Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2210

Search results for: commercial banks

2210 The Effect of Organizational Factors on Knowledge Sharing in the Jordanian Commercial Banks

Authors: Nadera Al Hourani

Abstract:

The study aimed at testing the effect of the organizational factors on reinforcing the knowledge sharing competence in the Jordanian commercial banks. The study population consisted of all the commercial banks working in Jordan according to the statistics of the Jordanian Banks Association by the end of 2010 (n=12). The researchers took a sample of the branch managers (n=240), and constructed a questionnaire to achieve the objective of the study. 235 questionnaires were returned and 16 were discarded due to incompleteness of their data, thus accepting 219 questionnaires. The results of the study indicated statistically significant effect of the organizational factors with their elements: (organizational structure, organizational culture, and human resources policy) in knowledge sharing. The study recommended that the Jordanian commercial banks have to continue attention to the organizational factors through supporting the less important variables and lowest means within the independent variable (organizational factors). The organizational structure came lowest, which urges the management of the commercial banks to adopt a flexible organizational structure capable to reinforce the knowledge sharing competence.

Keywords: banks, Jordan, knowledge, organizational factors, sharing

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2209 Research on Measuring Operational Risk in Commercial Banks Based on Internal Control

Authors: Baobao Li

Abstract:

Operational risk covers all operations of commercial banks and has a close relationship with the bank’s internal control. But in the commercial banks' management practice, internal control is always separated from the operational risk measurement. With the increasing of operational risk events in recent years, operational risk is paid more and more attention by regulators and banks’ managements. The paper first discussed the relationship between internal control and operational risk management and used CVaR-POT model to measure operational risk, and then put forward a modified measurement method (to use operational risk assessment results to modify the measurement results of the CVaR-POT model). The paper also analyzed the necessity and rationality of this method. The method takes into consideration the influence of internal control, improves the accuracy and effectiveness of operational risk measurement and save the economic capital for commercial banks, avoiding the drawbacks of using some mainstream models one-sidedly.

Keywords: commercial banks, internal control, operational risk, risk measurement

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2208 Return of Equity and Labor Productivity Comparison on Some Sino-Foreign Commercial Banks

Authors: Xiaojun Wang

Abstract:

In a lucky emerging market, most Sino commercial banks has developed rapidly and achieved dazzling performance in recent years. As a large sound commercial bank with long history, Wells Fargo Company(WFC) is taken as a mirror in this paper in order to roughly find out the relevance on life circle of the Sino banks in comparison with WFC. Two financial measures return on equity(ROE) and overall labor productivity(OLP), three commercial banks the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited(HSBC), the Bank of Communication(BCM) and China Minsheng Bank(CMSB) are selected. The comparison data coming from historical annual reports of each company vary from 13 years to 51 years. Several conclusions from the results indicate that most Sino commercial banks would be continually developing with lower financial measures performance for later several decades.

Keywords: commercial bank, features comparison, labor productivity, return on equity

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2207 E-Marketing Strategy: A Competitive Advantage among Commercial Banks Branches in Bauchi State

Authors: Sagir Abubakar

Abstract:

The electronic means of transaction has provided an opportunity especially for commercial banks to entice more customers that will subsequently boost their return on investment. It moves them from traditional marketing into digital marketing and gives them a competitive advantage over others in the same industry.The paper, therefore, examined the competitive advantage of the electronic marketing strategy among commercial banks branches in Bauchi state. The main objective of the study was to determine the impact of e-marketing strategy as a competitive advantage among commercial banks branches in Bauchi state and to evaluate the level of enlightenment campaign offered by the commercial banks branches to their customers on e-marketing. The study obtained data from the staff of the five (s) selected banks branches as the respondents to answer the questionnaire. The research is a quantitative research, where the data where obtained using questionnaire. 100 questionnaires were distributed and analyzed using SPSS’s regression analysis. The research among other findings discovered that, the e-marketing has led to a significant improvement in the banking industry and is expected to continue because of the improvement in the ICT sector. It was also found out that most customers are not aware of the electronic products offered by commercial banks branches in Bauchi state. Some of factors affecting the adoption of e-marketing by banks as indicated from the findings include: top management commitment, government policy on ICT and availability of ICT personnel. The study recommended that commercial banks branches should engage in enlightenment campaign about the existing of their e- products/services, management should place an incentives in order to raise the interest of customers to patronize the products/services online.

