Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 168

Search results for: cassava bread

168 Using Composite Flour in Bread Making: Cassava and Wheat Flour

Authors: Aishatu Ibrahim, Ijeoma Chinyere Ukonu

Abstract:

The study set out to produce bread using composite cassava flour. The main objective of the work is to determine the possibility of using composite cassava flour in bread production and to find out whether it is acceptable in the hospitality industry and by the general public. The research questions were formed and analyzed. A sample size of 10 professional catering judges was used in the department of hospitality management/food science and technology. Relevant literature was received. Data collected was analyzed using mean deviation. Product A which is 20% cassava flour and 80% wheat flour product, and D which is 100% wheat flour product were competing with high acceptability. It was observed that the composite cassava dough needed to be allowed to proof for a longer period. Lastly, the researcher recommends that the caterers should be encouraged to use composite cassava flour in the production of bread in order to reduce cost.

Keywords: bread, cassava, flour, wheat

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
167 To Include or Not to Include: Resolving Ethical Concerns over the 20% High Quality Cassava Flour Inclusion in Wheat Flour Policy in Nigeria

Authors: Popoola I. Olayinka, Alamu E. Oladeji, B. Maziya-Dixon

Abstract:

Cassava, an indigenous crop grown locally by subsistence farmers in Nigeria has potential to bring economic benefits to the country. Consumption of bread and other confectionaries has been on the rise due to lifestyle changes of Nigerian consumers. However, wheat, being the major ingredient for bread and confectionery production does not thrive well under Nigerian climate hence the huge spending on wheat importation. To reduce spending on wheat importation, the Federal Government of Nigeria intends passing into law mandatory inclusion of 20% high-quality cassava flour (HQCF) in wheat flour. While the proposed policy may reduce post harvest loss of cassava, and also increase food security and domestic agricultural productivity, there are downsides to the policy which include reduction in nutritional quality and low sensory appeal of cassava-wheat bread, reluctance of flour millers to use HQCF, technology and processing challenges among others. The policy thus presents an ethical dilemma which must be resolved for its successful implementation. While inclusion of HQCF to wheat flour in bread and confectionery is a topic that may have been well addressed, resolving the ethical dilemma resulting from the act has not received much attention. This paper attempts to resolve this dilemma using various approaches in food ethics (cost benefits, utilitarianism, deontological and deliberative). The Cost-benefit approach did not provide adequate resolution of the dilemma as all the costs and benefits of the policy could not be stated in the quantitative term. The utilitarianism approach suggests that the policy delivers greatest good to the greatest number while the deontological approach suggests that the act (inclusion of HQCF to wheat flour) is right hence the policy is not utterly wrong. The deliberative approach suggests a win-win situation through deliberation with the parties involved.

Keywords: HQCF, ethical dilemma, food security, composite flour, cassava bread

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166 Study on the Quality of Biscuits Prepared from Wheat Flour and Cassava Flour

Authors: Ramim Tanver Rahman, Muhammad Mahbub Sobhan, M. A. Alim

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This study reports on processing of biscuits using skinned, treated and dried cassava flour. Five samples of biscuits S2, S3, S4, S5, and S6 containing 8, 16, 24, 32, and 40% cassava flour with wheat flour and a control sample (S1) containing no cassava flour were processed. The weights of all the biscuit samples were higher than that of control biscuit. The biscuit containing cassava flour was lower width than the control biscuit. The spread ratio of biscuits with 16% cassava flour was higher than other combinations of cassava flour. No remarkable changes in moisture content, peroxide value, fatty acid value, texture, and flavor were observed up to 4 months of storage in ambient conditions (27° to 35°C). A decreasing trend in color, flavor, texture and overall acceptability was observed with the increased incorporation of cassava flour. The sample S1 (no cassava flour) secured the highest overall acceptability and sample S6 (40% cassava flour) obtained the lowest overall acceptability. It is recommended that good quality cassava flour fortified biscuits may be processed in industrial-scale substituting the wheat flour by cassava flour up to 24% levels.

Keywords: cassava flour, wheat flour, shelf life, spread ratio, storage, biscuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
165 Economic Analysis of Cassava Value Chain by Farmers in Ilesa West Local Government Area of Osun State

Authors: Maikasuwa Mohammed Abubakar, Okebiorun Ola, M. H. Sidi, Ala Ahmed Ladan, Ango Aabdullahi Kamba

Abstract:

The study examines the economic analysis of cassava value chain by farmers in Ilesa West Local Government Area of Osun State. Simple random sampling technique was used to collect data from 200 respondents from purposively selected wards in the L.G.A. The data collected were analyzed using budgetary analysis and value addition model. The result shows that an average total cost incurred by the input dealers was ₦9,062,127.74 while the average net profit realized was ₦1,038,102.40. Other actors such as producers, processors and marketers incurred an average total cost of ₦23,324.00, ₦130,177.00 and ₦523,755.00 per production season, respectively and the average net profit realized was ₦102,614.00 for cassava producers, ₦51,131.00 for cassava processors and ₦79,045.00 for cassava marketers during cassava production season. Further analysis shows the rate of investment for cassava input dealers was ₦0.1, for cassava producers was ₦4.4, for cassava processors were ₦0.40 and for cassava marketers was ₦0.20. This indicated that rate of return on cassava was higher in cassava production than in others corridors along the value chain of cassava. However, value added the cassava producers (₦102,536.16/season) was the highest when compared with value added by cassava processors (₦51,853.82/season) and cassava marketers (₦100,885.56/season).

