Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2090

Search results for: magnetic separation

2090 Comparison between Simulation and Experimentally Observed Interactions between Two Different Sized Magnetic Beads in a Fluidic System

Authors: Olayinka Oduwole, Steve Sheard


The magnetic separation of biological cells using super-magnetic beads has been used widely for various bioassays. These bioassays can further be integrated with other laboratory components to form a biosensor which can be used for cell sorting, mixing, purification, transport, manipulation etc. These bio-sensing applications have also been facilitated by the wide availability of magnetic beads which range in size and magnetic properties produced by different manufacturers. In order to improve the efficiency and separation capabilities of these biosensors, it is important to determine the magnetic force induced velocities and interaction of beads within the magnetic field; this will help biosensor users choose the desired magnetic bead for their specific application. This study presents for the first time the interaction between a pair of different sized super-paramagnetic beads suspended in a static fluid moving within a uniform magnetic field using a modified finite-time-finite-difference scheme. A captured video was used to record the trajectory pattern and a good agreement was obtained between the simulated trajectories and the video data. The model is, therefore, a good approximation for predicting the velocities as well as the interaction between various magnetic particles which differ in size and magnetic properties for bio-sensing applications requiring a low concentration of magnetic beads.

Keywords: biosensor, magnetic field, magnetic separation, super-paramagnetic bead

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
2089 Pre-Beneficiation of Low Grade Diasporic Bauxite Ore by Reduction Roasting

Authors: Koksal Yılmaz, Burak Birol, Muhlis Nezihi Saridede, Erdogan Yigit


A bauxite ore can be utilized in Bayer Process, if the mass ratio of Al2O3 to SiO2 is greater than 10. Otherwise, its FexOy and SiO2 content should be removed. On the other hand, removal of TiO2 from the bauxite ore would be beneficial because of both lowering the red mud residue and obtaining a valuable raw material containing TiO2 mineral. In this study, the low grade diasporic bauxite ore of Yalvaç, Isparta, Turkey was roasted under reducing atmosphere and subjected to magnetic separation. According to the experimental results, 800°C for reduction temperature and 20000 Gauss of magnetic intensity were found to be the optimum parameters for removal of iron oxide and rutile from the non-magnetic ore. On the other hand, 600°C and 5000 Gauss were determined to be the optimum parameters for removal of silica from the non-magnetic ore.

Keywords: low grade diasporic bauxite, magnetic separation, reduction roasting, separation index

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
2088 Effects of Magnetic Field Strength on Fluid Flow Behavior in a Constricted Channel

Authors: Ashkan Javadzadegan, Aitak Javadzadegan, Babak Fakhim


One of possible ways to retard movement of fluid is through applying an external magnetic field. In this regard, this study is focused on the effect of a uniform transverse magnetic field on fluid flow behavior inside a channel with a local symmetric constriction. Also, Ellis Non-Newtonian model is implemented to address the effects of shear-dependent viscosity. According to the results, the flow separation downstream of the constriction can be controlled by applying an external magnetic field and/or manipulating the shear-thinning degree of fluid. It is also demonstrated that pressure drop increases by an increase in the strength of the magnetic field.

Keywords: magnetic field, non-Newtonian, separation, shear thinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
2087 Treatment of Low-Grade Iron Ore Using Two Stage Wet High-Intensity Magnetic Separation Technique

Authors: Moses C. Siame, Kazutoshi Haga, Atsushi Shibayama


This study investigates the removal of silica, alumina and phosphorus as impurities from Sanje iron ore using wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS). Sanje iron ore contains low-grade hematite ore found in Nampundwe area of Zambia from which iron is to be used as the feed in the steelmaking process. The chemical composition analysis using X-ray Florence spectrometer showed that Sanje low-grade ore contains 48.90 mass% of hematite (Fe2O3) with 34.18 mass% as an iron grade. The ore also contains silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3) of 31.10 mass% and 7.65 mass% respectively. The mineralogical analysis using X-ray diffraction spectrometer showed hematite and silica as the major mineral components of the ore while magnetite and alumina exist as minor mineral components. Mineral particle distribution analysis was done using scanning electron microscope with an X-ray energy dispersion spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and images showed that the average mineral size distribution of alumina-silicate gangue particles is in order of 100 μm and exists as iron-bearing interlocked particles. Magnetic separation was done using series L model 4 Magnetic Separator. The effect of various magnetic separation parameters such as magnetic flux density, particle size, and pulp density of the feed was studied during magnetic separation experiments. The ore with average particle size of 25 µm and pulp density of 2.5% was concentrated using pulp flow of 7 L/min. The results showed that 10 T was optimal magnetic flux density which enhanced the recovery of 93.08% of iron with 53.22 mass% grade. The gangue mineral particles containing 12 mass% silica and 3.94 mass% alumna remained in the concentrate, therefore the concentrate was further treated in the second stage WHIMS using the same parameters from the first stage. The second stage process recovered 83.41% of iron with 67.07 mass% grade. Silica was reduced to 2.14 mass% and alumina to 1.30 mass%. Accordingly, phosphorus was also reduced to 0.02 mass%. Therefore, the two stage magnetic separation process was established using these results.