Keywords: e-marketing strategy, competitive advantage, banks, Bauchi State

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2206 Efficiency of the Slovak Commercial Banks Applying the DEA Window Analysis

Authors: Iveta Řepková

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to estimate the efficiency of the Slovak commercial banks employing the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) window analysis approach during the period 2003-2012. The research is based on unbalanced panel data of the Slovak commercial banks. Undesirable output was included into analysis of banking efficiency. It was found that most efficient banks were Postovabanka, UniCredit Bank and Istrobanka in CCR model and the most efficient banks were Slovenskasporitelna, Istrobanka and UniCredit Bank in BCC model. On contrary, the lowest efficient banks were found Privatbanka and CitiBank. We found that the largest banks in the Slovak banking market were lower efficient than medium-size and small banks. Results of the paper is that during the period 2003-2008 the average efficiency was increasing and then during the period 2010-2011 the average efficiency decreased as a result of financial crisis.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, efficiency, Slovak banking sector, window analysis

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2205 Financial Regulations and Insolvency Risk: Empirical Evidence from Commercial Banks of Pakistan

Authors: Shumaila Zeb

Abstract:

The proposed study aims to investigate insolvency risk of commercial banks of Pakistan. Furthermore, it empirically estimates the effect of already implemented financial regulations on the insolvency risk of banks. To carry out the empirical analysis, a balanced bank-level panel data covering the period 2008-2016 is used. The Z-score is used for calculating the insolvency risk of each bank. The panel regression is used to investigate the relationship between financial regulations and insolvency risk of banks. The empirics reveal that the financial regulations enforced by State Bank of Pakistan have significant impacts on the insolvency risk of banks. The results further indicate that loan ratio and reserve ratio are positively and significantly related to the insolvency risk of banks.

Keywords: insolvency risk, Z-score, financial regulations, banks

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2204 E-Marketing Strategy a Competitive Advantage among Commercial Bank Branches in Bauchi State

Authors: Sagir Abubakar

Abstract:

The electronic means of transaction has provided an opportunity especially for commercial banks to entice more customers that will subsequently boost their return on investment. It moves them from traditional marketing into digital marketing and gives them a competitive advantage over others in the same industry. The paper, therefore, examined the competitive advantage of the electronic marketing strategy among commercial banks branches in Bauchi state. The main objective of the study was to determine the impact of e-marketing strategy as a competitive advantage among commercial banks branches in Bauchi state and to evaluate the level of enlightenment campaign offered by the commercial banks branches to their customers on e-marketing. The study obtained data from the staff of the five (s) selected banks branches as the respondents to answer the questionnaire. The research is a quantitative research, where the data where obtained using questionnaire. 100 questionnaires were distributed and analyzed using SPSS’s regression analysis. The research among other findings discovered that the e-marketing has led to a significant improvement in the banking industry and is expected to continue because of the improvement in the ICT sector. It was also found out that most customers are not aware of the electronic products offered by commercial banks branches in Bauchi state. Some of factors affecting the adoption of e-marketing by banks as indicated from the findings include: top management commitment, government policy on ICT and availability of ICT personnel. The study recommended that commercial banks branches should engage in enlightenment campaign about the existing of their e- products/services, management should place an incentive in order to raise the interest of customers to patronize the products/services online.

Keywords: e-marketing strategy, competitive advantage, banks, Bauchi State

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2203 Non Performing Asset Variations across Indian Commercial Banks: Some Findings

Authors: Sanskriti Singh, Ankit Tomar

Abstract:

Banks are the instrument of growth of a country. Banks mobilize the savings of the public in the form of deposits and channelize it as advances for various activities required for the development of society at large. The advance which becomes unpaid for a certain period is called Non Performing Asset of the bank. The study makes an attempt to bring out the magnitude of NPA and its impact on profit, advances. An attempt is also made to bring out the challenges NPA poses to the banks and suggestions to overcome and to manage NPA effectively.

Keywords: India, NPAs, private banks, public banks

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2202 Foreign Banks Taking More Risk: Evidence from Emerging Economies

Authors: Minghua Chen, Rui Wang

Abstract:

This paper addresses the impact of foreign ownership on the risk-taking behavior of banks. Using bank-level panel data of more than 1,300 commercial banks in 32 emerging economies during 2000-2013, we find that foreign owned banks take on more risk than their domestic counterparts. We further examine several factors that may potentially contribute to foreign banks’ differentiated riskiness from four perspectives, namely, foreign banks’ informational disadvantages, agency problems, the contagious effect of parent banks’ financial conditions and the disparity between home and host markets. We find supportive evidence that these factors play a significant role in affecting foreign banks’ risk-taking.