Keywords: Cassava, value chain, Ilesa West, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
164 Evaluation of Salt Content in Bread and the Amount Intake by Hypertensive Patients in the Algiers Region

Authors: S.lanasri, A.Boudjerrane, R.Belgherbi, O.Hadjoudj

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Introduction: Bread is the most popular food in Algeria. The aim of this study was to examine the consumption of salt from bread by hypertensive patients. Materials and methods: sixty breads were collected from different artisans Algiers bakeries, each sample was mixed in harm distilled water until homogeneous and filtered. Analysis of the salt content was carried out according to the Mohr method titration. We calculated the amount of salt in bread consumed by 100 hypertensive patients using a questionnaire about the average amount of bread per day. Results: The salt content values from bread were 3.4g ± 0.37 NaCl / 100g.The average amount of salt consumed per day by patients from only bread was 3.82 g ± 3.8 with a maximum of 17 g per day. Only 38.18% of patients consume bread without salt even then 95% knew that excess salt intake can complicate hypertension. Conclusion: This study showed that bread is a major contributor to salt intake by Algerian hypertensive patients.

Keywords: salt, bread, hypertensive patients, Algiers

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163 Anti-cancer Activity of Cassava Leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) Against Colon Cancer (WiDr) Cells in vitro

Authors: Fatma Zuhrotun Nisa, Aprilina Ratriany, Agus Wijanarka

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Background: Cassava leaves are widely used by the people of Indonesia as a vegetable and treat various diseases, including anticancer believed as food. However, not much research on the anticancer activity of cassava leaves, especially in colon cancer. Objectives: the aim of this study is to investigate anti-cancer activity of cassava leaves (Manihot esculanta C.) against colon cancer (WiDr) cells in vitro. Methods: effect of crude aqueous extract of leaves of cassava and cassava leaves boiled tested in colon cancer cells widr. Determination of Anticancer uses the MTT method with parameters such as the percentage of deaths. Results: raw cassava leaf water extract gave IC50 of 63.1 mg / ml. While the water extract of boiled cassava leaves gave IC50 of 79.4 mg/ml. However, there is no difference anticancer activity of raw cassava leaves or cancer (p> 0.05). Conclusion: Cassava leaves contain a variety of compounds that have previously been reported to have anticancer activity. Linamarin, β-carotene, vitamin C, and fiber were thought to affect the IC50 cassava leaf extract against colon cancer cells WiDr.

Keywords: boiled cassava leaves, cassava leaves raw, anticancer activity, colon cancer, IC50

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162 Information Needs of Cassava Processors on Small-Scale Cassava Processing in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Rafiat Bolanle Fasasi-Hammed

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Cassava is an important food crop in rural households of Nigeria. It has a high potential for product diversification, because it can be processed into various products forms for human consumption and can be made into chips for farm animals, and also starch and starch derivatives. However, cassava roots are highly perishable and contain potentially toxic cyanogenic glycosides which necessitate its processing. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess information needs of cassava processors on food safety practices in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used in the selection of 110 respondents for this study. Descriptive statistics and chi-square were used to analyze the data collected. Results of this study showed that the mean age of the respondents was 39.4 years, majority (78.7%) of the respondents was married, 51.9% had secondary education; 45.8% of the respondents have spent more than 12 years in cassava processing. The mean income realized was ₦26,347.50/month from cassava processing. Information on cassava processing got to the respondents through friends, family and relations (73.6%) and fellow cassava processors (58.6%). Serious constraints identified were ineffective extension agents (93.9%), food safety regulatory agencies (88.1%) and inadequate processing and storage facilities (67.8%). Chi-square results showed that significant relationship existed between socio-economic characteristics of the respondents (χ2 = 29.80, df = 2,), knowledge level (χ2 = 9.26, df = 4), constraints (χ2 = 13.11, df = 2) and information needs at p < 0.05 level of significance. The study recommends that there should be regular training on improved cassava processing methods for the cassava processors in the study area.

Keywords: information, needs, cassava, Oyo State, processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
161 Assessment of Cassava Varieties in Ecuador for the Production of Lactic Acid From Starch by-Products

Authors: Pedro Maldonado-Alvarado

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An important cassava quality production was detected in Ecuador. However, in this country, few products with low adding-value are produced from the tuber and none from cassava by-products. To our best knowledge, lactic acid was produced from Ecuadorian cassava bagasse starch in a biotechnological way. The objective of this contribution was to study the influence of the fermentation variables (pH and agitation) on the lactic acid production of Ecuadorian cassava varieties from bagasse starch. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava bagasse starch for INIAP 650 and INIAP 651 varieties spread in Ecuador was performed using α-amylase and amyloglucosidase. Then, glucose was fermented by Lactobacillus leichmannii strains in different conditions of agitation (0 and 150 rpm) and pH (4.5, 5.0, and 5.5). Significant differences in ash, fibre, protein, lipids, and amylose were found in cassava bagasse starch of INIAP 650 and INIAP 651 with 1.4 and 1.3%, 4.3 and 6%, 1.2 and 2.1%, 1.9 and 1.5%, and 24.3 and 26.5%, respectively. The determination of lactic acid was performed by potentiometric and FTIR analysis. Conversions of cassava bagasse to reduced sugars were 71.7 and 85.1% for INIAP 650 and INIAP 651, respectively. The best lactic acid concentrations were 27.6 and 33.5 g/L, obtained at agitation 150 rpm and pH 5.5 for INIAP 650 and INIAP 651. Qualitative analysis conducted by FTIR spectrophotometry confirmed the presence of lactic acid in the reacted products. This investigation could contribute to the valorisation of residues from promising cassava varieties in Ecuador and hence to increase the development of this country.

