS₄ (CZTS) thin films were deposited on corning glass from a single quaternary target. In this study, we investigated the growth mechanism and the influence of thin film thickness on the structural and compositional properties of CZTS films. All the four samples (as-deposited inclusive) show peaks corresponding to kesterite-type structure. The diffraction peaks of (112) are sharp and the small characteristics peaks of the kesterite structure such as (220)/ (204) and (312)/ (116) are also clearly observed in X-ray diffraction pattern. These results indicate that the quaternary CZTS would be a potential candidate for solar cell applications.

Keywords: RF sputtering, Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film, annealing, growth mechanism, annealing, growth mechanism, renewable energy

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23 Influence of Sintering Temperature on Microhardness and Tribological Properties of Equi-Atomic Ti-Al-Mo-Si-W Multicomponent Alloy

Authors: Rudolf L. Kanyane, Nicolaus Malatji, Patritia A. Popoola


Tribological failure of materials during application can lead to catastrophic events which also carry economic penalties. High entropy alloys (HEAs) have shown outstanding tribological properties in applications such as mechanical parts were moving parts under high friction are required. This work aims to investigate the effect of sintering temperature on microhardness properties and tribological properties of novel equiatomic TiAlMoSiW HEAs fabricated via spark plasma sintering. The effect of Spark plasma sintering temperature on morphological evolution and phase formation was also investigated. The microstructure and the phases formed for the developed HEAs were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) respectively. The microhardness and tribological properties were studied using a diamond base microhardness tester Rtec tribometer. The developed HEAs showed improved mechanical properties as the sintering temperature increases.

Keywords: sintering, high entropy alloy, microhardness, tribology

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22 Published Financial Statement as a Correlate of Investment Decision among Commercial Bank Stakeholders in Nigeria

Authors: C. F. Popoola, K. Akinsanya, S. B. Babarinde, D. A. Farinde


This study investigated published financial statement as correlate of investment decision among commercial bank stakeholders in Nigeria. A correlation research design was used in the study. 180 users of published financial statement were purposively sampled from Lagos and Ibadan. Data generated were analyzed using Pearson correlation and regression. The findings of the study revealed that, balance sheet is negatively related with investment decision (r=-.483; p < .01) while income statement (r= .249; p < .001), notes on the account (r= .230; p < .001), cash flow statement (r= .202; p < .001), value added statement (r= .328; p < .001) and five-year financial summary (r= .191 ;p < .01) are positively related with investment decision. Findings also revealed that components of published financial statement significantly predicted good investment decision (R2= .983; F(5,175)=284.5; p < .05) for commercial bank stakeholders. Therefore, it was suggested that Nigeria banks and professional bodies should instigate programs that will increase the knowledge of stakeholders on published financial statement.

Keywords: commercial banks, financial statement, income statement, investment decision, stakeholders

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21 Experimental Study of the Microstructure and Properties of Aluminum Alloy Composites Reinforced with Pod Ash Nanoparticles Composites

Authors: A. P .I. Popoola, V. S. Aigbodion, O. S. I. Fayomi


The experimental study of the microstructure and properties of Al-Cu-Mg alloy/bean pod ash (BPA) nanoparticles was investigated. The aluminium matrix composites (AMCs) were produced by varying the BPA nanoparticles from 1-4wt%. The microstructure and phases of the composites produced were examined by SEM/EDS and XRD. Properties such as: hardness, tensile strength, impact energy, fatigue and wear were evaluated. The results showed that tensile strength and hardness values increased by 35 and 44.1% at 4wt% BPA nanoparticles with appreciable impact energy. The fatigue limit of 167MPa, 135 MPa and 75Mpa were obtained for the nano-particle (55nm), micro-particle (100µm) BPA composites and unreinforced alloy respectively. The wear properties of the as-cast Al–3.7%Cu-1.4%Mg/BPA nanoparticle have been improved significantly even with a low weight percent of BPA nanoparticle. The properties of the as-cast aluminium nanoparticles (MMNCs) have been improved significantly even with a low weight percent of nano-sized BPAp.