Keywords: bank risk-taking, emerging economies, financial liberalization, foreign banks

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2201 Net Interest Margin of Cooperative Banks in Low Interest Rate Environment

Authors: Karolína Vozková, Matěj Kuc

Abstract:

This paper deals with the impact of decrease in interest rates on the performance of commercial and cooperative banks in the Eurozone measured by net interest margin. The analysis was performed on balanced dataset of 268 commercial and 726 cooperative banks spanning the 2008-2015 period. We employed Fixed Effects estimation panel method. As expected, we found a negative relationship between market rates and net interest margin. Our results suggest that the impact of negative interest income differs across individual banking business models. More precisely, those cooperative banks were much more hit by the decrease of market interest rates which might be due to their ownership structure and more restrictive business regulation.

Keywords: cooperative banks, performance, negative interest rates, risk management

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2200 Non-Performing Assets and Credit Risk Performance: An Evidence of Commercial Banks in India

Authors: Sirus Sharifi, Arunima Haldar, S. V. D. Nageswara Rao

Abstract:

This research analyzes the effect of credit risk management practices of commercial banks in India and the relationship with their non-performing assets (NPAs). Required data on credit risk performance was collected through a survey questionnaire from top risk officers of 38 Indian banks. NPA data (period from 2012 to 2016) was collected from Prowess database compiled by the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE). The model was assessed utilizing cross sectional regression method. As expected, the results indicate a negative significant relationship between credit risk management in India banks and their NPA growth. The research has implications for banks given the high level of losses in India and other economies as well, and the implementation of Basel III standards by the central banks. This research would be an evidence on credit risk performance and its relationship with the level of non-performing assets (NPAs) in Indian banks.

Keywords: risk management, risk identification, banks, Non-Performing Assets (NPAs)

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2199 The Reality of Ethical Finance in Algerian Commercial Banks: A Case Study of a Sample of Banking Agencies in Bordj Bou Arreridj and the Setif States

Authors: Asma Righi

Abstract:

After the global financial crisis of 2008, interest in ethical economics increased, particularly in the field of finance in general and commercial banks in particular. Indeed, it has become imperative for them to move from an institution that aims to make a profit to a community partner that takes the environmental aspect into account in its funding, rationalizes its decisions and adheres to ethics in its dealings. This leads it to the need of adopting the concept of ethical finance and standing on its most important principles and dimensions to realize profits on the one hand and to serve its society and its economy on the other hand. The objective of this research is centered on knowing the reality of the Algerian commercial banks’ adoption of the dimensions and principles of ethical finance. The quantitative methodology used is based on a questionnaire survey of twenty-four banking agencies in the states of Bordj Bou Arreridj and Setif. The data obtained were processed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program. This research led to two main results: first, the author observed a limited application of the principles of ethical finance in commercial banks active in Algeria. This application is particularly in line with the implementation of the directives of the Central Bank and the imposed monetary policy. Second, the results showed that there is a significant difference in the application of ethical financial dimensions and principles between government and foreign banks.

Keywords: Algerian commercial banks, ethical banking, ethical finance, socially responsible investment

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2198 Churn Prediction for Savings Bank Customers: A Machine Learning Approach

Authors: Prashant Verma

Abstract:

Commercial banks are facing immense pressure, including financial disintermediation, interest rate volatility and digital ways of finance. Retaining an existing customer is 5 to 25 less expensive than acquiring a new one. This paper explores customer churn prediction, based on various statistical & machine learning models and uses under-sampling, to improve the predictive power of these models. The results show that out of the various machine learning models, Random Forest which predicts the churn with 78% accuracy, has been found to be the most powerful model for the scenario. Customer vintage, customer’s age, average balance, occupation code, population code, average withdrawal amount, and an average number of transactions were found to be the variables with high predictive power for the churn prediction model. The model can be deployed by the commercial banks in order to avoid the customer churn so that they may retain the funds, which are kept by savings bank (SB) customers. The article suggests a customized campaign to be initiated by commercial banks to avoid SB customer churn. Hence, by giving better customer satisfaction and experience, the commercial banks can limit the customer churn and maintain their deposits.