Keywords: bagasse starch, cassava, Ecuador, fermentation, lactic acid

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160 Biological Studies on Producing Samoli Bread Supplement with Irradiated Sunflower Flour by Gamma Rays

Authors: Amal. N. Al-Kuraieef

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Smoli bread was made by supplementation sunflower flour which was prepared from sunflower (Dahr-EL-Haea) gray after hilling and milling, flour was irradiated by two doses (5 and 10 kGy). After that, the ratios of irradiated sunflower flour were 5 and 10%. All samples of samoli bread were examined for organoleptic and biological evaluation. Biological assay (PER, NPU, FE, DC and BV) was carried out on rats fed 5 and 10% irradiated and non-irradiated sunflower Samoli bread. Results obtained showed that, total lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced comparable, to that of casein. Also, figures of the biological evaluations were higher than those of the control samoli bread and improved its nutritive values.

Keywords: gamma rays, sunflower, samoli bread, cholesterol, lipids, triglycerides

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159 The Effect of Cassava Starch on Compressive Strength and Tear Strength of Alginate Impression Material

Authors: Mirna Febriani

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Statement of problem. Alginate impression material is an imported material and a dentist always used this material to make impression of teeth and oral cavity tissues. Purpose. The aim of this study was to compare about compressive strength and tear strength of alginate impression material and alginate impression material combined with cassava. Material and methods.Property measured included compressive strength and tear strength. Results.The compressive strength and tear strength of the impression materials tested of a comparable ANSI/ADA standard no.18.The compressive strength and tear strength alginate impression material combined with cassava have lower than the compressive strength and tear strength alginate impression material. The alginate impression material combined with cassava has more water and silica content more decrease than alginate impression material. Conclusions.We concluded that compressive strength and tear strength of alginate impression material combined with cassava has lower than alginate impression material without cassava starch.

Keywords: compressive strength, tear strength, Cassava starch, alginate

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158 Quality Evaluation of Bread Enriched with Red Sweet Pepper Powder (Capsicum annuum)

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Kamaljit Kaur, Preeti Ahluwalia, Poonam A. Sachdev

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Bread is an ideal vehicle to impart bioactive compounds to the consumers in a convenient manner. This study evaluated bread enriched with red sweet pepper powder (RSP) at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10% and compared to control bread (without RSP). The bread crumbs were assayed for bioactive, physical, nutritional, textural, color, and sensory properties. Bread supplemented with RSP improved its color, nutritional, and bioactive properties. The low moisture content and increased hardness were observed at higher levels of RSP. Color intensity (expressed as L*, a*, b* values) of bread with 2 and 4% RSP were lower than those of high levels, and the same trend was observed for protein, fibre and ash content of bread. Significant (p < 0.05) increases were recorded for bioactive compounds such as total phenols (0.145 to 235 mg GAE/g), antioxidant activity (56% to 78%) and flavonoids (0.112 to 0.379 mg/g) as the level of powder increased. Bread enriched with 8% RSP showed improved sensory profile as compared to control, whereas a further increase in RSP decreased the sensory and textural properties. Thus, RSP act as a natural colorant and functional food that enhanced the functional and nutritional properties of bread and can be used to customize bread for specific health needs.

Keywords: breads, bioactive compounds, red sweet pepper powder, sensory scores

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157 Antioxidant Potential, Nutritional Value and Sensory Profiles of Bread Fortified with Kenaf Leaves

Authors: Kar Lin Nyam, Phey Yee Lim

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The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant potential, nutritional composition, and functional properties of kenaf leaves powder. Besides, the effect of kenaf leaves powder in bread qualities, properties, and consumer acceptability were evaluated. Different formulations of bread fortified with 0%, 4% and 8% kenaf leaves powder, respectively were produced. Physical properties of bread, such as loaf volume, dough expansion, crumb colour, and bread texture, were determined. Nine points hedonic scale was utilized in sensory evaluation to determine the best formulation (the highest overall acceptability). Proximate composition, calcium content, and antioxidant properties were also determined for the best formulation. 4% leaves powder bread was the most preferred by the panelists followed by control bread, and the least preferred was being 8% leaves powder bread. 4% leaves powder bread had significantly higher value of DPPH radical scavenging capacity (8.05 mg TE/100g), total phenolic content (12.88 mg GAE/100g) and total flavonoid content (13.26 mg QE/100g) compared to control bread (1.38 mg TE/100g, 8.17 mg GAE/100g, and 8.77 mg QE/100g respectively). Besides, 4% leaves powder bread also showed higher in calcium content and total dietary fiber compared to control bread. Kenaf leaves powder is suitable to be used as a source of natural antioxidant for fortification and nutrient improver in bread.