Keywords: bean pod ash nanoparticles, al-cu-mg alloy, mechanical properties, wear, microstructures

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20 The Impact of Technological Advancement on Academic Performance of Mathematics Students in Tertiary Institutions in Ekiti State, Nigeria

Authors: Odunayo E. Popoola, Charles A. Aladesaye, Sunday O. Gbenro


The study investigated the impact of technological advancement on the academic performance of Mathematics students in tertiary institutions in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The quasi-experimental research design was adopted for the study. The population for the study consisted of all the 100 level undergraduates and all Mathematics lecturers in the Department of Mathematics in all the five tertiary institutions in the State. The sample of this study was made of one hundred (100) students and fifty (50) lecturers randomly selected using stratified sampling technique. Hypotheses were postulated to find out whether (i) advancement in technology influences the academic performance of students in Mathematics (ii) teaching method and gender disparity influences the academic performance of students in Mathematics. The study revealed that teaching method, gender, and technology influence academic performance of students in Mathematics. Based on the findings, it is recommended that curriculum and assessment in school Mathematics should explicitly require that all undergraduate become proficient in using digital technologies for mathematical purposes so as to enhance the better performance of students in Mathematics.

Keywords: mathematics, performance, tertiary institutions, technology

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19 Using Discriminant Analysis to Forecast Crime Rate in Nigeria

Authors: O. P. Popoola, O. A. Alawode, M. O. Olayiwola, A. M. Oladele


This research work is based on using discriminant analysis to forecast crime rate in Nigeria between 1996 and 2008. The work is interested in how gender (male and female) relates to offences committed against the government, against other properties, disturbance in public places, murder/robbery offences and other offences. The data used was collected from the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). SPSS, the statistical package was used to analyse the data. Time plot was plotted on all the 29 offences gotten from the raw data. Eigenvalues and Multivariate tests, Wilks’ Lambda, standardized canonical discriminant function coefficients and the predicted classifications were estimated. The research shows that the distribution of the scores from each function is standardized to have a mean O and a standard deviation of 1. The magnitudes of the coefficients indicate how strongly the discriminating variable affects the score. In the predicted group membership, 172 cases that were predicted to commit crime against Government group, 66 were correctly predicted and 106 were incorrectly predicted. After going through the predicted classifications, we found out that most groups numbers that were correctly predicted were less than those that were incorrectly predicted.

Keywords: discriminant analysis, DA, multivariate analysis of variance, MANOVA, canonical correlation, and Wilks’ Lambda

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18 Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel by Calcium Gluconate in Magnesium Chloride Solution

Authors: Olaitan Akanji, Cleophas Loto, Patricia Popoola, Andrei Kolesnikov


Studies involving performance of corrosion inhibitors had been identified as one of the critical research needs for improving the durability of mild steel used in various industrial applications. This paper investigates the inhibiting effect of calcium gluconate against the corrosion of mild steel in 2.5M magnesium chloride using weight loss method and linear polarization technique, calculated corrosion rates from the obtained weight loss data, potentiodynamic polarization measurements are in good agreement. Results revealed calcium gluconate has strong inhibitory effects with inhibitor efficiency increasing with increase in inhibitor concentration at ambient temperature, the efficiency of the inhibitor increased in the following order of concentrations 2%g/vol,1.5%g/vol,1%g/vol,0.5%g/vol. Further results obtained from potentiodynamics experiments had good correlation with those of the gravimetric methods, the adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild steel surface from the chloride has been found to obey Langmuir, Frumkin and Freudlich adsorption isotherm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation confirmed the existence of an absorbed protective film on the metal surface.

Keywords: calcium gluconate, corrosion, magnesium chloride, mild steel

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17 Logistics Information Systems in the Distribution of Flour in Nigeria

Authors: Cornelius Femi Popoola


This study investigated logistics information systems in the distribution of flour in Nigeria. A case study design was used and 50 staff of Honeywell Flour Mill was sampled for the study. Data generated through a questionnaire were analysed using correlation and regression analysis. The findings of the study revealed that logistic information systems such as e-commerce, interactive telephone systems and electronic data interchange positively correlated with the distribution of flour in Honeywell Flour Mill. Finding also deduced that e-commerce, interactive telephone systems and electronic data interchange jointly and positively contribute to the distribution of flour in Honeywell Flour Mill in Nigeria (R = .935; Adj. R2 = .642; F (3,47) = 14.739; p < .05). The study therefore recommended that Honeywell Flour Mill should upgrade their logistic information systems to computer-to-computer communication of business transactions and documents, as well adopt new technology such as, tracking-and-tracing systems (barcode scanning for packages and palettes), tracking vehicles with Global Positioning System (GPS), measuring vehicle performance with ‘black boxes’ (containing logistic data), and Automatic Equipment Identification (AEI) into their systems.