Keywords: Sanje iron ore, magnetic separation, silica, alumina, recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
2086 Antibody-Conjugated Nontoxic Arginine-Doped Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Magnetic Circulating Tumor Cells Separation

Authors: F. Kashanian, M. M. Masoudi, A. Akbari, A. Shamloo, M. R. Zand, S. S. Salehi


Nano-sized materials present new opportunities in biology and medicine and they are used as biomedical tools for investigation, separation of molecules and cells. To achieve more effective cancer therapy, it is essential to select cancer cells exactly. This research suggests that using the antibody-functionalized nontoxic Arginine-doped magnetic nanoparticles (A-MNPs), has been prosperous in detection, capture, and magnetic separation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in tumor tissue. In this study, A-MNPs were synthesized via a simple precipitation reaction and directly immobilized Ep-CAM EBA-1 antibodies over superparamagnetic A-MNPs for Mucin BCA-225 in breast cancer cell. The samples were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), FT-IR spectroscopy, Tunneling Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). These antibody-functionalized nontoxic A-MNPs were used to capture breast cancer cell. Through employing a strong permanent magnet, the magnetic separation was achieved within a few seconds. Antibody-Conjugated nontoxic Arginine-doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles have the potential for the future study to capture CTCs which are released from tumor tissue and for drug delivery, and these results demonstrate that the antibody-conjugated A-MNPs can be used in magnetic hyperthermia techniques for cancer treatment.

Keywords: tumor tissue, antibody, magnetic nanoparticle, CTCs capturing

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
2085 Effects and Mechanization of a High Gradient Magnetic Separation Process for Particulate and Microbe Removal from Ballast Water

Authors: Zhijun Ren, Zhang Lin, Zhao Ye, Zuo Xiangyu, Mei Dongxing


As a pretreatment process of ballast water treatment, the performance of high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) technology for the removal of particulates and microorganisms was studied. The results showed that HGMS process could effectively remove suspended particles larger than 5 µm and had ability to resist impact load. Microorganism could also be effectively removed by HGMS process, and the removal effect increased with increasing magnetic field strength. The maximum removal rates for Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were 4016.1% and 9675.3% higher, respectively, than without the magnetic field. In addition, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the microbes decreased by 32.2% when the magnetic field strength was 15.4 mT for 72 min. The microstructure of the stainless steel wool was investigated, and the results showed that particle removal by HGMS has common function by the magnetic force of the high-strength, high-gradient magnetic field on weakly magnetic particles in the water, and on the stainless steel wool.

Keywords: HGMS, particulates, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, steel wool magnetic medium

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
2084 A Study on the Possibility of Utilizing the Converter Slag as the Cement Admixture

Authors: Choi Woo-Seok, Kim Eun-Sup, Ha Eun-Ryong


Converter slag is used as a low-value product like a construction fill material and soil stabilizer unlike electric furnace slag and blast furnace slag. This study is fundamental research for utilizing the converter slag as the cement admixture. Magnetic separation was conducted for quality improvement of the converter slag, and it was classified according to into 3 types; SA: pure slag, SB: separated slag, SC: remained slag after separating. In XRF result, SB slag was Fe₂CO₃ ratio was higher, and CaO ratio was lower than SA. SC slag was Fe₂CO₃ ratio was lower, and CaO ratio was higher than SA. In compressive strength test for soil cement using SA, SB, SC as the cement admixture, SC slag was more effective in terms of 28days compressive strength than SA, SB slag. In this result, it is considered that the remained material (SC) after magnetic separation is available as the cement admixture.

Keywords: converter slag, magnetic separation, cement admixture, compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
2083 Evolution of Microstructure through Phase Separation via Spinodal Decomposition in Spinel Ferrite Thin Films

Authors: Nipa Debnath, Harinarayan Das, Takahiko Kawaguchi, Naonori Sakamoto, Kazuo Shinozaki, Hisao Suzuki, Naoki Wakiya


Nowadays spinel ferrite magnetic thin films have drawn considerable attention due to their interesting magnetic and electrical properties with enhanced chemical and thermal stability. Spinel ferrite magnetic films can be implemented in magnetic data storage, sensors, and spin filters or microwave devices. It is well established that the structural, magnetic and transport properties of the magnetic thin films are dependent on microstructure. Spinodal decomposition (SD) is a phase separation process, whereby a material system is spontaneously separated into two phases with distinct compositions. The periodic microstructure is the characteristic feature of SD. Thus, SD can be exploited to control the microstructure at the nanoscale level. In bulk spinel ferrites having general formula, MₓFe₃₋ₓ O₄ (M= Co, Mn, Ni, Zn), phase separation via SD has been reported only for cobalt ferrite (CFO); however, long time post-annealing is required to occur the spinodal decomposition. We have found that SD occurs in CoF thin film without using any post-deposition annealing process if we apply magnetic field during thin film growth. Dynamic Aurora pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a specially designed PLD system through which in-situ magnetic field (up to 2000 G) can be applied during thin film growth. The in-situ magnetic field suppresses the recombination of ions in the plume. In addition, the peak’s intensity of the ions in the spectra of the plume also increases when magnetic field is applied to the plume. As a result, ions with high kinetic energy strike into the substrate. Thus, ion-impingement occurred under magnetic field during thin film growth. The driving force of SD is the ion-impingement towards the substrates that is induced by in-situ magnetic field. In this study, we report about the occurrence of phase separation through SD and evolution of microstructure after phase separation in spinel ferrite thin films. The surface morphology of the phase separated films show checkerboard like domain structure. The cross-sectional microstructure of the phase separated films reveal columnar type phase separation. Herein, the decomposition wave propagates in lateral direction which has been confirmed from the lateral composition modulations in spinodally decomposed films. Large magnetic anisotropy has been found in spinodally decomposed nickel ferrite (NFO) thin films. This approach approves that magnetic field is also an important thermodynamic parameter to induce phase separation by the enhancement of up-hill diffusion in thin films. This thin film deposition technique could be a more efficient alternative for the fabrication of self-organized phase separated thin films and employed in controlling of the microstructure at nanoscale level.