Keywords: dietary fibre, calcium, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content

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156 Exploiting Domino Games "Cassava H154M" in Order to Improve Students' Understanding about the Value of Trigonometry in Various Quadrants

Authors: Hisyam Hidayatullah

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Utilization game on a lesson needs to be done in order to provide proper motoric learning model to improve students' skills. Approach to the game, as one of the models of a motoric learning, is intended to improve student learning outcomes math trigonometry materials generally that prioritize a Memory or rote. The purpose of this study is producting innovation to improve a cognitive abilities of students in the field, to improve student performance, and ultimately to improve student understanding in determining a value of trigonometry in various quadrants, and it apply a approach to the game Domino "Cassava H154M" who is adopted from cassava game and it has made total revised in cassava content. The game is divided into 3 sessions: sine cassava, cosine cassava and cassava tangent. Researchers using action of research method, which consists of several stages such as: planning, implementation, observation, reporting and evaluation. Researchers found that a game approaches can improve student learning outcomes, enhance students' creativity in terms of their motoric learning, and creating a supportive learning environment.

Keywords: cassava "H154M", motoric, value of trigonometry, quadrant

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155 Rheological Properties and Consumer Acceptability of Supplemented with Flaxseed

Authors: A. Albaridi Najla

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Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) is well known to have beneficial effect on health. The seeds are rich in protein, α-linolenic fatty acid and dietary fiber. Bakery products are important part of our daily meals. Functional food recently received considerable attention among consumers. The increase in bread daily consumption leads to the production of breads with functional ingredients such as flaxseed The aim of this Study was to improve the nutritional value of bread by adding flaxseed flour and assessing the effect of adding 0, 5, 10 and 15% flaxseed on whole wheat bread rheological and sensorial properties. The total consumer's acceptability of the flaxseed bread was assessed. Dough characteristics were determined using Farinograph (C.W. Brabender® Instruments, Inc). The result shows no change was observed in water absorption between the stander dough (without flaxseed) and the bread with flaxseed (67%). An Increase in the peak time and dough stickiness was observed with the increase in flaxseed level. Further, breads were evaluated for sensory parameters, colour and texture. High flaxseed level increased the bread crumb softness. Bread with 5% flaxseed was optimized for total sensory evaluation. Overall, flaxseed bread produced in this study was highly acceptable for daily consumption as a functional foods with a potentially health benefits.

Keywords: bread, flaxseed, rheological properties, whole-wheat bread

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
154 Investigative Study of Consumer Perceptions to the Quality and Safety Attributes of 'Fresh' versus 'Frozen' Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): A Case for Agro-Processing in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies

Authors: Nadia Miranda Lorick, Neela Badrie, Marsha Singh

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Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) which is also known as ‘yucca’ or ‘manioc’ has been acknowledged as a millennium crop which has been utilized for food security purposes. The crop provides considerable amount of energy. The aim of the study was to assess consumer groups of both ‘fresh’ and ‘frozen’ in terms of their perceptions toward the quality and safety attributes of frozen cassava. The questionnaire included four sections: consumer demographics, consumer perceptions on quality attributes of ‘frozen’ cassava, consumer knowledge, awareness and attitudes toward food safety of ‘frozen’ cassava and consumer suggestions toward the improvement of frozen cassava. A face-to-face questionnaire was administered to 200 consumers of cassava between April and May 2016. The criteria for inclusion in the survey were that they must be 15 years and over and consumer of cassava. The sections of the questionnaire included demographics of respondents, consumer perception on quality and safety attributes of cassava and suggestions for the improvement of the value-added product. The data was analysed by descriptive and chi-square using SPSS as well as qualitative information was captured. Only 17% of respondents purchased frozen cassava and this was significantly (P<0.05) associated to income. Some (15%) of fresh cassava purchasers had never heard of frozen cassava products and 7.5% o perceived that these products were unhealthy for consumption. More than half (51.3%) of the consumers (all from the ‘fresh’ cassava group) believed that there were ‘no toxins’ within cassava. The ‘frozen’ cassava products were valued for convenience but purchasers were least satisfied with ‘value for money’ (50%), ‘product safety’ (50%) and ‘colour’ (52.9%). Cassava purchasers demonstrated highest dissatisfaction levels with the quality attribute: value for money (6.6%, 11.8%) respectively. The most predominant area outlined by respondents for frozen cassava improvement was promotion /advertising/education (23%). The ‘frozen’ cassava purchasers were ‘least satisfied’ thus most concern that clean knives and clean surface would not be used agro- processing. Fresh cassava purchasers were comparatively more knowledgeable on the potential existence of naturally occurring toxins in cassava, however with 1% respondents being able to specifically identify the toxin as ‘cyanide’. Dangerous preservatives (31%), poor hygiene (30%) and chemicals from the packaging (11%) were identified as some sources of contamination of ‘frozen’ cassava. Purchasers of frozen cassava indicated that the information on packaging label was unclear (P<0.01) when compared to ‘fresh’ cassava consumers.