Keywords: e-commerce, electronic data interchange, flour distribution, information system, interactive telephone systems

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16 Electrochemical Studies of the Inhibition Effect of 2-Dimethylamine on the Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steel Type 304 in Dilute Hydrochloric Acid

Authors: Roland Tolulope Loto, Cleophas Akintoye Loto, Abimbola Patricia Popoola


The inhibiting action of 2-dimethylamine on the electrochemical behaviour of austenitic stainless steel (type 304) in dilute hydrochloric was evaluated through weight-loss method, open circuit potential measurement and potentiodynamic polarization tests at specific concentrations of the organic compound. Results obtained reveal that the compound performed effectively giving a maximum inhibition efficiency of 79% at 12.5% concentration from weight loss analysis and 80.9% at 12.5% concentration from polarization tests. The average corrosion potential of -321 mV was obtained the same concentration from other tests which is well within passivation potentials on the steel thus, providing good protection against corrosion in the acid solutions. 2-dimethylamine acted through physiochemical interaction at the steel/solution interface from thermodynamic calculations and obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The values of the inhibition efficiency determined from the three methods are in reasonably good agreement. Polarization studies showed that the compounds behaved as cathodic type inhibitor.

Keywords: corrosion, 2-dimethylamine, inhibition, adsorption, hydrochloric acid, steel

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15 Evaluation of the Effect Rare Earth Metal on the Microstructure and Properties of Zn-ZnO-Y2O3 Coating of Mild Steel

Authors: A. P. I. Popoola, O. S. I. Fayomi, V. S. Aigbodion


Mild steel has found many engineering applications due to its great formability, availability, low cost and good mechanical properties among others. However its functionality and durability is subject of concern due to corrosion deterioration. Based on these Yttrium is selected as reinforcing particles using electroplating process in this work to enhance the corrosion resistance. Bath formulation of zinc-yttrium was prepared at moderated temperature and pH, to coat mild steel sample. Corrosion and wear behaviour were analyzed using electrochemical potentiostat and abrasive test rig. The composition and microstructure of coated films were investigated standard method. The microstructure of the deposited plate obtained from optimum (10%Yttrium) bath revealed fine-grained deposit of the alloy in the presence of condensation product and hence modified the morphology of zinc–yttrium alloy deposit. It is demonstrated that by adding yttria particles, mild steel can be strengthened with improved polarization behaviour and higher resistance to corrosive in sodium chloride solutions. Microhardness of the coating compared to plain mild steel have increased before and after heat treatment, and an increased wear resistance was also obtained from the modified coating of zinc-yttrium.

Keywords: microhardness, zinc-yttrium, coating, mild steel, microstructure, wear, corrosion

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14 Economic Indicators as Correlates of Inward Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria

Authors: C. F. Popoola, P. Osho, S. B. Babarinde


This study examined economic indicators as correlates of inward FDI. An exploratory research design was used to obtained annual published data on inflation rate, market size, exchange rate, political instability, human development, and infrastructure from Central Bank of Nigeria, National Bureau of Statistics, Nigerian Capital Market, Nigeria Institute of Social and Economic Research, and UNCTAD. Data generated were analyzed using Pearson correlation, analysis of variance and regression. The findings of the study revealed that market size (r = 0.852, p < 0.001), infrastructure (r = 0.264, p < 0.001), human development (r = 0.154, p < 0.01) and exchange rate ( r= 0.178, p < 0.05) correlate positively with inward FDI, while inflation rate (r = -0.88, p < 0.001), and political instability (r= -0.102, p < 0.05) correlate negatively with inward FDI. Findings also revealed that the economic indicators significantly predicted inward FDI (R2 = 0.913; F(1,19) = 29.40; p < 0.05) for Nigeria. It was concluded that exchange rate, market size, human development, and infrastructure positively related to inward FDI while the high level of inflation and political instability negatively related to inward FDI. Therefore, it was suggested that policy makers and government agencies should readdress steps and design policies that would encourage more FDI into the country.