Keywords: Dynamic Aurora PLD, magnetic anisotropy, spinodal decomposition, spinel ferrite thin film

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
2082 Separating Permanent and Induced Magnetic Signature: A Simple Approach

Authors: O. J. G. Somsen, G. P. M. Wagemakers


Magnetic signature detection provides sensitive detection of metal objects, especially in the natural environment. Our group is developing a tabletop setup for magnetic signatures of various small and model objects. A particular issue is the separation of permanent and induced magnetization. While the latter depends only on the composition and shape of the object, the former also depends on the magnetization history. With common deperming techniques, a significant permanent signature may still remain, which confuses measurements of the induced component. We investigate a basic technique of separating the two. Measurements were done by moving the object along an aluminum rail while the three field components are recorded by a detector attached near the center. This is done first with the rail parallel to the Earth magnetic field and then with anti-parallel orientation. The reversal changes the sign of the induced- but not the permanent magnetization so that the two can be separated. Our preliminary results on a small iron block show excellent reproducibility. A considerable permanent magnetization was indeed present, resulting in a complex asymmetric signature. After separation, a much more symmetric induced signature was obtained that can be studied in detail and compared with theoretical calculations.

Keywords: magnetic signature, data analysis, magnetization, deperming techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
2081 Optimization of Beneficiation Process for Upgrading Low Grade Egyptian Kaolin

Authors: Nagui A. Abdel-Khalek, Khaled A. Selim, Ahmed Hamdy


Kaolin is naturally occurring ore predominantly containing kaolinite mineral in addition to some gangue minerals. Typical impurities present in kaolin ore are quartz, iron oxides, titanoferrous minerals, mica, feldspar, organic matter, etc. The main coloring impurity, particularly in the ultrafine size range, is titanoferrous minerals. Kaolin is used in many industrial applications such as sanitary ware, table ware, ceramic, paint, and paper industries, each of which should be of certain specifications. For most industrial applications, kaolin should be processed to obtain refined clay so as to match with standard specifications. For example, kaolin used in paper and paint industries need to be of high brightness and low yellowness. Egyptian kaolin is not subjected to any beneficiation process and the Egyptian companies apply selective mining followed by, in some localities, crushing and size reduction only. Such low quality kaolin can be used in refractory and pottery production but not in white ware and paper industries. This paper aims to study the amenability of beneficiation of an Egyptian kaolin ore of El-Teih locality, Sinai, to be suitable for different industrial applications. Attrition scrubbing and classification followed by magnetic separation are applied to remove the associated impurities. Attrition scrubbing and classification are used to separate the coarse silica and feldspars. Wet high intensity magnetic separation was applied to remove colored contaminants such as iron oxide and titanium oxide. Different variables affecting of magnetic separation process such as solid percent, magnetic field, matrix loading capacity, and retention time are studied. The results indicated that substantial decrease in iron oxide (from 1.69% to 0.61% ) and TiO2 (from 3.1% to 0.83%) contents as well as improving iso-brightness (from 63.76% to 75.21% and whiteness (from 79.85% to 86.72%) of the product can be achieved.

Keywords: Kaolin, titanoferrous minerals, beneficiation, magnetic separation, attrition scrubbing, classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
2080 High Performance Methyl Orange Capture on Magnetic Nanoporous MCM-41 Prepared by Incipient Wetness Impregnation Method

Authors: Talib M. Albayati, Omar S. Mahdy, Ghanim M. Alwan


This work is aimed to prepare magnetic nanoporous material Fe/MCM-41 and study its Physical characterization in order to enhance the magnetic properties for study the operating conditions on separation efficiency of methyl orange (MO) from wastewater by adsorption process. The experimental results are analysed to select the best operating conditions for different studied parameters which were obtained for both adsorbents mesoporous material samples MCM-41 and magnetic Fe/MCM-41 as follow: constant temperature (20 ºC), pH: (2) adsorbent dosage (0.03 gm), contact time (10 minute) and concentrations (30 mg/L). The results are demonstrated that the adsorption processes can be well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model for pure MCM-41 with a higher correlation coefficient (0.999) and fitted by the freundlich isotherm model for magnetic Fe/MCM-41 with a higher correlation coefficient of (0.994).