Keywords: savings bank, customer churn, customer retention, random forests, machine learning, under-sampling

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2197 The Level of Disclosure of Intellectual Capital at Jordanian Development Banks

Authors: Firas A. N. Al-Dalabih

Abstract:

This study aims at identifying the level of disclosure of intellectual capital at the Jordanian development banks. The study sample composed of (100) individuals working at the National Bank to Finance Small Projects around the different governorates of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. A questionnaire has been prepared and distributed over the study sample. (95) Questionnaires have been retrieved; valid for the statistical analysis purposes with a percentage of (95%). The study results showed that the level of disclosure of intellectual capital with all its dimensions (human capital, customer capital and structural capital) at the Jordanian development banks was of a high level. The results also showed that there is a high level of awareness performed by the Jordanian development banks’ employees in regard to the necessity and importance of the intellectual capital’s disclosure. The study was concluded with a number of recommendations among which were that the Jordanian development banks shall take notice toward increasing their workers’ awareness regarding the importance of intellectual capital’s disclosure, as well as applying this study over commercial and Islamic banks for the purposes of carrying out a comparison between them and the development banks.

Keywords: intellectual capital, Jordanian development banks, the level of disclosure

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2196 The Relationship between Risk and Capital: Evidence from Indian Commercial Banks

Authors: Seba Mohanty, Jitendra Mahakud

Abstract:

Capital ratio is one of the major indicators of the stability of the commercial banks. Pertinent to its pervasive importance, over the years the regulators, policy makers focus on the maintenance of the particular level of capital ratio to minimize the solvency and liquidation risk. In this context, it is very much important to identify the relationship between capital and risk and find out the factors which determine the capital ratios of commercial banks. The study examines the relationship between capital and risk of the commercial banks operating in India. Other bank specific variables like bank size, deposit, profitability, non-performing assets, bank liquidity, net interest margin, loan loss reserves, deposits variability and regulatory pressure are also considered for the analysis. The period of study is 1997-2015 i.e. the period of post liberalization. To identify the impact of financial crisis and implementation of Basel II on capital ratio, we have divided the whole period into two sub-periods i.e. 1997-2008 and 2008-2015. This study considers all the three types of commercial banks, i.e. public sector, the private sector and foreign banks, which have continuous data for the whole period. The main sources of data are Prowess data base maintained by centre for monitoring Indian economy (CMIE) and Reserve Bank of India publications. We use simultaneous equation model and more specifically Two Stage Least Square method to find out the relationship between capital and risk. From the econometric analysis, we find that capital and risk affect each other simultaneously, and this is consistent across the time period and across the type of banks. Moreover, regulation has a positive significant impact on the ratio of capital to risk-weighted assets, but no significant impact on the banks risk taking behaviour. Our empirical findings also suggest that size has a negative impact on capital and risk, indicating that larger banks increase their capital less than the other banks supported by the too-big-to-fail hypothesis. This study contributes to the existing body of literature by predicting a strong relationship between capital and risk in an emerging economy, where banking sector plays a majority role for financial development. Further this study may be considered as a primary study to find out the macro economic factors which affecting risk and capital in India.

Keywords: capital, commercial bank, risk, simultaneous equation model

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2195 Factors Affecting the Profitability of Commercial Banks: An Empirical Study of Indian Banking Sector

Authors: Neeraj Gupta, Jitendra Mahakud

Abstract:

The banking system plays a major role in the Indian economy. Banking system is the payment gateway of most of the financial transactions. Banking has gone a major transition that is still in progress. Recent banking reforms after liberalization in 1991 have led to the establishment of the foreign banks in the country. The foreign banks are not listed in the Indian stock markets and have increased the competition leading to the capture of the significant share in the revenue from the public sector banks which are still the major players in the Indian banking sector. The performance of the banking sector depends on the internal (bank specific) as well as the external (market specific and macroeconomic) factors. Profitability in banking sector is affected by numerous factors which can be internal or external. The present study examines these internal and external factors which are likely to effect the profitablilty of the Indian banks. The sample consists of a panel dataset of 64 commercial banks in India, consisting of 1088 observations over the years from 1998 to 2016. The GMM dynamic panel estimation given by Arellano and Bond has been used. The study revealed that the variables capital adequacy ratio, deposit, age, labour productivity, non-performing asset, inflation and concentration have significant effect on performance measured.