Keywords: consumer satisfaction, convenience, cyanide toxin, product safety, price, label

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153 Sustainable Development: Soil Conservation with Cultivation of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Based on Local Wisdom

Authors: Adiyasa Muda Zannatan

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Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a plant originating from Brazil. Cassava plants categorized as sixth major food in the world after wheat, rice, corn and potatoes. It has been cultivated on hilly land for 97 years since 1918 at Cireundeu village, West Java Province, Indonesia. Cireundeu traditional village located in the mountain valleys and has a hilly slope up to 38%. Cassava is used as the primary food in that area. Uniquely, Cassava productivity is stable and continues until now. The assessment of soil quality is taking soil samples in the area and analysis the soil in laboratory. The result of analysis that soil in the area is not degraded because it has optimum nutrient, organic matter, and high value of cation exchange capacity in soil even though it has been cultivated in scarp with high slope. Commonly, soil on scarp with high slope has a high rate erosion and poor nutrient. It proved that cassava is able to be an alternative technique of soil conservation in the areas that have a high slope. Beside that, cassava can be utilized as a plant food, feed, fertilizer, and energy. With the utilization of Cassava, the target of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG's) will be achieved with consideration three important components include economy, social, and environment. In economy, Cassava can to be the commercial product like processed food, feed, and alternative energy. In social, it will increase social welfare and will be hereditary. And for environment, Cassava prevents soil from erosion and keeps soil quality.

Keywords: Cassava, local wisdom, conservation, soil quality, sustainable

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
152 Effects of Pretreated Rice Bran on Wheat Dough Performance and Barbari Bread Quality

Authors: E. Ataye-Salehi, P. Taghinia, Z. Sheikholeslami

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In this research, roasted and sonicated rice bran were added at 0, 5%, 10%, and 15% (w/w) in wheat flour for the production of Barbari bread (semi-voluminous Iranian bread). Dough's rheological properties and textural and sensory characteristics of bread were investigated. The results showed that water absorption, development time and the degree of dough softening were increased, but dough stability was decreased by adding pretreated rice bran. Adding pretreated rice bran was increased, the moisture content and L* value of bread crust. The texture of samples which contained 10% pretreated rice bran during 3 hours after baking was less stiff than of control. But 48 hours after baking there was no significant difference between samples which contained 5%, 10% of rice bran and the sample without rice bran. Finally, the samples with 10% rice bran were selected as the best productive samples in this research by panelists.

Keywords: Barbari bread, rice bran, roasting, ultrasound

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151 Effect on Physicochemical and Sensory Attributes of Bread Substituted with Different Levels of Matured Soursop (Anona muricata) Flour

Authors: Mardiana Ahamad Zabidi, Akmalluddin Md. Yunus

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Soursop (Anona muricata) is one of the underutilized tropical fruits containing nutrients, particularly dietary fibre and antioxidant properties that are beneficial to human health. This objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of matured soursop pulp flour (SPF) to be substituted with high-protein wheat flour in bread. Bread formulation was substituted with different levels of SPF (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%). The effect on physicochemical properties and sensory attributes were evaluated. Higher substitution level of SPF resulted in significantly higher (p<0.05) fibre, protein and ash content, while fat and carbohydrate content reduced significantly (p<0.05). FESEM showed that the bread crumb surface of control and 5% SPF appeared to distribute evenly and coalesced by thin gluten film. However, higher SPF substitution level in bread formulation exhibited a deleterious effect by formation of discontinuous gluten network. For texture profile analysis, 5% SPF bread resulted in the lowest value of hardness. The score of sensory evaluation showed that 5% SPF bread received good acceptability and is comparable with control bread.

Keywords: soursop pulp flour, bread, physicochemical properties, sensory attributes, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

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150 Development of Low Glycemic Gluten Free Bread from Barnyard Millet and Lentil Flour

Authors: Hemalatha Ganapathyswamy, Thirukkumar Subramani

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Celiac disease is an autoimmune response to dietary wheat gluten. Gluten is the main structure forming protein in bread and hence developing gluten-free bread is a technological challenge. The study aims at using nonwheat flours like barnyard millet and lentil flour to replace wheat in bread formulations. Other characteristics of these grains, such as high protein, soluble fiber, mineral content and bioactive components make them attractive alternatives to traditional gluten-free ingredients in the production of high protein, gluten-free bread. The composite flour formulations for the development of gluten-free bread were optimized using lentil flour (50 to 70 g), barnyard millet flour (0 to 30 g) and corn flour (0 to 30 g) by means of response surface methodology with various independent variables for physical, sensorial and nutritional characteristics. The optimized composite flour which had a desirability value of 0.517, included lentil flour –62.94 g, barnyard millet flour– 24.34 g and corn flour– 12.72 g with overall acceptability score 8.00/9.00. The optimized gluten-free bread formulation had high protein (14.99g/100g) and fiber (1.95g/100g) content. The glycemic index of the gluten-free bread was 54.58 rendering it as low glycemic which enhances the functional benefit of the gluten-free bread. Since the standardised gluten-free bread from barnyard millet and lentil flour are high protein, and gluten-free with low glycemic index, the product would serve as an ideal therapeutic food in the management of both celiac disease and diabetes mellitus with better nutritional value.