Keywords: adsorption, nanoporous materials, mcm-41, magnetic material, wastewater, orange, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
2079 Functionalized Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Extraction of Protein and Metal Nanoparticles from Complex Fluids

Authors: Meenakshi Verma, Mandeep Singh Bakshi, Kultar Singh


Magnetic nanoparticles have received incredible importance in view of their diverse applications, which arise primarily due to their response to the external magnetic field. The magnetic behaviour of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) helps them in numerous different ways. The most important amongst them is the ease with which they can be purified and also can be separated from the media in which they are present merely by applying an external magnetic field. This exceptional ease of separation of the magnetic NPs from an aqueous media enables them to use for extracting/removing metal pollutants from complex aqueous medium. Functionalized magnetic NPs can be subjected for the metallic impurities extraction if are favourably adsorbed on the NPs surfaces. We have successfully used the magnetic NPs as vehicles for gold and silver NPs removal from the complex fluids. The NPs loaded with gold and silver NPs pollutant fractions has been easily removed from the aqueous media by using external magnetic field. Similarly, we have used the magnetic NPs for extraction of protein from complex media and then constantly washed with pure water to eliminate the unwanted surface adsorbed components for quantitative estimation. The purified and protein loaded magnetic NPs are best analyzed with SDS Page to not only for characterization but also for separating the protein fractions. A collective review of the results indicates that we have synthesized surfactant coated iron oxide NPs and then functionalized these with selected materials. These surface active magnetic NPs work very well for the extraction of metallic NPs from the aqueous bulk and make the whole process environmentally sustainable. Also, magnetic NPs-Au/Ag/Pd hybrids have excellent protein extracting properties. They are much easier to use in order to extract the magnetic impurities as well as protein fractions under the effect of external magnetic field without any complex conventional purification methods.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, protein, functionalized, extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
2078 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Sachinkumar Patil, Sonali Patil, Shitalkumar Patil


Nanoparticles played important role in the biomedicine. New advanced methods having great potential apllication in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Now a day’s magnetic nanoparticles used in cancer therapy. Cancer is the major disease causes death. Magnetic nanoparticles show response to the magnetic field on the basis of this property they are used in cancer therapy. Cancer treated with hyperthermia by using magnetic nanoparticles it is unconventional but more safe and effective method. Magnetic nanoparticles prepared by using different innovative techniques that makes particles in uniform size and desired effect. Magnetic nanoparticles already used as contrast media in magnetic resonance imaging. A magnetic nanoparticle has been great potential application in cancer diagnosis and treatment as well as in gene therapy. In this review we will discuss the progress in cancer therapy based on magnetic nanoparticles, mainly including magnetic hyperthermia, synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles, mechanism of magnetic nanoparticles and application of magnetic nanoparticles.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, synthesis, characterization, cancer therapy, hyperthermia, application

Procedia PDF Downloads 483
2077 Study of Magnetic Nanoparticles’ Endocytosis in a Single Cell Level

Authors: Jefunnie Matahum, Yu-Chi Kuo, Chao-Ming Su, Tzong-Rong Ger


Magnetic cell labeling is of great importance in various applications in biomedical fields such as cell separation and cell sorting. Since analytical methods for quantification of cell uptake of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are already well established, image analysis on single cell level still needs more characterization. This study reports an alternative non-destructive quantification methods of single-cell uptake of positively charged MNPs. Magnetophoresis experiments were performed to calculate the number of MNPs in a single cell. Mobility of magnetic cells and the area of intracellular MNP stained by Prussian blue were quantified by image processing software. ICP-MS experiments were also performed to confirm the internalization of MNPs to cells. Initial results showed that the magnetic cells incubated at 100 µg and 50 µg MNPs/mL concentration move at 18.3 and 16.7 µm/sec, respectively. There is also an increasing trend in the number and area of intracellular MNP with increasing concentration. These results could be useful in assessing the nanoparticle uptake in a single cell level.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, single cell, magnetophoresis, image analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
2076 Particle Separation Using Individually-Controlled Magnetic Soft Artificial Cilia