Keywords: banks in India, bank performance, bank productivity, banking management

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2194 Relationship between Growth of Non-Performing Assets and Credit Risk Management Practices in Indian Banks

Authors: Sirus Sharifi, Arunima Haldar, S. V. D. Nageswara Rao

Abstract:

The study attempts to analyze the impact of credit risk management practices of Indian scheduled commercial banks on their non-performing assets (NPAs). The data on credit risk practices was collected by administering a questionnaire to risk managers/executives at different banks. The data on NPAs (from 2012 to 2016) is sourced from Prowess, a database compiled by the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE). The model was estimated using cross-sectional regression method. As expected, the findings suggest that there is a negative relationship between credit risk management and NPA growth in Indian banks. The study has implications for Indian banks given the high level of losses, and the implementation of Basel III norms by the central bank, i.e. Reserve Bank of India (RBI). Evidence on credit risk management in Indian banks, and their relationship with non-performing assets held by them.

Keywords: credit risk, identification, Indian Banks, NPAs, ownership

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2193 Corporate Governance Role of Audit Committees in the Banking Sector: Evidence from Libya

Authors: Abdulaziz Abdulsaleh

Abstract:

This study aims at identifying the practices that should be taken into consideration by audit committees as a tool of corporate governance in Libyan commercial banks by investigating various perceptions on this topic. The study is based on a questionnaire submitted to audit committees ‘members at Libyan commercial banks, directors of internal audit departments as well as members of board of directors at these banks in addition to a number of external auditors and academic staff from Libyan universities. The study reveals that the role of audit committees has to be shifted from traditional areas of accounting to a broader role including functions related to financial reporting, audit planning, support the independence of internal and external auditors, acting as a channel of communication between external auditors and board of directors, reviewing external audit, and evaluating internal control systems. Although the study is a starting point in developing a framework of good audit committees’ practices in Libya, it is believed that the adoption of its results can result in enhancing the corporate governance practices not only in the banking sector but also in the entire corporate sector in Libya.

Keywords: audit committees, corporate governance, commercial banks, Libya

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2192 Six Sigma Assessment in the Latvian Commercial Banking Sector

Authors: J. Erina, I. Erins

Abstract:

The goals of the present research are to estimate Six Sigma implementation in Latvian commercial banks and to identify the perceived benefits of its implementation. To achieve the goals, the authors used a sequential explanatory method. To obtain empirical data, the authors have developed the questionnaire and adapted it for the employees of Latvian commercial banks. The questions are related to Six Sigma implementation and its perceived benefits. The questionnaire mainly consists of closed questions, the evaluation of which is based on 5 point Likert scale. The obtained empirical data has shown that of the two hypotheses put forward in the present research Hypothesis 1 has to be rejected, while Hypothesis 2 has been partially confirmed. The authors have also faced some research limitations related to the fact that the participants in the questionnaire belong to different rank of the organization hierarchy.

Keywords: six sigma, quality, commercial banking sector, latvian

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2191 Evaluation of Key Performance Indicators as Determinants of Dividend Paid on Ordinary Shares in Nigeria Banking Sector

Authors: Oliver Ikechukwu Inyiama, Boniface Uche Ugwuanyi

Abstract:

The aim of the research is to evaluate the key financial performance indicators that help both managers and their shareholders of Nigerian Banks to determine the appropriate dividend payout to their ordinary shareholders in an accounting year. Profitability, total asset, and earnings of commercial banks were selected as key performance indicators in Nigeria Banking Sector. They represent the independent variables of the study while dividend per share is the proxy for the dividend paid on ordinary shares which represent the dependent variable. The effect of profitability, total asset and earnings on dividend per share were evaluated through the ordinary least square method of multiple regression analysis. Test for normality of frequency distribution was conducted through descriptive statistics such as Jacque Bera Statistic, skewness and kurtosis. Rate of dividend payout was subsequently applied as an alternate dependent variable to test for robustness of the earlier results. The 64% adjusted R-squared of the pooled data indicates that profitability, total asset, and earnings explain the variation in dividend per share during the period under research while the remaining 36% variation in dividend per share could be explained by changes in other variables not captured by this study as well as the error term. The study concentrated on four leading Nigeria Commercial Banks namely; First Bank of Nigeria Plc, GTBank Plc, United Bank for Africa Plc and Zenith International Bank Plc. Dividend per share was found to be positively affected by total assets and earnings of the commercial banks. However, profitability which was proxied by profit after tax had a negative effect on dividend per share. The implication of the findings is that commercial banks in Nigeria pay more dividend when they are having a dwindling fortune in order to retain the confidence of the shareholders provided their gross earnings and size is on the increase. Therefore, the management and board of directors of Nigeria commercial banks should apply decent marketing strategies to enhance earnings through investment in profitable ventures for an improved dividend payout rate.