Keywords: exchange rate, foreign direct investment, human development, inflation rate, infrastructure, market size, political instability

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13 Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Rivers, Sediments and Wastewater Effluents in Vhembe District of South Africa Using GC-TOF-MS

Authors: Joshua N. Edokpayi, John O. Odiyo, Titus A. M. Msagati, Elizabeth O. Popoola


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are very toxic and persistent environmental contaminants. This study was undertaken to assess the concentrations and possible sources of 16 PAHs classified by the United State Environmental Protection Agency as priority pollutants in Mvudi and Nzhelele Rivers and sediments. Effluents from Thohoyandou wastewater treatment plant and Siloam waste stabilization ponds were also investigated. Diagnostic ratios were used to evaluate the possible sources of PAHs. PAHs in the water samples were extracted using 1:1 dichloromethane and n-hexane mixtures, while those in the sediment samples were extracted with 1:1 acetone and dichloromethane using ultrasonication method. The extracts were purified using SPE technique and reconstituted in n-hexane before analyses with GC-TOF-MS. The results obtained indicate the prevalence of high molecular weight PAHs in all the samples. PAHs concentrations in water and sediment samples from all the sampling sites were in the range of 13.174-26.382 mg/L and 27.10-55.93 mg/kg, respectively. Combustion of biomass was identified as the major possible source of PAHs. Effluents from wastewater treatment facilities were also considered as major anthropogenic contributions to the levels of PAHs determined in both river waters and sediments. Mvudi and Nzhelele Rivers show moderate to high contamination level of PAHs.

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, rivers, sediments, wastewater effluents

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12 Suitability of Quarry Dust as Replacement of Sand in Medium Grade Concrete

Authors: Popoola M. Oyenola


Concrete plays the important role and a huge percentage of concrete is being utilized in every construction practices. Natural river sand is one of the major ingredients of concrete, is becoming expensive due to excessive cost of accessibility from sources. Also large scale depletion of sources creates environmental problems. Therefore, there is a need of economic alternative materials. Quarry dust is a waste obtained during quarrying process. It has been rampantly used in different construction practices and could be used as an effective fine aggregate instead of river sand. Partial and total replacement of fine aggregate in conventional concrete with quarry dust has been empirically conducted with the view to examining primarily the compressive strength of the resulting composite and possible total utilization of quarry dust as fine aggregate in the production of medium grade concrete. The results of the study showed that its specific gravity, porosity and water absorption showed satisfactory performance. The percentage replacement of natural river sand with quarry dust for a designed strength of 25N/mm2 varied at intervals of 10% up to a maximum value of 100%. A total of 132 cubes of 150 x 150 x 150mm were cast and tested at 7, 14 and 28 days of hydration. Compressive strength increases with curing age in all the mixes. Compressive strength decreases with increase in percentage of quarry dust. Generally the compressive strength of concrete incorporating quarry dust attained strength of 22.47 N/mm2 after 28 days which makes it a suitable aggregate for the production medium grade concrete.

Keywords: quarry dust, concrete, aggregates, compressive strength

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11 Modern Agriculture and Industrialization Nexus in the Nigerian Context

Authors: Ese Urhie, Olabisi Popoola, Obindah Gershon, Olabanji Ewetan


Modern agriculture involves the use of improved tools and equipment (instead of crude and ineffective tools) like tractors, hand operated planters, hand operated fertilizer drills and combined harvesters - which increase agricultural productivity. Farmers in Nigeria still have huge potentials to enhance their productivity. The study argues that the increase in agricultural output due to increased productivity, orchestrated by modern agriculture will promote forward linkages and opportunities in the processing sub-sector; both the manufacturing of machines and the processing of raw materials. Depending on existing incentives, foreign investment could be attracted to augment local investment in the sector. The availability of raw materials in large quantity – which prices are competitive – will attract investment in other industries. In addition, potentials for backward linkages will also be created. In a nutshell, adopting the unbalanced growth theory in favour of the agricultural sector could engender industrialization in a country with untapped potentials. The paper highlights the numerous potentials of modern agriculture that are yet to be tapped in Nigeria and also provides a theoretical analysis of how the realization of such potentials could promote industrialization in the country. The study adopts the Lewis’ theory of structural–change model and Hirschman’s theory of unbalanced growth in the design of the analytical framework. The framework will be useful in empirical studies that will guide policy formulation.

Keywords: modern agriculture, industrialization, structural change model, unbalanced growth

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10 Production of Soy Yoghurt Using Soymilk-Based Lactic Acid Bacteria as Starter Culture