Authors: Yau-Luen Ng, Nathan Banka, Santosh Devasia


In this paper, a method based on soft artificial cilia is introduced to separate particles based on size and mass. In nature, cilia are used for fluid propulsion in the mammalian circulatory system, as well as for swimming and size-selective particle entrainment for feeding in microorganisms. Inspired by biological cilia, an array of artificial cilia was fabricated using Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to simulate the actual motion. A row of four individually-controlled magnetic artificial cilia in a semi-circular channel are actuated by the magnetic fields from four permanent magnets. Each cilium is a slender rectangular cantilever approximately 13mm long made from a composite of PDMS and carbonyl iron particles. A time-varying magnetic force is achieved by periodically varying the out-of-plane distance from the permanent magnets to the cilia, resulting in large-amplitude deflections of the cilia that can be used to drive fluid motion. Previous results have shown that this system of individually-controlled magnetic cilia can generate effective mixing flows; the purpose of the present work is to apply the individual cilia control to a particle separation task. Based on the observed beating patterns of cilia arrays in nature, the experimental beating patterns were selected as a metachronal wave, in which a fixed phase lead or lag is imposed between adjacent cilia. Additionally, the beating frequency was varied. For each set of experimental parameters, the channel was filled with water and polyethylene microspheres introduced at the center of the cilia array. Two types of particles were used: large red microspheres with density 0.9971 g/cm³ and 850-1000 μm avg. diameter, and small blue microspheres with density 1.06 g/cm³ and diameter 30 μm. At low beating frequencies, all particles were propelled in the mean flow direction. However, the large particles were observed to reverse directions above about 4.8 Hz, whereas reversal of the small particle transport direction did not occur until 6 Hz. Between these two transition frequencies, the large and small particles can be separated as they move in opposite directions. The experimental results show that selecting an appropriate cilia beating pattern can lead to selective transport of neutrally-buoyant particles based on their size. Importantly, the separation threshold can be chosen dynamically by adjusting the actuation frequency. However, further study is required to determine the range of particle sizes that can be effectively separated for a given system geometry.

Keywords: magnetic cilia, particle separation, tunable separation, soft actutors

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
2075 The Influence of Reaction Parameters on Magnetic Properties of Synthesized Strontium Ferrite

Authors: M. Bahgat, F. M. Awan, H. A. Hanafy


The conventional ceramic route was utilized to prepare a hard magnetic powder (M-type strontium ferrite, SrFe12O19). The stoichiometric mixture of iron oxide and strontium carbonate were calcined at 1000°C and then fired at various temperatures. The influence of various reaction parameters such as mixing ratio, calcination temperature, firing temperature and firing time on the magnetic behaviors of the synthesized magnetic powder were investigated.The magnetic properties including Coercivity (Hc), Magnetic saturation (Ms), and Magnetic remnance (Mr) were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer. Morphologically the produced magnetic powder has a dense hexagonal grain shape structure.

Keywords: hard magnetic materials, ceramic route, strontium ferrite, magnetic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 611
2074 Preparation of Magnetic Hydroxyapatite Composite by Wet Chemical Process for Phycobiliproteins Adsorption

Authors: Shu-Jen Chen, Yi-Chien Wan, Ruey-Chi Wang


Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAp) can be applied to the fabrication of bone replacement materials, the composite of dental filling, and the adsorption of biomolecules and dyes. The integration of HAp and magnetic materials would offer several advantages for bio-separation process because the magnetic adsorbents is capable of recovered by applied magnetic field. C-phycocyanin (C-PC) and Allophycocyanin (APC), isolated from Spirulina platensis, can be used in fluorescent labeling probes, health care foods and clinical diagnostic reagents. Although the purification of C-PC and APC are reported by HAp adsorption, the adsorption of C-PC and APC by magnetic HAp composites was not reported yet. Therefore, the fabrication of HAp with magnetic silica nanoparticles for proteins adsorption was investigated in this work. First, the magnetic silica particles were prepared by covering silica layer on Fe3O4 nanoparticles with a reverse micelle method. Then, the [email protected] nanoparticles were mixed with calcium carbonate to obtain magnetic silica/calcium carbonate composites ([email protected]/CaCO3). The [email protected]/CaCO3 was further reacted with K2HPO4 for preparing the magnetic silica/hydroxyapatite composites ([email protected]/HAp). The adsorption experiments indicated that the adsorption capacity of [email protected]/HAp toward C-PC and APC were highest at pH 6. The adsorption of C-PC and APC by [email protected]/HAp could be correlated by the pseudo-second-order model, indicating chemical adsorption dominating the adsorption process. Furthermore, the adsorption data showed that the adsorption of [email protected]/HAp toward C-PC and APC followed the Langmuir isotherm. The isoelectric points of C-PC and APC were around 5.0. Additionally, the zeta potential data showed the [email protected]/HAp composite was negative charged at pH 6. Accordingly, the adsorption mechanism of [email protected]/HAp toward C-PC and APC should be governed by hydrogen bonding rather than electrostatic interaction. On the other hand, as compared to C-PC, the [email protected]/HAp shows higher adsorption affinity toward APC. Although the [email protected]/HAp cannot recover C-PC and APC from Spirulina platensis homogenate, the [email protected]/HAp can be applied to separate C-PC and APC.

Keywords: hydroxyapatite, magnetic, C-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
2073 Analytical Model for Vacuum Cathode Arcs in an Oblique Magnetic Field

Authors: P. W. Chen, C. T. Chang, Y. Peng, J. Y. Wu, D. J. Jan, Md. Manirul Ali


In the last decade, the nature of cathode spot splitting and the current per spot depended on an oblique magnetic field was investigated. This model for cathode current splitting is developed that we have investigated with relationship the magnetic pressures produced by kinetic pressure, self-magnetic pressure, and changed with an external magnetic field. We propose a theoretical model that has been established to an external magnetic field with components normal and tangential to the cathode surface influenced on magnetic pressure strength. We mainly focus on developed to understand the current per spot influenced with the tangential magnetic field strength and normal magnetic field strength.