Keywords: assets, banks, indicators, performance, profitability, shares

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2190 Examining Ethiopian Banking Industry in Relation to Factors Affecting Profitability: From 2008 to 2012

Authors: Zelalem Zerihun

Abstract:

In this study, attempts were made to assess the bank-specific, industry-specific, and macro-economic factors affecting bank profitability. Data were collected from ten commercial banks in Ethiopia, covering the period of 2008-2012. A mixed method research approach was adopted for this research. Documentary analysis and in-depth interview were also used to substantiate the data. The study found out that capital strength, income diversification, bank size and gross domestic product are statistically significant and they have a positive relationship with banks’ profitability. However, operational efficiency and asset quality have a negative relationship with banks’ profitability. The relationship for liquidity risk, concentration and inflation were found to be statistically insignificant. The study revealed that focusing and reengineering the banks in light of the key internal drivers could enhance the profitability as well as the performance of the commercial banks in Ethiopia. In addition to this, the study suggests that banks in Ethiopia should not only be concerned about internal structures but also they must consider both the internal environment and the macro-economic environment in designing strategies to improve their profit or their performance.

Keywords: Ethiopian banking industry, macro-economic factors, documentary analysis, capital strength, income diversification

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2189 Risk Management in Islamic Banks: A Case Study of the Faisal Islamic Bank of Egypt

Authors: Mohamed Saad Ahmed Hussien

Abstract:

This paper discusses the risk management in Islamic banks and aims to determine the difference in the practices and methods of risk management in those banks compared to the conventional banks, and to make a case study of the biggest Islamic bank in Egypt (Faisal Islamic Bank of Egypt) to identify the most important financial risks faced and how to manage those risks. It was found that Islamic banks face two types of risks. The first type is similar to the risks in conventional banks; the second type is the additional risks which facing the Islamic banks only as a result of some Islamic modes of financing. With regard to the risk management, Islamic banks such as conventional banks applied the regulatory rules issued by the Central Banks and the Basel Committee; Islamic banks also applied the instructions and procedures issued by the Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB). Also, Islamic banks are similar to the conventional banks in the practices and methods which they use to manage the risks. And there are some factors that may affect the risk management in Islamic banks, such as the size of the bank and the efficiency of the administration and the staff of the bank.

Keywords: conventional banks, Faisal Islamic Bank of Egypt, Islamic banks, risk management

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2188 Information on Financial Statements for Loan Decision-Making of Commercial Banks in Vietnam

Authors: Mai Hoang Minh

Abstract:

Financial statements (FS) are tools which provide information to users for making business decisions. This article is going to present the survey which clarifies the role of financial statement to Commercial Banks’ loan decisions in Vietnam. Moreover, this also discusses about financial statement’s quality currently, thereby making suggestions for enterprises to enhance the usefulness of accounting information in borrowing activities.

Keywords: usefulness of financial statement, accounting information quality, loan decisions

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2187 Published Financial Statement as a Correlate of Investment Decision among Commercial Bank Stakeholders in Nigeria

Authors: C. F. Popoola, K. Akinsanya, S. B. Babarinde, D. A. Farinde

Abstract:

This study investigated published financial statement as correlate of investment decision among commercial bank stakeholders in Nigeria. A correlation research design was used in the study. 180 users of published financial statement were purposively sampled from Lagos and Ibadan. Data generated were analyzed using Pearson correlation and regression. The findings of the study revealed that, balance sheet is negatively related with investment decision (r=-.483; p < .01) while income statement (r= .249; p < .001), notes on the account (r= .230; p < .001), cash flow statement (r= .202; p < .001), value added statement (r= .328; p < .001) and five-year financial summary (r= .191 ;p < .01) are positively related with investment decision. Findings also revealed that components of published financial statement significantly predicted good investment decision (R2= .983; F(5,175)=284.5; p < .05) for commercial bank stakeholders. Therefore, it was suggested that Nigeria banks and professional bodies should instigate programs that will increase the knowledge of stakeholders on published financial statement.