Authors: Ayobami Solomon Popoola, Victor N. Enujiugha


Production of soy-yogurt by fermentation of soymilk with lactic acid bacteria isolated from soymilk was studied. Soymilk was extracted from dehulled soybean seeds and pasteurized at 95 °C for 15 min. The soymilk was left to naturally ferment (temperature 40 °C; time 8 h) and lactic acid bacteria were isolated, screened and selected for yogurt production. Freshly prepared soymilk was pasteurized (95 °C, 15 min), inoculated with the lactic acid bacteria isolated (3% w/v starter culture) and incubated at 40 °C for 8 h. The yogurt produced was stored at 4 °C. Investigations were carried out with the aim of improving the sensory qualities and acceptability of soy yogurt. Commercial yogurt was used as a control. The percentage of soymilk inoculated was 70% of the broth. Soy-yoghurt samples produced were subsequently subjected to biochemical and microbiological assays which included total viable counts of fresh milk and soy-based yoghurt; proximate composition of functional soy-based yoghurt fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum; changes in pH, Titratable acidity, and lactic acid bacteria during a 14 day period of storage; as well as morphological and biochemical characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolated. The results demonstrated that using Lactobacillus plantarum to inoculate soy milk for yogurt production takes about 8 h. The overall acceptability of the soy-based yogurt produced was not significantly different from that of the control sample. The use of isolate from soymilk had the added advantage of reducing the cost of yogurt starter culture, thereby making soy-yogurt, a good source of much desired good quality protein. However, more experiments are needed to improve the sensory qualities such as beany or astringent flavor and color.

Keywords: soy, soymilk, yoghurt, starter culture

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9 Integrating Accreditation and Quality Assurance Exercises into the Quranic School System in the South-Western Nigeria

Authors: Popoola Sulaimon Akorede, Muinat A. Agbabiaka-Mustapha


The Quranic / piazza school where the rudiments of Islam are being imparted from the teaching of Arabic/ Quranic alphabets which later metamorphosized to higher fundamental principles of Islam is the major determinant of the existence of Islam in any part of south western Nigeria. In other words, one can successfully say that where there is a few or non-existence of such schools in that part of the country, the practice of the religion of Islam would be either very low or not existing at all. However, it has been discovered in the modern worlds that several challenges are militating against the development of these schools and among these challenges are poor admission policy, inadequate facilities such as learning environment and instructional materials, curriculum inadequacy and the management and the administration of the schools which failed to change in order to meet the modern contemporary Educational challenges. The focus of this paper therefore is to improve the conditions of these basic Islamic schools through the introduction of quality assurance and integrating accreditation Exercise to improve their status in order to enhance economic empowerment and to further their educational career in the future so that they will be able to compete favourably among the graduates of conventional universities. The scope of this study is limited to only seven (7) states of yorubaland and with only three (3) proprietors/ schools from each state which are Lagos, Oyo, Ogun, Osun, Ekiti, Ondo and parts of Kwara State. The study revealed that quality assurance as well as accreditation exercise are lacking in all the local Arabic/Quranic schools. Suggestions are proffered towards correcting the anomalies in these schools so that they can meet the modern Educational standard.

Keywords: accreditation, quality assurance, Quranic schools, South-western Nigeria

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8 Study of Causes and Effects of Road Projects Abandonment in Nigeria

Authors: Monsuru Oyenola Popoola, Oladapo Samson Abiola, Wusamotu Alao Adeniji


The prevalent and incessant abandonment of road construction projects are alarming that it creates several negative effects to social, economic and environmental values of the project. The purpose of this paper is to investigate and determined the various causes and effects of abandoning road construction projects in Nigeria. Likert Scale questionnaire design was used to administered and analysed the data obtained for the stydy. 135 (Nr) questionnaires were completed and retrieved from the respondents, out of 200 (Nr) questionnaires sent out, representing a response rate of 67.5%. The analysis utilized the Relative Importance Index (R.I.I.) method and the results are presented in tabular form. The findings confirms that at least 20 factors were the causes of road projects abandonment in Nigeria with most including Leadership Instability, Improper Project Planning, Inconsistence in government policies and Design, Contractor Incompetence, Economy Instability and Inflation, Delay in remittance of money, Improper financial analysis, Poor risk management, Climatic Conditions, Improper Project Estimates etc. The findings also show that at least eight (8) effect were identified on the system, and these include; Waste of Financial Resources, Loss of economic value, Environmental degradation, Loss of economic value, Reduction in standard of living, Litigation and Arbitration, etc. The reflection is that allocating reasonable finance, developing appropriate and effective implementation plans and monitoring, evaluation and reporting on development project activities by key actors should enhance in resolving the problem of road projects abandonment.