Keywords: cathode spot, vacuum arc discharge, oblique magnetic field, tangential magnetic field

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
2072 Effect of Slip Condition and Magnetic Field on Unsteady MHD Thin Film Flow of a Third Grade Fluid with Heat Transfer down an Inclined Plane

Authors: Y. M. Aiyesimi, G. T. Okedayo, O. W. Lawal


The analysis has been carried out to study unsteady MHD thin film flow of a third grade fluid down an inclined plane with heat transfer when the slippage between the surface of plane and the lower surface of the fluid is valid. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations involved are reduced to linear partial differential equations using regular perturbation method. The resulting equations were solved analytically using method of separation of variable and eigenfunctions expansion. The solutions obtained were examined and discussed graphically. It is interesting to find that the variation of the velocity and temperature profile with the slip and magnetic field parameter depends on time.

Keywords: non-Newtonian fluid, MHD flow, thin film flow, third grade fluid, slip boundary condition, heat transfer, separation of variable, eigenfunction expansion

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2071 A New Criterion for Removal of Fouling Deposit

Authors: D. Bäcker, H. Chaves


The key to improve surface cleaning of the fouling is understanding of the mechanism of separation process of the deposit from the surface. The authors give basic principles of characterization of separation process and introduce a corresponding criterion. The developed criterion is a measure for the moment of separation of the deposit from the surface. For this purpose a new measurement technique is described.

Keywords: cleaning, fouling, separation, criterion

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
2070 Magnetic Solid-Phase Separation of Uranium from Aqueous Solution Using High Capacity Diethylenetriamine Tethered Magnetic Adsorbents

Authors: Amesh P, Suneesh A S, Venkatesan K A


The magnetic solid-phase extraction is a relatively new method among the other solid-phase extraction techniques for the separating of metal ions from aqueous solutions, such as mine water and groundwater, contaminated wastes, etc. However, the bare magnetic particles (Fe3O4) exhibit poor selectivity due to the absence of target-specific functional groups for sequestering the metal ions. The selectivity of these magnetic particles can be remarkably improved by covalently tethering the task-specific ligands on magnetic surfaces. The magnetic particles offer a number of advantages such as quick phase separation aided by the external magnetic field. As a result, the solid adsorbent can be prepared with the particle size ranging from a few micrometers to the nanometer, which again offers the advantages such as enhanced kinetics of extraction, higher extraction capacity, etc. Conventionally, the magnetite (Fe3O4) particles were prepared by the hydrolysis and co-precipitation of ferrous and ferric salts in aqueous ammonia solution. Since the covalent linking of task-specific functionalities on Fe3O4 was difficult, and it is also susceptible to redox reaction in the presence of acid or alkali, it is necessary to modify the surface of Fe3O4 by silica coating. This silica coating is usually carried out by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate over the surface of magnetite to yield a thin layer of silica-coated magnetite particles. Since the silica-coated magnetite particles amenable for further surface modification, it can be reacted with task-specific functional groups to obtain the functionalized magnetic particles. The surface area exhibited by such magnetic particles usually falls in the range of 50 to 150 m2.g-1, which offer advantage such as quick phase separation, as compared to the other solid-phase extraction systems. In addition, the magnetic (Fe3O4) particles covalently linked on mesoporous silica matrix (MCM-41) and task-specific ligands offer further advantages in terms of extraction kinetics, high stability, longer reusable cycles, and metal extraction capacity, due to the large surface area, ample porosity and enhanced number of functional groups per unit area on these adsorbents. In view of this, the present paper deals with the synthesis of uranium specific diethylenetriamine ligand (DETA) ligand anchored on silica-coated magnetite (Fe-DETA) as well as on magnetic mesoporous silica (MCM-Fe-DETA) and studies on the extraction of uranium from aqueous solution spiked with uranium to mimic the mine water or groundwater contaminated with uranium. The synthesized solid-phase adsorbents were characterized by FT-IR, Raman, TG-DTA, XRD, and SEM. The extraction behavior of uranium on the solid-phase was studied under several conditions like the effect of pH, initial concentration of uranium, rate of extraction and its variation with pH and initial concentration of uranium, effect of interference ions like CO32-, Na+, Fe+2, Ni+2, and Cr+3, etc. The maximum extraction capacity of 233 mg.g-1 was obtained for Fe-DETA, and a huge capacity of 1047 mg.g-1 was obtained for MCM-Fe-DETA. The mechanism of extraction, speciation of uranium, extraction studies, reusability, and the other results obtained in the present study suggests Fe-DETA and MCM-Fe-DETA are the potential candidates for the extraction of uranium from mine water, and groundwater.

