Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Olabanji Ewetan

4 Modern Agriculture and Industrialization Nexus in the Nigerian Context

Authors: Ese Urhie, Olabisi Popoola, Obindah Gershon, Olabanji Ewetan

Abstract:

Modern agriculture involves the use of improved tools and equipment (instead of crude and ineffective tools) like tractors, hand operated planters, hand operated fertilizer drills and combined harvesters - which increase agricultural productivity. Farmers in Nigeria still have huge potentials to enhance their productivity. The study argues that the increase in agricultural output due to increased productivity, orchestrated by modern agriculture will promote forward linkages and opportunities in the processing sub-sector; both the manufacturing of machines and the processing of raw materials. Depending on existing incentives, foreign investment could be attracted to augment local investment in the sector. The availability of raw materials in large quantity – which prices are competitive – will attract investment in other industries. In addition, potentials for backward linkages will also be created. In a nutshell, adopting the unbalanced growth theory in favour of the agricultural sector could engender industrialization in a country with untapped potentials. The paper highlights the numerous potentials of modern agriculture that are yet to be tapped in Nigeria and also provides a theoretical analysis of how the realization of such potentials could promote industrialization in the country. The study adopts the Lewis’ theory of structural–change model and Hirschman’s theory of unbalanced growth in the design of the analytical framework. The framework will be useful in empirical studies that will guide policy formulation.

Keywords: modern agriculture, industrialization, structural change model, unbalanced growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
3 Assessing Smallholder Farmers’ Perception of Climate Change and Coping Strategies Adopted in the Olifants Catchment of South Africa

Authors: Mary Funke Olabanji, Thando Ndarana, Nerhene Davis, Sylvester Okechukwu Ilo

Abstract:

Scientific evidence indicates that climate change is already being experienced by farmers, and its impacts are felt on agricultural and food systems. Understanding the perceptions of farmers on climate change and how they respond to this change is essential to the development and implementation of appropriate policies for agriculture and food security. This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of farmers’ perceptions of climate change, adopted coping strategies, long-term implications of their adaptation choices, and barriers to their decisions to adapt. Data were randomly collected from 73 respondents in five districts located in the Olifants catchment of South Africa. A combination of descriptive statistics and Chi-Square statistical tests using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to analyse the data obtained from the survey. Results show that smallholder farmers have an in-depth perception of climate change. The most significant changes perceived by farmers were increased temperature and low rainfall. The results equally revealed that smallholder farmers in the Olifants catchment had adopted several adaptation strategies in response to the perceived climate change. The significant adaptation strategies from the results include changing cropping patterns and planting date, use of improved seed variety, and chemical fertilizers. The study, therefore, concludes that crop diversification and agroforestry were more effective and sustainable in mitigating the impact of climate change.

Keywords: adaptation, climate change, perception, smallholder farmers

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
2 The Ideal Memory Substitute for Computer Memory Hierarchy

Authors: Kayode A. Olaniyi, Olabanji F. Omotoye, Adeola A. Ogunleye

Abstract:

Computer system components such as the CPU, the Controllers, and the operating system, work together as a team, and storage or memory is the essential parts of this team apart from the processor. The memory and storage system including processor caches, main memory, and storage, form basic storage component of a computer system. The characteristics of the different types of storage are inherent in the design and the technology employed in the manufacturing. These memory characteristics define the speed, compatibility, cost, volatility, and density of the various storage types. Most computers rely on a hierarchy of storage devices for performance. The effective and efficient use of the memory hierarchy of the computer system therefore is the single most important aspect of computer system design and use. The memory hierarchy is becoming a fundamental performance and energy bottleneck, due to the widening gap between the increasing demands of modern computer applications and the limited performance and energy efficiency provided by traditional memory technologies. With the dramatic development in the computers systems, computer storage has had a difficult time keeping up with the processor speed. Computer architects are therefore facing constant challenges in developing high-speed computer storage with high-performance which is energy-efficient, cost-effective and reliable, to intercept processor requests. It is very clear that substantial advancements in redesigning the existing memory physical and logical structures to meet up with the latest processor potential is crucial. This research work investigates the importance of computer memory (storage) hierarchy in the design of computer systems. The constituent storage types of the hierarchy today were investigated looking at the design technologies and how the technologies affect memory characteristics: speed, density, stability and cost. The investigation considered how these characteristics could best be harnessed for overall efficiency of the computer system. The research revealed that the best single type of storage, which we refer to as ideal memory is that logical single physical memory which would combine the best attributes of each memory type that make up the memory hierarchy. It is a single memory with access speed as high as one found in CPU registers, combined with the highest storage capacity, offering excellent stability in the presence or absence of power as found in the magnetic and optical disks as against volatile DRAM, and yet offers a cost-effective attribute that is far away from the expensive SRAM. The research work suggests that to overcome these barriers it may then mean that memory manufacturing will take a total deviation from the present technologies and adopt one that overcomes the associated challenges with the traditional memory technologies.

Keywords: cache, memory-hierarchy, memory, registers, storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
1 Adaptation of Hough Transform Algorithm for Text Document Skew Angle Detection

Authors: Kayode A. Olaniyi, Olabanji F. Omotoye, Adeola A. Ogunleye

Abstract:

The skew detection and correction form an important part of digital document analysis. This is because uncompensated skew can deteriorate document features and can complicate further document image processing steps. Efficient text document analysis and digitization can rarely be achieved when a document is skewed even at a small angle. Once the documents have been digitized through the scanning system and binarization also achieved, document skew correction is required before further image analysis. Research efforts have been put in this area with algorithms developed to eliminate document skew. Skew angle correction algorithms can be compared based on performance criteria. Most important performance criteria are accuracy of skew angle detection, range of skew angle for detection, speed of processing the image, computational complexity and consequently memory space used. The standard Hough Transform has successfully been implemented for text documentation skew angle estimation application. However, the standard Hough Transform algorithm level of accuracy depends largely on how much fine the step size for the angle used. This consequently consumes more time and memory space for increase accuracy and, especially where number of pixels is considerable large. Whenever the Hough transform is used, there is always a tradeoff between accuracy and speed. So a more efficient solution is needed that optimizes space as well as time. In this paper, an improved Hough transform (HT) technique that optimizes space as well as time to robustly detect document skew is presented. The modified algorithm of Hough Transform presents solution to the contradiction between the memory space, running time and accuracy. Our algorithm starts with the first step of angle estimation accurate up to zero decimal place using the standard Hough Transform algorithm achieving minimal running time and space but lacks relative accuracy. Then to increase accuracy, suppose estimated angle found using the basic Hough algorithm is x degree, we then run again basic algorithm from range between ±x degrees with accuracy of one decimal place. Same process is iterated till level of desired accuracy is achieved. The procedure of our skew estimation and correction algorithm of text images is implemented using MATLAB. The memory space estimation and process time are also tabulated with skew angle assumption of within 00 and 450. The simulation results which is demonstrated in Matlab show the high performance of our algorithms with less computational time and memory space used in detecting document skew for a variety of documents with different levels of complexity.

Keywords: hough-transform, skew-detection, skew-angle, skew-correction, text-document

Procedia PDF Downloads 76