Keywords: road construction, abandonment of road projects, climatic condition, project planning, contractor

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7 The Significant of Effective Leadership on Management Growth and Survival: A Case Study of Bunato Limited Company, Ring Road Ibadan

Authors: A. S. Adegoke, O. N. Popoola


The central purpose of management in any organization is that of coordinating the efforts of people towards the achievement of its goal. Effective and productive management is the function of leadership. Leadership plays a critical role in helping groups, organizations and societies to achieve their goals. Factors considered to make leadership to be effective are intelligence, social maturity, inner motivation and achievement drives and lastly, human relations attitudes. The factors affecting leadership style and effectiveness were examined. Also, the study examined which of the various leadership style best befits an organization and discussed the ways in which the style was determined. In order to meet the objectives of this study, different types of methods of data gathering were carried out. The methods include data from primary and secondary sources. The primary sources include personal interview, personal observation, and questionnaire while data from secondary sources were derived from various books, journal write up and other documentary records. Data were collected from respondents through questionnaire, and the field research carried out through oral interview to test each of the related hypotheses. From the data analysed it was determined that 45% strongly agreed that leadership traits are inborn not acquired and 28.3% agreed that leadership traits are inborn, while 11.7% and 10% strongly disagreed and disagreed respectively and 5% were undecided. 48.4% strongly agreed, and 43.3% agreed that environmental factors determined the appropriate style of leadership to be employed while 3.3% strongly disagreed, 1.7% disagreed and 3.3% were undecided. From the study, no single style of leadership is appropriate in any situation instead of concentrating on single leadership style; leader can vary approaches depending on forces in the leaders, characteristic of the subordinates, situational forces of the organization, lastly the expectations and behaviour of superior.

Keywords: hypothesis, leadership, management, organization

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6 The Impact of Covid-19 on Anxiety Levels in the General Population of the United States: An Exploratory Survey

Authors: Amro Matyori, Fatimah Sherbeny, Askal Ali, Olayiwola Popoola


Objectives: The study evaluated the impact of COVID-19 on anxiety levels in the general population in the United States. Methods: The study used an online questionnaire. It adopted the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Assessment (GAD-7) instrument. It is a self-administered scale with seven items used as a screening tool and severity measure for generalized anxiety disorder. The participants rated the frequency of anxiety symptoms in the last two weeks on a Likert scale, which ranges from 0-3. Then the item points are summed to provide the total score. Results: Thirty-two participants completed the questionnaire. Among them, 24 (83%) females and 5 (17%) males. The age range of 18-24-year-old represented the most respondents. Only one of the participants tested positive for the COVID-19, and 39% of them, one of their family members, friends, or colleagues, tested positive for the coronavirus. Moreover, 10% have lost a family member, a close friend, or a colleague because of COVID-19. Among the respondents, there were ten who scored approximately five points on the GAD-7 scale, which indicates mild anxiety. Furthermore, eight participants scored 10 to 14 points, which put them under the category of moderate anxiety, and one individual who was categorized under severe anxiety scored 15 points. Conclusions: It is identified that most of the respondents scored the points that put them under the mild anxiety category during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is also noticed that severe anxiety was the lowest among the participants, and people who tested positive and/or their family members, close friends, and colleagues were more likely to experience anxiety. Additionally, participants who lost friends or family members were also at high risk of anxiety. It is obvious the COVID-19 outcomes and too much thinking about the pandemic put people under stress which led to anxiety. Therefore, continuous assessment and monitoring of psychological outcomes during pandemics will help to establish early well-informed interventions.

Keywords: anxiety and covid-19, covid-19 and mental health outcomes, influence of covid-19 on anxiety, population and covid-19 impact on mental health

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5 Organisational Factors and Total Quality Management Practice in Nigeria Manufacturing Industry: Evidence from Honeywell Flour Mills Plc

Authors: Cornelius Femi Popoola


Nigerian manufacturing industry, particularly the flour producing firms play vital roles in Nigerian economy. This sector’s quality management practice is given a little attention along with organizational factors that hinder successful practice of total quality management which needs to be documented. Honeywell Flour Mills Plc operate in Nigeria with an appreciable number of products that serves this sector of the economy. Internal-external disposition of the company and total quality practice of the company deserve some elucidations. Hence, this study examined the influence of organizational factors on total quality management practice of Nigerian manufacturing industry, using Honeywell Flour Mills Plc as a case study. The study employed the correlational type of descriptive survey research design. The population consisted of 656 staff of Honeywell Flour Mills Plc, out of which 235 members were selected through scientific sampling method developed by Paler-Calmorin and Calmorin. A total of 235 copies of questionnaires titled 'Organisational Factors and Total Quality Management Practices (QF-TQM) Questionnaire' were administered with a response rate of 66 copies returned. The following variables were applied internal organisational factors (IOFs), external organizational factors (EOFs) and total quality management (TQM). Data generated were analysed using frequency distribution and regression analysis at 0.05 level. The findings revealed that IOFs positively and significantly related with TQM (r = .147**, N= 64, P(.000) < .01). Also, EOFs negatively and significantly related with TQM (r = -.117, N= 64, P(.000) < .01). Findings showed that internal and external organizational factors jointly influenced TQM practiced in F₍₂,₆₁₎=22.250; R²=.629; Adj.R²=.603; P(.000) < .05). The study concluded that organizational factors are determinants of TQM practice in Nigerian manufacturing industry. It is recommended that both internal and external organizational factors influencing TQM practices should be considered in the development of TQM strategies.