Keywords: gluten free bread, lentil, low glycemic index, response surface methodology

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149 A Comparative Study on Biochar from Slow Pyrolysis of Corn Cob and Cassava Wastes

Authors: Adilah Shariff, Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor, Alexander Lau, Muhammad Azwan Mohd Ali

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Biomass such as corn and cassava wastes if left to decay will release significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG) including carbon dioxide and methane. The biomass wastes can be converted into biochar via thermochemical process such as slow pyrolysis. This approach can reduce the biomass wastes as well as preserve its carbon content. Biochar has the potential to be used as a carbon sequester and soil amendment. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome in order to identify their potential as pyrolysis feedstocks for biochar production. This was achieved by using the proximate and elemental analyses as well as calorific value and lignocellulosic determination. The second objective is to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the biochar produced. A fixed bed slow pyrolysis reactor was used to pyrolyze the corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome. The pyrolysis temperatures were varied between 400 °C and 600 °C, while the heating rate and the holding time were fixed at 5 °C/min and 1 hour, respectively. Corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome were found to be suitable feedstocks for pyrolysis process because they contained a high percentage of volatile matter more than 80 mf wt.%. All the three feedstocks contained low nitrogen and sulphur content less than 1 mf wt.%. Therefore, during the pyrolysis process, the feedstocks give off very low rate of GHG such as nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides. Independent of the types of biomass, the percentage of biochar yield is inversely proportional to the pyrolysis temperature. The highest biochar yield for each studied temperature is from slow pyrolysis of cassava rhizome as the feedstock contained the highest percentage of ash compared to the other two feedstocks. The percentage of fixed carbon in all the biochars increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased. The increment of pyrolysis temperature from 400 °C to 600 °C increased the fixed carbon of corn cob biochar, cassava stem biochar and cassava rhizome biochar by 26.35%, 10.98%, and 6.20% respectively. Irrespective of the pyrolysis temperature, all the biochars produced were found to contain more than 60 mf wt.% fixed carbon content, much higher than its feedstocks.

Keywords: biochar, biomass, cassava wastes, corn cob, pyrolysis

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148 Use of Cassava Flour in Cakes Processing

Authors: S. S. Silva, S. M. A. Souza, C. F. P. Oliveira

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Brazil's agriculture is a major economic base in the country; in addition, family farming is directly responsible for the production of most agricultural products in Brazil, such as cassava. The number of studies on the use of cassava and its derivatives in the food industry has been increased, which is the basis of this study. Sought to develop a food that take advantage the products from farmers, adding value to these products and to study its effects as a replacement for wheat flour. For such elaborated a gluten-free cake – aiming to meet the needs of the celiac public – containing cassava flour, cane sugar, honey, egg, soya oil, coconut desiccated, baking powder and water. For evaluation of their characteristics technological, physicochemical and texture characterizations were done. Cake showed similar characteristics of cake made with wheat flour and growth and aeration of the dough. In sum up, marketing the product is viable, in that it has a typical overall appearance of cake made of wheat flour, meet the needs of celiac people and value the family farming.

Keywords: baking, cake, cassava flour, celiac disease

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147 Bread Quality Improvement with Special Novel Additives

Authors: Mónika Bartalné-Berceli, Eszter Izsó, Szilveszter Gergely, András Salgó

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Nowadays a significant portion of the Earth's population does not have access to healthy food. Either because they can not afford them or because they do not know which they are. The aim of the VIIth Framework CHANCE project (Nr. 266331) supported by the European Union has been to develop relatively cheap food favorable from nutritional point of view and has acceptable quality for consumers. Within the project we dealt with manufacturing of bread belonging to basic foods. We had examined the enrichment of bread products with four kinds of bran, with a special milling product of grain industry (aleurone flour) and with a soy-based sprouted additive. The applied concentration of the six mentioned additives has been optimized and the physical and sensory properties of the bread products were monitored. The weight of the enriched breads increased slightly, however the volume and height decreased slightly compared to the corresponding data of the control bread. The composition of the final product is favorable affected by these additives having highly preferred composition from nutritional point of view.

Keywords: bread products, brans, YASO, aleurone flour

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
146 Influence of Yeast Strains on Microbiological Stability of Wheat Bread

Authors: E. Soboleva, E. Sergachyova, S. G. Davydenko, T. V. Meledina

Abstract:

Problem of food preservation is extremely important for mankind. Viscous damage ("illness") of bread results from development of Bacillus spp. bacteria. High temperature resistant spores of this microorganism are steady against 120°C) and remain in bread during pastries, potentially causing spoilage of the final product. Scientists are interested in further characterization of bread spoiling Bacillus spp. species. Our aim was to find weather yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that are able to produce natural antimicrobial killer factor can preserve bread illness. By diffusion method, we showed yeast antagonistic activity against spore-forming bacteria. Experimental technological parameters were the same as for bakers' yeasts production on the industrial scale. Risograph test during dough fermentation demonstrated gas production. The major finding of the study was a clear indication of the presence of killer yeast strain antagonistic activity against rope in bread causing bacteria. After demonstrating antagonistic effect of S. cerevisiae on bacteria using solid nutrient medium, we tested baked bread under provocative conditions. We also measured formation of carbon dioxide in the dough, dough-making duration and quality of the final products, when using different strains of S. cerevisiae. It is determined that the use of yeast S. cerevisiae RCAM 01730 killer strain inhibits appearance of rope in bread. Thus, natural yeast antimicrobial killer toxin, produced by some S. cerevisiae strains is an anti-rope in bread protector.