Keywords: diethylenetriamine, magnetic mesoporous silica, magnetic solid-phase extraction, uranium extraction, wastewater treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
2069 Hydrothermal Synthesis of ZIF-7 Crystals and Their Composite ZIF-7/CS Membranes for Water/Ethanol Separation

Authors: Kai-Sheng Ji, Yi-Feng Lin


The pervaporation process for solvent and water separation has attracted research attention due to its lower energy consumption compared with conventional distillation processes. The membranes used for the pervaporation approach should exhibit high flux and separation factors. In this study, the ZIF-7 crystal particles were successfully incorporated into chitosan (CS) membranes to form ZIF-7/CS mixed-matrix membranes. The as-prepared ZIF-7/CS mixed-matrix membranes were used to separate mixtures of water/ethanol at 25℃ in the pervaporation process. The mixed-matrix membranes with different ZIF-7 wt% incorporation showed better separation efficiency than the pristine CS membranes because of the smaller pore size of the mixed-matrix membranes. The separation factor and the flux of the ZIF-7/CS membranes clearly exceed the upper limit of the previously reported CS-based and mixed-matrix membranes.

Keywords: pervaporation, chitosan, ZIF-7, memberane separation

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
2068 Magnetic and Optical Properties of GaFeMnN

Authors: A.Abbad, H.A.Bentounes, W.Benstaali


The full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW) within the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) is used to calculate the magnetic and optical properties of quaternary GaFeMnN. The results show that the compound becomes magnetic and half metallic and there is an apparition of peaks at low frequencies for the optical properties.

Keywords: FP-LAPW, LSDA, magnetic moment, reflectivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
2067 Study of Cahn-Hilliard Equation to Simulate Phase Separation

Authors: Nara Guimarães, Marcelo Aquino Martorano, Douglas Gouvêa


An investigation into Cahn-Hilliard equation was carried out through numerical simulation to identify a possible phase separation for one and two dimensional domains. It was observed that this equation can reproduce important mass fluxes necessary for phase separation within the miscibility gap and for coalescence of particles.

Keywords: Cahn-Hilliard equation, miscibility gap, phase separation, dimensional domains

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
2066 First Principle Calculation of The Magnetic Properties of Mn-doped 6H-SiC

Authors: M. Al Azri, M. Elzain, K. Bouziane, S. M. Chérif


The electronic and magnetic properties of 6H-SiC with Mn impurities have been calculated using ab-initio calculations. Various configurations of Mn sites and Si and C vacancies were considered. The magnetic coupling between the two Mn atoms at substitutional and interstitials sites with and without vacancies is studied as a function of Mn atoms interatomic distance. It was found that the magnetic interaction energy decreases with increasing distance between the magnetic atoms. The energy levels appearing in the band gap due to vacancies and due to Mn impurities are determined. The calculated DOS’s are used to analyze the nature of the exchange interaction between the impurities. The band coupling model based on the p-d and d-d level repulsions between Mn and SiC has been used to describe the magnetism observed in each configuration. Furthermore, the impacts of applying U to Mn-d orbital on the magnetic moment have also been investigated. The results are used to understand the experimental data obtained on Mn- 6H-SiC (as-implanted and as –annealed) for various Mn concentration (CMn = 0.7%, 1.6%, 7%).

Keywords: ab-initio calculations, diluted magnetic semiconductors, magnetic properties, silicon carbide

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
2065 The Effect of Hydrogen on the Magnetic Properties of ZnO: A Density Functional Tight Binding Study

Authors: M. A. Lahmer, K. Guergouri


The ferromagnetic properties of carbon-doped ZnO (ZnO:CO) and hydrogenated carbon-doped ZnO (ZnO:CO+H) are investigated using the density functional tight binding (DFTB) method. Our results reveal that CO-doped ZnO is a ferromagnetic material with a magnetic moment of 1.3 μB per carbon atom. The presence of hydrogen in the material in the form of CO-H complex decreases the total magnetism of the material without suppressing ferromagnetism. However, the system in this case becomes quickly antiferromagnetic when the C-C separation distance was increased.

Keywords: ZnO, carbon, hydrogen, ferromagnetism, density functional tight binding

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
2064 Nanoparticle Supported, Magnetically Separable Metalloporphyrin as an Efficient Retrievable Heterogeneous Nanocatalyst in Oxidation Reactions