Keywords: external organizational factors, internal organisational factors, Nigerian manufacturing industry, total quality management

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4 Kinetics of Sugar Losses in Hot Water Blanching of Water Yam (Dioscorea alata)

Authors: Ayobami Solomon Popoola


Yam is majorly a carbohydrate food grown in most parts of the world. It could be boiled, fried or roasted for consumption in a variety of ways. Blanching is an established heat pre-treatment given to fruits and vegetables prior to further processing such as dehydration, canning, freezing etc. Losses of soluble solids during blanching has been a great problem because a reasonable quantity of the water-soluble nutrients are inevitably leached into the blanching water. Without blanching, the high residual levels of reducing sugars after extended storage produce a dark, bitter-tasting product because of the Maillard reactions of reducing sugars at frying temperature. Measurement and prediction of such losses are necessary for economic efficiency in production and to establish the level of effluent treatment of the blanching water. This paper aims at resolving this problem by investigating the effects of cube size and temperature on the rate of diffusional losses of reducing sugars and total sugars during hot water blanching of water-yam. The study was carried out using four temperature levels (65, 70, 80 and 90 °C) and two cubes sizes (0.02 m³ and 0.03 m³) at 4 times intervals (5, 10, 15 and 20 mins) respectively. Obtained data were fitted into Fick’s non-steady equation from which diffusion coefficients (Da) were obtained. The Da values were subsequently fitted into Arrhenius plot to obtain activation energies (Ea-values) for diffusional losses. The diffusion co-efficient were independent of cube size and time but highly temperature dependent. The diffusion coefficients were ≥ 1.0 ×10⁻⁹ m²s⁻¹ for reducing sugars and ≥ 5.0 × 10⁻⁹ m²s⁻¹ for total sugars. The Ea values ranged between 68.2 to 73.9 KJmol⁻¹ and 7.2 to 14.30 KJmol⁻¹ for reducing sugars and total sugars losses respectively. Predictive equations for estimating amount of reducing sugars and total sugars with blanching time of water-yam at various temperatures were also presented. The equation could be valuable in process design and optimization. However, amount of other soluble solids that might have leached into the water along with reducing and total sugars during blanching was not investigated in the study.

Keywords: blanching, kinetics, sugar losses, water yam

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3 To Include or Not to Include: Resolving Ethical Concerns over the 20% High Quality Cassava Flour Inclusion in Wheat Flour Policy in Nigeria

Authors: Popoola I. Olayinka, Alamu E. Oladeji, B. Maziya-Dixon


Cassava, an indigenous crop grown locally by subsistence farmers in Nigeria has potential to bring economic benefits to the country. Consumption of bread and other confectionaries has been on the rise due to lifestyle changes of Nigerian consumers. However, wheat, being the major ingredient for bread and confectionery production does not thrive well under Nigerian climate hence the huge spending on wheat importation. To reduce spending on wheat importation, the Federal Government of Nigeria intends passing into law mandatory inclusion of 20% high-quality cassava flour (HQCF) in wheat flour. While the proposed policy may reduce post harvest loss of cassava, and also increase food security and domestic agricultural productivity, there are downsides to the policy which include reduction in nutritional quality and low sensory appeal of cassava-wheat bread, reluctance of flour millers to use HQCF, technology and processing challenges among others. The policy thus presents an ethical dilemma which must be resolved for its successful implementation. While inclusion of HQCF to wheat flour in bread and confectionery is a topic that may have been well addressed, resolving the ethical dilemma resulting from the act has not received much attention. This paper attempts to resolve this dilemma using various approaches in food ethics (cost benefits, utilitarianism, deontological and deliberative). The Cost-benefit approach did not provide adequate resolution of the dilemma as all the costs and benefits of the policy could not be stated in the quantitative term. The utilitarianism approach suggests that the policy delivers greatest good to the greatest number while the deontological approach suggests that the act (inclusion of HQCF to wheat flour) is right hence the policy is not utterly wrong. The deliberative approach suggests a win-win situation through deliberation with the parties involved.