Keywords: commercial banks, financial statement, income statement, investment decision, stakeholders

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2186 Marketing and Commercial Activities Offered on Websites of European Union Banks

Authors: Mario Spremić, Natalija Kokolek, Božidar Jaković, Jurica Šimurina

Abstract:

This paper deals with various questions related to functionality and providing banking services in the European union on the Internet. Due to the fact that we live in the information technologies era, the Internet become a new space for doing economic and business activities in all areas, and especially important in banking. Accepting the busy tempo of life, in the past several years electronic banking has become necessity and a must for most users of banking services. On a sample of 300 web sites of the banks operating in European union (EU) we conduct the research on the functionality of e-banking services offered through banks web sites with the key objective to reveal to what extent the information technologies are used in their business operations. Characteristics of EU banks websites will be examined and compared to the basic groups of business activities on the web. Also some recommendations for the successful bank web sites will be provided.

Keywords: electronic banking, electronic business, European union banks, internet

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2185 Liquidity Risk of Banks in Light of a Dominant Share of Foreign Capital in the Polish Banking Sector

Authors: Karolina Patora

Abstract:

This article investigates liquidity risk management by banks, which has gained significant importance since the global financial crisis of 2008. The issue is of particular interest for countries like Poland, in which foreign capital plays a dominant role. Such an ownership structure poses certain risks to the local banking sector, which faces an increased probability of the withdrawal of funding or assets’ transfers abroad in case of a crisis. Both these factors can have a detrimental influence on the liquidity position of foreign-owned banks and hence negatively affect the financial stability of the whole banking sector. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a dominating share of foreign investors in the Polish banking sector on the liquidity position of commercial banks. The study hypothesizes that the ownership structure of the Polish banking sector, in which there are banks predominantly controlled by foreign investors, does not pose a threat to the liquidity position of Polish banks. A supplementary research hypothesis is that the liquidity risk profile of foreign-owned banks differs from that of domestic banks. The sample consists of 14 foreign-owned banks and 5 domestic banks owned by local investors, which together constitute approximately 87% of the banking sector’s assets. The data covers the period of 2004–2014. The results of the regression models show no evidence of significant differences in terms of the dynamics of changes of the liquidity buffers between the foreign-owned and domestic banks, although the signs of the coefficients might suggest that the foreign-owned banks were decreasing the holdings of liquid assets at a slower pace over the examined period, compared to the domestic banks. However, no proof of the statistical significance of these findings has been found. The supplementary research hypothesis that the liquidity risk profile of foreign-controlled banks differs from that of domestic banks was rejected.

Keywords: foreign-owned banks, liquidity position, liquidity risk, financial stability

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2184 Capital Adequacy and Islamic Banks Behavior: Evidence from Middle East Countries

Authors: Khaled Alkadamani

Abstract:

Using the simultaneous equations model, this paper examines the impact of capital requirements on bank risk-taking during the recent financial crisis. It also explores the relationship between capital and risk decisions and the impact of economic instability on this relationship. By analyzing the data of 20 Islamic commercial banks between 2004 and 2014 from four Middle East countries, the study concludes a positive effect of regulatory pressure on bank capital in Saudi Arabia and UAE and a negative effect in Jordan and Kuwait. Moreover, the results show a negative impact of regulatory pressure on bank risk taking in Saudi Arabia, Jordan and UAE. The findings reveal also that banks close to the minimum regulatory capital requirements improve their capital adequacy by increasing their capital and decreasing their risk taking. Furthermore, the results show that economic crisis negatively affects bank risk changes, suggesting that banks react to the impact of uncertainty by reducing their risk taking. Finally, the estimations show a negative correlation between banks profitability and capital adequacy ratio (CAR), implying that as more capital is set aside as a buffer for banks safety; it affects the performance of Islamic banks.

Keywords: bank capital, bank regulation, crisis, Islamic banks, risk taking

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2183 IT Investment Decision Making: Case Studies on the Implementation of Contactless Payments in Commercial Banks of Kazakhstan

Authors: Symbat Moldabekova

Abstract:

This research explores the practice of decision-making in commercial banks in Kazakhstan. It focuses on recent technologies, such as contactless payments and QR code, and uses interviews with bank executives and industry practitioners to gain an understanding of how decisions are made and the role of financial assessment methods. The aim of the research is (1) to study the importance of financial techniques to evaluate IT investments; (2) to understand the role of different expert groups; (3) to explore how market trends and industry features affect decisions on IT; (4) to build a model that defines the real practice of decision-making on IT in commercial banks in Kazakhstan. The theoretical framework suggests that decision-making on IT is a socially constructed process, where actor groups with different background interact and negotiate with each other to develop a shared understanding of IT and to make more effective decisions. Theory and observations suggest that the more parties involved in the process of decision-making, the higher the possibility of disagreements between them. As each actor group has their views on the rational decision on an IT project, it is worth exploring how the final decision is made in practice. Initial findings show that the financial assessment methods are used as a guideline and do not play a big role in the final decision. The commercial banks of Kazakhstan tend to study experience of neighboring countries before adopting innovation. Implementing contactless payments is widely regarded as pinnacle success factor due to increasing competition in the market. First-to-market innovations are considered as priorities therefore, such decisions can be made with exemption of some certain actor groups from the process. Customers play significant role and they participate in testing demo versions of the products before bringing innovation to the market. The study will identify the viewpoints of actors in the banking sector on a rational decision, and the ways decision-makers from a variety of disciplines interact with each other in order to make a decision on IT in retail banks.

Keywords: actor groups, decision making, technology investment, retail banks

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2182 Effect of Human Resources Accounting on Financial Performance of Banks in Nigeria

Authors: Oti Ibiam, Alexanda O. Kalu

Abstract:

Human Resource Accounting is the process of identifying and measuring data about human resources and communicating this information to interested parties in order to meaningful investment decisions. In recent time, firms focus has shifted to human resource accounting so as to ensure efficiency and effectiveness in their operations. This study focused on the effect of human resource accounting on the financial performance of Banks in Nigerian. The problem that led to the study revolves around the current trend whereby Nigeria banks do not efficiently account for the input of human resource in their annual statement, thereby instead of capitalizing human resources in their statement of financial position; they expend it in their income statement thereby reducing their profit after tax. The broad objective of this study is to determine the extent to which human resource accounting affects the financial performance and value of Nigerian Banks. This study is therefore considered significant because, there are still universally, grey areas to be sorted out on the subject matter of human resources accounting. In the bid to achieve the study objectives, the researcher gathered data from sixteen commercial banks. Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources using an ex-post facto research design. The data collected were then tabulated and analyzed using the multiple regression analysis. The result of hypothesis one revealed that there is a significant relationship between Capitalized Human Resource Cost and post capitalization Profit before tax of banks in Nigeria. The finding of hypothesis two revealed that the association between Capitalized Human Resource Cost and post capitalization Net worth of banks in Nigeria is significant. The finding in Hypothesis three reveals that there is a significant difference between pre and post capitalization profit before tax of banks in Nigeria. The study concludes that human resources accounting positively influenced financial performance of banks in Nigeria within the period under study. It is recommended that standards should be set for human resources identification and measurement in the banking sector and also the management of commercial banks in Nigeria should have a proper appreciation of human resource accounting. This will enable managers to take right decision regarding investment in human resource. Also, the study recommends that policies on enhancing the post capitalization profit before tax of banks in Nigeria should pay great attention to capitalized human resources cost, net worth and total asset as the variables significantly influenced post capitalization profit before tax of the studied banks in Nigeria. The limitation of the study centers on the limited number of years and companies that was adopted for the study.

Keywords: capitalization, human resources cost, profit before tax, net worth

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2181 Procyclicality of Leverage: An Empirical Analysis from Turkish Banks

Authors: Emin Avcı, Çiydem Çatak

Abstract:

The recent economic crisis have shown that procyclicality, which could threaten the stability and growth of the economy, is a major problem of financial and real sector. The term procyclicality refers here the cyclical behavior of banks that lead them to follow the same patterns as the real economy. In this study, leverage which demonstrate how a bank manage its debt, is chosen as bank specific variable to see the effect of changes in it over the economic cycle. The procyclical behavior of Turkish banking sector (commercial, participation, development-investment banks) is tried to explain with analyzing the relationship between leverage and asset growth. On the basis of theoretical explanations, eight different leverage ratios are utilized in eight different panel data models to demonstrate the procyclicality effect of Turkish banks leverage using monthly data covering the 2005-2014 period. It is tested whether there is an increasing (decreasing) trend in the leverage ratio of Turkish banks when there is an enlargement (contraction) in their balance sheet. The major finding of the study indicates that asset growth has a significant effect on all eight leverage ratios. In other words, the leverage of Turkish banks follow a cyclical pattern, which is in line with those of earlier literature.

Keywords: banking, economic cycles, leverage, procyclicality

Procedia PDF Downloads 160