Keywords: bakers' yeasts, killer toxin, rope in bread, Saccharomyces cerevisiæ

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
145 Deproteination and Demineralization of Shrimp Waste Using Lactic Acid Bacteria for the Production of Crude Chitin and Chitosan

Authors: Farramae Francisco, Rhoda Mae Simora, Sharon Nunal

Abstract:

Deproteination and demineralization efficiencies of shrimp waste using two Lactobacillus species treated with different carbohydrate sources for chitin production, its chemical conversion to chitosan and the quality of chitin and chitosan produced were determined. Using 5% glucose and 5% cassava starch as carbohydrate sources, pH slightly increased from the initial pH of 6.0 to 6.8 and 7.2, respectively after 24 h and maintained their pH at 6.7 to 7.3 throughout the treatment period. Demineralization (%) in 5 % glucose and 5 % cassava was highest during the first day of treatment which was 82% and 83%, respectively. Deproteination (%) was highest in 5% cassava starch on the 3rd day of treatment at 84.4%. The obtained chitin from 5% cassava and 5% glucose had a residual ash and protein below 1% and solubility of 59% and 44.3%, respectively. Chitosan produced from 5% cassava and 5% glucose had protein content below 0.05%; residual ash was 1.1% and 0.8%, respectively. Chitosan solubility and degree of deacetylation were 56% and 33% in 5% glucose and 48% and 29% in 5% cassava, respectively. The advantage this alternative technology offers over that of chemical extraction is large reduction in chemicals needed thus less effluent production and generation of a protein-rich liquor, although the demineralization process should be improved to achieve greater degree of deacetylation.

Keywords: alternative carbon source, bioprocessing, lactic acid bacteria, waste utilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
144 Impact of Pretreated Rice Bran on Wheat Dough Performance and Barbari Bread Quality

Authors: P. Taghinia, E. Ataye-Salehi, Z. Sheikholeslami

Abstract:

In this research, roasted and sonicated rice bran were added at 0, 5%, 10%, and 15% (w/w) in wheat flour for the production of Barbari breead (semi-voluminous Iranian bread). Dough's rheological properties and textural and sensory characteristics of bread were investigated. The results showed that water absorption, development time and the degree of dough softening were increased but dough stability was decreased by adding pretreated rice bran. Adding pretreated rice bran was increased, the moisture content and L* value of bread crust. The texture of samples which contained 10% pretreated rice bran during 3 hours after baking was less stiff than of control, but 48 hours after baking there was no significant difference between samples which contained 5%, 10% of rice bran and the sample without rice bran. Finally, the samples with 10% rice bran were selected as the best productive samples in this research by panelists.

Keywords: Barbari bread, rice bran, roasting, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
143 Translation of the Bible into the Yoruba Language: A Functionalist Approach in Resolving Cultural Problems

Authors: Ifeoluwa Omotehinse Oloruntoba

Abstract:

Through comparative and causal models of translation, this paper examined the translation of ‘bread’ into the Yoruba language in three Yoruba versions of the Bible: Bibeli Yoruba Atoka (YBA), Bibeli Mimo ni Ede Yoruba Oni (BMY) and Bibeli Mimo (BM). In biblical times, bread was a very important delicacy that it was synonymous with food in general and in the Bible, bread sometimes refers to a type of food (a mixture of flour, water, and yeast that is baked) or food in general. However, this is not the case in the Yoruba culture. In fact, some decades ago, bread was not known in Nigeria and had no name in the Yoruba language until the 1900s when it was codified as burẹdi in Yoruba, a term borrowed from English and transliterated. Nevertheless, in Nigeria presently, bread is not a special food and it is not appreciated or consumed like in the West. This makes it difficult to translate bread in the Bible into Yoruba. From an investigation on the translation of this term, it was discovered that bread which has 330 occurrences in the English Bible translation (King James) has few occurrences in the three Yoruba Bible versions. In the first version (YBA) published in the 1880s, where bread is synonymous with food in general, it is mostly translated as oúnjẹ (food) or the verb jẹ (to eat), revealing that something is eaten but not indicating what it is. However, when the bread is a type of food, it is rendered as akara, a special delicacy of the Yoruba people made from beans flour. In the later version (BMY) published in the 1990s, bread as food, in general, is also mainly translated as oúnjẹ or the verb jẹ, but when it is a type of food, it is translated as akara with few occurrences of burẹdi. In the latest edition (BM), bread as food is either rendered as ounje or literally translated as burẹdi. Where it is a type of food in this version, it is mainly rendered as burẹdi with few occurrences of akara, indicating the assimilation of bread into the Yoruba culture. This result, although limited, shows that the Bible was translated into Yoruba to make it accessible to Yoruba speakers in their everyday language, hence the application of both domesticating and foreignising strategies. This research also emphasizes the role of the translator as an intermediary between two cultures.

Keywords: translation, Bible, Yoruba, cultural problems

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
142 The Influence of Lactic Acid Bacteria Combinations on Wheat Bread Quality

Authors: Vita Lele, Vadims Bartkevics, Iveta Pugajeva, Paulina Zavistanaviciute, Daiva Zadeike, Grazina Juodeikiene, Elena Bartkiene

Abstract:

Different combinations of appropriate technological properties showing lactic acid bacteria (Pediococcus pentosaceus VLGL183 and Enterococcus pseudoavium VLGL 234, Lactobacillus plantarum VLGL135 and Pediococcus pentosaceus VLGL183, Pediococcus pentosaceus VLGL183 and Lactobacillus brevis VLGL173, Pediococcus pentosaceus VLGL183 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides VLGL242, Pediococcus pentosaceus VLGL183 and Lactobacillus curvatus VLGL51, Lactobacillus plantarum VLGL135 and Lactobacillus curvatus VLGL51) for wheat sourdough production were used, and the influence of different sourdoughs on wheat bread quality parameters was evaluated. The highest overall acceptability (135.8 mm in 140 mm hedonic scale) of the bread produced with L. plantarum VLGL135 and P. pentosaceus VLGL183 sourdough was established. Also, bread produced with above mention sourdough, has the highest specific volume, shape coefficient, moisture content, and porosity, 3.40 ml /g; 2.59, 33.7 %, and 76.6 %, respectively. It was found, that the used sourdoughs reduce acrylamide content in bread (from 29.5 to 67.2%), just, the isolated lactic acid bacteria strains could be recommended for higher quality and safer bread production.