Keywords: HQCF, ethical dilemma, food security, composite flour, cassava bread

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2 Promotional Mix as a Determinant of Consumer Buying Decision in the Food and Beverages Industry: A Case Study of Nigeria Bottling Company Plc., Asejire Ibadan

Authors: Adedeji S. Adegoke, Olakunle N. Popoola


Promotion is indispensible and inestimable property of marketing through which different organizations persuade their prospective customers. The idea of passing information about a product to the consumer at outside the world is known as promotional activities. A study was determined whether there was relationship between promotional mix and consumer buying decision, that is may be customers were influenced by promotion. It was investigated to determine whether promotion can be used to influence competitors’ activities in the market and also research was conducted to determine if there was any problem encountered by Nigeria bottling company plc, in promoting its beverages products. The various forms of promotional mix available for an organization were examined and recommended the appropriate promotional mix that company can adopt to boost the company sales. The research design was depended on the primary and secondary data. The primary data were information collected from the subjects using methods of data collection, that is through the use of questionnaire, interview, direct observation, etc. The secondary data consist of information that already exists having been collected for another purpose by some researchers. These include internal and external sources. The questionnaire was designed and administered to the staff of production and marketing department of Nigeria bottling company plc., which served as the population of this study, out of which sample was drawn randomly from the population, using sample random technique. It was deduced that 90% of the respondents opined that advertising influenced competition in the market and that there was a good sale after they started advert while 10% of them were not sure. At advertising level, 85% of the respondents chose 81-100% as the increase in the percentage recorded in their sales level, while 10% of them agreed that increase in the percentage recorded in their sales was within 61-80% and 5% of them chose 45-60% as the percentage increase in their sales record. Due to unstable economic condition of the Nigeria, many business organizations adopted the promotional strategies. Apart from advertising, it was discovered through research that sales promotion served as an incentive to consumers of Nigeria bottling company plc at a time offer gifts and prizes to consumers which drastically increased their level of sales. Since advertising and sales promotion increased the level of sales, more money should be allocated for this purpose to maintain market share and thereby increase profit.

Keywords: consumer, marketing, organization, promotional mix

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1 Modern Agriculture and Employment Generation in Nigeria: A Recursive Model Approach

Authors: Ese Urhie, Olabisi Popoola, Obindah Gershon


Several policies and programs initiated to address the challenge of unemployment in Nigeria seem to be inadequate. The desired structural transformation which is expected to absorb the excess labour in the economy is yet to be achieved. The agricultural sector accounts for almost half of the labour force with very low productivity. This could partly explain why the much anticipated structural transformation has not been achieved. A major reason for the low productivity is the fact that the production process is predominantly based on the use of traditional tools. In view of the underdeveloped nature of the agricultural sector, Nigeria still has huge potentials for productivity enhancement through modern technology. Aside from productivity enhancement, modern agriculture also stimulates both backward and forward linkages that promote investment and thus generate employment. Contrary to the apprehension usually expressed by many stake-holders about the adoption of modern technology by labour-abundant less-developed countries, this study showed that though there will be job loss initially, the reverse will be the case in the long-run. The outcome of this study will enhance the understanding of all stakeholders in the sector and also encourage them to adopt modern techniques of farming. It will also aid policy formulation at both sectoral and national levels. The recursive model and analysis adopted in the study is useful because it exhibits a unilateral cause-and-effect relationship which most simultaneous equation models do not. It enables the structural equations to be ordered in such a way that the first equation includes only predetermined variables on the right-hand side, while the solution for the final endogenous variable is completely determined by all equations of the system. The study examines the transmission channels and effect of modern agriculture on agricultural productivity and employment growth in Nigeria, via its forward and backward linkages. Using time series data spanning 1980 to 2014, the result of the analyses shows that: (i) a significant and positive relationship between agricultural productivity growth and modern agriculture; (ii) a significant and negative relationship between export price index and agricultural productivity growth; (iii) a significant and positive relationship between export and investment; and (iv) a significant and positive relationship between investment and employment growth. The unbalanced growth theory will be a good strategy to adopt by developing countries such as Nigeria.

Keywords: employment, modern agriculture, productivity, recursive model

Procedia PDF Downloads 115