Authors: Anahita Mortazavi Manesh, Mojtaba Bagherzadeh


Metalloporphyrins are well known to mimic the activity of monooxygenase enzymes. In this regard, metalloporphyrin complexes have been largely employed as valuable biomimetic catalysts, owing to the critical roles they play in oxygen transfer processes in catalytic oxidation reactions. Investigating in this area is based on different strategies to design selective, stable and high turnover catalytic systems. Immobilization of expensive metalloporphyrin catalysts onto supports appears to be a good way to improve their stability, selectivity and the catalytic performance because of the support environment and other advantages with respect to recovery, reuse. In other words, supporting metalloporphyrins provides a physical separation of active sites, thus minimizing catalyst self-destruction and dimerization of unhindered metalloporphyrins. Furthermore, heterogeneous catalytic oxidations have become an important target since their process are used in industry, helping to minimize the problems of industrial waste treatment. Hence, the immobilization of these biomimetic catalysts is much desired. An attractive approach is the preparation of the heterogeneous catalyst involves immobilization of complexes on silica coated magnetic nano-particles. [email protected] magnetic nanoparticles have been studied extensively due to their superparamagnetism property, large surface area to volume ratio and easy functionalization. Using heterogenized homogeneous catalysts is an attractive option to facile separation of catalyst, simplified product work-up and continuity of catalytic system. Homogeneous catalysts immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) surface occupy a unique position due to combining the advantages of both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. In addition, superparamagnetic nature of MNPs enable very simple separation of the immobilized catalysts from the reaction mixture using an external magnet. In the present work, an efficient heterogeneous catalyst was prepared by immobilizing manganese porphyrin on functionalized magnetic nanoparticles through the amino propyl linkage. The prepared catalyst was characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, atomic absorption spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Application of immobilized metalloporphyrin in the oxidation of various organic substrates was explored using Gas chromatographic (GC) analyses. The results showed that the supported Mn-porphyrin catalyst ([email protected]@MnPor) is an efficient and reusable catalyst in oxidation reactions. Our catalytic system exhibits high catalytic activity in terms of turnover number (TON) and reaction conditions. Leaching and recycling experiments revealed that nanocatalyst can be recovered several times without loss of activity and magnetic properties. The most important advantage of this heterogenized catalytic system is the simplicity of the catalyst separation in which the catalyst can be separated from the reaction mixture by applying a magnet. Furthermore, the separation and reuse of the magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were very effective and economical.

Keywords: Fe3O4 nanoparticle, immobilized metalloporphyrin, magnetically separable nanocatalyst, oxidation reactions

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
2063 Magnetic Field Induced Tribological Properties of Magnetic Fluid

Authors: Kinjal Trivedi, Ramesh V. Upadhyay


Magnetic fluid as a nanolubricant is a most recent field of study due to its unusual properties that can be tuned by applying a magnetic field. In present work, four ball tester has been used to investigate the tribological properties of the magnetic fluid having a 4 wt% of nanoparticles. The structural characterization of fluid shows crystallite size of particle is 11.7 nm and particles are nearly spherical in nature. The magnetic characterization shows the fluid saturation magnetization is 2.2 kA/m. The magnetic field applied using permanent strip magnet (0 to 1.6 mT) on the faces of the lock nut and fixing a solenoid (0 to 50 mT) around a shaft, such that shaft rotates freely. The magnetic flux line for both the systems analyzed using finite elemental analysis. The coefficient of friction increases with the application of magnetic field using permanent strip magnet compared to zero field value. While for the solenoid, it decreases at 20 mT. The wear scar diameter is lower for 1.1 mT and 20 mT when the magnetic field applied using permanent strip magnet and solenoid, respectively. The coefficient of friction and wear scar reduced by 29 % and 7 % at 20 mT using solenoid. The worn surface analysis carried out using Scanning Electron Microscope and Atomic Force Microscope to understand the wear mechanism. The results are explained on the basis of structure formation in a magnetic fluid upon application of magnetic field. It is concluded that the tribological properties of magnetic fluid depend on magnetic field and its applied direction.

Keywords: four ball tester, magnetic fluid, nanolubricant, tribology

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
2062 Road Vehicle Recognition Using Magnetic Sensing Feature Extraction and Classification

Authors: Xiao Chen, Xiaoying Kong, Min Xu


This paper presents a road vehicle detection approach for the intelligent transportation system. This approach mainly uses low-cost magnetic sensor and associated data collection system to collect magnetic signals. This system can measure the magnetic field changing, and it also can detect and count vehicles. We extend Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients to analyze vehicle magnetic signals. Vehicle type features are extracted using representation of cepstrum, frame energy, and gap cepstrum of magnetic signals. We design a 2-dimensional map algorithm using Vector Quantization to classify vehicle magnetic features to four typical types of vehicles in Australian suburbs: sedan, VAN, truck, and bus. Experiments results show that our approach achieves a high level of accuracy for vehicle detection and classification.

Keywords: vehicle classification, signal processing, road traffic model, magnetic sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
2061 Sustainable Separation of Nicotine from Its Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Zoran Visak, Joana Lopes, Vesna Najdanovic-Visak


Within this study, the separation of nicotine from its aqueous solutions, using inorganic salt sodium chloride or ionic liquid (molten salt) ECOENG212® as salting-out media, was carried out. Thus, liquid-liquid equilibria of the ternary solutions (nicotine+water+NaCl) and (nicotine+water+ECOENG212®) were determined at ambient pressure, 0.1 MPa, at three temperatures. The related phase diagrams were constructed in two manners: by adding the determined cloud-points and by the chemical analysis of phases in equilibrium (tie-line data). The latter were used to calculate two important separation parameters - partition coefficients of nicotine and separation factors. The impacts of the initial compositions of the mother solutions and of temperature on the liquid-liquid phase separation and partition coefficients were analyzed and discussed. The results obtained clearly showed that both investigated salts are good salting-out media for the efficient and sustainable separation of nicotine from its solutions with water. However, when compared, sodium chloride exhibited much better separation performance than the ionic liquid.

Keywords: nicotine, liquid-liquid separation, inorganic salt, ionic liquid

Procedia PDF Downloads 206