Keywords: acrylamide, lactic acid bacteria, quality, sourdough, wheat bread

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
141 Effect of Credit Use on Technical Efficiency of Cassava Farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Adewale Oladapo, Carolyn A. Afolami

Abstract:

Agricultural production should be the major financial contributor to the Nigerian economy; however, the petroleum sector had taken the importance attached to this sector. The situation tends to be more worsening unless necessary attention is given to adequate credit supply among food crop farmers. This research analyses the effect of credit use on the technical efficiency of cassava farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected from two hundred randomly selected cassava farmers through a multistage sampling procedure in the study area. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). Findings revealed that 95.0% of the farmers were male while 56.0% had no formal education and were married. The SFA showed that cassava farmer’s efficiency increased with farm size, herbicide and planting material at 5%,10% and 1% respectively but decreased with fertilizer application at 1% level while farmers’ age, education, household size, experience and access to credit increased technical inefficiency at 10%. The study concluded that cassava farmers are technically inefficient in the use of farm resources and recommended that adequate and workable agricultural policy measures that will ensure availability and efficient fertilizer distribution should be put in place to increase efficiency. Furthermore, the government should encourage youth participation in cassava production and ensure improvement in farmer’s access to credit to increase farmer’s technical efficiency.

Keywords: agriculture, access to credit, cassava farmers, technical efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
140 Evaluation of Storage Stability and Quality Parameters in Biscuit Made from Blends of Wheat, Cassava (Manihot esculenta) and Carrot (Daucus carota) Flour

Authors: Aminat. O Adelekan, Olawale T. Gbadebo

Abstract:

Biscuit is one of the most consumed cereal foods in Nigeria and research has shown that locally available tropical crops like cassava, sweet potato can be made into flour and used in the production of biscuits and other pastries. This study investigates some quality parameters in biscuits made from blends of wheat, cassava and carrot flour. The values of result of samples increased with increasing percentage substitution of cassava and carrot flour in some quality parameter like fiber, ash, gluten content, and carbohydrate. The protein content reduced significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing percentage substitution of cassava and carrot flour which ranged from 14.80% to 11.80% compared with the control sample which had 15.60%. There was a recorded significant increase (P < 0.05) in some mineral composition such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, phosphorus, and vitamin A and C composition as the percentage substitution of cassava and carrot flour increased. During storage stability test, samples stored in the fridge and freezer were found to be the best storage location to preserve the sensory attributes and inhibit microbial growth when compared with storage under the sun and on the shelf. Biscuit made with blends of wheat, cassava and carrot flour can therefore serve as an alternative to biscuits made from 100% wheat flour, as they are richer in vitamin A, vitamin C, carbohydrate, dietary fiber and some essential minerals.

Keywords: biscuit, carrot, flour blends, storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
139 Effect of Local Processing Techniques on the Nutrients and Anti-Nutrients Content of Bitter Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz)

Authors: J. S. Alakali, A. R. Ismaila, T. G. Atume

Abstract:

The effects of local processing techniques on the nutrients and anti-nutrients content of bitter cassava were investigated. Raw bitter cassava tubers were boiled, sundried, roasted, fried to produce Kuese, partially fermented and sun dried to produce Alubo, fermented by submersion to produce Akpu and fermented by solid state to produce yellow and white gari. These locally processed cassava products were subjected to proximate, mineral analysis and anti-nutrient analysis using standard methods. The result of the proximate analysis showed that, raw bitter cassava is composed of 1.85% ash, 20.38% moisture, 4.11% crude fibre, 1.03% crude protein, 0.66% lipids and 71.88% total carbohydrate. For the mineral analysis, the raw bitter cassava tuber contained 32.00% Calcium, 12.55% Magnesium, 1.38% Iron and 80.17% Phosphorous. Even though all processing techniques significantly increased the mineral content, fermentation had higher mineral increment effect. The anti-nutrients analysis showed that the raw tuber contained 98.16mg/100g cyanide, 44.00mg/100g oxalate 304.20mg/100g phytate and 73.00mg/100g saponin. In general all the processing techniques showed a significant reduction of the phytate, oxalate and saponin content of the cassava. However, only fermentation, sun drying and gasification were able to reduce the cyanide content of bitter cassava below the safe level (10mg/100g) recommended by Standard Organization of Nigeria. Yellow gari(with the addition of palm oil) showed low cyanide content (1.10 mg/100g) than white gari (3.51 mg/100g). Processing methods involving fermentation reduce cyanide and other anti-nutrients in the cassava to levels that are safe for consumption and should be widely practiced.

Keywords: bitter cassava, local processing, fermentation, anti-nutrient.

Procedia PDF Downloads 192